WorldWideScience

Sample records for physiognomy

  1. Floristics and physiognomy determine migrant landbird response to Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion in riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira A. Walker

    2008-01-01

    I investigated the relative importance of floristics and physiognomy in determining community organization of autumn-migrating landbirds in a riparian corridor in New Mexico invaded by Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). All six avian measures were associated with floristics, physiognomy, or both. However, usefulness in predicting migrant parameters...

  2. Influence of Geomorphology on the Physiognomy of Colophospermum mopane and its Effect on Browsing in Central Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    TESHIROGI, Koki

    2010-01-01

    Colophospermum mopane is a characteristic tree species indigenous to Southern Africa, where it forms 'mopane vegetation.' Mopane plays an important role in livestock farming, and the physiognomy of mopane influences the availability of feed. This study clarified the relationship between the difference in mopane physiognomy and the browsing activity of goats with reference to geomorphology. The physiognomy of mopane corresponded to geomorphological characteristics of surface structures and soi...

  3. Effects of herbivore grazing on the physiognomy of the coralline alga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of herbivore grazing on the physiognomy of the coralline alga Spongites yendoi and on associated competitive interactions. ... overlapping distributions between strongly interacting species along a broad geographical gradient is not just a significant feature of the ecology of terrestrial, but also of marine ecosystems.

  4. Spatial-temporal distribution of fire-protected savanna physiognomies in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo H.O. Pinheiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the influence of edaphic finer textures, as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest formations in the absence of fire, was possible thanks to rare characteristics found in a savanna fragment located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The total suppression of fire for over four decades, and the occurrence of two savanna physiognomies, cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão, allowed the conduction of this study based on the hypothesis that cerradão, a physiognomy of forest aspect consisting of fire-sensitive tree and shrubs species, is favored by fire absence and higher soil hydric retention capacity. Edaphic samples were collected from a regular grid of 200 m² for the production of isopletic maps of the distribution of clay, fine sand, coarse sand and silt edaphic textures by the geostatistic method of ordinary kriging. Changes in the areas occupied by both savanna physiognomies, defined on the basis of aerial photographs taken over a period of 43 years, were assessed through mean variation rates. Besides corroborating the hypothesis of edaphic hydric retention as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest physiognomies in savanna areas, we were able to infer the positive influence of higher precipitation on the increase in cerradão expansion rates.A influência de texturas edáficas finas, como fator de facilitação para a expansão de formações florestais sobre áreas savânicas, através da maior retenção hídrica edáfica, na ausência de incêndios, foi possível ser estudada graças às características encontradas em um fragmento savânico com 38,8 ha, situado em Corumbataí (SP. A supressão total do fogo por quatro décadas, e a ocorrência de duas fisionomias, cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão, permitiram a condução deste estudo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em uma grade regular de 200 m², abrangendo toda a área do fragmento. Foram produzidos mapas iso-pléticos, com a distribuição das

  5. Yuntaishan Global Geopark VS Grand Canyon World Heritage Site A Contrast of Yuntai/Grand Canyon Physiognomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Zhao; Xun, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Yuntai/Grand Canyon is a result of long-term historical evolution and a rare natural heritage of the world. With its rich heritages of geological physiognomy, systematic geological record, abundant biological fossil combination, long history of structural evolution, they are of contrastive research values worldwide. The Grand Canyon was declared national natural heritage on eleventh January, and in 1979 it was entitled World Natural Heritage Site. Though the two major sites are separated by tremendous seas, they reached agreements in the protection of natural heritages worldwide on account of the shared ideas of society, demonstrating to our children how can we protect the two scenery sites. Keyword:Geopark, Geoheritage, Yuntai Landform, GrandCanyon Mt. Taihang rises from the central part of north China and extends to the west edge of North China Plain. Towering, and with ragged peaks, precarious cliffs, long strips of walls, deep valleys and shaded streams, Mt. Taihang poses impressive sights with its clear water, dense forest and wonderful sceneries. It is indeed the east slope of Qin-Jin Plateau. Indeed things tend to coincide. On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, along the west edge of north America and on the wide and spacious Colorado Plateau, there is a winding and deep valley where there are layers of rocks, extensive sharp cliffs, intercrossing ravines and forests of peaks; it is totally impressive. Both sceneries are known to the world for their beauty. Identical geological conditions and similar history of evolution left two natural sights that resemble each other so much. Geological changes are infinite, and sedimentation works in similar ways on both sights; and the changing ecological environment gives the world two colorful and comparable geological records. Both sights are merely brief periods in the long history of earth development, but they show us how cradles of human proliferation and social civilization had looked. 1,Comparison of two parks

  6. How Does Temperature Impact Leaf Size and Shape in Four Woody Dicot Species? Testing the Assumptions of Leaf Physiognomy-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; Royer, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The physiognomy (size and shape) of fossilized leaves has been used to reconstruct the mean annual temperature of ancient environments. Colder temperatures often select for larger and more abundant leaf teeth—serrated edges on leaf margins—as well as a greater degree of leaf dissection. However, to be able to accurately predict paleotemperature from the morphology of fossilized leaves, leaves must be able to react quickly and in a predictable manner to changes in temperature. We examined the extent to which temperature affects leaf morphology in four tree species: Carpinus caroliniana, Acer negundo, Ilex opaca, and Ostrya virginiana. Saplings of these species were grown in two growth cabinets under contrasting temperatures (17 and 25 °C). Compared to the cool treatment, in the warm treatment Carpinus caroliniana leaves had significantly fewer leaf teeth and a lower ratio of total number of leaf teeth to internal perimeter; and Acer negundo leaves had a significantly lower feret diameter ratio (a measure of leaf dissection). In addition, a two-way ANOVA tested the influence of temperature and species on leaf physiognomy. This analysis revealed that all plants, regardless of species, tended to develop more highly dissected leaves with more leaf teeth in the cool treatment. Because the cabinets maintained equivalent moisture, humidity, and CO2 concentration between the two treatments, these results demonstrate that these species could rapidly adapt to changes in temperature. However, not all of the species reacted identically to temperature changes. For example, Acer negundo, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana all had a higher number of total teeth in the cool treatment compared to the warm treatment, but the opposite was true for Ilex opaca. Our work questions a fundamental assumption common to all models predicting paleotemperature from the physiognomy of fossilized leaves: a given climate will inevitably select for the same leaf physiognomy

  7. Comunidades de insetos galhadores (Insecta em diferentes fisionomias do cerrado em Minas Gerais, Brasil Galling insect (Insecta communities in different "cerrado" physiognomies in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Silmary J. Gonçalves-Alvim

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the communities of galling insects and their host plants were performed in three "cerrado" physiognomies that occur in Minas Gerais: "campo sujo", "cerrado" sensu strictu, and "cerradão". Galls and host plants were collected along transects in a total of 3,000 herbs, 300 shrubs and 135 trees in each physiognomy. Ninety two species of galling insects (morphotypes on 62 host plant species of 28 families were found. The highest galling insect richness was observed in the "cerrado". Approximately 75.0% of galling insects belonged to the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The highest gall frequency was found on leaves (58.70% of the host plants, and was glabrous (83.70%. Most gall shape were elliptic (30.43%. A low similarity in galling insect species was observed among the three sampled physiognomies - the highest similarity index was observed between "cerrado" and "campo sujo" (SΦrensen index = 0.20, indicating that the presence of rare species of galling insects might be common in these environments.

  8. Rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer: Physiognomy, floristics and diversity in ‘lowland rainforests’ of Meghalaya, India

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    Uma Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lowland rainforests of Meghalaya, India represent the westernmost limit of the rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer. These forests, on the Shillong plateau, are akin to Whitmore's ‘tropical lowland evergreen rainforest’ formation and exhibit striking similarities and conspicuous differences with the equatorial rainforests in Asia-Pacific as well as tropical seasonal rainforests in southwestern China near the Tropic of Cancer. We found these common attributes of the rainforests in Meghalaya: familial composition with predominance of Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrsiticaceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae; deciduousness in evergreen physiognomy; dominance of mega- and mesophanerophytic life-forms; abundance of species with low frequency of occurrence (rare and aggregated species; low proportional abundance of the abundant species; and truncated lognormal abundance distribution. The levels of stand density and stand basal area were comparable with seasonal rainforests in southwestern China, but were lower than equatorial rainforests. Tropical Asian species predominated flora, commanding 95% of the abundance. The differences include overall low stature (height of the forest, inconspicuous stratification in canopy, fewer species and individuals of liana, thicker understory, higher proportion of rare species, absence of locally endemic species and relatively greater dominance of Fagaceae and Theaceae. The richness of species per hectare (S was considerably lower at higher latitudes in Meghalaya than in equatorial rainforests, but was comparable with seasonal rainforests. Shannon's diversity index (H′ = 4.40 nats for ≥10 cm gbh and 4.25 nats for ≥30 cm gbh was lower on higher latitudes in Meghalaya in comparison to species-rich equatorial rainforests, but it was the highest among all lowland rainforests near the Tropic of Cancer.

  9. Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Karen L.; Belcher, Claire M.; Haworth, Matthew; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    The Triassic–Jurassic boundary (Tr–J; ∼201 Ma) is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. The role that SO2 may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO2 as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the Tr–J boundary at Astartekløft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO2. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the Tr–J fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astartekløft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO2 can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO2 had a significant role in Tr–J plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy. PMID:23593262

  10. Influence of vegetation physiognomy, elevation and fire frequency on medium and large mammals in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Range

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    Fernando Ferreira de Pinho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of medium and large mammal species in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; and to investigate the factors affecting the occurrence of those species. To accomplish that we placed 49 camera traps activated by heat and motion at Rio Preto State Park (RPSP and 48 at Sempre Vivas National Park (SVNP. We also collected data on three environmental variables: vegetation physiognomy, elevation and wildfire frequency, to evaluate the influence of these factors on species richness and use intensity (inferred from camera trap detection rate by large mammals. We recorded 23 large mammal species in the two parks combined. The lowest species richness was found at the rupestrian habitat of RPSP, and in the open grasslands of SVNP. The forest and savannah physiognomies were used more intensively by large mammals. Species richness was higher and use was greater at lower elevations of RPSP. In SVNP, fire frequency did not affect species richness or use intensity. The savannah habitat had very similar richness compared to the forests of the two protected areas. The high species richness and use intensity observed in these forest habitats highlights the importance of riparian environments in the Cerrado biome. The highest species richness and use intensity observed at low elevation follows patterns found in the literature, probably due to variation in the vegetation, which results in greater resource availability. Although rupestrian habitats at high elevations of the Espinhaço Range are known to have a high degree of endemism for some taxa, large mammal richness and use were not high in this habitat. These results indicate that the protection of native vegetation at lower elevations is crucial for the long-term conservation of large mammals in the Espinhaço Range.

  11. Physiognomy: Personality Traits Prediction by Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Zhang; Ri-Zhen Qin; Qiu-Lei Dong; Wei Gao; Hua-Rong Xu; Zhan-Yi Hu

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating individuals' personality traits and intelligence from their faces plays a crucial role in interpersonal relationship and important social events such as elections and court sentences.To assess the possible correlations between personality traits (also measured intelligence) and face images,we first construct a dataset consisting of face photographs,personality measurements,and intelligence measurements.Then,we build an end-to-end convolutional neural network for prediction of personality traits and intelligence to investigate whether self-reported personality traits and intelligence can be predicted reliably from a face image.To our knowledge,it is the first work where deep learning is applied to this problem.Experimental results show the following three points:1)"Rule-consciousness" and "Tension" can be reliably predicted from face images.2) It is difficult,if not impossible,to predict intelligence from face images,a finding in accord with previous studies.3) Convolutional neural network (CNN) features outperform traditional handcrafted features in predicting traits.

  12. ETHNIC AND GENDER PHYSIOGNOMY IN ADVERTISEMENT

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    Patricia Izquierdo Iranzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Media depiction of cultural diversity is not accurate in its reports about Spanish immigration phenomenon. There is large scientific evidence of it after 20 years of immigration in Spain. Different media genres offer different distortions according to their own interests. Journalism is more focused on the dramatic arrival of immigrants to the Spanish southern coast, while advertisement is more likely to overuse and misuse stereotypes. Both actions are reproducing and suggesting behavioral patterns that might affect interpersonal and intercultural communication and the relationship among different cultural groups. The research carried out shows that advertisement feeds negative stereotypes that might increase sexism and racism in society. That is the reason why the analyzed target are African and Afrodescendent women in Spanish graphic ads.

  13. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    herbivoria na seca e pelo sombreamento e ataque de patógenos na estação chuvosa.The savannas of Central Brazil are characterized by a continuous, predominantly grassy, ground layer and an open layer of trees and shrubs of a variable density. In this study we examined the effects of drought, habitat type, the canopy light condition, herbivory and fire in the establishment and growth of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., a legume tree typical of the savannas of Central Brazil. Saplings were transplanted into the grass matrix of a grassland with scattered trees and shrubs ("campo sujo", and into the semi-closed canopy of shrubs and trees that characterized the "cerrado" physiognomy. Sapling survival, shoot growth, leaf production and leaf herbivory were followed monthly over a five-year period (1993-1998. Mortality occurred predominantly during wet periods, and seasonal drought was not an important mortality factor. Sapling survival was greater in the "campo sujo" and they even survived a fire at the end of the dry season of 1994, while several saplings at the cerrado site were killed. Shoot growth was low, about 2.2cm/year in the "campo sujo", and 3.1cm/year in the "cerrado", mostly in the wet season. Leaves were shed during the dry season, and the peak in number of leaves in mid to late wet season was followed by a peak in leaf area loss by herbivory. Necrotic black spots, caused by the fungus Phoma sp. were observed in the leaves of most plants. Canopy shading could limit CO2 assimilation (Aco2 in the initial phases of plant development. Light measurements suggested that 5cm tall saplings with horizontal leaves would receive enough light to reach, on an average only 32% of maximum A CO2 during the daylight period. Since the height of the grass layer was mostly less than 50cm, an increase in plant height from 5 to 50cm would result in a twofold increase of Aco2 averaged over the daylight period. Thus, the development of D. miscolobium was restricted by water stress and

  14. Fisonomía vegetal y abundancia de aves en un bosque templado con dos niveles de perturbación en el Eje Neovolcánico Transversal Vegetation physiognomy and abundance of birds in a temperate forest with two disturbance levels in the Eje Neovolcanico Transversal

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    Saúl Ugalde-Lezama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante noviembre 2003 y junio 2004 se estudió la abundancia de especies de aves y su relación con la fisonomía vegetal en un bosque templado bajo 2 condiciones: bosque de pino no perturbado (ZOQ1 y bosque de pino perturbado (ZOQ2 de la Estación Forestal Experimental Zoquiapan (EFEZ, Estado de México. Para el conteo de aves se empleó el método de puntos de conteo con radio fijo (25 m. Los principales gradientes de las variables descriptoras de la vegetación se determinaron con análisis de componentes principales (ACP y la relación fisonomía-abundancia por especie y grupos de aves mediante análisis de regresión Poisson (ARP. Los ejes principales del ACP explicaron el 84.3, 83.4 y 81.7% de la variabilidad presente en la vegetación de ZOQ1, ZOQ2 y ZOQ1-ZOQ2. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de árboles fueron las variables que explicaron el 41.5, 43.7 y 41.8% de la varianza para el componente 1. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de arbustivas explicaron el 28.4, 25.0 y 25.3% para el 2; por último, la cobertura de herbáceas y arbustivas el 14.4, 14.6 y 14.5% para el componente 3. Los ARP indicaron una relación estadísticamente significativa (pFrom November 2003 to June 2004, we studied the abundance of bird species and their relationship with vegetation physiognomy (structure in a temperate forest under 2 conditions: undisturbed forest (ZOQ1 and disturbed forest (ZOQ2 of the Zoquiapan Forest Experimental Station (EFEZ, acronym in Spanish in central Mexico. Birds were recorded using the method of fixed radius point counts (25 m. We identified the major gradients of variation of descriptive variables of vegetation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and the relationship between vegetation physiognomy and bird abundance through Poisson regression analyses (ARP. The three main axes of PCA explained the 84.3, 83.4 and 81.7% of the variability present in the vegetation of ZOQ1, ZOQ2 and ZOQ1-ZOQ2, respectively. Tree cover, diameter

  15. Análise da dinâmica sazonal de fitofisionomias do bioma Mata Atlântica com base em índices de vegetação do sensor MODIS/TERRA / Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of some Atlantic Forest biome physiognomies with basis of vegetation indices derived from MOD

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    Elói Lennon Dalla Nora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Composições de dezesseis dias de índices de vegetação do sensor Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, com resolução espacial de 250 metros, a bordo do satélite TERRA, foram utilizadas para caracterizar a dinâmica sazonal no ano de 2008 de duas fitofisionomias do bioma Mata Atlântica e analisar a sua dinâmica espectral. Os índices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI e Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, calculados a partir dos dados do sensor MODIS e uma base comum de pixels, foram comparados entre si e com uma base de dados de ordem climática (temperatura e precipitação, para cada fitofisionomia. Os resultados indicaram que os fragmentos de floresta estacional decídua e floresta ombrófila mista apresentam um padrão sazonal comum, porém, com variações de amplitude em relação a cada índice. O EVI apresentou-se mais sensível às variações anuais da vegetação em relação ao NDVI, demonstrando-se mais eficiente. Para ambas as formações florestais se estabelece uma correlação positiva entre o perfil EVI e NDVI com as variações de temperatura. A dinâmica espectral/temporal revelou um contraste marcante sob condições sazonais distintas convergindo com o padrão apresentado pelos índices de vegetação. Os dados produzidos indicam potencialidades da utilização do sensor MODIS para o monitoramento contínuo das formações florestais sulinas com resolução espacial moderada e alta resolução temporal. AbstractModerate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS 16-day vegetation index composites with 250 meters of spatial resolution from TERRA satellites were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics in the period of 2008 of two physiognomies of Atlantic Forest biome and to analyze its spectral dynamics. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, calculated from the data of MODIS sensor and a common base of pixels, were compared between themselves

  16. Campo Sujo Úmido: fisionomia de Cerrado ameaçada pela contaminação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. na Estação Ecológica de Itapeva, Estado de São Paulo. Campo Sujo Úmido: Cerrado physiognomy threatened by the contamination of Pinus elliottii Engelm. in the Itapeva Ecological Station, São Paulo state.

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    Renan Soares de ALMEIDA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ameaça de perda da biodiversidade da fisionomia Campo Sujo Úmido, localizada na Estação Ecológica de Itapeva, devido à contaminação biológica causada pela invasão de Pinus elliottii Engelm., motivou a elaboração deste trabalho. Os objetivos foram caracterizar floristicamente essa fisionomia e quantificar a existência de Pinus elliottii na área, de modo a subsidiar propostas de manejo. Realizou-se o mapeamento da área ocupadapor Campo Sujo Úmido na Estação através da interpretação de fotografias aéreas. O estudoflorístico foi realizado através de coletas mensais de material botânico, no período de junhode 2008 a maio de 2009, posteriormente processado e depositado no herbário SPSF. Para a quantificação de Pinus elliottii, adotou-se o método de parcelas, utilizando-se 12 parcelas de 3 m x 15 m. Os indivíduos a partir de 15 cm de altura foram medidos e contados para o cálculo da densidade e frequência. A área de Campo Sujo Úmido representou 2,3% da área total da Estação. Foram encontradas 106 espécies. As famílias mais ricas foram Melastomataceae (11 espécies, Asteraceae (8, Cyperaceae e Poaceae (7, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae (5, Fabaceae, Lauraceae e Myrsinaceae (4. A densidade absoluta de Pinus elliottii foi de 1.704 indivíduos.ha e a frequência absoluta, 92%. Portanto, Pinus elliottii apresentou duas propriedades que caracterizam espécies dominantes: grande número de indivíduos e ampla disseminação na área. A área relativamente pequena ocupada por Campo Sujo Úmido na Estação Ecológica, a elevada riqueza de espécies observada e o grau de contaminação biológica constatado nessa fisionomia, indicam a possibilidade de perda iminente de considerável parcela da biodiversidade da Unidade de Conservação. São propostas medidas de manejo para combater o problema.The risk of biodiversity loss of the Campo Sujo Úmido physiognomy, at the Itapeva Ecological Station due to the biological contamination

  17. Ontogeny and physiognomy of the epigenetic landscape: A general model to explain developmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo Orrego, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    The epigenetic landscape is a graphic metaphor proposed by Conrad H. Waddington to explain the development of organisms and their parts. it is depicted as a wavy surface with summits and descending valleys, representing the paths followed by cells along their differentiation process, as part of organismal development. Conrad H. Waddington, regarded as the father of epigenetics, stands out for his theoretical contributions that include the notions of genetic assimilation, canalization of development and epi-genotype. These ideas were inspired by experimental works in developmental biology that lead to the discovery of the organizer in bird embryos, as well as environmentally-induced phenocopies in drosophila. In the current essay, I present an interpretation of the epigenetic landscape and related concepts that highlight the heuristic power of this model and its importance for contemporary biology. This work is a tribute to the life of C. H. Waddington, whose work is still of great significance.

  18. Effects of reduced-impact logging and forest physiognomy on bat populations of lowland Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Presley; Michael R. Willig; Wunderle Jr. Joseph M.; Luis Nélio. Saldanha

    2008-01-01

    1.As human population size increases, demand for natural resources will increase. Logging pressure related to increasing demands continues to threaten remote areas of Amazonian forest. A harvest protocol is required to provide renewable timber resources that meet consumer needs while minimizing negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Reduced-impact...

  19. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"].

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    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are published here in the appendix. Since 1603 von Vicken was also in the service of Emperor Rudolf II; again he got imprisoned in Prague at least once. An interesting speculation based on some hints in the documents is that after reading Paracelsus and during his time in Leipzig von Vicken authored a book on mining, that was later to become part of the works of the alleged medevial monk Basilius Valentinus.

  20. Physiognomy and distribution of mountain meadows in an alpine valley over 150 years of spontaneous forest expansion

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    Sitzia T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the classification of current and historical aerial photosbetween 1973 and 2006, we analysed the evolution of size, shape and connectivity of 59 mountain meadows (maggenghi of the Pejo district (Trentino, Northern Italy. The maggenghi are scattered patches within a forested matrix. We conducted the same analysis on an Austro-Hungarian cadastral map of 1859. The total surface covered by maggenghi was 137.4 ha in 1973, and decreased to 78.3 ha (57% in 2006. The mean shape and connectivity index in 1973 are significantly lower than those of 2006. Within a 1-km radius around the studied patches, woodlands increased by 7% in the same time range. Among the 25 maggenghi present in 1958, 12 has been subdivided into 39 smaller fragments and 13 has been reduced in their size without any fragmentation. A general process of meadow patches evolution which included area and connectivity reduction and shape simplification has been noticed. This process is common to many other alpine landscapes. The study of these processes is fundamental for policies aimed to conservation of mountain meadows, as well as to identify the single patches deserving conservation for their current and historical landscape structure, as many studies report their significant effects on local floristic diversity.

  1. «If a woman has a big head»: Physiognomy and female nature in an assyro-babylonian text

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    Couto Ferreira, Érica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mesopotamia, the human body was understood as an object for divination, that is, a system of signs, which carried messages about the individual, and whose meaning had to be decoded by means of observation and interpretation. Taking the physiognomic series Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («If a woman has a big head» as the main source of my article, I analyse, on the one hand, the processes that take part in the promotion of a particular perception of women based on a specific reading of the female body. On the other hand, I deal with the elements that characterize this female perception, basically, the image of the ideal woman centred on motherhood, and, in close relation to this, the dangers that threaten women’s life during pregnancy.

    El cuerpo humano en Mesopotamia era entendido como objeto adivinatorio: un sistema de signos, portador de mensajes sobre el propio individuo, cuyo significado debía decodificarse mediante la observación y la interpretación. Tomando como fuente principal de mi trabajo la serie fisionómica Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («Si una mujer tiene la cabeza grande», analizo, por una parte, los mecanismos por los que se promueve una determinada visión de las mujeres en la adivinación fisionómica a partir de la lectura sexuada de su cuerpo. Por otra, los elementos que caracterizan esta imagen femenina, en base a dos grandes ejes: la imagen de la mujer ideal encarnada en el rol de madre; y los peligros que amenazan la vida de las mujeres en calidad de procreadoras.

  2. «If a woman has a big head»: Physiognomy and female nature in an assyro-babylonian text

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Ferreira, Érica

    2008-01-01

    In Mesopotamia, the human body was understood as an object for divination, that is, a system of signs, which carried messages about the individual, and whose meaning had to be decoded by means of observation and interpretation. Taking the physiognomic series Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («If a woman has a big head») as the main source of my article, I analyse, on the one hand, the processes that take part in the promotion of a particular perception of women based on a speci...

  3. Development of a toolkit in Silverlight to detect physiognomies in real time - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.13713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabral Ghilardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security demands, forensic practices and the identification of criminals require the detection and recognition of iris and fingerprints and of faces in videos and photographs. Moreover, there is an increasing need for multiple forms of human-machine interaction. Control devices by body stimulus are a need and a trend. For example, currently some computers, laptops, phones and video games provide interaction from their cameras, not only for face detection but also for body movements and the detection of objects. Most devices are Internet accessed, which creates an even greater range of possibilities. These technological trends have prompted the development a toolkit for detecting faces in real time. The choice of Silverlight framework for the development of this toolkit provides these applications with instruments that could be implemented in a web browser. This toolkit may be used for other purposes, such as face and iris recognition, body movement and the monitoring of premises. An application was developed as example and proof of concept.  

  4. Hyperglycemia-Induced Modulation of the Physiognomy and Angiogenic Potential of Fibroblasts Mediated by Matrix Metalloproteinase-2: Implications for Venous Stenosis Formation Associated with Hemodialysis Vascular Access in Diabetic Milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Leof, Edward B; Misra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    It is hypothesized that venous stenosis formation associated with hemodialysis vascular-access failure is caused by hypoxia-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation accompanied by proliferation and migration, and that diabetic patients have worse clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the functional and gene expression outcomes of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (Mmp-2) silencing in fibroblasts cultured under hyperglycemia and euglycemia with hypoxic and normoxic stimuli. AKR-2B fibroblasts were stably transduced using lentivirus-mediated shRNA-Mmp-2 or scrambled controls and subjected to hypoxia or normoxia under hyperglycemic or euglycemic conditions for 24 and 72 h. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), Vegfr-1, Mmp-2, Mmp-9 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (Timps) were determined by RT-PCR. Collagen I and IV secretion and cellular proliferation and migration were determined. Under hyperglycemic conditions, there is a significant reduction in the average gene expression of Vegf-A and Mmp-9, with an increase in Timp-1 at 24 h of hypoxia (p < 0.05) in Mmp-2-silenced fibroblasts when compared to controls. In addition, there is a decrease in collagen I and IV secretion and cellular migration. The euglycemic cells were able to reverse these findings. These findings demonstrate the rationale for using anti-Mmp-2 therapy in dialysis patients with hemodialysis vascular access in helping to reduce stenosis formation. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Karoo biome: a preliminary synthesis. Part 2 - vegetation and history

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available and soil erosion. The focus of this volume is vegetation and its history. Included are chapters on vegetation physiognomy, plant growth, vegetation change, phytogeography, palaeo-ecology, palaeontology and archaeology...

  6. Rivalry and enmity are phenomena that seem to have permeated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    the premises of their socio cultural orientations. ragmatics, therefore ... and non linguistic features (gestures, physiognomy and bodily expression of emotions) ... pronouns have case, number, gender and persons distinctions. They may perform ...

  7. Will a decreasing winter rainfall cause a shift in Succulent Karoo boundaries? Evidence from competition and vegetation-change analyses.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shiponeni, NN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecotone between the Namaqualand shrublands (Succulent Karoo biome) and Bushmanland Arid Grassland (Nama-Karoo biome) is characterised by transitional (ecotonal) physiognomy (grassland-shrubland mosaic, and grass and shrubs intermingling in arid...

  8. Relação solo-vegetação em área de cerrado no nordeste do Maranhão, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Fredgardson Costa [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The vegetation of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna) is predominantly composed of cerrado physiognomies (cerrado lato sensu). The determining factors on the cerrado physiognomies distribution have been continuously in question, and have been primarily related to gradients of fertility, soil depth, water availability, occurrence of fire, human disturbance and topography. However, there are few studies that have found opposing results or not aligned to these. In this sense, this study was in...

  9. Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of tertiary floras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, an analysis of the physiognomy of a Tertiary leaf assemblage is more direct and reliable than a circuitous floristic analysis in assigning thermal regimes to fossil assemblages. Using primarily foliar physiognomy and secondarily floristic composition, it can be shown that: (1) some middle latitude Tertiary assemblages probably lived under meteoroligically tropical climates; (2) a major and rapid climatic deterioration occurred in the Oligocene; and (3) a major climatic fluctuation probably occurred in the Late Eocene. These analyses thus substantiate the conclusions of several other paleobotanists regarding climatic fluctuations. Recent criticisms of these analyses are shown to be invalid and to be based largely on misinterpretations. ?? 1971.

  10. Disturbance and climate change in United States/Mexico borderland plant communities: a state-of-the-knowledge review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. McPherson; Jake F. Weltzin

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates the effects and importance of disturbance and climate change on plant community dynamics in the United States/Mexico borderlands region. Our primary focus is on knowledge of physiognomic-level change in grasslands and woodlands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Changes in vegetation physiognomy have broad implications for...

  11. Classification and description of world formation types. Part II (Description of formation types)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Faber-Langendoen; T. Keeler-Wolf; D. Meidinger; C. Josse; A. Weakley; D. Tart; G. Navarro; B. Hoagland; S. Ponomarenko; J.P. Saucier; G. Fults; E. Helmer

    2012-01-01

    A vegetation-ecologic classification approach has been developed in which a combination of vegetation attributes (physiognomy, structure, and floristics) and their response to ecological and biogeographic factors are used as the basis for classifying vegetation types (Faber-Langendoen et al. 2012). This approach can help support international, national and subnational...

  12. Classification and description of world formation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Faber-Langendoen; T. Keeler-Wolf; D. Meidinger; C. Josse; A. Weakley; D. Tart; G. Navarro; B. Hoagland; S. Ponomarenko; G. Fults; Eileen Helmer

    2016-01-01

    An ecological vegetation classification approach has been developed in which a combination of vegetation attributes (physiognomy, structure, and floristics) and their response to ecological and biogeographic factors are used as the basis for classifying vegetation types. This approach can help support international, national, and subnational classification efforts. The...

  13. Classification and description of world formation types. Part. I (Introduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Faber-Langendoen; T. Keeler-Wolf; D. Meidinger; C. Josse; A. Weakley; D. Tart; G. Navarro; B. Hoagland; S. Ponomarenko; J.-P. Saucier; G. Fults; E. Helmer

    2012-01-01

    A vegetation-ecologic classification approach has been developed in which a combination of vegetation attributes (physiognomy, structure, and floristics) and their response to ecological and biogeographic factors are used as the basis for classifying vegetation types (Faber-Langendoen et al. 2012). This approach can help support international, national and subnational...

  14. Mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; Ernesto. Medina

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove environment is not globally homogeneous, but involves many environmental gradients to which mangrove species must adapt and overcome to maintain the familiar structure and physiognomy associated with the mangrove ecosystem. The stature of mangroves, measured by tree height, decreases along the following environmental gradients from low to high salinity,...

  15. The ecology of the elephants in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi with specific reference to management of elephant populations in the Brachystegia biome of Southern Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jachmann, Hugo

    1984-01-01

    The elephant is one of the most important animals in African Wildlife Management, firstly because it is capable of modifying through cropping. The latter also makes it a prime poaching target. The main problems caused by elephant concern changes in the physiognomy of the habitat with its

  16. Vascular epiphytic flora of a high montane environment of Brazilian Atlantic Forest: composition and floristic relationships with other ombrophilous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra Gomes Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Only a few studies regarding vascular epiphytes have been conducted in mixed ombrophilous forests (MOF in Serra da Mantiqueira, a mountainous environment in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where the relationships of epiphytic flora with other physiognomies are unknown. This study aimed to survey the epiphytes of a MOF remnant located in Serra da Mantiqueira, and to analyze the floristic relationships with ombrophilous forests of the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. The checklist was compared with 51 other areas composed of ombrophilous forests and/or ecotones with other physiognomies using UPGMA (with Sørensen index, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. We recorded 138 species, and Orchidaceae and Polypodiaceae were the richest families (51 and 23 species, respectively. The UPGMA showed the importance of physiognomy and elevation in the floristic relationships, and CCA reinforced the influence of elevation, in addition to the shortest distance to the ocean and minimum annual temperature; however, in this analysis, the physiognomies showed little influence on the relationships. The epiphytic flora of MOF of Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil has different relationships compared with the data available for shrubs and trees, suggesting a greater importance of phorophytic species than geographical distance and, to some extent, environmental variables.

  17. A continental analysis of correlations between tree patterns in African savannas and human and environmental variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T.A.; Langevelde, van F.; Vijver, van de C.A.D.M.; Raad, de A.L.; Leeuw, de J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses possible relationships between natural processes taking place in savannas and the tree patterns found in savannas. This can lead to new hypotheses about which processes are driving savanna physiognomy. To do so tree patterns were quantified for African savannas from historical

  18. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 30, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of herbivore grazing on the physiognomy of the coralline alga Spongites yendoi and on associated competitive interactions · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. GW Maneveldt, DW Keats, 581-593. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.3.11.645 ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 1038 ... African Journal of Marine Science. ... Vol 31, No 2 (2009), Effects of fishing on a temperate reef community in South Africa 1: ichthyofauna, Abstract ... Vol 30, No 3 (2008), Effects of herbivore grazing on the physiognomy of the coralline alga Spongites yendoi and on associated competitive interactions ...

  20. Effects of Deforestation on Natural Bio-Diversity in Delta North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the effects of deforestation on natural bio-diversity in Delta North Region of Delta State, with the aim of determining the extent of tree species loss. Vegetation physiognomy of tree height, tree diameter and tree species population were measured in forested and deforested areas. Two experimental sites ...

  1. The paramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, A.N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal paramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based oil analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  2. Management strategies for the conservation of forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; Deborah M. Finch; Petra Bohall Wood; David E. Capen

    1999-01-01

    We recommend that managers of forest-associated bird species follow a five-step hierarchy in establishing and implementing management programs. In essence, a manager must evaluate the composition and physiognomy of the landscape mosaic in the context of the regional and subregional goals and objectives. Then he/she can explore alternatives that allow manipulation of...

  3. Phenology of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in a Disjunctly-zoned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avicennia marina in Gazi Bay, Kenya, displays a disjunct zonation pattern across the intertidal zone with a seaward and a landward A. marina fringe. Earlier studies revealed significant differences in its vegetation structure, physiognomy, root system and leaf morphology, which can be attributed to salinity and tidal ...

  4. Edge effects at an induced forest-grassland boundary: forest birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird species diversity and guild composition between the edge (5-10 m from the margin) of primary forest abutting grassland and the deep interior (> 500 m from the margin) in the Dngoye Forest Reserve were compared. Edge and interior sites were chosen that were homogeneous with respect to habitat physiognomy i.e. ...

  5. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  6. Heaths and forests of the western hills of Chia, Bogota savanna, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Sandra P.; Van der Hammen, Thomas; Rangel Ch, J Orlando

    2000-01-01

    The authors make a study of the heaths and forests of the western hills of the population of Chia, located in the savanna of Bogota and the presence or absences of these in the same Bogota savanna; the authors treat topics like their physiognomy and composition, distribution and ecology among other topics

  7. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts The Formation of Antisemitic Sterotypes in Press-Media of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.The stereotypes of Jews are developed in visual jokes and caricatures in the second half of 19th century. Immediately they were copied in illustrated magazines and picture-sheets of that period. Within these three visual mediums some attributes characterise the Jewish figure beside its physiognomy. The book follows the stereotypes’ development and formation into the anti-Semitic picture.

  8. Vascular epiphytic flora of a high montane environment of Brazilian Atlantic Forest: composition and floristic relationships with other ombrophilous forests

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado,Samyra Gomes; Menini Neto,Luiz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Only a few studies regarding vascular epiphytes have been conducted in mixed ombrophilous forests (MOF) in Serra da Mantiqueira, a mountainous environment in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where the relationships of epiphytic flora with other physiognomies are unknown. This study aimed to survey the epiphytes of a MOF remnant located in Serra da Mantiqueira, and to analyze the floristic relationships with ombrophilous forests of the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. The ch...

  9. ナミビア乾燥地域に分布するモパネ植生帯の植生景観の特徴(特集 研究と実務を架橋する実践的地域研究)

    OpenAIRE

    手代木, 功基

    2011-01-01

    Mopane vegetation, which is characterized by the dominance of Colophospermum mopane, is distributed through arid to semi-arid areas of southern Africa. It is widely recognized that the physiognomy of mopane includes both tree and shrub forms, but in the arid part of Namibia, less is known about the characteristics of the vegetational landscape, including the mopane tree’s morphology, than other areas. The purpose of this study is to reveal the characteristics of the vegetational landscape wit...

  10. The ecology of the elephants in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi with specific reference to management of elephant populations in the Brachystegia biome of Southern Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jachmann, Hugo

    1984-01-01

    The elephant is one of the most important animals in African Wildlife Management, firstly because it is capable of modifying through cropping. The latter also makes it a prime poaching target. The main problems caused by elephant concern changes in the physiognomy of the habitat with its consequences for the population itself and the diversity of plant and animal species in the conservation area. The Kasungu National Park suffers simultaneously from heavy illegal offtake and an elephant probl...

  11. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 2. Floristic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Deall

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous vegetation of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area is classified with the aid of the PHYTOTAB program package. Four ecological-formation classes (efc based on floristics. physiognomy and climate correspond to four data subsets. Plant communities in each efc are defined by means of 46 differential species-groups distributed amongst forest, thicket, woodland, shrubland and grassland structural types. Environmental correlation is facilitated by means of 21 habitat types.

  12. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Rubin; A.R. Palmer

    1996-01-01

    The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevat...

  13. Mapping Habitat Connectivity for Multiple Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species on and Around Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    population sizes, reduced flow of individuals and genes between populations, and greater risk of extinction of native species (Fisher and Lindenmayer 2007...allow recolonization of both original and restored breeding sites where the local population has gone extinct , or simply to increase the chance that...movement for pollen dispersal by honey bees . Ecology 74:493-500. Müller, J., J. Stadler, R. Brandl., 2009. Composition versus physiognomy of vegetation

  14. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Asteraceae) changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rossatto,Davi Rodrigo; Kolb,Rosana Marta

    2010-01-01

    Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna) and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plas...

  15. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.

  16. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, MLT; Machado, LPB; Mateus, RP

    2014-01-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA – Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the...

  17. Plant Biodiversity Drivers in Brazilian Campos Rupestres: Insights from Phylogenetic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappi, Daniela C; Moro, Marcelo F; Meagher, Thomas R; Nic Lughadha, Eimear

    2017-01-01

    Old, climate-buffered infertile landscapes (Ocbils) have attracted increasing levels of interest in recent years because of their exceptionally diverse plant communities. Brazil's campos rupestres (rupestrian grasslands) are home to almost 15% of Brazil's native flora in less than 0.8% of Brazil's territory: an ideal study system for exploring variation in floristic diversity and phylogenetic structure in sites differing in geology and phytophysiognomy. We found significant differences in floristic diversity and phylogenetic structure across a range of study sites encompassing open vegetation and forest on quartzite (FQ) and on ironstone substrates, commonly termed canga . Substrate and physiognomy were key in structuring floristic diversity in the Espinhaço and physiognomy was more important than substrate in structuring phylogenetic diversity, with neither substrate nor its interaction with physiognomy accounting for significant variation in phylogenetic structure. Phylogenetic clustering was significant in open vegetation on both canga and quartzite, reflecting the potential role of environmental filtering in these exposed montane communities adapted to multiple environmental stressors. In forest communities, phylogenetic clustering was significant only at relatively deep nodes of the phylogeny in FQ while no significant phylogenetic clustering was detected across forest on canga (FC), which may be attributable to proximity to the megadiverse Atlantic forest biome and/or comparatively benign environmental conditions in FC with relatively deep, nutrient-rich soils and access to edaphic water reliable in comparison to those for open vegetation on canga and open or forest communities on quartzite. Clades representing relatively old lineages are significantly over-represented in campos rupestres on quartzite, consistent with the Gondwanan Heritage Hypothesis of Ocbil theory. In contrast, forested sites on canga are recognized as Yodfels. To be effective

  18. Plant Biodiversity Drivers in Brazilian Campos Rupestres: Insights from Phylogenetic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Zappi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Old, climate-buffered infertile landscapes (Ocbils have attracted increasing levels of interest in recent years because of their exceptionally diverse plant communities. Brazil’s campos rupestres (rupestrian grasslands are home to almost 15% of Brazil’s native flora in less than 0.8% of Brazil’s territory: an ideal study system for exploring variation in floristic diversity and phylogenetic structure in sites differing in geology and phytophysiognomy. We found significant differences in floristic diversity and phylogenetic structure across a range of study sites encompassing open vegetation and forest on quartzite (FQ and on ironstone substrates, commonly termed canga. Substrate and physiognomy were key in structuring floristic diversity in the Espinhaço and physiognomy was more important than substrate in structuring phylogenetic diversity, with neither substrate nor its interaction with physiognomy accounting for significant variation in phylogenetic structure. Phylogenetic clustering was significant in open vegetation on both canga and quartzite, reflecting the potential role of environmental filtering in these exposed montane communities adapted to multiple environmental stressors. In forest communities, phylogenetic clustering was significant only at relatively deep nodes of the phylogeny in FQ while no significant phylogenetic clustering was detected across forest on canga (FC, which may be attributable to proximity to the megadiverse Atlantic forest biome and/or comparatively benign environmental conditions in FC with relatively deep, nutrient-rich soils and access to edaphic water reliable in comparison to those for open vegetation on canga and open or forest communities on quartzite. Clades representing relatively old lineages are significantly over-represented in campos rupestres on quartzite, consistent with the Gondwanan Heritage Hypothesis of Ocbil theory. In contrast, forested sites on canga are recognized as Yodfels. To be

  19. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  20. Lew Kopelew - der Schriftsteller und Wissenschaftler, der Freund der Menschen und Verfechter ihrer Grundrechte

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Unsere Erwartung war anders als sonst – freudig, doch nicht frei von Erregung und leiser Furcht: Wird man im Kreml das gegebene Wort halten und nach einem Jahr die Rückkehr in die russische Heimat erlauben? Als Gast Heinrich Bölls kam Lew Kopelew im November 1980 nach Deutschland. In der Bonner Wohnung des Slawisten Wolfgang Kasack konnte ich mich ihm wenige Tage später vorstellen: Er war groß, von beeindruckender Physiognomie – nicht nur durch den Prophetenbart –, allerdings fast bleich und ...

  1. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  2. Men and islands. The great blue road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolino Nappi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gillo Pontecorvo’s feature breakthrough is the adaptation of Franco Solinas’ short novel Squarciò, focused on the life of a lonely fisherman who uses bombs as wells as fishnets, endangering his life every day. After the first approach with Giovanna, the relationship between the director and his customary screenwriter sharpens. Some casting issue: the actors do not satisfy Pontecorvo, because their physiognomy doesn’t match with those of the characters. The importance of sea landscape into the mise-en-scene’s building. The expressive use of sound. The political meaning: individualism against work’s collectivization

  3. A reconnaissance survey of the vegetation of the North Luangwa National Park, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Smith

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of the vegetation of the North Luangwa National Park (NLNP was carried out over a period of two years. The main aims of the survey were to describe the major vegetation communities in the park and to produce a vegetation map of the NLNP Initial differentiation of vegetation units was established by the appearance of the vegetation on aerial photographs Further information was derived from 353 ground plots in which > 20 000 woody plants were identified and measured Thirteen broad vegetation types were recognised in the NLNP Details of their physiognomy, species composition, distribution, topography and edaphic associations are given.

  4. A phyt osociological classification of the vegetation of the Jack Scott Nature Reserve*

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    B. J. Coetzee

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Jack Scott Nature Reserve in the Central Bankenveld Veld Type is classified chiefly by the Braun-Blanquet Table Method. Habitat features, physiognomy, total floristic composition, differentiating species, woody plants and prominent grasses and forbs are presented for each community. Characterizing habitat features, in order of importance for the communities, are: exposure, soil texture, geology, slope, aspect, degree of rockiness and previous ploughing. The classification correlates well with the major physiographic and climatic variation in the Reserve and generally does not cut across main physiognomic types. The communities are potentially homogeneous management units.

  5. A west-east vegetation transect through Africa south of the Tropic of Capricorn

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    B. J. Coetzee

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in predominant vegetation physiognomy, prominent species and physiography along the route following an I 800 km transect across southern Africa near the Tropic of Capricorn, are described. Eleven main discontinuities in the structure and Holistic composition of the vegetation along the transect are related to a climatic gradient across the Continent. Floristic variation within the main structural types is largely related to rainfall, severity of frost, soil conditions, exposure, slope and aspect. The main vegetation classes distinguished coincide largely with major differences in carrying capacity of the vegetation.

  6. Reception of Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac’s composing creativity in the musical life of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Austro-Hungarian period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paćuka Lana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Bosnia and Herzegovina encountered Western European social trends, which affected the shaping of musical life physiognomy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In this extremely intricate relationship between national and pro-European-oriented cultural trends, Serbian composer Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac had a special position as a unique musical phenomenon, since he was a composer whose musical talent imposed itself as an authority in strengthening the national musical expression and serving as a guideline for numerous BH artists.

  7. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  8. Floristic composition and structural diversity of ibodi monkey forest, ibodi, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilehin, K. E.; Olajide, O. S.; Ademayowa, O.; Olusanya, O.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the floristic composition and vegetation structure among different physiognomies in Ibodi Monkey forest, Ibodi, Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. It also assessed the effects of anthropogenic activities on the forest with a view to providing detailed information on the floristic composition structure and diversity of species of the standing vegetation of the forest.Seven plots of 25 m x 25 m dimension were established within three physiognomies in the forest; Regrowth forest (RF), Tree fallow (TF) and Cocoa plantation. (CP) A total of 209 individual woody species were encountered in the seven plots. The highest density of woody species was found in the RF (1483), followed by CP (1072) and TF (792). The basal area in CP was the highest (21.44) while RF had the lowest (2.5567) with TF having an intermediate value (6.283). Crown area also indicated that RF had the highest cover while TF had the lowest crown area. Shannon-Wiener, Evenness, Richness indices followed the order RF > TF > CP. Similarity index was highest between CP and TF and lowest between RF and CP. The study concluded that Ibodi monkey forest has been influenced by human disturbance in form of selective logging of economic species, agriculture (shifting cultivation) and seasonal bush burning. (author)

  9. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

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    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  10. INDIRECT ASSESSMENT OF RIVER-TORRENTIAL EROSION BY MEASURING THE ERODED VOLUM CASE STUDY: THE REGHIU STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE LUCICA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The landform, as a whole, is the basic component of the environment and evolves as an open system controlled by two categories of components, in a close relationship of dynamic interconditioning. The endodynamic components are stable and they define the relief physiognomy: hypsometry, the gradient and length of the slope, lithologic conditions and the drainage density. The exodynamic components, with high spatial and temporal mobility, control the flow of matter and energy within the hydrographic basin, the solar energy, the rainfalls, the temperature, the plant cover, and the anthropic activity. The volume of eroded material of a hydrographic basin will set the relationship between the present physiognomy of the landform and the flow of materials carried and discharged. The quantitative evaluation of the erosion in a hydrographic basin, specific to a certain region, will deal with the parameters reflecting the intensity of the morphogenetic processes over a specified period of time. The Reghiu Stream, a left-side tributary of the River Milcov, drains varied landforms, developed on geological formations with different physical properties; moreover, it manifests a regressive erosion, weaker than the Zabala River (they used to have a common evolution during the geological past, and the interfluve is very narrow – there are few facts which lead to the conclusion that the erosion is differential, depending on the local conditions of shaping.

  11. Effects of soil and space on the woody species composition and vegetation structure of three Cerrado phytophysiognomies in the Cerrado-Amazon transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracahipes-Santos, L; Lenza, E; Santos, J O; Mews, H A; Oliveira, B

    2017-11-01

    The Cerrado Biome is considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspots because of its rich biodiversity, the high level of endemism and the increasing threat. The Cerrado is composed by a mosaic of different vegetation types, including physiognomies that vary from grasslands (campo limpo) to savannas (typical cerrado or cerrado sensu stricto) and cerrado woodlands (cerradão). However, the factors that determine the composition of the Cerrado's flora and the structure of the physiognomies that compose this biome are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil and the effect of geographic distance on the occurrence and abundance of woody species in three Cerrado phytophysiognomies - cerrado woodland (cerradão), dense cerrado savanna and typical cerrado savanna - in the Cerrado-Amazon transition. We tested the hypothesis that the edaphic characteristics and geographic space determine the species composition and the structure of the woody vegetation of these three phytophysiognomies. We demonstrate that the dissimilarities in the structure and composition of the three sites were determined more by space (13% of explanation) than edaphic properties (1%), but primarily by the interaction between these two factors (26%). We conclude that, in situations where the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil are relatively homogeneous, as we found in the present study, geographic distance between sites has a greater influence than variation in the substrate's properties on modelling the occurrence and abundance of the woody plant species in the Cerrado.

  12. Annual and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of Litter-Dwelling Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Atlantic Semideciduous Forests

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    Flávio Siqueira de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed ant fauna in the leaf litter in an Atlantic Semideciduous forest in the State Park of Rio Doce (PERD. The work aimed to produce basic information about habitat effects on diversity, as well as about how the ant fauna in a such buffered forest habitat, as the litter layer, could respond the climate variation in a short and long term. We sampled two years in two distinct forest physiognomies, which respond to different geomorphologic backgrounds, in dry and rainy seasons. Species composition, richness and abundance of these forests were distinct. However, both forests hosted similar numbers of rare and specialized, habitat demanding species, thus suggesting both are similarly well preserved, despite distinct physiognomies. However, the lower and more open forest was, more susceptible to dry season effects, showing a steeper decline in species numbers in such season, but similar numbers in the wet seasons. The pattern varied between years, which corroborates the hypothesis of a strongly variable community in response to subtle climatic variation among years. The present results are baselines for future long term monitoring projects, and could support protocols for early warnings of global climatic changes effects on biodiversity.

  13. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by a protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado: application of the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, F M; Fernandes, G W; Andrade, D C; Néder, H D

    2017-11-01

    Considering that the economic valuation of ecosystem services is a useful approach to support the conservation of natural areas, we aimed to estimate the monetary value of the benefits provided by a protected area in southeast Brazil, the Serra do Cipó National Park. We calculated the visitor's willingness to pay to conserve the ecosystems of the protected area using the contingent valuation method. Located in a region under intense anthropogenic pressure, the Serra do Cipó National Park is mostly composed of rupestrian grassland ecosystems, in addition to other Cerrado physiognomies. We conducted a survey consisting of 514 interviews with visitors of the region and found that the mean willingness to pay was R$ 7.16 year-1, which corresponds to a total of approximately R$ 716,000.00 year-1. We detected that per capita income, the household size, the level of interest in environmental issues and the place of origin influenced the likelihood that individuals are willing to contribute to the conservation of the park, as well as the value of the stated willingness to pay. This study conveys the importance of conserving rupestrian grassland and other Cerrado physiognomies to decision makers and society.

  14. First standardized inventory of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the natural grasslands of Paraná: New records for Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslly Franco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the large number of studies investigating ant diversity in Brazilian biomes, no ant-related studies have been carried out in Campos Gerais, a grassland physiognomy in Paraná state. The present study is the first inventory of the ant fauna in one of the few conservation units protecting the Campos Gerais landscape, the Guartelá State Park (PEG. Sixty samples were collected from different habitats within PEG using pitfall traps. Qualitative samples of leaf litter were collected from forest fragments and submitted to Winkler extractors. In addition, manual qualitative sampling was carried out in the various physiognomies within the PEG. A total of 163 species was collected and sorted into 43 genera and nine subfamilies. Five genera and 28 species were recorded for the first time in the state of Paraná. Out of these, 17 species were also recorded for the first time in the Southern Region of Brazil and two were recorded for the first time to the country. The significant species richness in the PEG and the high number of new records is a strong sign of this ecosystem’s potential to reveal taxonomic novelties. These results suggest that PEG, and the Campos Gerais as a whole, should be the target of greater conservation efforts to preserve native remnants.

  15. The Development of White-Asian Categorization: Contributions from Skin Color and Other Physiognomic Cues.

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    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European-East Asian ("White-Asian" categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children's ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization.

  16. Diversity and similarity of native forest fragments located in the northeast region of Minas Gerais

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    Christianne Riquetti Corsini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study 26 distributed fragments of native forest in four located hydrographical Basins in the northeast region of Minas Gerais had been showed, with the purpose of analyzing the floristic similarity exists between 26 forest fragments native inserted in four basins in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais and the diversity and evenness of physiognomies studied and groups of fragments formed. Systematic sampling with units was used shows of 1000 m² each, where the sample area varied of 1 the 6 has, as the area I break up of it. We measured the circumference at 1.30m (CAP and the total height and collected botanical material of all individuals with CAP greater or equal to 15.7 cm. Six groups were formed according to the floristic similarity coefficient Sorensen, with four groups there was an association of more than a physiognomy, showing regions of transition within the area. The Shannon diversity index, ranged from 2.236 in deciduous forest to 4.523 in Semideciduous Forest. The maximum and minimum values of evenness index Pielou were 0.850 and 0.616 , respectively. The floristic group 2 (Semideciduous Forest and Cerrado sensu stricto had the highest average value of diversity (3.585 and evenness (0.750 , and group 1 (Deciduous Forest had the lowest values (H': 2.426 and J': 0.687 .

  17. A study on the Chinese beliefs and their effects on small and medium sized business after 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Wall; Zhang Runtong; Yang Yancheng; Lin Hua

    2008-01-01

    As a result of economic reform commencing in 1978 in China, cultural beliefs of the Chinese business owners are changing. While much has been published concerning large and multinational businesses, there is a gap in knowledge Of cultural beliefs of small and medium sized enterprises. To provide new knowledge, a survey on these smaller sized enterprises located throughout China was conducted in the summer of 2006. Respondents were selected from urban and rural areas, coastal and inland provinces and various industries to provide information on their opinions on how some of their cultural beliefs have changed from 1990 to present. Specific beliefs questioned include: Use of fengshui, Traditional Forbidden Activities, Company Naming Responsibility, Company Name Basis, Use of Numbers, Use of Physiognomy, and Prediction of a Company's Future. The importance of fengshui has risen over in the last sixteen years and certain traditional forbidden activities such as not turning over the fish while eating has remained important as a cultural belief Naming a company is important and the desirability of a good name is based on various factors. Use of numbers, physiognomy, and non-scientific methods for predicting the future success of companies are of lesser use. These aspects of cuhure are reviewed in consideration of the change from a planned economy to a market-based economy.

  18. Ecological recovery of affected areas by a forest fire in the Tintales watershed (Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Méndez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tintales watershed, located in the Santuario de Flora y Fauna (SFF of Iguaque, Boyaca, was affected by a wildfire. In that area, the natural regeneration was evaluated in 29 permanent plots. Two phyto-physiognomies, a rocky outcrop and oak were evaluated to compare their richness, diversity and dominance, with rocky outcrop yielding a greater richness and diversity. The Asteraceae family was the one that obtained greater representation, with a dominance of species such as Hypoxis decumbens, Pterídium aquilinum and Andropogon bicornis. The diversity in the whole sampling was low and uniform due to the repeated incidence of forest fires that have caused changes in the structure and composition of vegetation. The vegetation found did not differ substantially from other studies reported for this life zone and the region, where the dynamics of land use are similar, with high deforestation and fires. The vegetation established after the fire is dominated by colonizing and pioneering species. In the two phyto physiognomies studied after a year of the fire, two plant communities with statistically significant differences in wealth and homogeneity could be stablished. To start the restoration process, it is recommended to use as one of the inputs, the taxonomic differences found between oak  and rocky outcrop.

  19. Soil Fertility Gradient in the Restinga Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    América Castelar da Cunha, Joana; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    The restinga ecosystem (coastal plain vegetation) can be termed as a set of plant communities that suffer strong influenced by fluvial and marine factors and is characterized as an ecosystem of great biological diversity, therefore, represents areas of great importance in the context of ecological preservation. The degradation processes from many forms of anthropogenic disturbances that has taken place since the colonization of the country, made studies on the characterization and dynamics of soil fertility of these areas even more important in relation to the maintenance of its biodiversity and conservation. The sites studied were the Cardoso Island and Comprida Island, and in these, we analyzed four physiognomies, restinga, low restinga, dune and antedune (from continent to ocean). Chemical analyses were performed and soil salinity in these areas in depths 0-5; 0-10; 0-20; 20-40; 40-60 cm. In all soils the cationic exchange capacity was intimately associated with the concentration of soil organic matter, which makes this parameter essential to the maintenance of soil fertility of these areas; in more superficial layers (0-20 cm) there was an increase of pH and base saturation and decline of organic matter, aluminum saturation and cationic exchange capacity in the nearby sea, physiognomies what determines the existence of fertility gradient towards the continent-coast; restinga forests showed a chemical standard that is heavily marked by sandy texture, high degree of leaching, nutrient poverty, low base saturation, high saturation by aluminum and acidity, opposite conditions to soils of the dunes and antedunes, with the exception of sandy texture; despite the existence of a chemical gradient of fertility among the physiognomies studied it is possible to determine the soil acts more strongly as a physical support than as provider of fertility; as for salinity, soil collected in Cardoso Island did not present salinity in any depth, a fact which can be explained due

  20. Nigeria: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    This book is the second in a series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  1. Venezuela: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boue, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This book inaugurates a new series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  2. La investigación sobre fisiognomía y expresión de las pasiones: objetivos y metodología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albero Muñoz, María del Mar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The search of the emotional expressivity in the arts during the 17th century, guided both artists and theorist to the analysis of the expression of the passions, the physiognomy and the appearance of emotions. This subject had been developed into the artistic literature from the ancient times until this century by writers like PseudoAristotle, Alberti, Leonardo or Gaurico. This study analyzes the research methods applied to know the influence of these theories into the Spanish XVII century artistic literature. Mainly in the study of the treatises wrote by Vicente Carducho, Francisco Pacheco and Jusepe Martinez, showing the different paths used by them in order to guide other painters to illustrate the emotions of the soul.

  3. Socialist and postsocialist land-use legacies determine farm woodland composition and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, H.

    2014-01-01

    and structure of presocialist woodlands. We argue that forest conservation planning should actively consider land-use legacies, which are of particular relevance in the landscapes of Central and Eastern Europe, as these have undergone multiple, abrupt, and severe land-use transitions....... explicit assessment of differences in species richness, diversity, and evenness as well as forest physiognomy and structure among Eastern German farm woodlands established during (1) the presocialist era (until 1945), (2) the socialist era (1945-1990), and (3) the postsocialist era (after 1990). Aerial...... imagery was used to allocate woodlands to one of the three eras, after which a forest inventory of 120 woodlands was performed. The results show substantial differences in forest composition and structure. Presocialist-era woodlands are composed of native (mean 96 %), deciduous (mean 94 %) tree species...

  4. Air pollution and urban climate in the Rhine--Westphalian industrial area and their influence on lichen growth on trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domroes, M

    1966-01-01

    Lichens on tree boles were examined on 25,114 trees along streets and areas in the central part of the Ruhr District and related to air pollution concentrations. The lichens were studied with regard to physiognomy, density, and exposition, and in relation to bark characteristics of tree species. Lichens were classified into the following areas: Lichen desert, transitional zone, or area of normal distribution. The lichens were sensitive to air pollution, especially sulfur dioxide emissions. The damaging influence of the town climate, especially aridity, was taken into consideration. Lichens were missing in all areas with a high degree of air pollution. These were areas of high density housing and of lower humidity than open country. Areas which had lower housing density and lower humidity also had increased lichen damage. Lichens were missing in the immediate neighborhood of factories or industrial areas outside towns. Lichen growth was reduced along busy roads.

  5. Hitler and Bormann identifications compared by postmortem craniofacial and dental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sognnaes, R F

    1980-06-01

    After Stalin told President Truman at Potsdam, July 17, 1945, that Hitler got away, a secret U.S. mission was designated to establish anthropological skull projections pertinent to a potential recovery of Hitler's remains, i.e., by experimentally eliminating the "flesh." Then, conversely, in 1972, when one of the two skulls unearthed next to the Lehrter Railroad station in West Berlin (where Hitler's physician and Bormann had last been seen alive on May 2, 1945), an attempt was made to put facial flesh back on the skull with a view to reconstruct the original facial physiognomy of Martin Bormann. All things considered, it will be documented that the only convincing forensic evidence of Hitler's and Bormann's deaths proved to be the dental data.

  6. Study of the wide area of a lake with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini C.

    2016-08-01

    Water bodies are particularly important for environment and development issues. Their study requires multiple information. Remote sensing has been proven useful in the above study. This paper concerns the wide area of Lake Orestiada in the region of Western Macedonia in Greece. The area is of particular interest because Lake Orestiada is included in the Natura 2000 network and is surrounded by diverse landcovers as built up areas and agricultural land. Multispectral and thermal Landsat 5 satellite images of two time periods are being used. Their processing is being done by Erdas Imagine software. The general physiognomy of the area and the lake shore are examined after image enhancement techniques and image interpretation. Directions of the study concern geomorphological aspects, land covers, estimation of surface temperature as well as changes through time.

  7. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  8. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  9. Perceiving, imaging, and preferring physiognomic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M S

    1986-01-01

    Physiognomic color responses in perception, imagery, and affect were investigated. Maluma and taketa, nonsense stimuli defined by many investigators as physiognomic, were utilized as prototypical physiognomic stimuli, along with eight other stimuli of various sorts. In Experiment 1, 22 subjects matched the colors of the stimuli; in Experiment 2, 27 subjects reported their imagery to the stimuli; and in Experiment 3, 16 subjects gave their color preferences for the stimuli. The Munsell sets of colors were employed throughout. Significant differences between the physiognomic and other stimuli were found on the brightness and saturation of color matches, images, and preferences. Other differences (e.g., the latency of color images) were also present. Distinctions were also noted between the two physiognomic stimuli. These results support the priority of innate and perceptual processes in physiognomy over those of learning and memory, although some ambiguities still remain.

  10. The woody vegetation communities of the Hluhluwe-Corridor- Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Whateley

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Land units for the 900 km- Hluhluwe-Corridor-Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex in north eastern Natal were identified on aerial photographs. The physiognomy, dominants and description of the woody vegetation for each unit were identified during ground inspections and. where necessary, the point-centred quarter method was applied. Two forest, two riverine forest, ten woodland and two thicket communities were recognized. These communities are described according to their distribution, height and percentage frequency of the components in the different canopy strata. A map at a scale of 1:25 000 was also compiled. Some of these communities are compared with other similar woodlands previously described for Natal. In some communities the frequency of certain dominant canopy species in the under tree strata was extremely low and autecological research has been suggested.

  11. A broad-scale structural classification of vegetation for practical purposes

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    E. Edwards

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available An a priori system is presented for the broad structural classification of vegetation. The objectives are to provide a descriptive, consistent, easily applied system, with unambiguous, straight-forward terminology, which can be used in the field and with remote sensing and air photo techniques, and which can be used in conjuction with floristic and habitat terms to convey the essential physiognomy and structure of the vegetation. The attributes used are a primary set of four growth forms, a set of four projected crown cover classes, and a set of four height classes for each growth form. In addition, shrub substratum is used to define thicket and bushland. Special growth forms, substrata!, leaf and other attributes can be readily incorporated to extend the two-way table system where such detail is needed.

  12. Amphibian and reptile communities in eleven Sites of Community Importance (SCI: relations between SCI area, heterogeneity and richness

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    Luca Canova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of amphibians and reptiles were observed in eleven Sites of Community Importance (SCI of the Lodi Province (NW Italy. Distribution and relative abundance of amphibians appeared more variable than reptiles. Some species of conservation concern as R. latastei were influenced by habitat physiognomy, i.e. the surface of wooded areas are important in predict presence and relative abundance of this species. SCI with wider surfaces and higher habitat heterogeneity included higher number of species. Species richness, here considered as a raw index of biodiversity value and community quality, was significantly related to SCI area and habitat heterogeneity; since this significant positive relation is confirmed both for amphibians and reptiles we suggest that, in planning of natural areas, priority must be retained for biotopes able to host the higher number of species.

  13. Narrare la storia: ripensare la lezione di Jerzy Topolski

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    Patrizia Fazzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of methodology proposed by Polish historian Jerzy Topolsky in relationship to the evolution of contemporary historiographical thought. The author provides a thorough analysis of the historical narrative, its rhetorical structures, the use of sources and ideological influences, values and cultural changes, involved in the research and in the writing of the text. The result is a History as a science not always exact, but close to the truth, and it outlines the historian’s figure who searches the “contact” with the past reality, in whose physiognomy enter the scientific rigor, the search of the method, technical skills, but also the imagination and the passion for knowledge.

  14. MR imaging of the abdomen in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, J.; Antoch, G.; Blondin, D.

    2011-01-01

    Sonography is still the method of choice for imaging diseases in pregnant women. The changed physiognomy of the women increases the known limitations of sonography while the advantages of MRI (large field of view, excellent soft-tissue contrast, sensitive diagnosis of edema) are not affected. The available sequences allow the differentiation of various pathologies. Most of these can frequently be visualized without intravenous administration of contrast material. Although the significance of techniques like DWI and ASL has not yet been explored, initial descriptions are promising and MR imaging in pregnancy will be increasingly important in the future. Therefore, knowledge of the most frequent diseases in pregnancy and their image appearance is relevant to radiologists. The advantages of MRI in comparison to sonography and its important role in imaging pathologies of the acute abdomen in pregnancy are illustrated and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Community and alternative media in the citizen´s protest cycle since the 15M-movement

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    Alejandro Barranquero Carretero

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current economical and institutional crisis of journalism in Spain has contributed to the revitalization of media and communicational experiences of social movements and non-profit organizations. This revival of citizen participation reaches prominence from the 15M movement in May 2011, which has contributed to the strengthening of networks among the Third Sector of Media, as well as to the first large-scale coordinated broadcasts by community radios in Spain. This article aims at describing the physiognomy of an emerging sector at the margins of public and private-commercial media. Methodology combines observation and documentary research along with structured in-depth interviews to coordinators and citizen reporters of these media coverages.

  16. The role of partial denture in management of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

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    Tania Saskianti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. The ectodermal dysplasia constitutes a group of hereditary disorders whose clinical manifestation can be defects in ectodermal structures. The case of a 11-year-old child with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and partial anodontia is presented. Affected children require extensive dental treatment to restore appearance and help the development of a positive self image. Partial denture was provided to encourage a normal psychological development and to improve the function of the stomatognatic system. It is important for the patient and the dentist to understand that continued monitoring for dental problems is necessary. This paper had an objective to relate and discuss a case of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, with the approach of the influence of an esthetic rehabilitation and functional alternative in the improvement of the quality of life.

  17. Workers’ Housing Estates In Postindustrial Cities - Modernization Or Revitalization?

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    Gaweł Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a part of the results on the physiognomy of a postindustrial city under conditions of economic transformation in Poland. The study area encompasses industrial centers located in the region of the Central Industrial District (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy - COP in the Świętokrzystkie and Mazowieckie voivodeships (districts. The specific urban structure of the industrial city and unemployment among its inhabitants resulting from ownership transformations generate various problems. The workers’ neighborhoods and colonies, which sprouted up so quickly at the beginning of the XX century, were a supply base for the rapidly developing industrial centers. Their clear urban structure and cultural potential they possess predispose them to developing necessary repair programs. Thus, the article draws attention to this form of settlement on the one hand, and on the other characterizes the activities assumed by gminas (municipalities in the scope of modernizing and revitalizing these areas.

  18. Petroleum and geopolitics; Petrole et geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaigneau, P. [Centre d' etudes diplomatiques et strategiques de Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-04-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela.

  19. REPERELE PSIHOMORALE ALE RURALULUI ŞI PĂSTRAREA SPECIFICULUI SĂU

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    Alina Lidia MARGHITAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional integrated rural development perspective, a harmonious convergence of the urban area, the cultural phenomenon it is a dimension-order essentially moderator role of social learning village.In a way, how the village culture is understood, the village community humanising its function depends on physiognomy that will, through modernization and urbanization, the very areas. Keeping notes characteristic of the rural and urban civilization finishing their purchases lead to the construction of a rural programmed with multiple natural and social meanings, with positive effects on quality of life of people. Preserved in modern form rural universe requires, first, recovery of traditions, customs, and blending their specific rural life in a subtle dialectic technique and modern culture, science and information to date.

  20. La ciudad musulmana y la influencia del urbanismo occidental en su confirmación

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    Mazen Suleiman Shinaq

    2001-06-01

    The Islamic city is studied as a mysterious thing, enclosed within its walls, which arouse the curiosity of several investigators to solve its mystery and to strip the mask of its various stages of evolution, not only for the peculiarity of Muslim town planning model, but also for its contribution to universal town planning. The purpose of this study on the one hand, is to prove the legitimacy of the open debate about the role of Islam as an urban religion in shaping out and in the physiognomy of the Islamic city, and on the other hand, is to verify the grade of the western impact on the morphology of its two parts, old and modern. In spite of the fact that in several cases cities have common origins (Roman, Greek, Phoenician, the appearance of Islam as a social doctrine, was the key point of rupture, and was judged as the determinant factor of oriental cities morphology. The study demonstrates some strong contradictions between both parts of the city: the Islamic city "the medina" and the modern part of the city "the westernised", so we can appreciate an accused rupture between the historical core and the modern part of the city, as a consequence of the western impact on the Islamic city. By means of the application of western planning and spatial organisation instruments, the application of modern methods and construction materials, and due to western education and training programmes of town planners and architects, adopted in Muslim schools and universities. The study highlighted the socio-economic factor, as a determinant one in the physiognomy of the Islamic city, by means of some morphological concepts, typical of Muslim society, such as social equality and solidarity.

  1. Biologia floral e fenologia reprodutiva de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae em Restinga do Norte Fluminense Floral biology and reproductive phenology of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae in the restinga of northern Rio de Janeiro State

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    Lorena Farizel Cesário

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia reprodutiva, a morfologia floral e o sistema reprodutivo de Schinus terebinthifolius foram investigados em duas fisionomias de vegetação da restinga de Grussaí/Iquipari, Rio de Janeiro, no período de janeiro a dezembro/2004. Schinus terebinthifolius apresentou estratégia de florescimento do tipo cornucópia, com dois picos de floração ao ano na estação chuvosa, e frutificou no período seco. A análise morfológica das flores e os experimentos de polinização confirmaram que esta espécie é dióica e apresenta reprodução xenógama obrigatória. Ocorreu alta sincronia entre plantas masculinas e femininas, considerada importante estratégia para espécies dióicas. Não houve diferença entre a frutificação por polinização natural e polinização cruzada, nem entre as duas fitosionomias estudadas, sendo os valores encontrados menores do que os observados em outros trabalhos.Reproductive phenology, floral morphology and the reproductive system of Schinus terebinthifolius were investigated in two physiognomies of restinga vegetation at Grussai/Iquipari, Rio de Janeiro, from January to December/2004. Schinus terebinthifolius had cornucopia flowering strategy, with two flowering peaks during the year, both in the rainy season; fruit was set in the dry period. Morphological analysis of the flowers and pollination experiments confirmed dioicism and obligatory xenogamy in this species. High synchrony between male and female plants occurred, an important strategy for dioecious species. No difference in fruit set was found between natural and cross pollinations in the two physiognomies studied, indicating lower values than those observed in others studies.

  2. Spatial Heterogeneity and Sources of Soil Carbon in Southern African Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S.; Wang, L.; Okin, G.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest and most dynamic reservoirs of C on Earth, with nearly twice as much C stored in SOC than in the biosphere and atmosphere combined. SOC storage in global tropical savannas constitutes approximately 56 Gt of C, which rises to 216 Gt of C (i.e., about 17% of the terrestrial non- agricultural SOC), when woodlands, shrublands, and desert scrub are included. Savannas cover about 20% of the global land surface, including about one-half of Africa, Australia and South America. The shared dominance of trees and grasses in savannas, the dominant physiognomy in southern Africa, add more complexity to soil C pool partitioning and dynamics than is found in landscapes with a single physiognomy. Here, the spatial variability of the soil C pool was investigated with particular emphasis on understanding the contribution to SOC from trees and grasses at two savanna sites of the Kalahari Transect, one wet and the other dry. Using a combination of stable isotope techniques and geostatistics, the results showed that spatial patterns of soil δ13 C exist and were related to the distributions of woody (C3) and herbaceous (C4) vegetation at both sites. Heterogeneity of the sources of SOC, as well as heterogeneity in the amount of SOC, was greater at the dry site relative to the wet site. At the dry site, the grasses were the major contributor to soil C whereas in the wet site, woody vegetation was the major contributor, regardless of the location with respect to woody canopies.

  3. Wood anatomy reveals high theoretical hydraulic conductivity and low resistance to vessel implosion in a Cretaceous fossil forest from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The Olmos Formation (upper Campanian), with over 60 angiosperm leaf morphotypes, is Mexico's richest Cretaceous flora. Paleoclimate leaf physiognomy estimates indicate that the Olmos paleoforest grew under wet and warm conditions, similar to those present in modern tropical rainforests. Leaf surface area, tree size and climate reconstructions suggest that this was a highly productive system. Efficient carbon fixation requires hydraulic efficiency to meet the evaporative demands of the photosynthetic surface, but it comes at the expense of increased risk of drought-induced cavitation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the Olmos paleoforest had high hydraulic efficiency, but was prone to cavitation. We characterized the hydraulic properties of the Olmos paleoforest using theoretical conductivity (Ks), vessel composition (S) and vessel fraction (F), and measured drought resistance using vessel implosion resistance (t/b)h(2) and the water potential at which there is 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50). We found that the Olmos paleoforest had high hydraulic efficiency, similar to that present in several extant tropical-wet or semi-deciduous forest communities. Remarkably, the fossil flora had the lowest (t/b)h(2), which, together with low median P50 (-1.9 MPa), indicate that the Olmos paleoforest species were extremely vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation. Our findings support paleoclimate inferences from leaf physiognomy and paleoclimatic models suggesting it represented a highly productive wet tropical rainforest. Our results also indicate that the Olmos Formation plants had a large range of water conduction strategies, but more restricted variation in cavitation resistance. These straightforward methods for measuring hydraulic properties, used herein for the first time, can provide useful information on the ecological strategies of paleofloras and on temporal shifts in ecological function of fossil forests chronosequences.

  4. Effects of soil and space on the woody species composition and vegetation structure of three Cerrado phytophysiognomies in the Cerrado-Amazon transition

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    L. Maracahipes-Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cerrado Biome is considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspots because of its rich biodiversity, the high level of endemism and the increasing threat. The Cerrado is composed by a mosaic of different vegetation types, including physiognomies that vary from grasslands (campo limpo to savannas (typical cerrado or cerrado sensu stricto and cerrado woodlands (cerradão. However, the factors that determine the composition of the Cerrado’s flora and the structure of the physiognomies that compose this biome are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil and the effect of geographic distance on the occurrence and abundance of woody species in three Cerrado phytophysiognomies – cerrado woodland (cerradão, dense cerrado savanna and typical cerrado savanna – in the Cerrado-Amazon transition. We tested the hypothesis that the edaphic characteristics and geographic space determine the species composition and the structure of the woody vegetation of these three phytophysiognomies. We demonstrate that the dissimilarities in the structure and composition of the three sites were determined more by space (13% of explanation than edaphic properties (1%, but primarily by the interaction between these two factors (26%. We conclude that, in situations where the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil are relatively homogeneous, as we found in the present study, geographic distance between sites has a greater influence than variation in the substrate’s properties on modelling the occurrence and abundance of the woody plant species in the Cerrado.

  5. L'utilisation de la polarimetrie radar et de la decomposition de Touzi pour la caracterisation et la classification des physionomies vegetales des milieux humides : le cas du lac Saint-Pierre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Gabriel

    Wetlands fill many important ecological functions and contribute to the biodiversity of fauna and flora. Although there is a growing recognition of the importance to protect these areas, it remains that their integrity is still threatened by the pressure of human activities. The inventory and the systematic monitoring of wetlands are a necessity and remote sensing is the only realistic way to achieve this goal. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute and improve the wetland characterization using satellite polarimetric data acquired in L (ALOS-PALSAR) and C (RADARSAT-2) band. This thesis is based on two hypotheses (Ch. 1). The first hypothesis stipulate that classes of plant physiognomies, based on plant structure, are more appropriate than classes of plant species because they are best adapted to the information content of polarimetric radar data. The second hypothesis states that polarimetric decomposition algorithms allow an optimal extraction of polarimetric information compared to a multi-polarized approach based on the HH, HV and VV channels (Ch. 3). In particular, the contribution of the incoherent Touzi decomposition for the inventory and monitoring of wetlands is examined in detail. This decomposition allows the characterization of the scattering type, its phase, orientation, symmetry, degree of polarization and the backscattered power of a target with a series of parameters extracted from an analysis of the coherency matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The lake Saint-Pierre region was chosen as the study site because of the great diversity of its wetlands that are covering more than 20 000 ha. One of the challenges posed by this thesis is that there is neither a standard system enumerating all the possible physiognomic classes nor an accurate description of their characteristics and dimensions. Special attention was given to the creation of these classes by combining several data sources and more than 50 plant species were grouped into nine

  6. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  7. Monitoring flooding and vegetation on seasonally inundated floodplains with multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Laura Lorraine

    The ability of synthetic aperture radar to detect flooding and vegetation structure was evaluated for three seasonally inundated floodplain sites supporting a broad variety of wetland and upland vegetation types: two reaches of the Solimoes floodplain in the central Amazon, and the Magela Creek floodplain in Northern Territory, Australia. For each site, C- and L-band polarimetric Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data was obtained at both high- and low-water stages. Inundation status and vegetation structure were documented simultaneous with the SIR-C acquisitions using low-altitude videography and ground measurements. SIR-C images were classified into cover states defined by vegetation physiognomy and presence of standing water, using a decision-tree model with backscattering coefficients at HH, VV, and HV polarizations as input variables. Classification accuracy was assessed using user's accuracy, producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient for a test population of pixels. At all sites, both C- and L-band were necessary to accurately classify cover types with two dates. HH polarization was most. useful for distinguishing flooded from non-flooded vegetation (C-HH for macrophyte versus pasture, L-HH for flooded versus non-flooded forest), and cross-polarized L-band data provided the best separation between woody and non-woody vegetation. Increases in L-HH backscattering due to flooding were on the order of 3--4 dB for closed-canopy varzea and igapo forest, and 4--7 dB, for open Melaleuca woodland. The broad range of physiognomies and stand structures found in both herbaceous and woody wetland communities, combined with the variation in the amount of emergent canopy caused by water level fluctuations and phenologic changes, resulted in a large range in backscattering characteristics of wetland communities both within and between sites. High accuracies cannot be achieved for these communities using single-date, single-band, single-polarization data, particularly in the

  8. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil Composição florística do cerrado na Reserva Pé-de-Gigante (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

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    Marco Antônio Batalha

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland, we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. The savanna physiognomies were richer than the forest one. The ratio between herbaceous and woody species was approximately 2:1. We analysed the whole flora and its two components separately, woody and herbaceous, comparing them with other disjunct cerrado areas. We obtained similarity values (Sørensen index from 0.47 to 0.81, which showed that the 3 diversity of the cerrado was higher in the herbaceous component than in the woody one.Estudamos uma área de 1225 ha, composta principalmente por cerrado, situada em Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, estado de São Paulo (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. Em três fisionomias de cerrado (campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão, coletamos, durante 18 meses, em excursões mensais, espécimes em fase fértil e os identificamos em nível específico. Encontramos 360 espécies, pertencentes a 236 gêneros e 69 famílias. As fam��lias mais ricas foram: Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae. As fisionomias savânicas foram mais ricas do que a florestal. A razão entre espécies arbustivo-arbóreas e herbáceo-subarbustivas foi de aproximadamente 2:1. Analisamos a flora como um todo e seus componentes herbáceo-subarbustivo e arbustivo-arbóreo separadamente, comparando-os com outras áreas disjuntas de cerrado. Dessa comparação, obtivemos valores de similaridade (índice de Sørensen de 0,47 a 0,81, que mostraram que a diversidade 3 foi maior no componente herbáceo-subarbustivo do que no

  9. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  10. Aspectos florísticos da vegetação de restinga no litoral de Pernambuco Floristics aspects of restinga vegetation in the coast of Pernambuco - Brazil

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    Ana Cláudia Sacramento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As zonas costeiras acolhem quadros de alta riqueza e relevância ecológica que as qualificam como importante ecossistema para conservação. O objetivo deste estudo foi listar as espécies que compõem a restinga da praia do Paiva e descrever a sua fisionomia. A área de restinga compreende 147 ha, situa-se no Município do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE, sob as coordenadas 08º07'30"S e 35º00'55"W. As coletas florísticas foram realizadas durante 28 meses, em todos os estratos. O solo foi classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico; foram determinadas duas fisionomias: a floresta não-inundável e o fruticeto aberto não-inundável. Foram listadas 124 espécies, distribuídas em 103 gêneros e 55 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae, com 11 espécies, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 e Asteraceae (5. As espécies Anacardium occidentale, Tapirira guianensis, Chamaecrista ramosa, Protium heptaphyllum, Byrsonima sericea, Myrcia rotundifolia e Marlierea schotti são encontradas na maioria das restingas do Nordeste. No entanto, devido à incipiência dos estudos na Região não foram verificadas espécies endêmicas.The high biodiversity and richness of the coastal zone make it an important ecosystem to be preserved. The aim of this study is to list the species composition of the restinga area (147 ha. of Paiva beach, in Cabo de Santo Agostinho-Pernambuco (08º07'30"S and 35º00'55"W and describe the physiognomies. Floristic survey was carried out for 28 months for all strata. The soil was classified as Quartzarenic Neosoil and two physiognomies were determined: unflooded forest and unflooded open shrubby vegetation. One hundred-twenty-four species were recorded, distributed in 103 genera and 55 families. The families with the highest number of species were: Myrtaceae (11, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 and Asteraceae (5. Anacardium occidentale, Byrsonima sericea

  11. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  12. Reserva biológica estadual da Praia do Sul (Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro: lista preliminar da flora

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    Dorothy Sue Dunn de Araujo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Biológica Estadual da Praia do Sul está localizada na parte meridional da Ilha Grande - RJ (23º10' S.; 44º17' W.Gr., abrangendo uma área de 3600 ha. Foram identificadas nesta Reserva 5 comunidades vegetais, a saber: psamofila reptante de anteduna, mata de cordão arenoso, mata alagadiça de planície, manguezal e mata de encosta. A fitofisionomia de cada comunidade está descrita, incluindo as espécies mais comuns e a área da Reserva ocupada por cada uma. O levantamento florístico ainda incompleto constitui uma lista de cerca de 300 espécies: as 4 famílias mais importantes são: Leguminose, Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, BromeliaceaeThe Praia do Sul State Biological Reserve is located on Ilha Grande, State oí Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23º10' S.; 44º17' W.Gr.. Five plant communities were identified within the limits of this 3600 ha tract: creeping foredune psammophytes, beach ridge forest, coastal plain swamp forest, mangrove and montane forest. The physiognomy of each community is described, including the most common species found and the area of occurrence within the Reserve. A list of approximately 300 species has been compiled to date; the 4 most important families are: Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae

  13. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally.

  14. Magnetic micro scavengers: highly porous Ni1‑x Co x Fe2O4 microcubes for efficient disintegration of nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Syam Azhar Virk, Muhammad; Tareen, Ayesha Khan; Zhang, Bingxue; Zhao, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Minghui

    2018-05-01

    The fabrication of functional materials in patterned morphology is focused to obtain remarkable physiognomies of the materials for certain applications. Instead of randomly distributed agglomerated nanoparticles, it is highly desirable to arrange them in a motif, as this directed formation of nanomaterials can have a substantial influence on their performance and activity in various applications. With this perspective, MOF derived hollow cubes of nickel cobalt ferrites have been synthesized via a facile process using sacrificial templates at 600 °C. Microcubes, composed of tiny grains in a size range from 10 nm ± 2 nm were obtained in pure form as a polycrystalline material. The high specific surface area (1185 m2 g‑1) and mesoporous nature of hollow cubic ferrites were found to be excellent adsorbents for nitrophenol at room temperature. The equilibrium quantity of adsorbed nitrophenol was calculated as 47 mg g‑1 ferrite, accomplished in 7 min. Their large surface area, mesopores and hollow nature, in combination with controlled size distribution of grains, have enabled this remarkable utilization of nanoferrites for removal of nitrophenol from water.

  15. Culturing Toxic Benthic Blooms: The Fate of Natural Biofilms in a Microcosm System

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    Francesca Di Pippo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat. Initial adhesion and substratum colonisation appeared as stochastic processes, then community structure and physiognomy markedly changed with time. Dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms, and dense clusters of Amphidinium cf. carterae at the mature biofilm phases, were recorded by light and confocal microscopy, whilst O. cf. ovata growth was visibly limited in the late culture phases. Life-form strategies, competitiveness for resources, and possibly allelopathic interactions shaped biofilm structure during culture growth. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis of exopolysaccharidic matrix revealed variations in sugar total amounts and composition. No toxic compounds were detected in the final communities tested by LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time OF Flight Mass Spectroscopy techniques.

  16. Simulation of the erosion and drainage development of Loess surface based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Tang, Guoan; Ge, Shanshan; Li, Zhanbin; Zhou, Jieyu

    2006-10-01

    The research probes into the temporal-spatial process of drainage development of Loess Plateau on the basis of a carefully designed experiment. In the experiment, the development of a simulated loess watershed is tested under the condition of lab-simulated rainfall. A close-range photogrammetry survey is employed to establish a series of high precision and resolution DEM (Digit Elevation Model) of the simulated loess surface. Based on the established DEM, the erosion loss, the slope distribution, the topographic index , the gully-brink, and the drainage networks are all derived and discussed through comparison analysis and experimental validation. All the efforts aim at revealing the process and mechanism of erosion and drainage development of loess surface .This study demonstrates: 1) the stimulation result can effectively reflect the truth if those experimental conditions, i.e. loess soil structure, simulated rainfall, are adjusted in accord with true situation; 2) the remarkable character of the erosion and drainage up-growth of loess surface include the drainage traced to the source, the increased of the drainage's density, the enlarged of gully, the durative variety of multiple terrain factor's mean value and its distribution, such as slope and topographic index; 3) The slope spectrum is the more felicitous terrain factor for depicting the erosion and drainage development of loess surface, including the rule of erosion and evolution process. It is the new way and mean for studying the loess physiognomy.

  17. Weitere Texte physiognomischen Inhalts

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    Böck, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article offers the edition of three cuneiform texts belonging to the Akkadian handbook of omens drawn from the physical appearance as well as the morals and behaviour of man. The book comprising up to 27 chapters with more than 100 omens each was entitled in antiquity Alamdimmû. The edition of the three cuneiform tablets completes, thus, the author's monographic study on the ancient Mesopotamian divinatory discipline of physiognomy (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].

    En este artículo se presenta la editio princeps de tres textos cuneiformes conservados en el British Museum (Londres y el Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlín, que pertenecen al libro asirio-babilonio de presagios fisiognómicos. Este libro, titulado originalmente Alamdimmû ('forma, figura', consta de 27 capítulos, cada uno con más de cien presagios escritos en lengua acadia. Los tres textos completan así el estudio monográfico de la autora sobre la disciplina adivinatoria de la fisiognomía en el antiguo Oriente (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].

  18. A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach to Study the Long-Term Vegetation Recovery of a Fire-Affected Pine Forest in Southern Greece

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    Foula Nioti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management strategies and silvicultural treatments of fire-prone ecosystems often rely on knowledge of the regeneration potential and long-term recovery ability of vegetation types. Remote sensing and GIS applications are valuable tools providing cost-efficient information on vegetation recovery patterns and their associated environmental factors. In this study we used an ordinal classification scheme to describe the land cover changes induced by a wildfire that occurred in 1983 in Pinus brutia woodlands on Karpathos Aegean Island, south-eastern Greece. As a proxy variable that indicates ecosystem recovery, we also estimated the difference between the NDVI and NBR indices a few months (1984 and almost 30 years after the fire (2012. Environmental explanatory variables were selected using a digital elevation model and various thematic maps. To identify the most influential environmental factors contributing to woodland recovery, binary logistic regression and linear regression techniques were applied. The analyses showed that although a large proportion of the P. brutia woodland has recovered 26 years after the fire event, a considerable amount of woodland had turned into scrub vegetation. Altitude, slope inclination, solar radiation, and pre-fire woodland physiognomy were identified as dominant factors influencing the vegetation’s recovery probability. Additionally, altitude and inclination are the variables that explain changes in the satellite remote sensing vegetation indices reflecting the recovery potential. Pinus brutia showed a good post-fire recovery potential, especially in parts of the study area with increased moisture availability.

  19. Nature and culture in Amazonian landscape: a photographic experience echoing Amerindian cosmology and historical ecology

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    Patrick Pardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As an artistic experience, the photographic research "Arborescence - plant physiognomy in Amazonian landscape" conduces the author to discover landscape as an interpenetration of Nature and Culture (man's indirect presence; being face to face with vegetable subjects; continuity, undifferentiation and equivalence between the 'natural' (heterogeneous, spontaneous, native, rural and the 'cultural' (homogeneous, cultivated, exotic, urban in the experience of landscape; arborescence as a "cosmic image" (Gaston Bachelard, where the high (sky, light, branches, sky water and the low (earth, shade, roots, land water are equivalent and reversible poles. Such experience echoes the eco-cosmology of forest societies in Amazonia. The Amerindian cosmology is a "symbolic ecology" (Philippe Descola, that is, "a complex dynamics of social intercourse and transformations between humans and non-humans, visible and invisible subjects" (Bruce Albert; the Amerindian ecology is "a cosmology put into practice" (Kaj Århem, wherein hunted animals and cultivated plants are 'relatives' to be seduced or coerced. Such model appears to be a form of "socialization of nature" (Descola, "humanization of the forest" (Evaristo Eduardo de Miranda and "indirect anthropization" of Amazonian ecosystems (Descola which produces "cultural forests" (William Balée.

  20. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? Mitchell B. Frank and Daniel Adler (eds, German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism, Ashgate, 2012

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    Arnold Witte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a practical and methodological level, but at the same time illustrate how the quest for objectivity and scientific methods was accompanied by an irrational search for essential characteristics of art through race. Especially the exchange with psychology, physiognomy, and psychophysiology supported this kind reasoning in circles in which objectivity was related to holistic explanations. This led to a rhetoric of objective Kunstwissenschaft that spoke in terms of rational facts, but in which the concepts of character and evolution resulted in highly ideological interpretations, which became discredited after 1945. However, the post-war reaction to this in itself again affected another turn towards the ‘objective’ which goes to show how external, political, changes affected the relation between art history and the sciences.

  1. Dracula, le monstre et les savants : entre Darwin et Bunyan Dracula, the Monster and the Scientists: between Darwin and Bunyan

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    René Gallet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the novel’s characters, two are well identified scientists, Seward and Van Helsing; but a third also plays a major, though covert, role in it. Mina mentions the names of Nordau and Lombroso quite late in the book (chapter XXV; however, the latter had begun to leave his mark on the narrative almost from the very start: much of Dracula’s «physiognomy» is borrowed from Lombroso’s description of the «born criminal», the anthropological type defined in L’Uomo Deliquente. The same is true with Renfield’s «temperament». Lombroso’s view was that the two human types linked in Dracula (the «born criminal» and the «morally insane man» are basically one. This theory thus proves a significant contribution to the structure of the book. The presence of such a scientific layer in it beneath the more conspicuous layer of Transylvanian legends and superstitions also leads to a reassessment of Stoker’s work which could then be seen as adapting Bunyan’s technique of multiple allegory to a Victorian intellectual context.

  2. Unravelling ecosystem functions at the Amazonia-Cerrado transition: II. Carbon stocks and CO2 soil efflux in cerradão forest undergoing ecological succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Karine S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Elias, Fernando; de Farias, Josenilton; Freitag, Renata; Mews, Henrique A.; das Neves, Eder C.; Prestes, Nayane Cristina C. S.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-07-01

    The transition region between two major South American biomes, the Amazon forest and the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), has been substantially converted into human-modified ecosystems. Nevertheless, the recovery dynamics of ecosystem functions in this important zone of (ecological) tension (ZOT) remain poorly understood. In this study, we compared two areas of cerradão (a forest-woodland of the Brazilian savanna; Portuguese augmentative of cerrado), one in secondary succession (SC) and one adjacent and well preserved (PC), to test whether the ecosystem functions lost after conversion to pasture were restored after 22 years of regeneration. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in annual aboveground biomass in the SC would be greater than that in the PC because of anticipated successional gains. We also investigated soil CO2 efflux, litter layer content, and fine root biomass in both the SC and PC. In terms of biomass recovery our hypothesis was not supported: the biomass did not increase in the successional area over the study period, which suggested limited capacity for recovery in this key ecosystem compartment. By contrast, the structure and function of the litter layer and root mat were largely reconstituted in the secondary vegetation. Overall, we provide evidence that 22 years of secondary succession were not sufficient for these short and open forests (e.g., cerradão) in the ZOT to recover ecosystem functions to the levels observed in preserved vegetation of identical physiognomy.

  3. [Application of 3S techniques in ecological landscape planning of Harbin suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyi; Gong, Wenfeng; Liu, Dandan; Zhou, Hongze; Zhu, Ning

    2005-12-01

    With the image data (SPOT), soil utilization map (1:50000) and other related materials of Harbin, and under the support of GIS, RS and GPS techniques, this paper obtained the landscape pattern of Harbin suburb and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Harbin. Indices including mean patch area, landscape dominance, mean slope, mean altitude, and fragmentation degree were selected and synthetically analyzed, with the ecological landscape planning made by DEM model. The results showed that 3S techniques could help to decide typical landscape types. The landscape type database was established, and the landscape type thematic map was generated, with land use status and landscape distribution, physiognomy, and land use types combined. The ecological landscape planning was described in large scale with the image data and DEM combined, and the landscape structure of Harbin suburb was reflected directly with the ecological landscape planning and DEM combined, which improved the ecological function in this region, and provided scientific bases to the healthy development in urban-rural integration area.

  4. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

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    A. KUN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  5. Ectodermal dysplasia: a genetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Seema; Prashanth, S

    2012-09-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. It is a genetic disorder affecting the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands. Depending on the particular syndrome ectodermal dysplasia can also affect the skin, the lens or retina of the eye, parts of the inner ear, the development of fingers and toes, the nerves and other parts of the body. Each syndrome usually involves a different combination of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The history and lessons learned from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) may serve as an example for unraveling of the cause and pathogenesis of other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes by demonstrating that phenotypically identical syndromes can be caused by mutations in different genes (EDA, EDAR, EDARADD), that mutations in the same gene can lead to different phenotypes and that mutations in the genes further downstream in the same signaling pathway (NEMO) may modify the phenotype quite profoundly. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the etiology, genetic review, clinical manifestations and treatment options of this hereditary disorder. How to cite this article: Deshmukh S, Prashanth S. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):197-202.

  6. Inclusive city: Vallcarca – Space extension idea for social and urban housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, A.; Gaxioala, A.

    2018-03-01

    The neighborhood of Vallcarca, Barcelona - Spain, is located near the valley formed by the three hills called El Putxet, Creueta del Coll and Muntanya Pelada adjacent to the back area of Park Guell. Vallcarca first urbanized at the XIX century as a place to spend summer for the nearby inhabitants of the city of Barcelona. Since the end of XX century, the area has been under the pressure of different urban plannings and economic speculations that have just erase a big portion of its original physiognomy, without being able to organize a new area of town. The empty land that located at the former center and across Vallcarca becoming part of research to produce an outcome for compatible housing within the area. The data gives a focus on the social and urban rehabilitation of the neighborhood that introducing a program of social housing with communal facilities using an approach of connection and topography that existed on the site as a catalyst to change this fragmented part of the city into inclusive neighborhood.

  7. Characterization of the vegetation of National Park Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe-Brazil doi: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p9

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    Túlio Vinicius Paes Dantas

    2010-12-01

    most abundant plant species, evaluating strategies for their conservation. There was a predominance of open formations of grassy fields, characterized as high-altitude grassland (3,289ha, mainly in areas of slopes. The forests are characterized as ecotones between Lowland Dense Rain Forest and Semideciduous Forest (2,643ha, mostly as secondary forest. The habitat called the White Sands (347ha, previously characterized as salt marshes, only occurs on the eastern side of Itabaiana and Comprida Serras, and it has a type of physiognomy normally associated with high-altitude grassland. The disturbed areas are concentrated at the edges of the park, roads and trails used by human visitors. Of these areas, regions with exposed soils are the most abundant, occurring in a total of 699ha; the brushwood (586ha is more frequent at the forest’s edge, originating from fi res caused by the cultivation of sugar cane; plantations and withdrawals of soil (131ha occur in areas close to settlements.

  8. [Delivery in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; D'Addato, F; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    A knowledge of clinical physiognomy in pathologies related to multiple births is indispensable for improving maternal and feto-neonatal prognosis. This study is a contribution to the solution of this problem. A meta-analysis of data for multiple births at Department B of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the University of Turi during the decade 1989-1998 was carried out, focusing on the arrangement and presentation of fetuses, the various types of birth, the gestational age at which birth occurred, the weight of neonates, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Out of 11,523 births, there were a total of 194 (1.68%) multiple births, including 190 sets of twins and 4 triplets. 154 (79.38%) premature births were reported; 20 occurred 1500 g). The perinatal mortality rate was 3.82%. Maternal complications mainly occurred during the placental state, in the immediate postpartum and in puerperio. The authors feel that a more careful medical and social assistance, preventive hospitalisation, early recognition of the risk, constant monitoring for the optimal timing of birth, and lastly, qualified medical assistance during labour (expert gynecologist, trained obstetric staff) with other medical personnel (anesthetist, neonatal specialist) represent winning strategies to solve the problems arising during multiple pregnancies.

  9. Assessing the Habitat Suitability of Dam Reservoirs: A Quantitative Model and Case Study of the Hantan River Dam, South Korea

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    Hyeongsik Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate ecologically healthy regions near a dam reservoir. This study developed a model for assessing habitat suitability as a proxy for the ecological value of reservoirs. Three main factors comprising nine assessment variables were selected and classified as having a habitat suitability (HS between 0 and 1: (1 geomorphic factors of altitude, slope steepness, and slope aspect; (2 vegetation factors of forest physiognomy, vegetation type, and tree age; and (3 ecological factors of land cover, ecological quality index, and environmental conservation value assessment. The spatial distribution of the nine HS indices was determined using geographic information systems and combined into one HS index value to determine ecologically healthy regions. The assessment model was applied to areas surrounding the Hantan River Dam, South Korea. To verify the model, wildlife location data from the national ecosystem survey of the Ministry of Environment were used. Areas with an HS index between 0.73 and 1 were found to contain 72% of observed wildlife locations. Ecologically healthy areas were identified by adding the indices of each variable. The methods shown here will be useful for establishing ecological restoration plans for dam reservoirs in South Korea.

  10. Whole genome DNA methylation profiling of oral cancer in ethnic population of Meghalaya, North East India reveals novel genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongsti, Shngainlang; Lamare, Frederick A; Shunyu, Neizekhotuo Brian; Ghosh, Sahana; Maitra, Arindam; Ghosh, Srimoyee

    2018-03-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a serious and one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies. Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation have been known to be implicated in a number of cancer etiologies. The main objective of this study was to investigate physiognomies of Promoter DNA methylation patterns associated with oral cancer epigenome with special reference to the ethnic population of Meghalaya, North East India. The present study identifies 27,205 CpG sites and 3811 regions that are differentially methylated in oral cancer when compared to matched normal. 45 genes were found to be differentially methylated within the promoter region, of which 38 were hypermethylated and 7 hypomethylated. 14 of the hypermethylated genes were found to be similar to that of the TCGA-HNSCC study some of which are TSGs and few novel genes which may serve as candidate methylation biomarkers for OSCC in this poorly characterized ethnic group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ponticulus posticus is a frequent radiographic finding on lateral cephalograms in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2014-12-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a predisposition to a rare tumor type with a variable phenotype. Besides tumors, skeletal alterations, such as bifid ribs or frontal bossing constitute the phenotype. Recently, a variant of the first cervical vertebra, the ponticulus posticus, was reported to occur in 50% of patients with NBCCS as revealed by analysis of lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of eight patients with NBCCS were studied for the presence of ponticulus posticus. The ponticulus posticus was present in all patients. In one case, a series of cephalograms performed during a period of 20 years allowed the slow and continuous recording of a ponticulus posticus formation. Besides the predisposition to developing neoplasms, NBCCS also affects bone development. Some diagnostic criteria for NBCCS rely on certain osseous transformations either in hard tissues, e.g. keratocystic odontogenic tumor in jaws, or in soft tissues, e.g. calcification of the falx cerebri. Furthermore, the physiognomy can be affected by skeletal alterations, e.g. frontal bossing or hypertelorism. Given this wide spectrum of osseous involvement in NBCCS, the high prevalence rate of ponticulus posticus should be added to the relevant diagnostic findings of the skull and vertebral column. However, the onset of ponticulus posticus formation in the life of such patients is unclear and thus the relevance of this finding in early diagnosis of NBCCS remains to be elucidated. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Water deficit modifies the carbon isotopic composition of lipids, soluble sugars and leaves of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae

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    Angelo Albano da Silva Bertholdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water deficit is most frequent in forest physiognomies subjected to climate change. As a consequence, several tree species alter tissue water potential, gas exchange and production of carbon compounds to overcome damage caused by water deficiency. The working hypothesis, that a reduction in gas exchange by plants experiencing water deficit will affect the composition of carbon compounds in soluble sugars, lipids and vegetative structures, was tested on Copaifera langsdorffii. Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and CO2 assimilation rate declined after a period of water deficit. After rehydration, leaf water potential and leaf gas exchange did not recover completely. Water deficit resulted in 13C enrichment in leaves, soluble sugars and root lipids. Furthermore, the amount of soluble sugars and root lipids decreased after water deficit. In rehydration, the carbon isotopic composition and amount of root lipids returned to levels similar to the control. Under water deficit, 13C-enriched in root lipids assists in the adjustment of cellular membrane turgidity and avoids damage to the process of water absorption by roots. These physiological adjustments permit a better understanding of the responses of Copaifera langsdorffi to water deficit.

  13. Estrategias corporativas frente a la primera crisis de sobreproducción azucarera en Tucumán (Argentina: de la regulación de la comercialización a la regulación de la producción, 1895-1904

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    María Lenis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito central de este artículo es explorar y analizar las medidas impulsadas por el Centro Azucarero Argentino, asociación que agrupaba a los propietarios de ingenios de la república argentina, entre 1895 y 1904, en el marco de la crisis de la sobreproducción. Este abordaje nos permitirá examinar el impacto que el descenso del precio del azúcar tuvo hacia el interior del sector azucarero, las estrategias implementadas por la corporación, la relación con los poderes públicos, nacionales y provinciales, y las distintas concepciones existentes sobre la fisonomía que debía adoptar el complejo agroindustrial tucumano.The central intention of this article is to explore and to analyze the measures stimulated by the Centro Azucarero Argentino, corporate association that integrated the sugar manufacturers of Argentina, in the frame of the crisis of overproduction. This boarding will allow us to examine the impact that the decrease of the price of the sugar had towards the interior of the sugar sector, the strategies implemented by the corporation, the relation with the State agencies, nationals and provincials, and the different existing conceptions on the physiognomy that the agroindustrial complex should adopt.

  14. Convergent phylogenetic and functional responses to altered fire regimes in mesic savanna grasslands of North America and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Donoghue, Michael J; Smith, Melinda D

    2014-08-01

    The importance of fire in the creation and maintenance of mesic grassland communities is well recognized. Improved understanding of how grasses--the dominant clade in these important ecosystems--will respond to alterations in fire regimes is needed in the face of anthropogenically driven climate and land-use change. Here, we examined how grass communities shift in response to experimentally manipulated fire regimes at multiple levels of community diversity--taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional--in C4-dominanted mesic savanna grassland sites with similar structure and physiognomy, yet disparate biogeographic histories. We found that the grass communities were similar in their phylogenetic response and aspects of their functional response to high fire frequency. Both sites exhibited phylogenetic clustering of highly abundant species in annually burned plots, driven by species of the Andropogoneae, and a narrow range of functional strategies associated with rapid post-fire regeneration in a high-light, nitrogen-limited environment. By examining multiple facets of diversity in a comparative context, we identified convergent phylogenetic and functional responses to altered fire regimes in two mesic savanna grasslands. Our results highlight the importance of a common filtering process associated with fire that is consistent across grasslands of disparate biogeographic histories and taxonomic representation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

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    Francine Rubin

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  16. Animal-habitat relationships in the Knysna Forest, South Africa: discrimination between forest types by birds and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, J H; Crowe, T M

    1987-06-01

    Effects of forest plant species composition and physiognomy on bird and invertebrate communities were investigated in three discrete, relatively undisturbed forest types along a dry-wet soil moisture gradient. Using discriminant function analysis, a 100% floristic and a 78% vegetation structural discrimination were obtained between the three forest types. However, the bird communities of these different forest types were very similar in species composition, and had much lower densities than those normally encountered in other, superficially similar forests. Although an 81% discrimination between forest types was attained through analysis of ground surface invertebrates, measures of litter and aerial invertebrate abundance were also of limited use as discriminators. Historical and biogeographic factors, as well as the low nutritional levels in the soil and vegetation may be the causes of low bird and invertebrate density and diversity. It is concluded that floristics and vegetation structure have, at best, a minor influence on bird community structure, and possibly also on invertebrate community structure in the Knysna Forest.

  17. A contribution to the concept and the classification of the bioclimatic unit in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. V Phillips

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available A bioclimatic unit is an integration of climatic factors (e.g. radiation, humidity complexes and features modified by physiography and vegetation (biotic communities and associated habitats, i.e. wherever possible, ecosystems. Unit implies an entity irrespective of ecological status and dimensions: these are otherwise differentiated. It often must suffice to use vegetation communities, because information regarding biotic communities or ecosystems is unavailable. Increasingly, disturbance of ‘natural’ conditions makes it imperative to involve man in the classification, demarcation and policy for the development of bioclimatic units. Ignorance regarding the nature and distribution of a climax necessitates using pro- (pre- or post- climaxes.This is based upon the differentiation in these criteria: climatic (radiation and humidity complexes; vegetation (physiognomy and ecological status . . . and as these are further modified by physiography and edaphic features (physiognomic differentiation ranges from specific faciations of forest or thicket; wooded savanna (facies ofwoodland, shrubland; facies or faciations of grassland; climatic differentiation ranges from highly humid toarid . . . and further to subdesert and desert. Recommendations respecting policy and practice in pastoral, crop production and forestry development based on this concept have been used in various sectors of Africa. South East Asia and Latin America. Detailed experience has been gained in Natal and elsewhere. Several maps illustrate the application of the concept.

  18. Agribusiness opportunity costs and environmental legal protection: investigating trade-off on hotspot preservation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km(2) covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  19. Tank bromeliad water: similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, F L; Santos, H F; Peixoto, R S; Rosado, A S; Araujo, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin.

  20. Dynamics at the treeline: differential responses of Picea mariana and Larix laricina to climate change in eastern subarctic Québec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; Boudreau, Stéphane; Lévesque, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Treelines are known to be temperature-sensitive ecotones, and therefore could rapidly expand their range limits in response to climate warming. Observations of lack of range expansion, however, indicate that ecological constraints partly control the treeline ecotones. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate Picea mariana and Larix laricina recruitment and growth at and above the altitudinal treeline of Kangiqsualujjuaq (Nunavik), where warmer temperatures since the 1990s have already triggered shrub expansion. We mapped, harvested, dated and measured tree individuals along two altitudinal gradients from the forested stands below the treeline to hilltops. Since the 1990s, a pulse of L. laricina seedling establishment has occurred at and above the treeline. Dendrochronological analysis revealed that L. laricina underwent a rapid vertical growth and radial growth that accelerated from the 1990s. No recruitment was observed for P. mariana in response to the regional warming, suggesting a regeneration failure of this species. Our results indicated that the L. laricina colonization below and above the treeline in recent decades in response to the regional warming should modify the landscape physiognomy of the study area in the near future. (letter)

  1. Landscape changes in a neotropical forest-savanna ecotone zone in central Brazil: The role of protected areas in the maintenance of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea S; Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Ballester, Maria Victoria R

    2017-02-01

    In the Amazon-savanna ecotone in northwest Brazil, the understudied Araguaia River Basin contains high biodiversity and seasonal wetlands. The region is representative of tropical humid-dry ecotone zones, which have experienced intense land use and land cover (LULC) conversions. Here we assessed the LULC changes for the last four decades in the central portion of the Araguaia River Basin to understand the temporal changes in the landscape composition and configuration outside and inside protected areas. We conducted these analyzes by LULC mapping and landscape metrics based on patch classes. During this period, native vegetation was reduced by 26%. Forests were the most threatened physiognomy, with significant areal reduction and fragmentation. Native vegetation cover was mainly replaced by croplands and pastures. Such replacement followed spatial and temporal trends related to the implementation of protected areas and increases in population cattle herds. The creation of most protected areas took place between 1996 and 2007, the same period during which the conversion of the landscape matrix from natural vegetation to agriculture occurred. We observed that protected areas mitigate fragmentation, but their roles differ according to their location and level of protection. Still, we argue that landscape characteristics, such as suitability for agriculture, also influence landscape conversions and should be considered when establishing protected areas. The information provided in this study can guide new research on species conservation and landscape planning, as well as improve the understanding of the impacts of landscape composition and configuration changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Data sources on landscape structure in a highly industrialized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Kinga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape may be described as a part of space characterized by a certain physiognomy, which is a dynamic system subject to evolution. An important factor influencing the type and condition of the landscape is human activity which shapes or rebuilds its structure. Interesting results may be obtained on comparison of archival cartographic materials with contemporary studies and zoning plans. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is a region with a clearly transformed landscape. The determinant of the geographical environment transformation here is the anthropogenic factor. The study area includes the upper part of the Kłodnica catchment (229.6 sq km. The study is a review, and its aim is to systematize data sources used in the research on the transformation of landscape structure of a heavily industrialized area. In the first half of the nineteenth century created the "Urmesstischblätter" in the scale of 1:25 000. Afterwards preparations began to take new topographic images of the country (the "Messtischblätter". In the 1990s initiated the development of a new topographic map (in the scale of 1:10 000. Recent data source is for example the project CORINE Land Cover 2006. There are many of various sources of data on land cover. An important aspect is the proper selection of documents and maps, and their proper interpretation.

  3. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Raynolds, M K; Kuss, P; Kade, A N; Epstein, H E; Frost, G V; Kopecky, M A; Daniëls, F J A; Leibman, M O; Moskalenko, N G; Khomutov, A V; Matyshak, G V; Khitun, O V; Forbes, B C; Bhatt, U S; Vonlanthen, C M; Tichý, L

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  4. Structural characterization of the gallery forest of the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the gallery forest of the Cupaynicú stream, belonging to the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station, with the objective of characterizing its structure. Eight parcels of 500 m2 were randomly raised, in them the species were identified, their height and diameter were measured. The flora was analyzed through the origin of the species and the frequency histogram. The structure of the forest was analyzed through the diametric structure and the Value Index of Ecological Importance, the vertical structure was described taking into consideration the forest strata as well as the preparation of the canopy diagram. A descriptive analysis of the parameters diameter, height and basal area was made to study the parametric structure. The richness of the riparian forest was evidenced by the registry of 25 families, 40 genera and 43 species, as well as the predominance of the Meliaceae family followed by Lauraceae, Mimosaceae and Sapindaceae, which reflects the high timber value, melliferous and ecological of the same. The species Roystonea regia, Sterculiaapetala, Dendropanaxarboreus, Andirainermis and Mangifera indica, determine the physiognomy of the gallery Forest. The trees reach 33 cm in diameter and 18.27 m in height on average, although the presence of trees with 30 m is the most frequent, which denotes the irregular structure of the forest.

  5. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  6. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  7. THE ROMANIAN RURAL SPACE AND ITS LANDSCAPES: ATTRACTION AND MOTIVATION FOR RELOCATING TOWNSPEOPLE

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    IULIAN DINCĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Rural Space And Its Landscapes: Attraction And Motivation For Relocating Townspeople. It is an easily noticed fact that a new generation of residents has been establishing new habitation structures all over Romania. This also applies to the south-eastern Oradea Suburban Area, in north-western Romania. The analysed suburban landscapes bring out open attitudes in former city dwellers, strongly biased pro-landscape (78.52% of all interviewees. The landscape criterion ranks second in reasons for relocation, indicating that local nature meets the expectations of the new residents. Indubitable spiritual benefits are also involved, the new residents’ perception of local landscapes being dominated by responses like beauty, repose, naturalness. However, the new residents do not have a narrowed-down, specialised definition in their minds when expressing opinions on local landscape physiognomy in detail, and on outstanding features that render local landscapes attractive. Even the landscape management interventions of new residents and of local authorities revolve around land estate categories and tailored urbanistic requisitions. Consequently, the configuration of neo-landscapes with a distinct suburban identity emerges. The major directions of this case study may serve as groundwork for further studies on the issue of landscape as subject matter in attracting city dwellers to suburban locations.

  8. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera (Asteraceae changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera modifica sua estrutura foliar devido a diferenças na luminosidade e condições edáficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rodrigo Rossatto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plasticity is an adaptive advantage that allows this species to occur in diverse cerrado conditions.Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera é uma espécie de Asteraceae com ampla distribuição no bioma cerrado, sendo encontrada em diversas fisionomias florestais da região sudeste do Brasil. O presente estudo descreve alguns caracteres anatômicos foliares dessa espécie e os analisa quantitativamente em função de sua ocorrência nas formações florestais e também das diferenças de luminosidade. Foram encontradas diferenças quantitativas em todos os parâmetros anatômicos analisados. Os resultados demonstram que a alta plasticidade anatômica foliar nesta espécie pode ser considerada como uma vantagem adaptativa que a permite ocorrer em diversos ambientes do cerrado.

  9. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci.

  10. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  11. Multiseasonal-multispectral remote sensing of phenological change for natural vegetation inventory. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Variations in phenological development among plant species was noted, as well as the tendency for the seasonal appearance of some vegetation types to be dominated by the appearance of one or a few similarly developing species. Most of the common plants in the study area could be characterized by temporal aspects of their phenological development. There was a strong similarity among the spectral signatures of vegetation types in which the spectral return was dominated by green plant material. When the soil background dominated the spectral return from a vegetation stand, then the spectral radiance and the vegetation physiognomy were apparently related. When the deciduous shrubs lost their leaves, their spectral signature altered with a slight decrease of radiance in the visible wavelengths and a strong decrease in the near infrared. As the foliage of perennial grasses cured from August to November, its apparent green radiance remained unchanged, red radiance increased over 50 percent, and near infrared radiance decreased approximately 30 percent. A reflective mineral surface exhibited high radiance levels in all four bands, thus providing a marked contrast to the absorption characteristics of vegetation canopies.

  12. The uncanny return of the race concept

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    Andreas eHeinz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this Hypothesis & Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the race concept in contemporary genetic as well as social studies. We discuss race and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as ethnicity or culture unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the race concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about physiognomy and unduly imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact on race classifications will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term culture and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, culture is all too often used as a proxy for race, particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain culture tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies.

  13. DESMATAMENTO NO BIOMA PANTANAL ATÉ O ANO 2002: RELAÇÕES COM A FITOFISIONOMIA E LIMITES MUNICIPAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luis Ferrari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map and quantify the deforested area in the Brazilian Pantanal Biome until the year of 2002 and related to the main physiognomies and counties limits. The Pantanal Biome is located in Central-West Brazil, at the Upper Paraguay river basin (BAP which is part of the La Plata basin. It is covered by 16 Landsat-ETM+ satellite images and 20 topographic maps at the 1:250,000 scale. Initially a mosaic of the area was elaborated at a color composition of bands 3(B 4(G 5(R using ENVI-4.0 software. Afterwards the segmentation was applied to the data sets using the SRING software. Then, the Biome Pananal area was separated in 20 small projects according to the topographic maps at 1:250,000 scale from IBGE. The information on deforested areas and editing procedure of the polygons was done visually on the screen using SPRING 4.0 Software. The Physiognomic-Ecological System was used for the classification of the vegetation including new information when it was necessary. In the deforested interpretation process was considered the texture, color, standard, form and localization (geographic location and information colleted during the field survey. The deforestation maps were generated in the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator projection and Datum SAD69 (South America Datum with Cartographic Exactness Standard (PEC compatible to 1:250,000. The minimum mapped area was around 40ha..

  14. "[G]azing into the synaptic chasm": the Brain in Beckett's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rina

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that Samuel Beckett's interest in functions of the brain is not only evidenced in his notebooks, taken from a number of psychology and psycho-physiognomy texts in the early 1930s, but is also explored and expanded in his fiction and drama. This paper investigates Beckett's fascination with the limits of "cerebral consciousness" and the brain's failure to consciously perceive certain bodily modifications especially when processing emotion. Like Antonio Damasio's definition of emotion as essentially the bodily modifications that include chemical changes, Beckett often exploits the idea of emotion as sorely a bodily phenomenon by creating characters who are unable to consciously perceive and process their emotion. For example, when talking about his own weeping, the narrator of The Unnamable attributes the tears to the malfunctioning of the brain, "liquefied brain", denying, displacing or making physical the feeling of sadness. By examining the ways in which Beckett emphasizes a somatic dimension of emotion and its relation to the brain function and perception in his writing, this paper reveals how he explores the idea of the self and extends the idea to what he calls the "impenetrable self" that cannot be consciously recognized. I argue that if, for Joseph LeDoux, the "notion of synapses as points of communication between cells is […] essential to our efforts to understand who we are in terms of brain mechanisms", for Beckett to expose such unconscious biological mechanisms and "gaps" becomes his own artistic challenge.

  15. EFEITO DE BORDA E DINÂMICA DE PLANTAS LENHOSAS EM ÁREAS DE CAATINGA EM CARNAUBAIS RN

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    AIRTON DE DEUS CYSNEIROS CAVALCANTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of studies in communities dynamics, especially in vegetation sites with anthropogenic disturbs as Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil, was evaluate the edge effect caused by the opening of a oil duct on the dynamics of plants in three physiognomies of Caatinga (open shrub, riparian shrub dense and shrub dense over 15 months (May/2007, January/2008 and August/2008, taking into account the hypothesis that there are differences in the dynamics in areas near edge and more distant. In each situations were evaluated edge and interior, so much in terms of trees in five plots of 10×10 m contiguous as of regeneration of the plants in plots of 2×2 m. Were calculate mortality, recruitment and growth rates in the edge and interior. Most important differences in terms of edge and interior occurred in open shrub Caatinga. The largest fluctuations in the values of density and diameter occurred at the edge, which indicates that the opening of the duct caused greater interference in this situation.

  16. Research progress on the role of melatonin and its receptors in animal reproduction: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, H S; Chandio, I B; Brohi, R D; Worku, T; Rehman, Z; Bhattarai, D; Ullah, F; JiaJia, L; Yang, L

    2018-04-16

    Melatonin and its receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of the animal reproductive process, primarily in follicular development. However, the role that melatonin performs in regulating hormones related with reproduction remains unclear. Melatonin and its receptors are present both in female and male animals' organs, such as ovaries, heart, brain and liver. Melatonin regulates ovarian actions and is a key mediator of reproductive actions. Melatonin has numerous effects on animal reproduction, such as protection of gametes and embryos, response to clock genes, immune-neuroendocrine, reconciliation of seasonal variations in immune function, and silence or blockage of genes. The growth ratio of reproductive illnesses in animals has raised a remarkable concern for the government, animal caretakers and farm managers. In order to resolve this challenging issue, it is very necessary to conduct state-of-the-art research on melatonin and its receptors because melatonin has considerable physiognomies. This review article presents a current contemporary research conducted by numerous researchers from the entire world on the role of melatonin and its receptors in animal reproduction, from the year 1985 to the year 2017. Furthermore, this review shows scientific research challenges related to melatonin receptors and their explanations based on the findings of 172 numerous research articles, and also represents significant proficiencies of melatonin in order to show enthusiastic study direction for animal reproduction researchers. © 2018 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Vegetation development in a sand dune ten years after restoration, Parque Municipal das Dunas da Lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

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    Nina Rosa Zanin Zanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation cover of a sand dune was surveyed ten years after the improvement of a restoration project that utilized seed sowing, seedling planting and seedling transplantation from an adjacent area with watering in the first months. On the upper part of the restored dune, the vegetation was sparse (53% but more developed than that of the adjacent control area (34%, both presenting herbaceous/subshrub physiognomy with predominance of Panicum racemosum. On the slope of the restored dune, a shrub vegetation developed, presenting a percentage cover (90% similar to that of the control area (100%. Dodonaea viscosa was the dominant species on this restored face. The establishment of arboreal and shrub species seedlings on the upper dune was good. In part, this improved the species richness, but contributed to dissimilarity between this area and the control site.  A lower species richness was presented on the slope and the similarity to the control area was even lower. Plants introduced by sowing and seedling transplantation showed success and contributed to the similarity with the adjacent vegetation. Seedlings of arboreal and shrub plants survived on the upper dune. These species are represented in a more developed stage of succession, differing from the adjacent control area.

  18. De temperamentis disputatio medica (1593 – a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski

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    Agnieszka Raubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski – “De temperamentis disputatio medica” (1593. Naborowski was a poet who lived at the turn of the 17th century and the work considered here is the result of his medical studies in Switzerland. The article addresses the poet’s scholarly interests, but first and foremost, it focuses on the subject of the research – the theory of temperaments. With ancient lineage and extremely popular in the sixteenth century, the theory was most frequently presented in the contexts of physiognomy, astrology and the lesions that were conditioned by the theory, yet in Naborowski’s work, it gained a new, solely theoretical perspec-tive. It was also concerned with the meticulous consideration of the systematics of temperaments (e.g. their differentiation – one was moderate and eight were merged, as well as their detailed division. The style of these considerations is characteristic for medical works of that period, and they constitute an interesting example of how practical issues in 16th and 17th century medicine were systematized. Furthermore, Naborowski’s considerations are a vivid example of permeable nature of disciplines – philosophy and medicine, and medicine with the broadly understood field of the humanities.

  19. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  20. Contributions to the heavy metal vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilia. Beitraege zur Schwermetallvegetation von Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger-Porto, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    For the first time, a heavy-metal vegetation on top of oxidic and pyritiferous show deposits in the mining areas of Sanga Negra, Seival and Volta Grande. A subtropical mesophytic forest develops in non-metal-containing areas. The following types of vegetation can be discerned on increasing heavy-metal contents: shrub savannah, waste-dump savannah, waste-dump steppe. The physiognomy of these types of vegetation is characterized above all by narrism of woody plants showing xeromorphic configurations frequently. Those plants growing on top of pyritiferous or oxidic ores, resp., showed differences in copper resistance. Anatomical studies of the leaves of Schinus lentiscifolius revealed marked histological changes with an increase of the glandular cells and the oxalate granules were especially noticeable. The following heavy metals were examined in the soils and in the plants: Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo, Ag, Cd. Elements available to plants were established in the soils by three different methods. A number of plants were shown to have relatively high heavymetal contents in their leaves. The feru Dryopteris triphylla showed particularly high contents of lead and silver. The shrub Daphnopsis racemose, however, revealed the highest Cadmium content. Non-linear correlations between the copper contents of soil and plant were found with Schinus lentiscifolius. Certain plants are discussed as to what extent they may be used for bioprospection.

  1. Investigating niche partitioning of ectomycorrhizal fungi in specialized rooting zones of the monodominant leguminous tree Dicymbe corymbosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Williams, Gwendolyn C; Aime, M Catherine; Fremier, Alexander K; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2017-07-01

    Temperate ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi show segregation whereby some species dominate in organic layers and others favor mineral soils. Weak layering in tropical soils is hypothesized to decrease niche space and therefore reduce the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The Neotropical ECM tree Dicymbe corymbosa forms monodominant stands and has a distinct physiognomy with vertical crown development, adventitious roots and massive root mounds, leading to multi-stemmed trees with spatially segregated rooting environments: aerial litter caches, aerial decayed wood, organic root mounds and mineral soil. We hypothesized that these microhabitats host distinct fungal assemblages and therefore promote diversity. To test our hypothesis, we sampled D. corymbosa ectomycorrhizal root tips from the four microhabitats and analyzed community composition based on pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcode markers. Several dominant fungi were ubiquitous but analyses nonetheless suggested that communities in mineral soil samples were statistically distinct from communities in organic microhabitats. These data indicate that distinctive rooting zones of D. corymbosa contribute to spatial segregation of the fungal community and likely enhance fungal diversity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. SAR data for the analysis of forest features: current Brazilian experiences

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    Fábio Guimarães Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some applications of airborne polarimetric and/or interferometric microwave data to improve the knowledge of forest structures. Three airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar experiments were done in the Amazon tropical forest: (a to study the spatial distribution of very large trees (VLTs in the primary forest using local maximum filtering and a series of Markov processes; (b to model the estimation of biomass variations in primary and secondary forests; (c to analyze the retrieval timber volume over selective logging areas. Another experiment (d was to investigate the relation among SAR data and the volumetric configuration in stands of Eucalyptus sp done by an airborne SAR imaging mission in SE-Brazil. To perform the objectives (b, (c and (d we carry out regression techniques, using variables got from multipolarimetric and/or interferometric SAR attributes and biophysical parameters from the forest cover. All data from the experiments were calibrated radiometrically to extract information during digital processing, besides an exhaustive field survey which was done simultaneously to SAR imaging, to know the physiognomy/structure of forest typology and to support the models produced for each case. The results of this series of experiments show advances at the techniques to treat SAR data, focusing on models of stand architecture and forest stock density. This will be helpful to increase the regional inventory and surveying procedures of forest conversion in the Brazilian territory in the near future.

  3. SAR data for the analysis of forest features: current Brazilian experiences

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    Fábio Guimarães Gonçalves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some applications of airborne polarimetric and/or interferometric microwave data to improve the knowledge of forest structures. Three airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar experiments were done in the Amazon tropical forest: (a to study the spatial distribution of very large trees (VLTs in the primary forest using local maximum filtering and a series of Markov processes; (b to model the estimation of biomass variations in primary and secondary forests; (c to analyze the retrieval of timber volume over selective logging areas. Another experiment (d was to investigate the relation among SAR data and the volumetric configuration in stands of Eucalyptus sp. done by an airborne SAR imaging mission in SE-Brazil. To perform the objectives (b, (c and (d we carry out regression techniques, using variables got from multipolarimetric and/or interferometric SAR attributes and biophysical parameters from the forest cover. All data from the experiments were calibrated radiometrically to extract information during digital processing, besides an exhaustive field survey which was done simultaneously to SAR imaging, to know the physiognomy/structure of forest typology and to support the models produced for each case. The results of this series of experiments show advances at the techniques to treat SAR data, focusing on models of stand architecture and forest stock density. This will be helpful to increase the regional inventory and surveying procedures of forest conversion in the Brazilian territory in the near future.

  4. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  5. How To Build a Leader?

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    Adrian Majuru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania lacks a ”map of the future”. This chart of the future depends just on the human factor. More specifically, on the continuous investment in the human factor. During the last 2 decades of freedom of attitude, very few positive and sustained steps have been taken through solid arguments, with clear reference points and stages that have to be followed .It is absolutely compulsory to rebuild with new tools, as a surprise for the opponents and as an optimalsolution for the supporters. This would be a new, superior creation, with an invincible astonishing result. This new tool means an effort of retraining, with a view to getting better, professional skills.This study proposes a comparative analysis, 80 years later, following the physiognomy, the attitudes and examples of good practice regarding the social mechanism through which a youngster could be calibrated into a leader of his generation, as well as finding the obstacles of the present social system. Besides the historical, social and cultural perspective of this analysis, we would take into account elements of socialethology and anthropology, and the whole thing would be built and based on an analysis with a prognosis effect for the next generation, starting from the history of the last 30 years and discussing the effects this\\r\

  6. The Sevillian collection of the images of Mercedarians by Zurbarán

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    Greta Dzikowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The portraits of Mercedarian monks by Francisco de Zurbarán were created for the Sevillian monastery Nuestra Señora de la Merced. The artist sketched images of old-time monks based on the physiognomy of his contemporary models. The surviving paintings characterize in a simplicity of composition. Each canvas shows an image of a monk clothed in a white frock. All the presented members of the order, with the exception of Saint Serapion, are pictured with a tome, which emphasizes the intellectual skills of the selected monk. The images of the Mercedarians, which decorated the walls of monastery rooms, were the reference point, as well as a model, of the monastic life for the generations of men who were taking the veil. Francisco de Zurbarán, with the use of two colours: a dark, almost black, background and a shining white, pictured the spiritual dimension of the images, which sublimated the idea of the monastic life.

  7. Seed germination from lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fecal samples collected during the dry season in the Northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Adriana Renata; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Sanaiotti, Tânia Margarete; Gribel, Rogério

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential of lowland tapirs as seed dispersers in the northern Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed the viability of seeds after passage through the gut. Fecal samples were collected from 6 different vegetation physiognomies in Viruá National Park during the dry season. The samples were then kept in a greenhouse for 16 months to allow the seeds to germinate. The seedling species were identified and classified according to the type of fruit, plant habit, seed size and type of ingestion. Of the 111 fecal samples, 94 (84.7%) had viable seeds of 75 species. Melastomataceae was the most frequent family with viable seeds in the fecal samples (69.1% of samples, N= 18 species). The data suggest that the importance of the lowland tapirs as dispersers is not restricted to the species consumed actively by frugivory but also extends to species accidentally consumed during browsing. The occurrence of both large and small viable seeds in the fecal samples as well as a number of large drupes, which probably cannot be transported via endozoochory by any other animal species, provide evidence of the ecological importance of lowland tapirs to the dynamics of the forest-campinarana vegetation mosaic in the region. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

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    Priscila Islair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p67 The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animals and plants.

  9. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animal and plant.

  10. Searching the animal psyche with Charles Le Brun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah R

    2010-07-01

    Around 1670 the French court painter and Academician Charles Le Brun produced a series of drawings featuring naturalistic animal heads, as well as imaginary heads in which he refashioned various nonhuman animal species to make humanoid physiognomies. What were the purpose and significance of these unusual works? I argue that they show Le Brun's interest in what we today would call animal psychology: focusing upon the sensory organs and their connections with the animal's brain, Le Brun studied his animals as conscious protagonists of the natural realm. One source that may have served him in this project was Marin Cureau de La Chambre's De la Connoissance des bestes of 1645, in which the physician argued that animals possess a conscious soul grounded in the senses. However, Le Brun's animal-humans have no clear place in the artist's taxonomy--nor, indeed, in any seventeenth-century understandings of species. It is rather John Locke, at his most skeptical, who offers the best parallel in the realm of natural philosophy to Le Brun's unsettling animal-humans. Probably without meaning to, Le Brun demonstrated through his eerie, boundary-crossing creatures the limits of visual classification.

  11. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna

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    MHO. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  12. Chasing the limelight: Belgrade and Istanbul in the global competition

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    Stupar Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare main changes of contemporary Belgrade and Istanbul - two urban nodes at the crossroads of different and multileveled flows. Following the same pattern of global activation, inevitable competition and networking, these cities are trying to synchronize their multidimensional background, establish new patterns of global behavior and adjust them to the dynamism of modern life. Consequently, their historical role has been modified, urban tissue has been developed, recreated and regenerated, and the output of this process represents an attractive testimony of their global initiation. Revealing the ambiguous nature of strong economic forces as well as a new fusion of urban cultures, Belgrade and Istanbul are structuring the globalized image with the new key-elements. However, their true potential and the real efficiency of this process should be re-evaluated - the changed physiognomy of the city could improve its position in the global hierarchy and facilitate its integration into the global community, but, sometimes, local limitations are too complex and too strong to be ignored.

  13. From 'Hard' Neuro-Tools to 'Soft' Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage. This new stage concerns those technologies that enter the market as ostensibly harmless contrivances that consumers may use for self-care or entertainment. We use the examples and arguments of participants in NERRI debates to describe three case studies of such purportedly innocent 'toys'. Based upon this empirical material, we argue that these 'soft' enhancement gadgets are situated somewhere in the boundary zone between the internal and the external, between the intimate and the intrusive, between the familiar and the unfamiliar, between the friendly and the scary and, in Foucauldian terms, between technologies of the self and technologies of control. Therefore, we describe their physiognomy with the help of a term borrowed from Jacques Lacan, namely as "extimate" technologies.

  14. Metodologias de análise e de classificação das paisagens. O exemplo do projecto Estrela

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    António de Brum Ferreira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION METHODOLOGIES. THE EXAMPLE OF THE ESTRELA PROJECT. Landscape ecology studies experience at the moment an increase of interest by researchers, developers and end-users. However, the subject matter is still too dispersed, not only in methods used but also in objects of analysis as well as space and time-scales. Progress on quantitative methods and the use of Geographical Information Systems frequently lead to excessive emphasis on physiognomic patterns to the detriment of landscape dynamics. Furthermore, the study of landscape as a geosystem suffers from problems related to calculation of mass and energy fluxes, which are barely possible, even with the powerful and costly equipment available only in few laboratories. The integrated environmental research, albeit at a more modest level, requires a multidisciplinary approach (defended by many, but seldom applied. The objective of the ESTRELA Project is to study the relations between the physiognomy and dynamics of the landscape in a mountain environment. Geomorphology, climate and vegetation are analysed at three spatial scales. The research carried out on each domain is presented and an example is given of their integration in a sample-site. The conclusion refers to the temporal transformations of the landscape of the Serra da Estrela. The problem of landscape units definition is still under investigation.

  15. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

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    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  16. ESTRUTURA E FLORÍSTICA DE UM REMANESCENTE FLORESTAL NA FAZENDA RIBEIRÃO, MUNICÍPIO DE JUVENÍLIA, MG, BRASIL

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    Rubens Manoel dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the extreme North of Minas, due to your character ecotone, involves a large number of physiognomies and floristic complexes, but presumably unknown. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine the structure and the floristic composition of an area of arboreal caatinga in Juvenília, Minas Gerais. Hopes to contribute with information that allow, in the future, that is arrived to a classification it aims at and coherent of this vegetation. A sample of 10 (20x20m plots was allocated (400m2, distributed on a parallel transect to the largest axis of the fragment, and to each 20 meters in this transect two plots were allocated, distanced 10 meters to each other, totaling 0.4ha. All the individuals were registered with CBH (circumference at breast height > 10cm. In the structure, 36 species with diversity of H' = 2.4 and eqüability of J' = 0.67 were sampled, values middlemen if compared with results of other works developed at Brazilian deciduous seasonal forests. Acacia martii, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Eugenia uniflora and Tabebuia impetiginosa presented the largest values in all the structural parameters analyzed. This links with the high abundance of those species. The community's diameter distributions tended to the normality with smaller amount of individuals in the classes smaller and larger diametric.

  17. Water and soil maintenance of forests, and advancement of retaining and increasing technique of disaster preventing function. Shinrin no suido hozenter dot bosai kino no ijiter dot zoshin gijutsu no kodoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-25

    This paper is a research report concerning the water and soil maintenance and the technical advance of disaster preventing function of forests. As for the water maintenance control to clarify the water maintenance function of forests and to advance retaining and increasing technique, amount of precipitation on valleys and ridges, amount of evapotranspiration in a summer rainy season, underground water in woodlands and water circulating characteristics in montane zones were studied. The amount of evapotranspiration and the crown interception in water drainage area in Tsukuba forest of Japan were surveyed. A formula to estimate the flow rate was derived by surveying the change of flow rate through cutting forests at a riverhead in a heavy snow area and by analyzing data at 29 drainage areas. As for the clarification of the occurring mechanism of a soil disaster and the development of forest conservation technique, a simulation of boulder flow flood at a practical damaged district was carried out and it could be estimated by a tank model that the water level at a collector well fallen down in a landslide area. As for the survey of disaster preventing function of forests and the improvement of disaster preventing means, if damaged trees in frozen damage and discoloration area are pruned, the discoloration becomes very slight. The arborescent trees were selected from the standing tree density or forest physiognomy for the frequent land of full-depth avalanche. Japanese beeches, maples, oaks and Magnolia hypoleuca are suitable for a heavy snowarea. 1 tab.

  18. Vegetation description and phytoclimatic gradients of subtropical forests of nandiar khuwar catchment district battagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, F.; Iqbal, Z.; Ahmad, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper communicates an analytical exploration of the vegetational profile in the subtropical zone of Nandiar Khuwar catchment area, District Battagrtam, Pakistan. On the basis of physiognomy of vegetation the study area was divided into 16 stands. Six plant communities were recognized by TWINSPAN classification. Among biological spectrum nanophanerophytes was dominated with 36 species and leaf size spectra were dominated by microphyll contributing 63 species. Similarity index was maximum (33.61) between Pinus, Micromeria, Rubus community and Pinus, Rubus, Cynodon community. In Bray-Curtis ordination the maximum ordination scores were recorded for axis 2 (0.921). The gradient length was maximum (3.35) for axis 1 with eigenvalue 0.50. Total variance (inertia) in the species data were 2.92, explanatory variables account for 100%. Among environmental variables the maximum positive strength were recorded for altitude (0.818) and Phosphorous (0.801) while maximum negative strength were recorded for wind speed (-0.864), barometric pressure (-0.825) and temperature (-0.820). (author)

  19. The influence of fire on the assemblage structure of foraging birds in grasslands of the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil

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    Matheus G. Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands are the most threatened physiognomies of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna, a biodiversity hotspot with conservation as a priority. The Serra da Canastra National Park protects the most important remnants of the Cerrado's southern grasslands, which are under strong anthropogenic pressure. The present study describes the structure of bird assemblages that directly use food resources in burned areas, comparing areas affected by natural fire to the areas where controlled fires were set (a management strategy to combat arson. The tested null hypothesis was that different bird assemblages are structured in a similar manner, regardless of the post-fire period or assessed area. Between December/2012 and January/2015, 92 species were recorded foraging in the study areas. The results indicate that both types of burnings triggered profound and immediate changes in bird assemblages, increasing the number of species and individuals. Natural fires exhibited a more significant influence on the structure (diversity and dominance than prescribed burnings. Nevertheless, all the differences were no longer noticeable after a relatively short time interval of 2-3 months after prescribed burnings and 3-4 after natural fires. The findings may help the understanding of prescribed burnings as a management strategy for bird conservation in grasslands.

  20. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarroya, Ana; Persson, Jesper; Puig, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown

  1. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: jesper.persson@slu.se [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  2. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

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    Andrea Wheeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  3. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

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    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  4. Seasonal variation of ground spiders in a Brazilian Savanna

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    Marina Farcic Mineo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna Ecoregion (Cerrado is one of the richest biomes in the world, with a characteristic highly seasonal climate a dry season between May and September and a rainy season from October through April. Ground-dwelling spiders from three Cerrado phytophysiognomies, "campo cerrado", "cerrado" and "cerrad��o", were sampled using pitfall traps during two years, totaling 111 species and 3,529 individuals. The abundance of individuals and species richness was higher during the wet season. Fifty-eight species were captured exclusively during that period, whereas only nineteen were restricted to the dry season. Only two species were found in all samples. The number of juveniles was higher than the number of adults in all phytophysiognomies and in all species during both seasons. The highest abundance was registered in October and the lowest in April. Overall sex ratio was male-biased in all vegetation types sampled. Distinct climate variables affected the abundance of spiders depending on sex, age and vegetal physiognomy where they were sampled. This study involved the longest sampling of spider abundance and diversity on the ground of a Brazilian Savanna.

  5. Ability of crassulacean acid metabolism plants to overcome interacting stresses in tropical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Single stressors such as scarcity of water and extreme temperatures dominate the struggle for life in severely dry desert ecosystems or cold polar regions and at high elevations. In contrast, stress in the tropics typically arises from a dynamic network of interacting stressors, such as availability of water, CO(2), light and nutrients, temperature and salinity. This requires more plastic spatio-temporal responsiveness and versatility in the acquisition and defence of ecological niches. The mode of photosynthesis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is described and its flexible expression endows plants with powerful strategies for both acclimation and adaptation. Thus, CAM plants are able to inhabit many diverse habitats in the tropics and are not, as commonly thought, successful predominantly in dry, high-insolation habitats. Typical tropical CAM habitats or ecosystems include exposed lava fields, rock outcrops of inselbergs, salinas, savannas, restingas, high-altitude páramos, dry forests and moist forests. Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM phenotypes allow a wide ecophysiological amplitude of niche occupation in the tropics. Physiological and biochemical plasticity appear more responsive by having more readily reversible variations in performance than do morphological adaptations. This makes CAM plants particularly fit for the multi-factor stressor networks of tropical forests. Thus, while the physiognomy of semi-deserts outside the tropics is often determined by tall succulent CAM plants, tropical forests house many more CAM plants in terms of quantity (biomass) and quality (species diversity).

  6. Relação entre solo, vegetação e topografia em área de cerrado (Parque Estadual de Vassununga, SP: como se expressa em mapeamentos? The relationship among soil, vegetation and topography in a cerrado area (Vassununga State Park, SP: how well is it expressed in maps ?

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    Patricia Guidão Cruz Ruggiero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as relações entre mapas de fitofisionomias, solos e topografia, na Gleba Pé-de-Gigante (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. A área estudada constitui a planície de inundação do córrego Paulicéia e colinas no entorno, onde predominam fisionomias de cerrado, havendo também manchas de floresta estacional, floresta ripária e campo úmido, sobre solos predominantemente arenosos. As cartas temáticas analisadas compreenderam: a mapa pré-existente de fisionomias de vegetação, b mapa hipsométrico, baseado em curvas de nível de 5 em 5 m e c mapa de solos, feito a partir de dados químicos e físicos do solo (amostras coletadas em 54 pontos, nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-25, 40-60 e 80-100 cm e fotografias aéreas (1988, 1:40.000. Os mapas foram re-classificados, para se obter diferentes níveis de detalhamento, e cruzados, em sistema de informação geográfica. Nas tabelas de contingência, geradas a partir dos cruzamentos, foi aplicado o teste de Qui-quadrado e obtido o valor de correlação de Cramér, para investigar a relação entre os mapeamentos. A floresta estacional semidecídua se mostrou fortemente associada à classe geral de Latossolos, e o campo cerrado às altitudes de 620-650 m, provavelmente associado à dinâmica sub-superficial da água. O detalhamento da informação mapeada nos temas analisados não garantiu melhores resultados à interpretação de suas relações, pois as classes fitofisionômicas não respondem diretamente, nem isoladamente, à topografia ou à classificação usual dos solos.Relationships among vegetation, soil and topography maps were investigated in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. The studied area is the Paulicéia river basin, where soils are predominantly sandy and the vegetation includes a gradient of savanna physiognomies and patches of semideciduous forest, wet fields, and riparian forest. The cartographic material included: a pre-existent vegetation

  7. Fitossociologia do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo em campo limpo úmido no Brasil Central Phytosociology of the herb-subshrub layer of a moist grassland community in Central Brazil

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    Cássia Beatriz Rodrigues Munhoz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O campo limpo úmido é uma das fisionomias de Cerrado onde o lençol freático é superficial durante o ano todo. Em geral ocorrem bordeando as matas de galeria, sendo um local de ligação entre estas e as fitofisionomias bem drenadas de Cerrado. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a estrutura fitossociológica do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo de uma comunidade de campo limpo úmido na Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília, e avaliar possíveis alterações na composição e cobertura de espécies, em diferentes ocasiões no período de 13 meses, após incêndio. Uma área de 400×400 m foi subdividida em quatro porções de 200×200 m onde foram sorteadas as linhas de amostragem. No levantamento fitossociológico, adotou-se o método de interseção na linha, onde cada linha foi dividida em seções de 1 m. Foram amostradas 84 espécies incluídas em 54 gêneros e 24 famílias. A similaridade de Sørensen entre as quatro transeções amostradas foi baixa, entre 0,26 e 0,55%. As linhas sobre solos com lençol freático superficial o ano todo apresentaram composição de espécies diferenciada das linhas sobre solos com flutuação sazonal do lençol freático. A similaridade entre os cinco períodos de inventário foi elevada, pois as espécies mais importantes mostraram pouca variação nas suas taxas de cobertura ao longo do ano.The moist grassland community vegetation of the Cerrado is one of the physiognomies where the water table is superficial throughout the year. It generally occurs bordering the gallery forests, located between these forests and the well-drained Cerrado physiognomies. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytosociological structure of the herb-subshrub layer in a moist grassland at Água Limpa farm, Brasília, DF, and assess possible changes in species composition and cover, at different times throughout a 13-month period, after a fire. An area of 400×400 m was subdivided into four sections of 200×200 m and the

  8. Composição florística e espectro biológico na Estação Ecológica de Santa Bárbara, estado de São Paulo, Brasil Floristic composition and biological spectra in Santa Barbara Ecological Station, Brazil

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    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2007-10-01

    ''S and 49º 10' 30'' to 49º15'30'' W, 600 to 680m high. A total of 14 angiospermic species were found, 285 of these in Cerrado sensu lato physiognomies. The richest families in species number were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Poaceae. Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae were the richest families similar to other Cerrado's sites. The EESB biological spectra have patterns similar to other Cerrados, but with one change: chamaephytes were richer than hemycryptophytes in the open savannic physiognomies of EESB. Fire protection may be the reason of this alteration.

  9. Diversidade e ocorrência temporal da anurofauna (Amphibia, Anura em São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil Diversity and seasonal occurrence of anurans in São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil

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    Carlos E. Conte

    2006-03-01

    and Araucaria Forest, in the southeastern of Paraná state. In the survey, accomplished from January 2003 to May 2004, 34 species from five families were registered: Bufonidae (two species, Hylidae (17 species, Leptodactylidae (13 species, Microhylidae (one species and Ranidae (one species. The species richness is one of the largest of Paraná state and eight of the nine studied sites presented high diversity of species. The fact that the studied area is located in an ecotone supports the occurrence of typical species from two physiognomies. Besides, an additional hypothesis to explain this great diversity is the intermediate disturbance due to the deforestation that occurred until thirty years ago, which made the occurrence of some typical species from open areas possible. The largest number of species (48% occurred during the rainy season, however, the proportion of annual species was great (25%, similar to the one found in regions with wet tropical climate (30%. The similarity in species composition among nine localities in Atlantic Forest in Paraná State was associated to the vegetal physiognomy of the studied areas.

  10. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREZA V. NERI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Paraopeba National Reserve. It aims to classify and evaluate the soil of the studied area and to verify the influence of soil attributes on vegetation by testing the following hypotheses: 1 under woodland physiognomies (Cerradão the soil fertility is higher and the Al content lower; 2 open savanna occurs only in areas with high Al contents. For this purpose, representative soils in the Paraopeba National Reserve were mapped, identified, and samples from five profiles were analyzed. The environmental gradient was easily observed by principal components analyses, where the differences between the sites were highlighted. The Spearman correlation was used to verify the hypothesis. The correlation between vegetation (basal area, density, and richness and soil (K, Ca2+, and Al3+ was statistically significant. The hypotheses were accepted, but hypothesis 1 only partially. Soil features seem to have an influence on the Cerrado phytophysiognomies and structure. Available phosphorous was an important factor for the maintenance of woodland Cerrado. Also, exchangeable Al3+ plays a major role in the establishment of different Cerrado physiognomies in Paraopeba National Reserve.Este trabalho foi conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba. O objetivo desse estudo foi classificar e avaliar o solo, assim como verificar a influência dos atributos do mesmo na vegetação. Para isso, foram também testadas as seguintes hipóteses: 1 nas áreas de Cerradão a fertilidade é mais alta e os teores de alumínio são mais baixos; 2 os cerrados stricto sensu ocorrem nas áreas com altos teores de Al3+. Para isso, os solos da FLONA foram mapeados e identificados, além da análise química e física dos solos de cinco perfis. O gradiente ambiental foi facilmente observado pela análise de componentes principais (PCA, onde as diferenças entres as áreas foram evidenciadas. A correlação de Spearman foi usada para verificar as hip

  11. Accoglienza di parole: la ‘Letteratura del Luogo’

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    Antonio Errico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – He or she who comes from a far-off land needs to work out what the place s/he has arrived at is like, what the creatures who inhabit it are like, what they think, how they speak, perhaps even what they dream about. Perhaps everyday words, the ordinary, commonplace words are not enough. Perhaps it is not enough to look around to see what is there, what is happening. Perhaps it will be helpful to work out what conditions have determined what is there, the things that happen. The ‘literature of place’ proposes visions, projects images, ties past and present together, reveals the place with its deep identity, with the historical, geographical, anthropological physiognomy which makes it different from any other place, recognizable, unique. Being in a place induces a sense of craving for belonging that is more or less knowing, conscious. Even for those who rapidly pass through. Therefore, telling them, in their language, where they are, with whom they find themselves, may be a way of making them feel a little less like strangers, a little less distant. How should one narrate the Salento, then, to those who look for refuge on its shores. The depth of words reverberate infinite interpretations; a spider’s web of signs develops around them bringing other signs back from a remoteness of time and place, or signs which refer to a remoteness. Tracking such signs down, establishing or building their relations, comparing their meanings, piercing their accumulations, enquiring into the memory of the local area, decoding the languages of the stone, means coming to terms with the origin, with the intimate nature of the places, with the yeast, the essence of the history of every and each one; it means being able to offer to the ‘foreigner’ a possibility to belong.

  12. ESTRUTURA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS DE CAATINGA EM PERNAMBUCO

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    JOÃO TAVARES CALIXTO JÚNIOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. (jurema preta is a xerophytic species of the shrub-arboreal habit, indicative of secondary succession stage of recovery or progressive, widely disseminated by different caatinga physiognomies of northeastern Brazil, bringing great potential. For the few studies that address their environmental performance, this study aimed to investigate structural and ecological aspects of its population, based data in diameter and height, and characterize the spatial distribution pattern of this species in the study areas. The phytosociological survey was conducted in two areas with 2 and 80 hectares of caatinga at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Semiarid, Petrolina - PE. 10 units were plotted on a random sample measuring 8.0 x 40m, and included all individuals living in diameter at soil level K 3 cm, and measured the total height of the same. Were sampled 283 and 61 individuals in 100 and 80% of plots in areas I and II respectively, inserted mostly in the first diameter classes (3.0 - 6.0 cm and 6.1 - 9.0 cm and height (2.0 - 3.0 m and 3.1 - 4 m, without trend to standard reverse-J-shape in areas. The spatial distribution, measured by the Payandeh index, reached a value of 2.4 in area I and 7.8 in area II, indicating that the species has a aggregated distribution in both areas. The calculated values for the of Liocourt quotient in areas I and II respectively, got an average of 0.67 and 1.12 with great variation, showing unbalance, despite being in progressive process of natural regeneration.

  13. Use of AIRSAR to identify woody shrub invasion and other indicators of desertification in the Jornada LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad; Schaber, Gerald G.; Breed, Carol S.

    1995-01-01

    The replacement of semidesert grassland by woody shrubland is a widespread form of desertification. This change in physiognomy and species composition tends to sharply reduce the productivity of the land for grazing by domestic livestock, increase soil erosion and reduce soil fertility, and greatly alter many other aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning. Remote sensing methods are needed to assess and monitor shrubland encroachment. Detection of woody shrubs at low density would provide a particularly useful baseline on which to access changes, because an initially low shrub density often tends to increase even after cessation of the disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, drought, or fire suppression) responsible for triggering the initial stages of the invasion (Grover and Musick, 1990). Limited success has been achieved using optical remote sensing. In contrast to other forms of desertification, biomass does not consistently decrease with a shift from grassland to shrubland. Estimation of green vegetation amount (e.g., by NDVI) is thus of limited utility, unless the shrubs and herbaceous plants differ consistently in phenology and the area can be viewed during a season when only one of these is green. The objective of this study was to determine if the potential sensitivity of active microwave remote sensing to vegetation structure could be used to assess the degree of shrub invasion of grassland. Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were acquired for a semiarid site containing varied mixtures of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation and compared with ground observations of vegetation type and other landsurface characteristics. In this preliminary report we examine the response of radar backscatter intensity to shrub density. The response of other multipolarization parameters will be examined in future work.

  14. Litterfall dynamics in a iron-rich rock outcrop complex in the southeastern portion of the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil

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    Eduardo André Ribeiro Valim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems on cangas (duricrust present considerable heterogeneity of habitats due to microtopographic variations, soil accumulation and a variety of plant functional groups. Therefore, spatial and temporal ecosystem processes such as litterfall are to be expected to be large, and the absence of a level of productivity represents all the facets of iron-rich landscapes. We investigated litterfall in a iron-rich rock complex in the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil, with habitats formed on different evolutionary stages of the soil, resulting in a gradient of biomass, canopy cover and community structure. The measurements were made in open field areas, dominated by herb-shrub vegetation and interspersed with islands of dense vegetation in which there were individual trees, as well as in areas of semideciduous forest. The litterfall, especially that of leaf litter, followed the gradient of woody cover and was approximately two times greater in the forest formation. However, the spatial and temporal variations in deposition were greatest in the herb-shrub areas and least in the semideciduous forest area, intermediate values being obtained for the tree island areas. The peaks in litterfall also varied among habitats, occurring in some periods of the rainy season and during the transition from rainy to dry in the herb-shrub and tree island areas, whereas they occurred at the end of the dry season in the semideciduous forest area. The results show significant differences in the patterns of litterfall among different physiognomies within the same iron-rich rock complex, indicating the need for expanded studies, focusing on the flow of matter and energy in such environments.

  15. The neutral peace and the ‘Chilean selfless’. Immigrants and middle sectors in Chile 1930-1960

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    Claudia Stern

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the years 1930-1960, Chile experienced some of the same physiognomy changes that Latin American societies had been facing since the beginning of the 20th century. At the time, Chilean immigrants were formulating their identities and perceived the middle sectors as their equals. The middle sectors were developing their social class sensibility and thus helped foster a general sense of open attitude and inclusion. At the same time, immigrants were dealing with their ‘Chileanization’ process and took advantage of the middle sectors’ feelings of respect for the immigrants’ efforts and accomplishments. Therefore, in general, the middle sectors symbolized a space of coexistence and neutrality, following the same path of aspiration that neutral peace theory proposes. This paper examines the linkage between immigrants and middle sectors in Chile from the viewpoint of the neutral peace theory. The narrative of the social collective imaginary of middle sectors facilitated immigrants’ integration into Chilean society. For middle sectors their specific memberships and senses of belonging were valued more than a “middle class” identification. In fact Chilean middle sectors preferred to imagine themselves there only as a momentary station, in transition, on their way to something better, similar to the way their immigrant counterparts felt. In fact, middle sectors admired the immigrants’ sacrifices and identified with them. This translated into a mutually beneficial openness as the immigrants sought harmony in their new environment. Here the neutral peace theory plays a role in understanding the scope of immigrants’ acculturation into local society, as well as exposing the ways in which sectors in the middle served as a unifying agent. Gradually immigrants ‘chileanized’, by integrating and assembling new components of their Chilean identities while retaining their ethnic ones. Therefore, a key figure in unraveling the convergence

  16. Landscape epidemiology in urban environments: The example of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Kadaouré, Ibrahima; Godefroid, Martin; Dobigny, Gauthier

    2017-10-05

    Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites found worldwide, infecting humans and animals. In the past decade, the number of reports on atypical human cases due to Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like has increased urging to investigate the multiple factors driving the disease dynamics, particularly in cities where rodents and humans co-exist at high densities. In the present survey, we used a species distribution model, Maxent, to assess the spatial pattern of Trypanosoma-positive rodents in the city of Niamey. The explanatory variables were landscape metrics describing urban landscape composition and physiognomy computed from 8 land-cover classes. We computed the metrics around each data location using a set of circular buffers of increasing radii (20m, 40m, 60m, 80m and 100m). For each spatial resolution, we determined the optimal combination of feature class and regularization multipliers by fitting Maxent with the full dataset. Since our dataset was small (114 occurrences) we expected an important uncertainty associated to data partitioning into calibration and evaluation datasets. We thus performed 350 independent model runs with a training dataset representing a random subset of 80% of the occurrences and the optimal Maxent parameters. Each model yielded a map of habitat suitability over Niamey, which was transformed into a binary map implementing a threshold maximizing the sensitivity and the specificity. The resulting binary maps were combined to display the proportion of models that indicated a good environmental suitability for Trypanosoma-positive rodents. Maxent performed better with landscape metrics derived from buffers of 80m. Habitat suitability for Trypanosoma-positive rodents exhibited large patches linked to urban features such as patch richness and the proportion of landscape covered by concrete or tarred areas. Such inferences could be helpful in assessing areas at risk, setting of monitoring programs, public and medical staff awareness or even

  17. Delusional Cities: beyond the projected identity of urban space

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    Ruxandra Puşcaşu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Narratives intermediate the perception of place along with image, which is according to Burgin an integrated part of the “cultural promotion” and “city marketing” process (1996. In this manner, social and cultural meanings of place are re-modelled with relation to significant events or icons and, therefore, a more enchanting and attractive portrait of the city is promoted to be explored and experienced. Cities introduce a representation based on an idealised projection of their reality while exposing “key attractions”. As such, their projected image may have a greater influence than the reality in shaping the views of visitors, investors or even residents. The advertised portrait of the city has the power to reshape its appearance, as it is usually perceived, into a misleading one. Such chimera physiognomies of cities are often, if not in every case, presented in a captivating manner. This paper relies on the remarkable quality of narratives to go beyond the fabricated image of the city and to engage with the real identity of place while profiling the visual and experiential layout of the city. The investigation focus is primarily placed upon the mode in which historical and spatial humanities theoretical knowledge along with narratives of place can enrich the morphological study. The interaction between architecture, people, and narrative codes in the city spaces and on the way spatial layout relates to them is therefore explored. Particular emphasis is laid towards the manner in which spoken narratives of place can provide us with perceptual tools to shape the complexity of the urban phenomena and its cultural meaning. In doing so, we can start overlaying memories that are situated “beyond the city” and as such are brought to light and merged with maps of “lived experiences”.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Fire Recurrence Using Remote Sensing and GIS in the Brazilian Savanna: Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, Brazil

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    Gabriel Antunes Daldegan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil after the Amazon and is the savanna with the highest biodiversity in the world. Serra Tombador Natural Reserve (STNR is the largest private reserve located in Goiás State, and the fourth largest in the Cerrado biome. The present study aimed to map the burnt areas and to describe the spatial patterns of fire recurrence and its interactions with the classes of land-cover that occurred in STNR and its surroundings in the period between 2001 and 2010. Several Landsat TM images acquired around the months of July, August and September, coinciding with the region’s dry season when fire events intensify, were employed to monitor burnt areas. Fire scars were mapped using the supervised Mahalanobis-distance classifier and further refined using expert visual interpretation. Burnt area patterns were described by spatial landscape metrics. The effects of fire on landscape structure were obtained by comparing results among different land-cover classes, and results summarized in terms of fire history and frequencies. During the years covered by the study, 69% of the areas analyzed had fire events. The year with the largest burnt area was 2004, followed by 2001, 2007 and 2010. Thus, the largest fire events occurred in a 3-year cycle, which is compatible with other areas of the Brazilian savanna. The regions with higher annual probabilities of fire recurrence occur in the buffer zone around the park. The year 2004 also had the highest number of burnt area patches (831. In contrast, the burnt area in 2007 showed the most extensive fires with low number of patches (82. The physiognomies that suffered most fires were the native savanna formations. The study also identified areas where fires are frequently recurrent, highlighting priority areas requiring special attention. Thus, the methodology adopted in this study assists in monitoring and recovery of areas affected by fire over time.

  19. Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1994-06-01

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations. 46 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  1. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Ronald W.; Shea, Barbara W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ward, Darold E.; Haskins, Craig I.; Scholes, Mary C.

    1996-10-01

    Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites, differentiated by distinct burn frequency histories and land-use patterns, were established and burned during August and September 1992 in savanna parklands of South Africa and savanna woodlands of Zambia. Vegetation physiognomy, available fuel loads, the levels of biomass consumed by fire, environmental conditions, and fire behavior are described. In the South African sites, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 2218 to 5492 kg ha-1 where fire return intervals were 1-4 years and exceeded 7000 kg ha-1 at a site subjected to 38 years of fire exclusion. However, fireline intensity was only 1419 kW m-1 at the fire exclusion site, while ranging from 480 to 6130 kW m-1 among the frequent fire sites. In Zambia, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 3164 kg ha-1 in a hydromorphic grassland to 7343 kg ha-1 in a fallow shifting cultivation site. Dormant grass and litter constituted 70-98% of the total fuel load among all sites. Although downed woody debris was a relatively minor fuel component at most sites, it constituted 43-57% of the total fuel load in the fire exclusion and shifting cultivation sites. Fire line intensity ranged between 1734 and 4061 kW m-1 among all Zambian sites. Mean grass consumption generally exceeded 95%, while downed woody debris consumption ranged from 3 to 73% at all sites. In tropical savannas and savanna woodlands of southern Africa, differences in environmental conditions, land- use patterns, and fire regimes influence vegetation characteristics and thus influence fire behavior and biomass

  2. Waxing and Waning of Forests: Late Quaternary Biogeography of Lake Malawi, Southeast Africa

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    Ivory, S.; Lézine, A. M.; Vincens, A.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    African ecosystems are at great risk due to climate and land-use change. Despite the status of several of these regions as biodiversity hotspots, long-standing ideas about African ecology and biogeography have been unable to be tested until now due to lack of sufficiently long records. Here, we present the first long, continuous terrestrial record of vegetation from Lake Malawi, East Africa which goes back to the early Late Quaternary, permitting us to investigate changes in physiognomy and forest composition over many transitions. In this record, we observe eight phases of forest expansion and collapse. Although diversity is much greater during forest phases, composition varies little from phase to phase. Very high abundances of afromontane taxa suggest frequent widespread colonization of the lowlands by modern high elevation trees. Although there are clear successional stages within each forest such that turnover is great within a single phase, among forest samples between phases, there is little dissimilarity. Each forest phase is interrupted by rapid decline of arboreal taxa and expansion of semi-arid grasslands or woodlands whose composition varies greatly from phase to phase. The variable composition of the more open phases, all occurring during arid periods, is likely dynamically linked to thresholds in regional hydrology associated with lake level and moisture recycling within the watershed. This vegetation is unlike any found at Malawi today, with assemblages suggesting strong Somali-Masai affinities. Furthermore, nearly all semi-arid assemblages contain small abundances of forest taxa typically growing in areas with wetter edaphic conditions, suggesting that moist lowland gallery forests were present but restricted to waterways during exceptionally arid times. The waxing and waning of forests throughout this interval has important implications for early human biogeography across Africa as well as disturbance regimes that are crucial for the maintenance of

  3. Calibration of transfer functions between phytolith, vegetation and climate for integration of grassland dynamics in vegetation models. Application to a 50,000 yr crater lake core in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, L.; Alexandre, A.; Hely, C.; Vincens, A.; Williamson, D.; Guiot, J.

    2004-12-01

    Global vegetation models provide a way to translate the outputs from climate models into maps of potential vegetation distribution for present, past and future. Validation of these models goes through the comparison between model outputs and vegetation proxies for well constrained past climatic periods. Grass-dominated biomes are widespread and numerous. This diversity is hardly mirrored by common proxies such as pollen, charcoal or carbon isotopes. Phytoliths are amorphous silica that precipitate in and/or between living plant cells. They are commonly used to trace grasslands dynamics. However, calibration between phytolith assemblages, vegetation, and climate parameters are scarce. This work introduces transfer functions between phytolith indices, inter-tropical grassland physiognomy, and bio-climatic data that will be available for model/data comparisons. The Iph phytolith index discriminates tall from short grass savannas in West Africa. A transfer function allows to estimate evapo-transpiration AET/PET. The Ic phytolith index accurately estimates the proportion of Pooideae and Panicoideae grass sub-families, and potentially the C4/C3 grass dominance on East African mountains. The D/P index appears as a good proxy of Leaf Area Index (LAI) in tropical areas. These environmental parameters are commonly used as vegetation model outputs, but have been, up to now, hardly estimated by vegetation proxies. These transfer functions are applied to a 50,000 yr phytolith sequence from a crater lake (9°S; 33°E Tanzania). The record is compared to the pollen vegetation reconstruction and confronted to simulations of the LPJ-GUESS vegetation model (Stitch et. al, 2003).

  4. Appearance is a function of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  5. Media Education and the Practice of Democracy

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    Robert Ferguson

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available They do say that all ideas have their time, and in media education it seems that it is the time for democracy. Books and papers begin to appear and there are conferences with democracy in their titles to replace a focus on the postmodern, or identity. There seems to be a general consensus that democracy is a ‹good thing›. But, as with most other significant terms which hold centre stage for a while, they need to be interrogated with some care. For some more critical educators democracy takes its place alongside Gandhi’s comment when asked about Western Civilisation – he said it would be a good idea. The ‹practice› of democracy takes on a poignant, ironic, desperate or cynical cloak in the light of recent world events and the rise of terrorism as a political weapon. It depends where you stand. Democracy is not something that thrills the hearts and minds of the vast majority of citizens who live in nations who declare themselves to be democratic. Apathy and cynicism work together against democratic growth. But so do governments whose declared democratic aims pay scant attention to the people they are supposed to represent. And then there are the ‹democratic› exercises which supposedly involve the people in a conversation (‹we are listening› they say which results in the status quo being implemented by politicians with morally superior physiognomies. After all, they say, we did ask your opinions. We did ask you to participate. And so democracy staggers from crisis to disaster...

  6. Current vegetation status in the area of potential laurisilva from the Monte del Agua - Erjos watershed (Tenerife, Spain after the 2007 wildfire

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    M.E. Arozena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of Pinus canariensis to support the effect of the fire and the fact that great part of the fires happened in Canaries have concerned to forests of this species in the last decades explain the focus put in the study about fires of the pinegrove. However, few works were done on the fire in the Canarian laurel forest. The fire of August 2007 in Tenerife affected a sector of the potential area of laurel forest, in the west of the island, and provided the opportunity of an approximation to the knowledge of the way in which the fire concerns this type of forest. The study area has a mosaic of different plant communities ecologically and floristically related to the laurel forest: a structured forest, dominated by evergreen broadleaf species, Erica arborea scrubs and old fields at different stages of recolonization after the abandonment of crops, as well as small areas with Pinus canariensis and Pinus radiata plantations. Through analysis of the floristic composition, of the vegetation physiognomy and the post-fire reproduction systems by species in forest and bush areas, a very active regeneration has been found in all situations. The importance of "self-succession" as a process of regeneration is remarkable, with a domination of the asexual reproduction in the forest areas and the combination of this one with the sexual one in those of the bushes formations. So, in the same way that happens with other types of vegetation, has been observed that the reaction of the laurel forest is very related with the features of the vegetation pre-fire, at least when the fire does not concern the soil, as in this case.

  7. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies

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    R Cavasini

    Full Text Available Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA – Parque Municipal das Araucárias and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL – Fazenda Brandalise, in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H′ = 2.221 was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H′ = 1.592. This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602 only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128, which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  8. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, M L T; Machado, L P B; Mateus, R P

    2014-11-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA - Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL - Fazenda Brandalise), in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H' = 2.221) was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H' = 1.592). This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602) only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128), which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni) and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  9. Nose muscular dynamics: the tip trigonum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figallo, E E; Acosta, J A

    2001-10-01

    In 1995, the senior author (E.E.F.) published an article in which he described the musculus digastricus septi nasi labialis. In the article presented here, work carried out by anatomists and other researchers who, over the last two centuries, studied nose muscular dynamics is described. The present study is based on Gray's Anatomy, which, in 1858, first described the nasal tip muscles, along with the other nasal muscles. Later works not only used different terminology for these muscles but also ignored some, creating tremendous confusion. The study presented here provides an update of the exact terms, location, insertions, and muscle functions of the muscles of the nose. Each nose muscle is described with regard to the two portions able to produce separate contractions. In this study, the term "dual function" is used and characterizes the nasal mimetic muscles that do not have well-defined fascia. Therefore, there is doubt about the existence of a real nasal superficial muscle aponeurotic system. The musculus myrtiformis seems to have a dual function, inserting in the canine fosse and in the periosteum of the central incisors, forming two portions-one to the septum and the other to the nostril-each of which has specific functions. This study has been based on research in physiognomy, the science of expression. With regard to the basis for nose expressions, common anatomical research is excluded because it provides a different view of the dynamics studied to date. The term trigonum musculare apicis nasi defines the interaction of the musculi compressor narium minor and dilator naris anterior, connecting with the columellar bundle of the musculus digastricus and levering the nasal spine. This muscular trigone creates circular concentric and eccentric movements of the nasal tip.

  10. Soil Quality Index Determination Models for Restinga Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, R. M.; Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Restinga Forest is a set of plant communities in mosaic, determined by the characteristics of their substrates as a result of depositional processes and ages. In this complex mosaic are the physiognomies of restinga forests of high-stage regeneration (high restinga) and middle stage of regeneration (low restinga), each with its plant characteristics that differentiate them. Located on the coastal plains of the Brazilian coast, suffering internal influences both the continental slopes, as well as from the sea. Its soils come from the Quaternary and are subject to constant deposition of sediments. The climate in the coastal type is tropical (Köppen). This work was conducted in four locations: (1) Anchieta Island, Ubatuba, (2) Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, Iguape, (3) Vila das Pedrinhas, Comprida Island; and (4) Cardoso Island, Cananeia. The soil samples were collect at a depths of 0 to 5, 0-10, 0-20, 20-40 and 40 to 60cm for the chemical and physical analysis. Were studied the additive and pondering additive models to evaluate soil quality. It was concluded: a) the comparative additive model produces quantitative results and the pondering additive model quantitative results; b) as the pondering additive model, the values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) for soils under forest of restinga are low and realistic, demonstrating the small plant biomass production potential of these soils, as well as their low resilience; c) the values of SQI similar to areas with and without restinga forest give quantitative demonstration of the restinga be considered as soil phase; d) restinga forest, probably, is maintained solely by the cycling of nutrients in a closed nutrient cycling; e) for the determination of IQS for soils under restinga vegetation the use of routine chemical analysis is adequate. Keywords: Model, restinga forest, Soil Quality Index (SQI).

  11. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.

    2009-02-01

    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from

  12. Differences in sedge fen vegetation upstream and downstream from a managed impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed the restoration of wetlands impacted by a series of drainage ditches and pools located in an extensive undeveloped peatland in the Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan. This study examined the nature and extent of degradation to the Marsh Creek wetlands caused by alteration of natural hydrology by a water-storage pool (C-3 Pool) that intersects the Marsh Creek channel. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction in moderate-intensity disturbance associated with natural water-level fluctuations below the C-3 dike contributed to lower species richness, reduced floristic quality and a larger tree and shrub component than vegetation upstream from the pool. Wetland plant communities were sampled quantitatively and analyzed for species richness, floristic quality and physiognomy. Aerial photographs, GIS databases and GPS data contributed to the characterization and analysis of the Marsh Creek wetlands. Results showed that there was lower species richness in vegetated areas downstream from the pool, but not the anticipated growth in shrubs. Wetland vegetation upstream and downstream from the pool had similar floristic quality, except for a greater number of weedy taxa above the pool. Seepage through the pool dike and localized ground-water discharge created conditions very similar to those observed around beaver dams in Marsh Creek. In essence, the dike containing the C-3 Pool affected hydrology and wetland plant communities in a manner similar to an enormous beaver dam, except that it did not allow seasonal flooding episodes to occur. Management actions to release water from the pool into the original Marsh Creek channel at certain times and in certain amounts that mimic the natural flow regime would be expected to promote greater plant species richness and minimize the negative impacts of the dike.

  13. Estudios sobre la vegetación del estado de Paraná (Brasil meridional

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    de Bolòs, Oriol

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to knowledge about the vegetation of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil (Serra do Mar, Planaltos, Iguaçu Valley. Numerous plant associations are described and grouped together in the following classes: Pistio-Eichhornietea (communities of floating cormophytes Xyrido-Typhetea (helophytic herbaceous vegetation Polypodio-Tillandsietea (epiphytic and comophytic vegetation Ruderali-Manihotetea (ruderal and segetal vegetation Andropogono-Baccharidetea (savanoid vegetation Rhizophoretea (mangroves Lantano-Chusqueetea (woody marginal communities of the forest Cedrelo-Ocoteetea (rain and mesophilous forest. Special attention is paid to the study of the physiognomy, structure and dynamism of the vegetation and its biogeographical significance.

    Aportación al conocimiento de la vegetación del estado de Paraná en el Brasil meridional (Serra do Mar, Planaltos, valle del Iguaçu. Se describen numerosas asociaciones vegetales agrupadas en las clases siguientes: Pistio-Eichhornietea (comunidades de cormófitos flotantes. Xyrido-Typhetea (vegetación herbácea helofítica. Polypodio-Tillandsietea (vegetación epifítica y comofítica. Ruderali-Manihotetea (vegetación ruderal, viaria y arvense. Andropogono-Baccharidetea (vegetación sabanoide. Rhizophoretea (manglar. Lantano-Chusqueetea (manto marginal leñoso de la selva. Cedrelo-Ocoteetea (selva pluvial y mesófila. Se dedica atención especial al estudio de la fisionomía, estructura y dinamismo de la vegetación y a su significación biogeográfica.

  14. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

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    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  15. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  16. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela

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    Laurie Fajardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry for est destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela. Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2', and two were left untreated (R1 and R1', and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community. Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment. Soil of the NR1 treat ment (with a higher herbaceous component showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatumand Rhizophagus intraradiceswere found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurcaand Funneliformis geosporumwere only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role.

  17. Tipos de vegetación del llano de Paletará. Cordillera Central Colombia Tipos de vegetación del llano de Paletará. Cordillera Central Colombia

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    Restrepo Carla

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the vegetation found in the Llano de Paletará, municipality of Coconuco, department of Cauca, Colombia. Based on the physiognomy and floristic composition of the vegetation we identified 8 paramo vegetation types. These units represent the most extensive azonal paramo vegetation types described up to now for the Cordillera Central. Four of the 8 vegetation types are herbaceous ("frailejonal-pajonal" with Espeletia, "chuscal abierto" with Chusquea,"swamp" with Carex, and "grassland" with Calamagrostis , three are bush tickets (thicket with Hypericum, thicket with Ageratina, and thicket with Diplostephium, and one is a forest of low stature (forest with Escallonia. We analyze some aspects of the ecology and distribution of the vegetation types and evaluate their degree of peril and value of conservation. Se estudiaron los tipos de vegetación del Llano de Paletará, municipio de Coconuco, departamento del Cauca, Colombia. Basados en la fisonomía y composición florística de la vegetación identificamos 8 tipos de vegetación, los cuales representan los tipos de vegetación paramunos de carácter azonal más extensos de la Cordillera Central registrados hasta el momento. De los 8 tipos de vegetación, cuatro son de porte herbáceo (''frailejonalpajonal'' con Espeletia. "chuscal abierto" con Chusquea. "pantano" con Carex y un "pajonal" con Calamagrostis, tres son de porte arbustivo (matorral con Hypericum, matorral con Ageratina y matorral con Diplostephium y uno es de porte arbóreo (bosque con Escallonia. Se analizan algunos aspectos de la ecología y distribución de los tipos de vegetación y se evalúa su grado de amenaza y valor de conservación.

  18. The Pilgrimage to The San Nicola Shrine in Bari and its Impact

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    Katia Rizzello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilgrimage is defined as a journey to the Holy but more specifically as an inner journey to one’s deepest religious feelings. This type of journey has assumed new forms and types that bring it closer to modern tourism in general, though it maintains its distinctive characteristics, which will be the object of this paper. These changes in the nature of pilgrimage, which in part reflect the parallel socio-cultural transformation of the average visitor, have brought about a major reorganisation of the places involved and have had a significant socio-economic impact on the territories involved. The concentration of visitors and in some cases the presence of various categories of visit have led to structural changes in holy places and their surroundings. These changes, which arise from the need to meet the requirements of travellers as consumers, in turn have social and environmental impacts on the surrounding area that are similar to those caused by mass tourism. The most evident types of impact are structural, resulting from the creation or expansion of hotel and catering infrastructure and the start-up of new businesses such as travel agencies, specialised tour operators, shops selling religious souvenirs and establishments providing entertainment. All this alters the physiognomy and the layout of the towns where the religious sites are located, in some cases completely transforming the economy of the location and the use of land. The aim of this research is to study pilgrimage flows associated with the cult of Saint Nicholas (San Nicola in Bari, specifically concerning the pilgrimage's main characteristics and the most significant impacts on the district. The study follows a mixed approach that includes participant observation, use of archival documents and empirical evaluation of the material landscape and observed practices.

  19. Simulated sensitivity of African terrestrial ecosystem photosynthesis to rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kaiyu; Good, Stephen P.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Medvigy, David; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.; Sato, Hisashi; Biasutti, Michela; Chen, Min; Ahlström, Anders; Xu, Xiangtao

    2018-02-01

    African ecosystem physiognomy, i.e. savannas, woodlands, and tropical forests.

  20. Floristic and vegetation structure of a grassland plant community on shallow basalt in southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Fett Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have adequately described the floristic and structural features of natural grasslands associated with shallow basalt soils in southern Brazil. This study was carried out on natural grazing land used for livestock production in the municipality of Santana do Livramento, in the Campanha region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The aim of the study was to describe the floristic and structural diversity of the area. The floristic list obtained comprises 229 plant taxa from 40 botanical families, with a predominance of the families Poaceae (62, Asteraceae (28, Fabaceae (16 and Cyperaceae (12. The estimated diversity and evenness in the community were 3.00 and 0.874, respectively. Bare soil and rock outcrops accounted for 19.3% of the area, resulting in limited forage availability. Multivariate analysis revealed two well-defined groups among the sampling units. One group showed a high degree of internal aggregation, associated with deep soils, and was characterized by the presence of tussocks, whereas the other was less aggregate and was characterized by prostrate species growing on shallow soil. Ordination analysis indicated a gradient of moisture and of soil depth in the study area, resulting in different vegetation patterns. These patterns were analogous to the vegetation physiognomies described for Uruguayan grasslands. Overall, the grassland community studied is similar to others found throughout southern Brazil, although it harbors more winter forage species. In addition, the rare grass Paspalum indecorum Mez is locally dominant in some patches, behaving similarly to P. notatum Fl., a widespread grass that dominates extensive grassland areas in southern Brazil.

  1. Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Manpreet; Kale, Alka D; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under ×100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.

  2. The Art of the Portrait in the Religious Painting of Wallachia and Moldavia in the 15th – 17th centuries

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    Valentin Sava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the diversity of the forms of socio-economic and cultural-artistic development, at the end of the 14th century, Wallachia, Moldavia and the knights of Romanian origins of Transylvania, Banat and Maramureş were gathered in one single system, with feudality institutions of Occidental inspiration, but with mostly Orthodox spirituality, a system that is permanently struggling to find the perfect equilibrium between the Islamic-Ottoman expansionism and the insistent conversion actions of Western Catholicism. Medieval painting promoted the portrait as an artistic genre beyond the canonical constraints of the painting of Byzantine inspiration. The votive portrait of the founder did no necessarily reproduce the individual features of the portrayed person, not even in the last period, when the artistic and technical evolutions could initiate tendencies to a desacralization of the religious themes. The introduction of the portrait reflecting the social class in the Court of the two Romanian Countries through the Central – European sources of Austria, Hungary or Poland produced a major change in the aesthetics of the portrait when the artist came to have a new vision on the way he rendered the physical features and later the mental experiences of the model, sometimes making use of an obvious descriptive exactness in rendering the physical features, the physiognomy of the portrayed person. Just like in the medieval votive portrait, in the case of easel portraits, the artist focused on the representation of external features, according to the social importance and rank of the portrayed person. Gradually, the evolution of the corresponding capture of the physical features, initially sufficient, went up from a qualitative point of view to complete this first effort with a precious performance of the expression of the spiritual characteristics of the portrayed character, insistently claimed by both the artist and the contemplator.

  3. PREREQUISITES OF THE RESOLUTION OF A CONTRACT

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    Vlad-Victor OCHEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available I herein want to emphasise the prerequisites of the resolution of a contract according to the Romanian Civil Code of 2009. The prerequisites of the resolution of a contract are substantially different from those identified under the former fundamental civil legislation (the Romanian Civil code of 1864. This study aims at a better understanding of the new prerequisites of the resolution of a contract: a. a fundamental non-performance of the obligation; b. an unjustified non-performance of the obligation; c. mora debitoris The analysis of these prerequisites reveals a new possible trait of the resolution: a remedy for the non-performance of the contract rather than a sanction or a variety of contractual liability. Thus the modern legislator of the Romanian Civil Code of 2009 proposed to partially change the physiognomy of the resolution of a contract, different from the former institution and here we are in front of a new law institution. The resolution of a contract under the Romanian Civil Code of 2009 is regulated under The 5th Book – The Obligations, The second chapter – The enforcement of the Obligations, The 5th Section – Resolution of the Contract, respectively under the Article 1549 – 1554. As will be shown below, the resolution of a contract has a homogeneous structure without being spread in different parts of the Civil code. The earning lies in the action of organism the new legal provisions, apparently enriched in comparison to those found in the Romanian Civil Code of 1864. Most notably, the Romanian Civil Code of 2009 preserves the Roman legacy. The modern legislator had a difficult task: 146 years of legal doctrine and jurisprudence transposed into a new legislation which, of course, has its flaws. Nevertheless, it should be praised, as it encompasses useful tools to regulate social relations

  4. Biochemical leaf traits as indicators of tolerance potential in tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest against oxidative environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Solange E; Bulbovas, Patricia; Lima, Marcos E L; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study. We aimed at determining the tolerance potential of tree species from the Atlantic Forest remnants in SE Brazil against multiple oxidative environmental stressors. We assumed that pioneer tree species are more tolerant against oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species and that their tolerance potential vary spatially in response to distinct combined effects of oxidative environmental stressors. The study was carried out in three Atlantic Forest remnants, which differ in physiognomy, species composition, climatic characteristics and air pollution exposure. Leaves of three pioneer and three non-pioneer species were collected from each forest remnant during wet (January 2015) and dry periods (June 2015), for analyses of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury indicators. Both hypotheses were confirmed. The pioneer tree species displayed biochemical leaf traits (e.g. high levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids and lower lipid peroxidation) that indicate their higher potential tolerance against oxidative environmental stressors than non-pioneer species. The biochemical leaf traits of both successional groups of species varied between the forest remnants, in response to a linear combination of oxidative environmental stressors, from natural (relative humidity and temperature) and anthropogenic sources (ozone and nitrogen dioxide). Copyright © 2016

  5. El hilo sutil de la rememoración. Felicidad y redención histórica en la obra de Walter Benjamin

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    Palermo, Sandra Viviana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structure of the Messianic time that Benjamin tries to think from the point of view of its inextricable connection to the concepts of happiness and redemption. The conceptual route goes from the early writings, in which the constellation happiness-redemption acquires a definite physiognomy —combining with an elegant and specific critique of modernity— to the thesis Über den Begriff der Geschichte, in which this constellation is intertwined with the figure of Eingedenken, which determines an important conceptual shift in the theoretical horizon of the author, also representing the specificity and richness of his reflections on time and history.

    El texto presenta un análisis de la estructura del tiempo mesiánico que Benjamin intenta pensar desde el punto de vista de su indisoluble conexión con los conceptos de felicidad y redención. El recorrido conceptual va desde los escritos de juventud, en los que la constelación felicidad-redención adquiere una fisionomía definida —conjugándose con una crítica elegante y puntual de la modernidad—, a las tesis Sobre el concepto de historia, en las cuales tal constelación se entrelaza con la figura del Eingedenken, que determina un desplazamiento conceptual importante en el horizonte teórico del autor, representando además la especificidad y la riqueza de su reflexión sobre el tiempo y la historia.

  6. Evaluation of Sentinel-1A Data For Above Ground Biomass Estimation in Different Forests in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Use of remote sensing data for mapping and monitoring of forest biomass across large spatial scales can aid in addressing uncertainties in carbon cycle. Earlier, several researchers reported on the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for characterizing forest structural parameters and the above ground biomass estimation. However, these studies cannot be generalized and the algorithms cannot be applied to all types of forests without additional information on the forest physiognomy, stand structure and biomass characteristics. The radar backscatter signal also saturates as forest parameters such as biomass and the tree height increase. It is also not clear how different polarizations (VV versus VH) impact the backscatter retrievals in different forested regions. Thus, it is important to evaluate the potential of SAR data in different landscapes for characterizing forest structural parameters. In this study, the SAR data from Sentinel-1A has been used to characterize forest structural parameters including the above ground biomass from tropical forests of India. Ground based data on tree density, basal area and above ground biomass data from thirty-eight different forested sites has been collected to relate to SAR data. After the pre-processing of Sentinel 1-A data for radiometric calibration, geo-correction, terrain correction and speckle filtering, the variability in the backscatter signal in relation tree density, basal area and above biomass density has been investigated. Results from the curve fitting approach suggested exponential model between the Sentinel-1A backscatter versus tree density and above ground biomass whereas the relationship was almost linear with the basal area in the VV polarization mode. Of the different parameters, tree density could explain most of the variations in backscatter. Both VV and VH backscatter signals could explain only thirty and thirty three percent of variation in above biomass in different forest sites of India

  7. Preliminary global paleogeographic maps through the Greenhouse-Icehouse transition: forcing of the Drake Passage and Asian Monsoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Licht, Alexis; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Roperch, Pierrick; Guillocheau, Francois; Baby, Guillaume; Baatsen, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Paleogeographic maps are essential for understanding Earth dynamics. They provide the necessary boundary conditions for climate and geodynamic modeling, surface processes and biotic interactions. In particular, the opening and closing of ocean gateways and the growth of major mountain belts are major drivers of climate changes and biotic interchange. However, the timing and spatial extent of such events are highly controversial and regularly questioned by new data. As part of the ERC "MAGIC" project focusing on Asian Monsoons during the Icehouse to Greenhouse transition we thus produced a set of worldwide Cenozoic paleogeographic maps in the period time between 60 to 20 Ma, with a set of boundary conditions specific to the India-Asia collision zone and the Drake Passage. The creation of a paleogeographic map followed a rigorous and reproductively methodology that integrates paleobathymetric, paleoshoreline and paleotopographic data into a coherent plate tectonic model using the open source software GPlates. (1) We use the model provided by Seton et al. (2012) as a first order tectonic model modified to integrate the full restoration of five regions: the Andes, the Scotia Arc, Africa, The Mediterranean Sea and the Tibet-Himalayan collision zone. (2) The paleobathymetry was provided by Müller et al. (2008) using age-depth relationships and assuming symmetric ridge spreading. (3) Paleoshoreline maps were modified according to the fossil database from fossilworks.org and the geological record and were used to represent the boundary between terrestrial and marine paleo-environments. (4) To reconstruct paleoelevations, the most controversial task, we compiled a wide range of data including stable isotope, leaf physiognomy, and thermochronology combined with regional fossil and geological records (tectonic setting) and geomorphological data. Finally, we use the open source GMT software and a set of masks to modify the current Earth relief model (ETOPO) according to the

  8. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable "spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia:Echimyidaewith palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A Bueno

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi ,a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent,is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetationphysiognomies in São Paulo State,Brazil.The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C.bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii and armadillo burrows.Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station,southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C.bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos.There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C.bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations.It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant.The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.Rev.Biol. Trop. 52(4:1009-1011.Epub 2005 Jun 24.El roedor colonial Clyomys bishopi está aparentemente limitado a vegetación de semi-sabana (cerradoen el estado de São Paulo,Brasil.El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la presencia de C.bishopi está asociada a la individuos de las palmeras Attalea gearensis,Syagrus loefgrenii y madrigueras de armadillos.El estudio fue realizado en la Estación Ecológica de Itirapina,en el sureste de Brasil.Treinta y seis cuadrantes fueron dispuestos en diferentes fisionomías del la vegetación del cerrado para encuestar el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi, árboles individuales de palma y madrigueras de armadillos.Se calcularon tablas de contingencia y correlaciones de Sperman para evaluar, respectivamente, la dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y las otras variables.Se encontró una fuerte dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y todas las variables medidas.Esto sugiere que este roedor alcanza grandes

  9. Evolução da cobertura vegetal e uso agrícola do solo no município de Lagoa Seca, PB Evolution of vegetation covering and land use in the municipal district of Lagoa Seca, PB

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    Íris do S. Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo consiste no levantamento de informações relacionadas aos aspectos biofísicos, mapeamento e quantificação da vegetação natural e das áreas agricultáveis, mediante interpretação de fotos aéreas de 1984, análise visual de imagem digital do satélite Landsat, canais Tm³, TM4 e TM5, datada de 10 de julho de 1989 e no levantamento de coordenadas através do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS, 2001. Foram elaborados, para a área em estudo, arquivos digitais georreferenciados, referentes aos temas limite municipal, cobertura vegetal natural e uso agrícola do solo, em ambos os períodos, 1984 e 2001, utilizados para a classificação da vegetação secundária dominante, na circunscrição das áreas de uso agrícola, de acordo com a prática agrícola peculiar, na identificação das fisionomias vegetais e avaliação do processo evolutivo das fisionomias no período mencionado.This study comprised of the collection of data on biophysical aspects, the mapping and quantification of natural vegetation and arable areas, through interpretation of aerial pictures taken in 1984, visual analysis of digital images from Landsat satellites, Tm³, TM4 and TM5 channels, carried out on July 10, 1989 and the survey of coordinates through the Global Positioning System (GPS, 2001. Digital geo-referenced files elaborated for the studied area comprising basic data about the municipal limit, natural vegetation covering, land use, in both periods, 1984 and 2001, were used for classification of the dominant secondary vegetation, definition of the agricultural use of soil in agreement with the peculiar agricultural practices, identification of the vegetable physiognomies and evaluation of their evolutionary process in the mentioned period.

  10. Hormophysa triquerta polyphenol, an elixir that deters CXCR4- and COX2-dependent dissemination destiny of treatment-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Sheeja; Ramraj, Satishkumar; Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Thirugnanasambandan, Somasundaram S; Somasundaram, Dinesh Babu; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2017-01-24

    Therapy-resistant pancreatic cancer (PC) cells play a crucial role in tumor relapse, recurrence, and metastasis. Recently, we showed the anti-PC potential of an array of seaweed polyphenols and identified efficient drug deliverables. Herein, we investigated the benefit of one such deliverable, Hormophysa triquerta polyphenol (HT-EA), in regulating the dissemination physiognomy of therapy-resistant PC cells in vitro,and residual PC in vivo. Human PC cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), with/without HT-EA pre-treatment were examined for the alterations in the tumor invasion/metastasis (TIM) transcriptome (93 genes, QPCR-profiling). Utilizing a mouse model of residual PC, we investigated the benefit of HT-EA in the translation regulation of crucial TIM targets (TMA-IHC). Radiation activated 30, 50, 15, and 38 TIM molecules in surviving Panc-1, Panc-3.27, BxPC3, and MiaPaCa-2 cells. Of these, 15, 44, 12, and 26 molecules were suppressed with HT-EA pre-treatment. CXCR4 and COX2 exhibited cell-line-independent increases after IR, and was completely suppressed with HT-EA, across all PC cells. HT-EA treatment resulted in translational repression of IR-induced CXCR4, COX2, β-catenin, MMP9, Ki-67, BAPX, PhPT-1, MEGF10, and GRB10 in residual PC. Muting CXCR4 or COX2 regulated the migration/invasion potential of IR-surviving cells, while forced expression of CXCR4 or COX2 significantly increased migration/invasion capabilities of PC cells. Further, treatment with HT-EA significantly inhibited IR-induced and CXCR4/COX2 forced expression-induced PC cell migration/invasion. This study (i) documents the TIM blueprint in therapy-resistant PC cells, (ii) defines the role of CXCR4 and COX2 in induced metastatic potential, and (iii) recognizes the potential of HT-EA in deterring the CXCR4/COX2-dependent dissemination destiny of therapy-resistant residual PC cells.

  11. A major trade-off between structural and photosynthetic investments operative across plant and needle ages in three Mediterranean pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusk, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo; Valladares, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    results demonstrate that within the broad trade-off, juvenile and adult needle morphophysiotypes are separated by varying investments in support and photosynthetic functions. We suggest that the ecological advantage of the juvenile morphophysiotype is maximization of carbon gain of establishing saplings, while adult needle physiognomy enhances environmental stress tolerance of established plants.

  12. Selective methods for the maintainability and standardization of the engineering of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The main point of this work consists of a selective method for the engineering of a research reactor based on parameters, which determine a safer design, installation, operation and maintenance. The variety of tasks in a research reactor are: research, development, production of radioisotopes, etc. They are developed within the installation and the different specialties gathered for these activities. It is necessary to count on an intrinsically safe environment, from the point of view of the investigator, the operator and the maintenance personnel. In general, in both nuclear and conventional installation, independent of its size, certain investment necessities prevail, starting from its design, such as: Nuclear Security, Engineering, Versatility, Production (both for investigation and development)), Conventional Security and Physical Protection, Profitability, etc. The concepts which help us accentuate a greater benefit for the research are not found within these parameters, purpose for which this facility was created. When obtaining a simple engineering the results show an increase in security, decrease in maintenance and operative costs, less ageing and an easy operation. The plant engineering of research reactors could be titled, from the engineering and maintenance point of view, as a technological chaos. Not only for its aspect but for its physiognomy too: inaccessible to certain areas; impassable in its circulation aisles; hard to check and measure; disassemble; clean its components; thus increasing unnecessarily the personnel's exposure time. The facilities of research reactors have different disciplines used as rules for the development of the design, such as nuclear, mechanical, thermodynamical, electronic, chemical, electrical, etc. Common guide lines - from design to operation - are non-existent. This is why different manufacturers and models are found within instruments, pumps, electrical engines, illumination, etc. even when they perform

  13. Ultra-high pitch chest computed tomography at 70 kVp tube voltage in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom and non-sedated pediatric patients: Initial experience with 3rd generation dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelstein, Claudia; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Neff, K Wolfgang; Weis, Meike

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing radiation dose while at the same time preserving image quality is of particular importance in pediatric chest CT. Very recently, CT imaging with a tube voltage of 70 kVp has become clinically available. However, image noise is inversely proportional to the tube voltage. We aimed to investigate radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT performed at 70 kVp in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom as well as in clinical patients. An anthropomorphic pediatric phantom, which resembles a one-year-old child in physiognomy, was scanned on the 3 rd generation dual-source CT (DSCT) system at 70 kVp and 80 kVp and a fixed ultra low tube-current of 8 mAs to solely evaluate the impact of lowering tube voltage. After the phantom measurements, 18 pediatric patients (mean 29.5 months; range 1-91 months; 21 examinations) underwent 3.2 high-pitch chest CT on the same DSCT system at 70 kVp tube voltage without any sedation. Radiation dose and presence of motion artifacts was compared to a retrospectively identified patient cohort examined at 80 kVp on a 16-slice single-source-CT (SSCT; n=15; 14/15 with sedation; mean 30.7 months; range 0-96 months; pitch=1.5) or on a 2 nd generation DSCT without any sedation (n=6; mean 32.8 months; range 4-61 months; pitch=3.2). Radiation dose in the phantom scans was reduced by approximately 40% when using a tube voltage of 70 kVp instead of 80 kVp. In the pediatric patient group examined at 70 kVp age-specific effective dose (ED; mean 0.5±0.2 mSv) was significantly lower when compared to the retrospective cohort scanned at 80 kVp on the 16-slice-SSCT (mean ED: 1.0±0.3 mSv; pCT examinations showed any motion artifacts whereas 13/15 examinations of the retrospective patient cohort scanned at 80 kVp with a pitch of 1.5 showed motion artifacts. 3.2 high-pitch chest CT performed with 70 kVp significantly reduces radiation dose when compared to 80 kVp while at the same time provides good image quality without any motion artifacts

  14. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland

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    JB Pinho

    Full Text Available We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%, followed by Landi (9%, Cordilheira (6% and Carvoeiro (3% forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species than in dry (16 species forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5% and dry (70% forests, and were higher in the Landi (85% than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%. Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species

  15. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  16. Un perfil de vegetación entre La Plata (Huila y el Volcán del Puracé Un perfil de vegetación entre La Plata (Huila y el Volcán del Puracé

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    Rangel Ch. Orlando

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the plant-communities characterized in the trayect between La Plata (Huila and the crater of the Puracé volcano. The methodology followed in this study is that proposed in the Zurich-Montpellier school (BRAUN-BLANQUET, 1979. The profile of vegetation includs plant-communities of the jungle-type which are pluri-stratified on Ecuatorial and sub-Andean life zones and plantcommunities with a single stratification (upper Paramo belt. In the characterization of the plant-communities described was taken of the physiognomy (the structure as an expression of abiotic conditions.  Dates about plant-density in the arboreal stratum and preliminary characteristics of the soil in some of the places inventaried also are provided.En esta contribución se caracterizan las comunidades vegetales que se establecen en el trayecto entre La Plata (Huila y el cráter del volcán Puracé.  La metodología que se siguió es la de la escuela Zurich-Montpellier (BRAUN-BLANQUET, 1979. El perfil de vegetación incluye comunidades de tipo selvático pluriestratificadas, en las regiones de vida Ecuatorial y sub-Andina y comunidades uniestratificadas en la franja del super-páramo. Se colocó especial énfasis en el aspecto estructural (fisionomía de la vegetación y con base en los resultados obtenidos se recomiendan límites para la distribución de los estratos o arreglo en sentido vertical dentro de una fitocenosis determinada. Se suministran también datos sobre la densidad en los estratos altos y sobre las características preliminares de los suelos en algunos de los sitios muestreados.

  17. Soil , phyto and zoocenosis characteristics along an elevational gradient in the Alps (NW Italy)

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    Caimi, Angelo; Freppaz, Michele; Filippa, Gianluca; Buffa, Giorgio; Rivella, Enrico; Griselli, Bona; Parodi, Alessandra; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    values suggest an heterogeneous environment where parameters such as light and temperature display sharp changes along the elevation gradient and/or as function of morphological features at single sites. Consequently, the vegetation physiognomy, abundance and richness change as a function of altitude and morphology. According to mesofauna communities we observed a reduction of "adapted" organisms along the altitudinal gradient. In both transects euedaphic biological forms were more abundant at the altitudinal range, between 1600-2000 m ASL.

  18. Nuevo puente de Florídsdorf en Viena — Austria

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was characterised by the great speed with which it was built, 18 months, a world record for this type of job. This was possible thanks to the compenetraron and perfect organisation of the companies who intervened most directly: Voest Alpine and Wagner. The construction system is described, made of large metal and concrete elements; the physiognomy of the bridge, with its parts on both sides of the riverbed and that which covers the real course of the river; spans and free heights of the different stretches; elevations and assembly, as well as laying prefabricated parts; foundations, piling and ancillary work. Work still to be done is also enumerated, although many of the jobs will shortly be completed or are in a very advanced stage, under the direction of the company Wiener Wrückenbau AG.

    Esta obra se caracteriza por la gran rapidez de construcción, 18 meses, fecha récord mundial para este tipo de trabajos. Ello ha sido posible por la compenetración y perfecta organización de las empresas que más directamente han intervenido: Voest Alpine y Wagner. Se describen el sistema de construcción, a base de grandes elementos metálicos y de hormigón; la fisonomía del puente, con sus partes a ambos lados del cauce y la que salva el curso propiamente dicho del río; luces y alturas libres de los diferentes tramos; elevación y montaje, así como colocación de las piezas prefabricadas; cimentación, pilotaje y obras auxiliares. Asimismo se enumeran las obras que quedan por hacer, aunque muchas de ellas están en vías de próxima terminación o muy avanzadas, bajo la dirección de la empresa Wiener Brückenbau AG.

  19. The environmental education in the Italian Renaissance: the geoethical model of Machiavelli

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    Liserre, Battista; De Pascale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the environmental and geoethical education is also present in the thought of one of the greatest intellectuals of the Italian Renaissance: the philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527). In the "Discorsi" of Machiavelli, the natural character of the place where a city is built is a determining factor in the overall measure of the need on the character of the citizens; but the barren place, if can keep away the people from idleness, and thereby constitute an essential tool of virtuous civic life, prevents the development of the power which can be fostered only by the fertility of the site. It may give rise own laziness which hinders the development of virtue; and then, according to Machiavelli, laws must be to impose the need to produce good behavior through education. Already in the Renaissance, Machiavelli recognized the importance of establishing a harmonious relationship between man and environment and suggested that the institutions should give a virtuous model of environmental education. The physiognomy of the geographical and natural environment conditions in an essential way the exercise of civil life and the development of virtues. If the Rome's model imposes the primacy of fertile places, it happens, however, that, in his general conception of virtue and of historical dialectic, Machiavelli tended toward ultimately to increased functionality of the desolate places, which make difficult the life, and through the exercise of the need, make men more virtuous, keeping them away from the destructive threat of idleness. This aspect emerges from a different perspective, but convergent in "Asino" of Machiavelli (Chapter V). The link between the natural places and civic life that takes place isn't something absolutely default. Men's work, orders underpinning their collective life, laws that place the compulsion of necessity by the behavior of citizens, change the data of nature. Although the structure of a territory unequally, according to

  20. Legal Order Founded on Human Wisdom

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    Elena IFTIME

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work I approach a topic of great complexity, always anchored in social actuality because it addresses to an extremely sensitive area in which law is intertwined with the human wisdom. I start from the reality that human spiritual balance as an obvious sign of human wisdom can be maintained in a secured social balance of the social order, as a manifestation of this virtue at a community level. I insist on the interferences between universal and social order in which is enrolled as an individual component the legal order. The specificity of this latter form of the inter-human relations is ensured by the peculiar physiognomy of law rules. There are rules of human behaviour which although present some own features to other social norms (generality, impersonality, typicality, these stand out by their obligation which allows, when necessary, to be done using coercive state power. Both creation and especially interpretation and application of the law rules, involves the legislature wisdom, to impose people legal orders which to order and discipline their relations with the environment in which they live and other members of human community so as to make possible a social balance and harmonious coexistence of humans. Legal order gives concreteness and expression to some fundamental valences of law: justice, equity and righteousness. Therefore, in the vast majority of live situations, especially in cases in which norms of law express “the will of the many”, they convince through their correctness and validity, harmonizing with the interests and aspirations of those whom are addressed, which exclude the intervention of human coercive force. Here, is a sign of human wisdom. But also as a sign of human wisdom can be considered appropriate and necessary the coercive intervention of the state, when the violation of a right occurred, the social order (also the legal one being more or less disturbed. In these situations, law intervention is

  1. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

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    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    as soil type and slope were incorporated into this test as they are correlated with the ecosystems and physiognomies presence. A Decision Tree was used to map the land cover and land use types present in the region and demonstrated to have an effective result due to the map's high accuracy and incorporation of environmental dataset.

  2. Regeneração de espécies arbóreas sob a influência de Merostachys multiramea Hack. (Poaceae em uma floresta subtropical Regeneration of tree species influenced by Merostachys multiramea Hack. (Poaceae in a subtropical forest

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    Suzana Cyrino dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de bambúseas é comum em muitas fisionomias florestais, sendo que a elevada abundância destas espécies pode interagir com a regeneração de espécies arbóreas. Foi avaliada a regeneração de espécies arbóreas e de Merostachys multiramea Hack. em uma área de transição entre Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Estacional no Sul do Brasil e comparada a estrutura de regeneração da área entre dois e quatro anos após floração, frutificação e morte de M. multiramea. Foram alocadas 25 unidades amostrais de 100 m² dispostas de forma aleatória, onde foram amostrados todos os colmos vivos de M. multiramea e indivíduos regenerantes de espécies arbóreas > 30 cm de altura e com perímetro à altura do peito The occurrence of bamboo species is common in several forest physiognomies, and the high abundance of these species may affect the regeneration of other ones. We evaluated both tree species and Merostachys multiramea Hack. recruitment in a transition area between mixed Araucaria rain forest and seasonal semideciduous forests in southern Brazil. We compared the regeneration structure of the areas evaluated two and four years after flowering, fruiting and death of M. multiramea. We randomly distributed 25 100 m² sampling units, and surveyed all living culms of M. multiramea and tree saplings. We sampled 4,372 living bamboos and 2,918 tree saplings, belonging to 32 plant families and 75 species. Most species were classified as zoochorous and canopy light-demanding. On the other hand, plant abundance revealed a greater contribution of autochorous, understory and shade-tolerant trees. M. multiramea density was higher over the four years after the reproductive event (p<0.05, with taller culms (p<0.01, but with the same mean number of culms (p=0.46. A NPMANOVA revealed significant differences in composition and abundance between surveys, with higher similarity among samplings two years after the reproductive event of M

  3. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  4. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

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    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    show a tendency to co-occur which can be an artifact. A plant-focused method that included a rarefaction analysis yielded more insightful results and shed more light on the differences between the dominant plants that shape the physiognomy of plant communities in a possible pollination specialization.

  5. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

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    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  6. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    greater weight, the values of SQI have tended to be more discrepant between the combinations with upper and lower level of MO. In the case of Mod2, regardless of the method of allocation of weight used, it has not been possible to find clear distinction among the three physiognomies used, despite having been detected clear difference between the two types of soil, with the higher values to those presenting the Oxisol and Podzol. This situation can lead to consideration of what might be more interesting to use various combinations of random weights that a specific combination chosen empirically.

  7. Estrutura de duas formações vegetais do cordão externo da restinga de Marambaia, RJ Structure of two plant communities on Marambaia barrier island, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas duas formações vegetais, psamófila-reptante e arbustiva de Palmae, no cordão arenoso externo da restinga de Marambaia (RJ com base na posição topográfica, na fisionomia e na estrutura, utilizando-se o método de parcelas. Embora as duas formações sejam visualmente distintas, há uma zona de transição entre elas. Das 23 espécies amostradas na formação psamófila-reptante, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea imperati, Allagoptera arenaria, Sporobolus virginicus, Remirea marítima e Panicum racemosum despontaram com maiores valores de importância (VI. A formação halófila dominada por Blutaparon portulacoides, típica de outras restingas no litoral brasileiro, não foi identificada devido ao intenso dinamismo da faixa entre o mar e a primeira linha de cristas praiais estabilizadas. A formação arbustiva de Palmae é dominada por Allagoptera arenaria, com 56% do VI total, dentre as 64 espécies amostradas. As duas formações são dominadas por geófitas rizomatosas.Two plant communities (creeping psamophyte and palm scrub are described from the outer Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, based on topography, vegetation physiognomy, and structure. Although the two communities can be distinguished visually, they are joined by a transition zone. Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea imperati, Remirea maritima, Allagoptera arenaria, Sporobolus virginicus, and Panicum racemosum were the most important species sampled in the creeping psammophyte community out of a total of 23. The halophyte community reported for other sandy coastal plains in Brazil was not observed at Marambaia due to the intense wave action on this beach. The palm scrub community was dominated by Allagoptera arenaria (56% of total importance value out of a total of 64 species. Rhizome-geophytes dominate both communities.

  8. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study

  9. Caracterização florística de uma área de contato entre Cerrado e Mata Atlântica na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo.

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    Nicole da Silva PINTO

    2012-06-01

    Station – EExI submits those attributes since it shelters remnants of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Cerrado. The EExI is located in the Alto Paranapanema basin – BHAP, in the southwestern region of the São Paulo state, considered highly degraded and prior for studies on flora and fauna. The objectives of this work were: to inventory and characterize the vegetation and vascular flora of the EExI; increase knowledge about the biodiversity of the BHAP and support management proposals. We carried out a physiognomy and floristic characterization considering all the habits, with monthly collections of botanical material, from May 2009 to December 2010. In the two plant formations present in EExI, Atlantic Forest (Seasonal Semideciduous Forest – FES and Cerrado (campo rupestre, campo sujo, campo sujo úmido, cerrado ralo and cerrado denso, 605 species were recorded. The richest families in the FES were: Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae and Lauraceae, and in the Cerrado were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae and Bignoniaceae. The arboreous species with 54.1% of the total predominated in FES, unlike the Cerrado where the not arboreous species predominated (67.5%. Between the species surveyed 14 are threatened species, but only Araucaria angustifolia was cited in the state, national and global level lists. Considering FES mosaic and Cerrado physiognomies, high species diversity and the presence of threatened species, the remaining vegetation of the EExI is extremely important for conservation and study of regional biodiversity.

  10. Adoration of Virgin Mary Attended by Two St. Johns in Wawel Cathedral Collection

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    Magdalena Piwocka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a canvas (98,5 x 222,5cm in the Wawel Cathedral that is not connected with any existing or historically documented altars inside the church (il. 1-3. Owing to its shape it has so far been considered to have been a predella, which - taking into account its size and proportions - seems rather unlikely. It may have been the top of the middle part of a retable, possibly in an altar dedicated to the two St. Johns. The painting presents the Virgin Mary with the Child seated under a canopy, attended by the two Saints, adored by kneeling angels with censers in their hands. A graphic model of the scene has been found; it is an engraving by Jan Sadeler (1550-1600 based on a design by Hans von Aachen (1552-1615, released in Munich in 1589 (il. 4. In Albertina, in Vienna, a working copy of the graphic made by Hans von Aachen has been preserved (il. 5 as well as a composition sketch by the same artist at the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum in Braunschweig. An inscription on the drawing from 1589 reads: POENA ET PROEMIVM; there are also quotations from psalms and a dedication to Phillip Wilhelm (1576-1598, bishop of Regenzburg in 1589, later cardinal (1596, son of a Bavarian ruler Wilhelm V Wittelsbach (1548-1626. The young hierarch got it in the year of his consecration as a bishop. A pendant to it is the plate by Jan Sadeler of 1590, after Peter Candid (1548-1628, which was dedicated to Phillip Wilhelm’s younger brother - Ferdinand (1577-1650, later bishop of Cologne. The engraving also shows St. Mary with the Child in the company of St. Stephen and St. Laurence. Both works coincide with the artistic activity of Jan Sadeler and Hans von Achen in Munich, where they were summoned by Wilhelm V, and represent strictly planned art created for his court. Another painted version of Sadeler’s engraving was found in a Polish private collection. This is a small, good painting on panel, faithfully reproducing physiognomy and inscriptions known from the

  11. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

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    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  12. Solos e vegetação nativa remanescente no Município de Campinas Soil and native vegetation remnant in Campinas, SP, Brazil

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    Ivan Carlos de Moraes Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    the first two axes. Soil classes at the Brazilian System of Soil Classification discriminated the studied vegetation: soils with argillic B horizons were more associated to forests, and soils with oxic B horizons, low fertility and good drainage were associated to tropical savannahs. Low fertility, low water retention and good drainage benefit cerrado vegetation establishment. Multivariate analysis identified n parameter of the water retention curve, bulk density, exchangeable H+Al, Ca, Al, K and Mg, macropores and soil organic matter as the most effective soil attributes to plant physiognomy differentiation. The chemical barrier imposed by excess aluminum and calcium deficiency, at B horizon, as well as low water retention in soils under savannah vegetation benefit Luehea grandiflora, Persea willdenovii, Xylopia aromatica and Erythroxylum daphnites, abundant and exclusive species on savannah fragments.

  13. Effects of silvicultural treatment on the stability of black pine plantations.

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    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pine plantations have been established at the purpose of recovering a forest cover to marginal soils, mostly throughout the Apennines range in Italy, since the end of the eighteenth century and up to the mid 1900. Both the decay of forest cover and soil erosion were the outcome of the long-lasting overuse through the intensive forest exploitation practices, grazing of the forest floor and wildfires, occurring since many centuries ago. The primary function of pine reafforestation was therefore to re-establish a first cover with a pioneer species, preparatory to future mixed forest types based on the natural reintroduction of broadleaves originally living in the same areas, mainly deciduous oaks and beech in the upper part. These goals have been partly met over the wide reafforestation area; the key functions of pine stands are today the protection against soil erosion and the hydrological regulation of catchments. The pine stands have been assuming today also a scenic role because they have been incorporated in the landscape physiognomy. A series of thinning up to the regeneration phase had been planned by foresters since the design of these plantations, but many stands have grown unthinned and fully stocked for a long time, this condition contributing a less mechanical stability of trees. Alternative forms of regeneration in grown-up stands have been and are being tested to improve both the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species, but thinnings remain, even if a tardy measure, the main practice enforceable to these pine forests. The results of experimental trials undertaken in the black pine forest stand located in Pratomagno casentinese (Arezzo are being reported in the paper. The study started in 1978 and the following theses were tested (A heavy thinning from below; (B moderate thinning from below; (C control. Three thinnings were carried out in 1978, 1999 and 2009 at the ages of 24, 45 and 55. The action over time of

  14. Disturbance regimes, gap-demanding trees and seed mass related to tree height in warm temperate rain forests worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Peter J; Bellingham, Peter J; Kohyama, Takashi S; Piper, Frida I; Valido, Alfredo

    2013-08-01

    For tropical lowland rain forests, Denslow (1987) hypothesized that in areas with large-scale disturbances tree species with a high demand for light make up a larger proportion of the flora; results of tests have been inconsistent. There has been no test for warm temperate rain forests (WTRFs), but they offer a promising testing ground because they differ widely in the extent of disturbance. WTRF is dominated by microphylls sensu Raunkiaer and has a simpler structure and range of physiognomy than tropical or subtropical rain forests. It occurs in six parts of the world: eastern Asia, New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, SE Australia and the Azores. On the Azores it has been mostly destroyed, so we studied instead the subtropical montane rain forest (STMRF) on the Canary Islands which also represents a relict of the kind of WTRF that once stretched across southern Eurasia. We sought to find whether in these six regions the proportion of tree species needing canopy gaps for establishment reflects the frequency and/or extent of canopy disturbance by wind, landslide, volcanic eruptions (lava flow and ash fall), flood or fire. We used standard floras and ecological accounts to draw up lists of core tree species commonly reaching 5 m height. We excluded species which are very rare, very localized in distribution, or confined to special habitats, e.g. coastal forests or rocky sites. We used published accounts and our own experience to classify species into three groups: (1) needing canopy gaps for establishment; (2) needing either light shade throughout or a canopy gap relatively soon (a few months or years) after establishment; and (3) variously more shade-tolerant. Group 1 species were divided according the kind of canopy opening needed: tree-fall gap, landslide, lava flow, flood or fire. Only some of the significant differences in proportion of Group 1 species were consistent with differences in the extent of disturbance; even in some of those cases other factors seem

  15. Analysis of private natural heritage reserves as a conservation strategy for the biodiversity of the cocoa region of the southern State of Bahia, Brazil Análise das reservas particulares do patrimônio natural como estratégia de conservação na região cacaueira do Sul da Bahia, Brasil

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    Alexandre Schiavetti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first country in Latin America to establish and regulate this type of reserve, and there are currently more than 700 Private Nature Heritage Reserves (RPPN in Portuguese officially recognized by either federal or state environmental agencies. Together, these RPPN protect more than a half million hectares of land in the country. The coastal forests in the southern part of Bahia State extend 100 to 200 km inland, gradually changing in physiognomy as they occupy the dryer inland areas. The coastal forest has been subjected to intense deforestation, and currently occupies less than 10% of its original area. For this work the creation processes of the RPPN were consulted to obtain the data creation time, size of property, the condition of the remaining forest, succession chain and the last paid tax. After that, interviews with the owners were made to confirm this data. Sixteen RPPN have been established in this region until 2005. Their sizes vary from 4.7 to 800 ha. Ten of these RPPN are located within state or federal conservation areas or their buffer zones. In spite of the numerous national and international conservation strategies and environmental policies focused on the region, the present situation of the cocoa zone is threatening the conservation of the region's natural resources. The establishment of private reserves in the cocoa region could conceivably improve these conservation efforts. This type of reserve can be established under a uniform system supported by federal legislation, and could count on private organizations.O Brasil foi o primeiro País na América Latina a estabelecer e regulamentar este tipo de reserva e hoje, há mais de 700 Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN oficialmente reconhecidas pelos órgãos ambientais federais ou estaduais. Juntos, estas reservas protegem mais de meio milhão de hectares em diferentes biomas dos Pais. A Floresta Atlântica na região Sul da Bahia se estende at

  16. Estrutura da vegetação arbórea de um remanescente ecotonal urbano floresta-savana no Parque do Sabiá, em Uberlândia, MG Tree vegetation structure in an urban forest-savanna ecotone remnant, southeastern Brazil

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    Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme

    2007-04-01

    distributed in 46 botanical families with Shannon diversity index of 3.99 were recorded. Fabaceae showed the greatest species richness in the survey, corroborating the pattern found in other studies on the Cerrado Biome. Maprounea guianensis had the largest density, frequency and dominance relative values in the remnant. The semideciduous forest presented the largest floristic richness and characteristic species of that formation when compared with other studies. Hirtella glandulosa showed the largest importance value in the cerradão 2, suggesting the existence of a dystrophic soil in this physiognomy. The similar structural characteristics between cerradão 2 and semideciduous forest, tree species diversity significantly larger in cerradão 2 than in cerradão 1, besides the presence of typical species of swamp forests and semideciduous forest in cerradão 2 confirm the occurrence of transition areas in the remnant. Few individuals were recorded in the smallest diameter classes in cerradão 1. Continuous and varied human disturbances probably are responsible for this, indicating the need for conservation and management preventive actions of this biological patrimony.

  17. Vegetation classification and distribution mapping report Mesa Verde National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; McTeague, Monica L.; Ogden, Lindsay; Floyd, M. Lisa; Schulz, Keith; Friesen, Beverly A.; Fancher, Tammy; Waltermire, Robert G.; Cully, Anne

    2009-01-01

    during photointerpretation, and non-vegetated land cover, such as infrastructure, land use, and geological land cover. The base map classes consist of 5,007 polygons in the project area. A field-based accuracy assessment of the base map classes showed overall accuracy to be 43.5%. Seven map classes comprise 89.1% of the park vegetated land cover. The group map classes represent aggregations of the base map classes, approximating the group level of the National Vegetation Classification Standard, version 2 (Federal Geographic Data Committee 2007), and reflecting physiognomy and floristics. Terrestrial ecological systems, as described by NatureServe (Comer et al. 2003), were used as the fi rst approximation of the group level. The project team identified 14 group map classes for this project. The overall accuracy of the group map classes was determined using the same accuracy assessment data as for the base map classes. The overall accuracy of the group representation of vegetation was 80.3%. In consultation with park staff , the team developed management map classes, consisting of park-defined groupings of base map classes intended to represent a balance between maintaining required accuracy and providing a focus on vegetation of particular interest or import to park managers. The 23 management map classes had an overall accuracy of 73.3%. While the main products of this project are the vegetation classification and the vegetation map database, a number of ancillary digital geographic information system and database products were also produced that can be used independently or to augment the main products. These products include shapefiles of the locations of field-collected data and relational databases of field-collected data.

  18. Orientações pedagógicas das "casas de asilo da infância desvalida" (1834-1840 The pedagogical orientation of the "homes for disabled children" (1834-1840

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    Rogério Fernandes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo sobre os primeiros anos de atividades da Sociedade das Casas de Asilo da Infância Desvalida firmou-se na exploração do arquivo da instituição, denominada desde há poucos anos Fundação D. Pedro IV. Ela orientou-se pela filantropia, seguindo as tendências manifestadas pelas classes hegemônicas européias, sobretudo em França, tendo à sua frente o ex-Imperador do Brasil, que regressou a Lisboa após a derrota dos absolutistas. As Casas de Asilo tinham uma fisionomia própria que se distinguia das salles d'asile. No intuito de acharem um rumo ajustado às necessidades da sociedade portuguesa, os animadores da iniciativa começaram por criar uma "escola de ensino". Colhidos os primeiros frutos da experiência, o movimento das Casas de Asilo começou a difundir-se pelo país e a diversificar as suas intervenções. Embora destinadas a um público de crianças provenientes de famílias muito pobres ou indigentes, em idade pré-escolar, essas instituições configuravam as escolas de Primeiras Letras, mas incluíam no currículo atividades educativas, manuais ou artísticas, e de educação social, visando à integração de seu público. Apesar disso, essa experiência de educação infantil não logrou desprender-se da tradição escolarizante que a marcava.This study on the first years of activity of the Society of Homes for Disabled Children bases itself in the exploration of the archives of the institution, recently renamed the Foundation D. Pedro IV. It was oriented by philanthropy, following the tendencies manifested by the hegemonic European classes especially in France and headed by the ex-Emperor of Brazil who had returned to Lisbon after the defeat of the Absolutists. The Homes for Disabled Children had their own physiognomy, different from the salles d'asile. Aiming to set a course consonant with the needs of Portuguese society, the promoters of the initiative started by creating a "school for teaching". Harvesting

  19. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  20. Soil Fertility and Radicular System Depth of Sand Coastal Plain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, José Carlos; Akemi Sato, Claudia; Reis-Duarte, Rose Mary; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Sérgio Galvão Bueno, Mário

    2010-05-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) is a type of ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity. This vegetation is currently assigned as edaphic communities. In this study we present data on soil fertility in different vegetation physiognomies to discuss on abiotic factors related to Restinga Forest stability and recovery potential. This work was carried out in several points of Restinga Forest in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo, namely: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W); State Park of Anchieta Island, in the city of Ubatuba (45°02' e 45°05' W / 23°31' e 23° 45' S); Restinga Forest in the residential joint ownership Riviera of São Lourenço, in the city of Bertioga (46°08' W e 23°51' S); Ecological Station Juréia-Itatins, Ecological Station of Chauas , in the city of Iguape (24°45' S e 47°33' W) and State Park of Cardoso Island, Pereirinha Restinga Forest, in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W), Brazil. Sampling was carried out as follows in every area above mentioned. One sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. All areas investigated showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil. The nutritional reserve is present primarily in a depth of 15 cm, although mainly in the vegetable biomass. The level of calcium and magnesium were mainly low in the subsurface soil layer, associate with high concentration of

  1. Relação do padrão sazonal da vegetação com a precipitação na região de cerrado da Amazônia Legal, usando índices espectrais de vegetação Relationship between vegetation seasonal pattern and precipitation in the cerrado region by spectral vegetation indexes

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    Jorge Alberto Bustamante Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A precipitação é um dos principais fatores que determina a dinâmica sazonal da vegetação na região de savanas tropicais, como é o caso do cerrado brasileiro. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações da precipitação sazonal, com o comportamento sazonal das classes de uso e cobertura da terra (UCT, principalmente as fisionomias de cerrado do Estado de Tocantins. Foi analisada a dinâmica sazonal do cerrado, incluindo áreas florestadas e não florestadas, a partir da análise de imagens do MODIS/TERRA IV (Índices de Vegetação de janeiro a dezembro de 2004, bem como dados diários de precipitação de 2004 e uma série de precipitação diária do período de 1969 a 2005. Os resultados da análise de precipitação mostram que a área de estudo apresentou uma alta sazonalidade, com estação seca de maio a setembro. As análises dos IV mostram que a dinâmica sazonal das formações de cerrado é similar àquela das áreas convertidas para outros usos. O padrão sazonal das classes de UCT segue os padrões da precipitação, cujos menores valores foram registrados no mês de agosto de 2004, mês este que apresentou os menores valores dos IV. Diferentemente das demais classes de UCT, a formação florestal não se ajustou ao padrão de precipitação, apresentando valores de IV similares ao longo do ano com leve decréscimo no mês de setembro de 2004.Precipitation is one of the main factors that determine the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation in tropical savanna areas, as the Brazilian cerrado. In this work the relationship of the seasonal precipitation with the seasonal behavior of the land use and land cover (LULC types, mainly savannah physiognomies of the Tocantins State, was investigated. We analyzed the savanna seasonal dynamics, including forest and converted areas, with MODIS/TERRA VI (vegetation indexes satellite measurements from January to December 2004 and daily precipitation of 2004 and daily precipitation series

  2. Macroalgas bentônicas associadas a bancos de Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta - Gigartinales em duas praias do litoral baiano Macroalgae associated with banks of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales on two beaches on the coast of Bahia

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    Iara Oliveira Costa

    2012-06-01

    , which had an average biomass of 136 g.m-² (dry weight and average rates of H' and J' of 2.7 and 0.97, respectively. There was a predominance of red algae, both in values of richness and in biomass. The contribution of the morpho-functional group of the cortical algae was greater. Among the flora recorded, Gelidiella acerosa, Sargassum cymosum and Palisada perforata had higher biomasses. The reef compartment with the highest species richness and biomass was the frontal region. The communities of the beaches studied were considered distinct because of the physiognomy of the reef formations.

  3. Altitudinal vegetation belts in the high-Andes of central Chile (33°S Pisos altitudinales de vegetación en los Andes de Chile central (33°S

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    Lohengrin A. Cavieres

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The limits of alpine vegetation belts have been established mainly based on physiognomic criteria. However, a more objective approach for fixing limits of vegetation belts are methods based on species composition and relative abundance of each species. While these methods are more time consuming, they are more detailed and permit the detection of physical factors affecting the limits of vegetation belts. In this paper we: 1 describe the altitudinal changes of vegetation above timberline, 2 compare vegetation belts defined with physiognomy and two floristic methods (a qualitative one based on altitudinal changes in species composition, and a quantitative one based on changes in dominant species; and 3 detect some environmental factors responsible for the altitudinal distribution of alpine vegetation between 2100 and 3700 masl in the Andes of Santiago, central Chile (33°S. There was a complete agreement between the different methods in delimiting the subalpine belt. However, in the lower alpine belt (the cushion's belt floristic methods subdivided it in 2-3 sub-belts. In the floristic methods, elevations 3500-3700 that formed the higher alpine belt segregated in separate ways because they have no species in common. Physiognomic descriptions lose relevant information about species distribution, especially at higher elevations. Mean annual temperature and nitrogen content of soil are the main environmental factors affecting the altitudinal limits of vegetation belts in the central Chilean AndesLa delimitación de los pisos altitudinales de vegetación andina se ha basado principalmente en criterios fisionómicos. Sin embargo, un criterio más objetivo para la delimitación es usar métodos basados en la composición y abundancia relativa de las especies presentes. Mientras estos métodos requieren de un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo, son más detallados y permiten detectar factores físicos involucrados en la delimitación altitudinal de la vegetaci

  4. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  5. Riqueza, relevância e estratégias para a conservação de fisionomias campestres do Cerrado no Horto Florestal de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Richness, relevance and conservation strategies for savanna grasslands in the Horto Florestal of Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

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    Natashi Aparecida Lima PILON

    2017-06-01

    recorded 210 species, from which 61% are herbs, 17% shrubs and 17% subshrubs. Woody species represent just 6% of the total richness. Only 12 species occurred in both physiognomies, an evidence of high habitat specificity (high beta diversity. Species richness and diversity of life forms were higher in the dry environments, while the number of families was higher in the wet grassland. Among the observed species, six are under risk of extinction in SP state or in the whole country: Evolvulus fuscus Meisn., Curtia tenuifolia (Aubl. Knobl., Camarea hirsuta A.St-Hil., Andropogon hypogynus Hack., Richardia stellaris (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. and Xyris brevifolia Michx. In spite of the small size of this area (33.88 ha and the pressures due to the proximity to the urban zone, it still preserves high biodiversity. Therefore, these results strengthen the importance of this rare remnant of grassland vegetation in São Paulo state for conservation of Cerrado biodiversity and support its categorization as an Ecological Station.

  6. DERAPÂND PRIN ISTORIE. DISCURS IDENTITAR, CINEMA ŞI IDEOLOGIE ÎN ROMÂNIA COMUNISTĂ

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    Gabriel MOISA

    2017-08-01

    historical source and to render it unusable. With very few exceptions, film and television productions distorted in varying degrees the presented realities. InRomania, as in other totalitarian states, both fiction and the documentary films were used as a historical source only on certain conditions. In fact, obser­ving the film production, one can see how they were marked by the evolution of the regime’s censorship and political emphasis.Next we shall try to follow the evolution of the Romanian historical film during the communist regime, an extremely interesting and often favourable period for this category of films, through the ideological intrusion of the communist regime in this area and the way the communist regime interfered in this type of film production.The new Romanian new realities favoured by the events of 23 August, 1944 had negative consequences on the Romanian cinema. Along with other areas of the Romanian life, the cinema underwent several transformations as to comply with Romania’s new physiognomy.

  7. Quantitative analysis of cardiac lesions in chronic canine chagasic cardiomyopathy Análise quantitativa das lesões cardíacas na cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica canina

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    Marcelo Vidigal CALIARI

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesions observed in chronic chagasic cardiopathy frequently produce electrocardiographic alterations and affect cardiac function. Through a computerized morphometrical analysis we quantified the areas occupied by cardiac muscle, connective and adipose tissues in the right atrium of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. All of the infected dogs showed chronic myocarditis with variable reduction levels of cardiac muscle, fibrosis and adipose tissue replacement. In the atrial myocardium of dogs infected with Be78 and Be62 cardiac muscle represented 34 and 50%, fibrosis 28 and 32% and adipose tissue 38 and 18%, respectively. The fibrosis observed was both diffuse and focal and mostly intrafascicular, either partially or completely interrupting the path of muscle bundles. Such histological alterations probably contributed to the appearance of electrocardiographic disturbances verified in 10 out 11 dogs which are also common in human chronic chagasic cardiopathy. Fibrosis was the most important microscopic occurrence found since it produces rearrangements of collagen fibers in relation to myocardiocytes which causes changes in anatomical physiognomy and mechanical behavior of the myocardium. These abnormalities can contribute to the appearance of cardiac malfunction, arrythmias and congestive cardiac insufficiency as observed in two of the analyzed dogs. Strain Be78 caused destruction of atrial cardiac muscle higher than that induced by strain Be62.As lesões observadas na cardiopatia chagásica crônica frequentemente produzem alterações eletrocardiográficas e afetam a função cardíaca. Através de uma análise morfométrica computadorizada nós quantificamos as áreas ocupadas por músculo cardíaco, tecido conjuntivo fibroso e tecido adiposo no átrio direito de cães experimentalmente infectados pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Todos os cães infectados apresentaram miocardite crônica fibrosante com graus variáveis de redução de m

  8. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

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    Francois P. Retief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after the Renaissance, it still remains of considerable significance in countries like China and Tibet. Astrology took on a prominent medical component in the Old Babylonian Era (1900-1600 BC when diseases were first attributed to stellar bodies and associated gods. In the Neo-Babylonian Era (6th century BC the zodiac came into being: an imaginary belt across the skies (approximately 16o wide which included the pathways of the sun, moon and planets, as perceived from earth. The zodiac belt was divided into 12 equal parts (“houses” or signs, 6 above the horizon and 6 below. The signs became associated with specific months, illnesses and body parts – later with a number of other objects like planets, minerals (e.g. stones and elements of haruspiction (soothsaying, mantic, gyromancy. In this way the stellar objects moving through a zodiac “house” became associated with a multitude of happenings on earth, including illness. The macrocosm of the universe became part of the human microcosm, and by studying the stars, planets, moon, etcetera the healer could learn about the incidence, cause, progress and treatment of disease. He could even predict the sex and physiognomy of unborn children. The art of astrology and calculations involved became very complex. The horoscope introduced by the 3rd century BC (probably with Greek input produced a measure of standardisation: a person’s position within the zodiac would be determined by the date of birth, or

  9. Life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in plant communities on ironstone outcrops, SE Brazil Formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes em comunidades vegetais sobre afloramentos ferruginosos, SE do Brasil

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    Claudia Maria Jacobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rock outcrops play an important role in enhancing plant diversity in montane ecosystems. Ironstone outcrops (cangas are among the lithotypes less known and most threatened in SE Brazil, due to mining activities. Besides species composition, a key feature to promote their conservation and restoration is the knowledge of the community prevalent life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The analyses were done based on published floristic surveys of cangas in SE Brazil. A total of 353 species of angiosperms (70 families were assigned to one of the two predominant physiognomies (open areas and forest islands on ironstone outcrops. Sixteen families responded for 70% of all species. Compared to Raunkiaer's spectrum, phanerophytes were over- and therophytes were under-represented. Phanerophytes were the predominant life-form in forest islands, while hemicryptophytes were outstanding in open areas. Entomophily was the dominant pollination syndrome in both habitats. Zoochory was dominant in forest islands and ranked last in open areas, where anemochory and autochory prevailed. Considering that both forest islands and open areas are subjected to the same climatic conditions, the results corroborate the influence of geoedaphic components in the three traits analysed.Afloramentos rochosos têm um papel importante na diversidade vegetal de ecossistemas montanos. As cangas (afloramentos ferruginosos estão entre os litotipos menos conhecidos e mais ameaçados do sudeste do Brasil, devido às atividades minerarias. Além da composição de espécies, um aspecto fundamental para promover sua conservação e restauração é o conhecimento das formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes dominantes. As análises foram baseadas em listas florísticas publicadas de cangas do sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 353 espécies de angiospermas (70 famílias foi distribuído entre as duas fisionomias predominantes (áreas abertas e cap

  10. Ultra-high pitch chest computed tomography at 70 kVp tube voltage in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom and non-sedated pediatric patients. Initial experience with 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, Claudia; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Neff, K. Wolfgang; Weis, Meike [Univ. Medical Center Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2016-07-01

    Minimizing radiation dose while at the same time preserving image quality is of particular importance in pediatric chest CT. Very recently, CT imaging with a tube voltage of 70 kVp has become clinically available. However, image noise is inversely proportional to the tube voltage. We aimed to investigate radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT performed at 70 kVp in an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom as well as in clinical patients. An anthropomorphic pediatric phantom, which resembles a one-year-old child in physiognomy, was scanned on the 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT (DSCT) system at 70 kVp and 80 kVp and a fixed ultra low tube-current of 8 mAs to solely evaluate the impact of lowering tube voltage. After the phantom measurements, 18 pediatric patients (mean 29.5 months; range 1-91 months; 21 examinations) underwent 3.2 high-pitch chest CT on the same DSCT system at 70 kVp tube voltage without any sedation. Radiation dose and presence of motion artifacts was compared to a retrospectively identified patient cohort examined at 80 kVp on a 16-slice single-source-CT (SSCT; n = 15; 14/15 with sedation; mean 30.7 months; range 0-96 months; pitch = 1.5) or on a 2{sup nd} generation DSCT without any sedation (n = 6; mean 32.8 months; range 4-61 months; pitch = 3.2). Radiation dose in the phantom scans was reduced by approximately 40% when using a tube voltage of 70 kVp instead of 80 kVp. In the pediatric patient group examined at 70 kVp age-specific effective dose (ED; mean 0.5 ± 0.2 mSv) was significantly lower when compared to the retrospective cohort scanned at 80 kVp on the 16-slice-SSCT (mean ED: 1.0 ± 0.3 mSv; p < 0.0001) and also considerably lower when compared to the cohort scanned at 80 kVp on the 2{sup nd} generation DSCT (mean ED: 0.9 ± 0.5 mSv). None of the prospective, sedation-free CT examinations showed any motion artifacts whereas 13/15 examinations of the retrospective patient cohort scanned at 80 kVp with a pitch of 1

  11. Bromeliaceae da restinga da Reserva Biológica Estadual da Praia do Sul: composição, abundância e similaridade da comunidade Bromeliaceae of the Praia do Sul State Biological Reserve restinga: community composition, abundance and similarity

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    André Felippe Nunes-Freitas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Biológica Estadual da Praia do Sul (Ilha Grande, RJ é um importante remanescente de restinga preservada do Rio de Janeiro. A vegetação das restingas não é homogênea, distribuindo-se em zonas de vegetação, e cada uma delas é caracterizada por sua topografia, fisionomia e florística distintas. Estudamos a comunidade de Bromeliaceae, analisando variações na riqueza, abundância, densidade e freqüência de ocorrência entre quatro zonas de vegetação. Nas quatro zonas, amostramos um total de 150 parcelas de 100 m² cada, onde contabilizamos as espécies e suas abundâncias, e medidas de estrutura da vegetação (altura e DAP das árvores e densidade de árvores e de arbustos do sub-bosque. Testamos diferenças entre zonas na abundância de rosetas e na estrutura da vegetação, e entre as abundâncias das espécies de bromélias através de ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. Encontramos 16 espécies de bromélias, com abundâncias e padrões de distribuição distintos entre as zonas, além de diferenças significativas entre as abundâncias das espécies. Os dados indicam que a elevada riqueza de espécies encontradas na RBEPS pode estar relacionada à heterogeneidade e à complexidade locais. As diferenças encontradas entre as zonas de vegetação podem ser devidas às diferenças na estrutura da vegetação de cada zona.The Praia do Sul State Biological Reserve (Ilha Grande, RJ is an important remnant of Restinga habitat in Rio de Janeiro State. Restinga vegetation is not homogeneous and it is distributed in different vegetation zones, each zone having different topography, physiognomy and flora. We analyzed ecological parameters of the bromeliad community such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones. We sampled 150 plots of 100 m² (10×10 m, distributed in the four vegetation zones, recording the bromeliad species and their abundance, and measuring the height

  12. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  13. Mustafa Bin Bâlî ve İlm-i Firâset’i Mustafa Bin Bâlî And İlm-i Firâset

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    Ramazan SARIÇİÇEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There wasn’t any study over this work which was Mustafa bin Bâlî’s, who lived 16th century, plain-text. But there is some information about works which were made over firâset, physiognomy and like sciences.2 The study which we make over this work comes last stage and it is firstly presented to science-world here. Although it is said that it was compiled from Fahreddin Razi veMuhyiddin-i Arabî at primary of the work, it is quality of an academicstudy which was prepared with study of many more works over scienceof firâset. Not only Fahreddin Razi and Muhyiddin-i Arabî but also theauthor benefited from works of many more scientists from HamdullahHamdi to İbni Sina. we can say that it is unique in its field with thiscourse. In that works, which were written in this field, are generallyover application of firaset science. That is, they pay attention overresults instead of the basic criterion of this science. Nevertheless,thiswork is a well-coorinated study which was made over firaset aswhole.That work compile and gather informations about firaset withcare of an academician while they are in bits and disorganized atanother works.In addition, the work is included various verses like Arabic,Persian and Turkish in spite it is plain-text. As for aspect of language,also it is included materials of language which belonging to Turkish ofAncient Anatolian. 16. yüzyılda yaşayan Mustafa bin Bâlî’nin mensur olan bu eseri üzerinde daha önce bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Ancak firâset, kıyâfet ve benzeri ilimler üzerinde yapılan çalışmalarda hakkında bazı bilgiler verilmiştir.1 Bizim ise bu eser üzerinde yaptığımız çalışma son aşamasına gelmiş olmakla beraber ilk defa burada bilim âleminin dikkatine sunulmaktadır.Her ne kadar eserin başında Fahreddin Razi ve Muhyiddin-i Arabî’den derlendiği söyleniyor ise de eser firâset ilmi üzerine daha birçok eser de taranarak hazırlanmış akademik bir

  14. Climate-vegetation relationship: adaptations of jarillal community to the semiarid climate. Lihué Calel National Park, province of La Pampa, Argentina

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    Valeria Soledad Duval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of vegetation from the Geography perspective focuses on the analysis of the spatial distribution and on the factors affecting it. One of these factors is the climate, which determines the characteristics of the vegetation and, on a larger scale, of the communities. The aim of this paper is to analyze the climate-vegetation relationship by studying adaptations of the jarillal community regarding the semiarid climate in the Lihué Calel National Park, Argentina. Therefore, this contribution is concerned with the knowledge of the characteristics of the environment in order to understand how vegetation responds to certain phenomena, so management of protected areas will be more suitable. Lihué Calel National Park is a national protected area located in the south-center of La Pampa province, Argentina. According to Cabrera (1976 the area belongs to the floristic province of “monte” and the climate is warm and dry. In the interest to achieve the goals of this paper, Thornthwaite and Mather´s water balance was done. The data was collected from a weather station that belongs to the national park, for the period 1995-2010. Emberger›s pluviothermic coefficient, Lang´s rainfall index, De Martonne´s aridity index and Currey´s continentality index were analyzed. In addition, ten stands or plots of vegetation were placed to determine the floristic composition and the vegetation physiognomy. Then, plants species were identified as individuals and their adaptive responses were also analyzed. In conclusion, the survey verified that semi-arid climate conditions determine the morphology and the appearance of jarillal. Climate analysis shows that for the period 1995-2010 the average annual temperature is 16.2° C and reveals that thermal summers and winters are well differentiated. Large water deficit is defined, because water balance indicates that the evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during every month of the year. According to

  15. Variações florística e estrutural e relações fitogeográficas de um fragmento de floresta decídua no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Floristic and structural variations, and the phytogeographical relationships of a deciduous forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

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    Luiz Antonio Cestaro

    2004-06-01

    nos Cerrados.This work was undertaken in a deciduous forest fragment (~270 ha, centered on 5°53'S and 35°23'W spanning two distinct edaphic environments (Areas 1and 2, and sought to floristically and structurally characterize the tree layers in both environments, as well as to assess their phytogeographical relationships. All living and standing dead trees with CBH >10 cm were sampled using the point-centered quarter method. The results for areas 1and 2 were, respectively: total density, 1.587 and 1.924 individual.ha-1; total basal area, 15.88 and 15.86m².ha-1; most frequent height classes of living trees, 5-5.9m and 6-6.9m; most frequent stem diameters of living trees, 5.09.9cm and 3.2-4.9cm; Shannon diversity index 3.19 and 3.26; and Pielou evenness index, 0.79 and 0.86. The tree layers in both areas 1 and 2 were considered structurally similar. A total of 66 tree species were observed (56 in area 1 and 45 in area 2. Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. showed the greatest importance value in both areas, followed by Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. in area 1, and Chamaecrista ensiformis (Vell. H.S. Irwin & Barneby in area 2. Both edaphic environments showed a high floristic similarity (S S = 0.69 and S C = 0.53.Species typical of deciduous forests were more abundant in, or exclusive to, area 1. Species more typical of Caatingas environments were more abundant in, or exclusive to, area 2. The small floristic and structural differences noted between the two areas are apparently attributable to soil conditions. This forest fragment contains many species showing wide distributions in both Neotropical dry forests and Cerrados, and was considered a transitional vegetation type between the Atlantic and Caatingas phytogeographical provinces, in terms of species composition and physiognomy, as well as local environment conditions.

  16. Recent evoluation of the private property of the Brazil

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    Ralfo Edmundo da Silva Matos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of private property and its correlation with the expansion of modernity, with the affirmation of industrial capitalism, and with the consecration of laws and fundamental clauses is age-old and permeates the philosophical approaches from Plato and Aristotle to Morus, Hobbes, and Locke, reaching even authors from the Age of Enlightenment such as Rousseau and Voltaire, among others. The debate over private property is, therefore, a recurring subject that still captures the attention of many research scholars. In Brazil, given the historical record of the dispossessed, the late abolition of slavery (1888, and the sheer size of the country, it is a given fact that owning a household has always been the dream of millions of families. Even today, millions of precarious households shape the physiognomy of Brazilian cities. Nevertheless, recent census data have lead to the conclusion that changes in this scenario have occurred. In urban Brazil, the growth rate of “owned” and “unowned” households has been greater than demographic growth, especially in the North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of the country. The “unowned” / “owned” proportion has risen in all Sates of the Federal Union, and in many cases, this increase has been remarkable, in excess of 40%. The three regions where the growth rate of “owned” households proved to be higher (North, Northeast, and Midwest also stand out among those that show the most noticeable increase in the ratio between “owned” and “unowned” households. The results also indicate a strong expansion of “unowned” and rented households in the country. The annual growth reached 3.79% from 2000 to 2010, significantly higher than the growth of the resident population in Brazil, and all states showed positive growth rates. The proportion of “owned” households by city, as compared to the average of “owned” households in Brazil, clearly shows that, in the vast majority of Brazilian

  17. The wall painting on the western façade and the lunette of the southern portal of St. Nicholas in Ljuboten

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    Radujko Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wall painting on the façades of St. Nicholas in Ljuboten near Skopje, the endowment of 'Lady Danica', a noblewoman in the time of King Dušan, was destroyed in 1928, during the restoration of the church. Evidence of the appearance of the hitherto unnoticed decoration on the western facade and the southern entrance can be seen on glass plates in the Photograph Collection of the National Museum in Belgrade. When the photographs Nos. 1438, 1444 and 1567 were taken, the painting on the Ljuboten church façades, although damaged or washed away, was still partly visible. On the western façade it extended in three zones (the socle, the standing figures and the busts across the entire façade and from the ground to the porch, the roof of which stood at the foot of the western wall archivolt, while the ornamentation of the southern façade covered the lunette above the entrance and its archivolt. Although in 1925, the painting did not contain a single legible signature or physiognomy, thematically, the outer ornamentation of Ljuboten is essentially clear. The bust of the Mother of God with the infant Christ, facing south, was in the centre of the compositional focus of the western façade. Three figures stood on the left and on the right sides of the portal, one on each of the pilasters, and one monumental figure in each of two niches. From the south, a church hierarch, with short, curly beard, was moving in a stooping position towards the Mother of God. He, certainly, could be identified as the patron of the church, St. Nicholas. The saint raises his right hand in a gesture of exhortation. Behind him, a figure in monastic habit was painted. This person holds a model of the church in the left hand, with the right hand in a gesture of prayer. Undoubtedly, it was the donatrix of the church painted here. As opposed to the figures in the southern part of the western façade, those in the northern part were facing forward. We recognized a saint on the