WorldWideScience

Sample records for physiognomy

  1. Phrenology and physiognomy in Victorian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshears, Rhonda; Whitaker, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Phrenology evolved from the work of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), becoming a fixture in Victorian culture, arts and letters as well as medicine. Writers such as Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) and Thomas Hood (1799-1845) initially satirized phrenology, as did playwright and composer William S. Gilbert (1836-1911). On the other hand, novelists such as Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), Charles Dickens (1812-1870), George Eliot (1819-1880), and the poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) not only accepted the principles of this brain-based personality theory but exploited it in their characters. The popularity of phrenology in the Victorian period should in part be attributed to the popularity of physiognomy which, thanks in large part to Johann Christian Lavater (1741-1801), has been thoroughly embedded in Western culture since the end of the eighteenth century.

  2. Physiognomy and Eschatology: Some More Fragments of 4Q561

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren; Høgenhaven, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Text, translation and discussion of previously unpublished fragments of "4Q561 Physiognomy". The content of the newly published fragments is of a narrative, and possibly eschatological nature, in contradistinction to the physiognomic divination in the previously known ones, causing the authors to...

  3. Pedology and plant physiognomies in the Cerrado, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Andreza V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Souza, Agostinho L; Ferreira, Walnir G; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out in Paraopeba National Reserve. It aims to classify and evaluate the soil of the studied area and to verify the influence of soil attributes on vegetation by testing the following hypotheses: 1) under woodland physiognomies (Cerradão) the soil fertility is higher and the Al content lower; 2) open savanna occurs only in areas with high Al contents. For this purpose, representative soils in the Paraopeba National Reserve were mapped, identified, and samples from five profiles were analyzed. The environmental gradient was easily observed by principal components analyses, where the differences between the sites were highlighted. The Spearman correlation was used to verify the hypothesis. The correlation between vegetation (basal area, density, and richness) and soil (K, Ca2+, and Al3+) was statistically significant. The hypotheses were accepted, but hypothesis 1 only partially. Soil features seem to have an influence on the Cerrado phytophysiognomies and structure. Available phosphorous was an important factor for the maintenance of woodland Cerrado. Also, exchangeable Al3+ plays a major role in the establishment of different Cerrado physiognomies in Paraopeba National Reserve.

  4. Philosophers and physicians on the scientific validity of Latin physiognomy, 1200-1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The article surveys and contextualizes the main arguments among philosophers and academic physicians surrounding the status of physiognomy as a valid science from the thirteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. It suggests that despite constant doubts, learned Latin physiognomy in the later Middle Ages was recognized by natural philosophers (William of Spain, Jean Buridan, William of Mirica) and academic physicians (Rolandus Scriptor, Michele Savonarola, Bartolomeo della Rocca [Cocles]) as a body of knowledge rooted in a sound theoretical basis. Physiognomy was characterized by stability and certainty. As a demonstrative science it was expected to provide rational explanation for every bodily sign. In this respect, learned physiognomy in the Middle Ages was dramatically different from its classical sources, from Islamic and possibly from early-modern physiognomy as well.

  5. Groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Leite, M.; Mattos, T.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2014, several cities of southeastern Brazil have grappled with their worst drought in nearly 80 years. To improve water availability in this region, the Brazilian government has studied the possibility of increasing groundwater use, mainly in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), the largest (~1.2 million km2) transnational boundary groundwater reservoir in South America. Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the GAS are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of Cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the consequences of this land cover and land use change on groundwater recharge. In this study we assessed groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Cerrado located in an outcrop area of the GAS. Water table fluctuations were measured from October 2011 through August 2013, by 64 monitoring wells distributed on five physiognomies of the undisturbed Cerrado. We used 20 (2.2±0.3 m), 20 (4.3±1.4 m), 14 (4.7±1.9 m), 9 (6.2±0.7 m), and 1 (42 m) monitoring wells (and average depth of wells) for "campo limpo" (cerrado grassland), "campo sujo" (shrub cerrado), "campo cerrado" (shrub cerrado), "cerrado sensu stricto" (wooded cerrado), and "cerrado sensu stricto denso" (cerrado woodland), respectively. Recharge was computed for each well using the Water Table Fluctuation method. The measured precipitation for hydrological years 2011-12 and 2012-13 were 1247 mm and 1194 mm, respectively. We found values of average annual recharge of 363 mm, 354 mm, 324 mm, and 315 mm for "campo limpo", "campo sujo","campo cerrado", and "cerrado sensu stricto", respectively. We did not find changes in the water table level in the one well located in the "cerrado sensu stricto denso". The water table in this well was 35 m deep; therefore, the amount of water that eventually reached the saturated zone was not enough to cause a rapid change in the

  6. Physiognomy and teeth: an ethnographic study among young and middle-aged Hong Kong adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, C; Liu, K S; Lam, C W

    2002-05-11

    To determine knowledge and beliefs about traditional physiognomy (judging an individual's character from their facial appearance) concerning teeth among young (17-26) and middle-aged (35-44) Hong Kong adults. In a cross sectional ethnographical telephone survey, 400 adults were interviewed about 16 traditional physiognomy concerning teeth (in consultation with a Feng Shui specialist). Most completed the interview (93%, 373). Over half the study group (63%, 234) claimed they had heard of aspects of physiognomy concerning teeth, and a quarter (24%, 88) believed in such ideologies. Variations in knowledge and beliefs were apparent among people of different age (P < 0.01), gender (P < 0.05), educational attainment (P < 0.01), economic status (P < 0.01), place of birth (P < 0.01) and religion (P < 0.01). Their knowledge and belief in aspects of physiognomy concerning teeth was also associated with reported use of dental services (P < 0.01). Among young and middle-aged adults in Hong Kong, knowledge and beliefs concerning traditional physiognomy regarding teeth is strong, and socio-demographic variations exist in these perceptions. These findings have implications for all those involved in the delivery of dental care in multicultural societies and in raising cultural awareness about traditional health beliefs.

  7. [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two schizophrenic patients with characteristic hallucinations consisting of auditory hallucinations accompanied by visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The patient sees the face of the hallucinatory speaker in his/her mind and hears the voice talking inwardly. We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations. In this report, we present 10 patients with schizophrenia showing physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations and evaluate the characteristics of these clinical symptoms. Moreover we consider what the symptoms mean for patients and the metabasis from structural aspects. Lastly, we consider how we can treat these patients living autistic lives with the symptoms. During physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations, the realistic face moves its mouth and talks to the patient expressively. In early onset cases, the faces of various real people appear talking about ordinary things while in late onset cases, the faces can be imaginary but are mainly real people talking about ordinary or delusional things. We suppose that these characteristics of the symptoms unify the schizophrenic world overwhelmed by "a force of non-sense" to "the sense field". "The force of non-sense" is a substantial power but cannot be reduced to the real meaning. And we suppose that not visual reality but the intensity of auditory hallucinations of the face brings about the overwhelming intensity of symptoms and the substantiality of this intensity depends on the states of excessive fullness of "the force of non-sense". With these symptoms patients see the narration of auditory hallucinations through the facial image and the content of auditory hallucinations is compressed into the movement of visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The form of symptoms is realistic but the speaker's face and voice are beyond ordinary time and space. The symptoms are essentially different from ordinary perception. The visual

  8. Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUZhan-yuan; YUEYong-jie; GUOJian-fen; CHENGuang-shui; XIEJin-sheng; HEZong-ming; YANGYu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, Ill and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  9. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  10. Yuntaishan Global Geopark VS Grand Canyon World Heritage Site A Contrast of Yuntai/Grand Canyon Physiognomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Zhao; Xun, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Yuntai/Grand Canyon is a result of long-term historical evolution and a rare natural heritage of the world. With its rich heritages of geological physiognomy, systematic geological record, abundant biological fossil combination, long history of structural evolution, they are of contrastive research values worldwide. The Grand Canyon was declared national natural heritage on eleventh January, and in 1979 it was entitled World Natural Heritage Site. Though the two major sites are separated by tremendous seas, they reached agreements in the protection of natural heritages worldwide on account of the shared ideas of society, demonstrating to our children how can we protect the two scenery sites. Keyword:Geopark, Geoheritage, Yuntai Landform, GrandCanyon Mt. Taihang rises from the central part of north China and extends to the west edge of North China Plain. Towering, and with ragged peaks, precarious cliffs, long strips of walls, deep valleys and shaded streams, Mt. Taihang poses impressive sights with its clear water, dense forest and wonderful sceneries. It is indeed the east slope of Qin-Jin Plateau. Indeed things tend to coincide. On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, along the west edge of north America and on the wide and spacious Colorado Plateau, there is a winding and deep valley where there are layers of rocks, extensive sharp cliffs, intercrossing ravines and forests of peaks; it is totally impressive. Both sceneries are known to the world for their beauty. Identical geological conditions and similar history of evolution left two natural sights that resemble each other so much. Geological changes are infinite, and sedimentation works in similar ways on both sights; and the changing ecological environment gives the world two colorful and comparable geological records. Both sights are merely brief periods in the long history of earth development, but they show us how cradles of human proliferation and social civilization had looked. 1,Comparison of two parks

  11. Obtaining digital elevation data in different terrain and physiognomy regions with spaceborne InSAR and its application analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (for short, InSAR) is a new kind of earth observation technology, which has obtained great development in recent ten years and has a great development potential and successful future. In this note, three typical regions with different physiognomies and terrains have been selected as study regions to extract their Digital Elevation Model (DEMs). Compared with the existing 1︰250000 DEM and by analyzing their results, we have obtained its accuracy and applicable scopes. The results show that in the region (plains, mountains or highlands) with dry surface and sparse vegetation, because of the better correlatability of images, the DEM obtained by InSAR is evidently better than the existing 1︰250000 DEM and the accuracy can reach 4-6 m; in the thick-vegetation-covering region, correlatability between images descends and the accuracy of InSAR DEM can only reach about 30 m worse than its existing 1︰250000 DEM; in the middle covering field, the accuracy of InSAR DEM with tandem images can reach about 10 m as well; yet in water space, such as lakes and rivers, InSAR DEM shows a big error since there is only quite faint signal reflected to the sensor. Then the conclusion has been got: in the west of China, where it has a lack-vegetation and dry ground, InSAR is completely feasible to be applied to such a complicated nature environment region.

  12. Rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer: Physiognomy, floristics and diversity in ‘lowland rainforests’ of Meghalaya, India

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    Uma Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lowland rainforests of Meghalaya, India represent the westernmost limit of the rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer. These forests, on the Shillong plateau, are akin to Whitmore's ‘tropical lowland evergreen rainforest’ formation and exhibit striking similarities and conspicuous differences with the equatorial rainforests in Asia-Pacific as well as tropical seasonal rainforests in southwestern China near the Tropic of Cancer. We found these common attributes of the rainforests in Meghalaya: familial composition with predominance of Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrsiticaceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae; deciduousness in evergreen physiognomy; dominance of mega- and mesophanerophytic life-forms; abundance of species with low frequency of occurrence (rare and aggregated species; low proportional abundance of the abundant species; and truncated lognormal abundance distribution. The levels of stand density and stand basal area were comparable with seasonal rainforests in southwestern China, but were lower than equatorial rainforests. Tropical Asian species predominated flora, commanding 95% of the abundance. The differences include overall low stature (height of the forest, inconspicuous stratification in canopy, fewer species and individuals of liana, thicker understory, higher proportion of rare species, absence of locally endemic species and relatively greater dominance of Fagaceae and Theaceae. The richness of species per hectare (S was considerably lower at higher latitudes in Meghalaya than in equatorial rainforests, but was comparable with seasonal rainforests. Shannon's diversity index (H′ = 4.40 nats for ≥10 cm gbh and 4.25 nats for ≥30 cm gbh was lower on higher latitudes in Meghalaya in comparison to species-rich equatorial rainforests, but it was the highest among all lowland rainforests near the Tropic of Cancer.

  13. Improved plan of physiognomy model building in world wind system recreated%World wind平台地理环境建模方法的研究与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 张军; 卢虎

    2012-01-01

    This paper has presented an amendatory arithmetic plan of the 3D model created in a popular GIS system. The needs of GIS system re-create have been analyzed and the model of physiognomy has been built in a new plan about substituting multilevel DEM combination with the amendatory quad-tree for single level DEM combination. Many examinations are testified that the new plan can reduce sum of vertex, accelerate speed of scene protract and keep the quality of vision with physiognomy model.%介绍了一种对流行地理信息系统三维建模方式的改进算法.对基于地理信息系统二次开发的应用软件需求进行了分析,提出以改进的四叉树算法实现的多层级高程数据瓦片拼接方式替代传统的同层级高程数据瓦片拼接方法来构建地理环境模型.经过实际验证该方法在保证地理环境模型视觉效果没有很大降低的情况下可大幅减少模型总顶点数量进而达到提升场景渲染速度的要求.

  14. Arquitetura foliar comparativa de Miconia sellowiana (DC. Naudin (Melastomataceae em diferentes fitofisionomias no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Comparative leaf architecture of Miconia sellowiana (DC. Naudin (Melastomataceae from different plant physiognomies in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Maria Regina Torres Boeger

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos prévios sobre M. sellowiana, em quatro fitofisionomias no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, mostraram que suas folhas apresentaram uma grande plasticidade morfológica. Este trabalho objetivou dar continuidade ao estudo sobre a plasticidade da espécie, utilizando como indicadores as seguintes características foliares: área e massa, massa específica, espessura, ângulo, comprimento, diâmetro, porcentagem do tecido mecânico e volume do pecíolo, distâncias entre veias e densidade de venação. A análise dos componentes principais (ACP mostrou que os dois primeiros componentes explicaram 78% da variância total. O componente principal 1 (CP1, representado pelos ângulo foliar, distância da veia principal até a margem, comprimento do pecíolo, densidade de venação, massa específica e massa seca foliar, explicou 56,06% da variância total, enquanto que o componente principal 2 (CP2, representado pela área foliar, explicou 12,62% da variância total. O CP1 mostrou dois agrupamentos: um entre os indivíduos da Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana e outro entre os indivíduos da Estepe Gramíneo-Lenhosa e Floresta Ombrófila Alto-Montana. Para o CP2, a distribuição é mais homogênea entre as quatro fitofisionomias estudadas. A ACP sugere o mesmo gradiente mesomórfico-xeromórfico encontrado nos estudos anteriores para M. sellowiana, mostrando que os atributos morfológicos aqui estudados são também plásticos, respondendo as condições ambientais diferenciadas entreas quatro fitofisionomias.Previous studies on M. sellowiana from four different plant physiognomies in Paraná state, Brazil, have shown that the leaves of this species have great morphological plasticity. This work continues the study on the morphological plasticity of the species, using the following characteristics of leaf architecture as indicators: area, dry weight, specific dry weight, thickness, angle, length, diameter, percent mechanical

  15. 紫色土人工林林下植物区系与群落外貌的恢复过程%Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于占源; 岳永杰; 郭剑芬; 陈光水; 谢锦升; 何宗明; 杨玉盛

    2005-01-01

    采用时空代换法,以福建省宁化县严重退化紫色土人工林生态系统为对象,按侵蚀强度由强到弱选取4种生态恢复措施Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ,研究了植物多样性与生态系统过程的关系.结果表明,该紫色土退化生态系统的植物出现43科78属86种,种子植物属15个分布类型中出现12个.沿恢复梯度,植物的生活型谱逐渐丰富,种子植物属各分布区类型出现的属数趋于增加,各种叶特征所对应的植物属数依次增多.可见,生态恢复过程中的植物区系与群落外貌越来越复杂和多样化,该紫色土生态系统渐趋稳定.%The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, III and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  16. Distribuição da brioflora em diferentes fisionomias de cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil Distribution of the brioflora in the different cerrado physiognomies of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à distribuição da brioflora ocorrente no cerrado Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de MogiGuaçu. Este bioma apresenta fisionomias que variam de florestas a campos. As coletas foram realizadas entre 1993 e 1995, na casca de 15 espécies de forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos, ao longo de um transecto, passando por cinco fisionomias diferentes de cerrado. Estudaramse 1.345 exsicatas de 49 gêneros e 92 espécies de briófitas. A brioflora está relacionada às fisionomias de cerrado e não aos forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos. As fisionomias são mais semelhantes quanto à flora de musgos do que em relação à flora de hepáticas. As briófitas distribuem-se em três grupos de fisionomias: cerrado sentido restrito, campo cerrado e transição / cerrado sentido restrito de Myrsine / campo cerrado queimado.This paper refers to the distribution of the brioflora in the cerrado vegetation of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu. This biome includes forests to grassland physiognomies. Collects of bryophytes was made between 1993 and 1995 on bark of 15 shrubby-arboreous phorophytes species along a transect, through five different physiognomies of the cerrado vegetation. The studied material totalized 1,345 numbers from 49 genera and 92 species of bryophytes. The brioflora is not related to the shrubby-arboreous phorophytes, but to the cerrado physiognomies. Similarity between physiognomies is higher due to mosses than hepatics distribution. Bryophytes are distributed in three physiognomic groups: cerrado 'stricto sensu', cerrado grassland and transition / cerrado 'stricto sensu' of Myrsine / burned cerrado grassland.

  17. ETHNIC AND GENDER PHYSIOGNOMY IN ADVERTISEMENT

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    Patricia Izquierdo Iranzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Media depiction of cultural diversity is not accurate in its reports about Spanish immigration phenomenon. There is large scientific evidence of it after 20 years of immigration in Spain. Different media genres offer different distortions according to their own interests. Journalism is more focused on the dramatic arrival of immigrants to the Spanish southern coast, while advertisement is more likely to overuse and misuse stereotypes. Both actions are reproducing and suggesting behavioral patterns that might affect interpersonal and intercultural communication and the relationship among different cultural groups. The research carried out shows that advertisement feeds negative stereotypes that might increase sexism and racism in society. That is the reason why the analyzed target are African and Afrodescendent women in Spanish graphic ads.

  18. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    herbivoria na seca e pelo sombreamento e ataque de patógenos na estação chuvosa.The savannas of Central Brazil are characterized by a continuous, predominantly grassy, ground layer and an open layer of trees and shrubs of a variable density. In this study we examined the effects of drought, habitat type, the canopy light condition, herbivory and fire in the establishment and growth of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., a legume tree typical of the savannas of Central Brazil. Saplings were transplanted into the grass matrix of a grassland with scattered trees and shrubs ("campo sujo", and into the semi-closed canopy of shrubs and trees that characterized the "cerrado" physiognomy. Sapling survival, shoot growth, leaf production and leaf herbivory were followed monthly over a five-year period (1993-1998. Mortality occurred predominantly during wet periods, and seasonal drought was not an important mortality factor. Sapling survival was greater in the "campo sujo" and they even survived a fire at the end of the dry season of 1994, while several saplings at the cerrado site were killed. Shoot growth was low, about 2.2cm/year in the "campo sujo", and 3.1cm/year in the "cerrado", mostly in the wet season. Leaves were shed during the dry season, and the peak in number of leaves in mid to late wet season was followed by a peak in leaf area loss by herbivory. Necrotic black spots, caused by the fungus Phoma sp. were observed in the leaves of most plants. Canopy shading could limit CO2 assimilation (Aco2 in the initial phases of plant development. Light measurements suggested that 5cm tall saplings with horizontal leaves would receive enough light to reach, on an average only 32% of maximum A CO2 during the daylight period. Since the height of the grass layer was mostly less than 50cm, an increase in plant height from 5 to 50cm would result in a twofold increase of Aco2 averaged over the daylight period. Thus, the development of D. miscolobium was restricted by water stress and

  19. Caracterização da vegetação de restinga da RPPN de Maracaípe, PE, Brasil, com base na fisionomia, flora, nutrientes do solo e lençol freático Characterization of restinga vegetation at Maracaípe, Pernambuco State, Brazil, based on physiognomy, flora, soil nutrients, and water-table level

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    Eduardo Bezerra de Almeida Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar o levantamento florístico e descrever as fisionomias, relacionando-as com as formas de vida, fertilidade do solo e variações do lençol freático encontradas na restinga de Maracaípe. A área possui 76,2 ha de vegetação de restinga, sob as coordenadas 08º31'48"S e 35º01'05"W. Possui clima do tipo As' e solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico. Foram feitas caminhadas aleatórias nas três fisionomias existentes - floresta, campo não inundável e campo inundável, durante o período de julho/2003 a julho/2005, para coleta de material botânico. A lista florística foi comparada a outras listas de restinga da região Nordeste. Foram inventariadas 187 espécies, 148 gêneros, distribuídas em 71 famílias. Entre as famílias mais representativas, destacam-se: Poaceae (13 espécies, Cyperaceae (12, Myrtaceae (10, Orchidaceae (9, Rubiaceae (8, Bromeliaceae e Fabaceae (7. A forma de vida "fanerófito" foi elevada na fisionomia florestal e as formas "caméfito", "terófito" e "criptófito", nas fisionomias campo inundável e não inundável. Os solos das fisionomias diferiram quanto à composição química e só ocorreu afloramento do lençol freático na fisionomia campo inundável. Este estudo permitiu concluir que a proporção de formas de vida, variação no nível do lençol freático, matéria orgânica e teor de alumínio no solo foram determinantes na separação das fisionomias da restinga de Maracaípe.We undertook a floristic survey to describe the phytophysiognomies of a restinga at Maracaípe, and related these to life form, soil fertility, and variation in the local water-table level. The study area is located at 08º31'48"S and 35º01'05"W, and has 76.2 ha of restinga vegetation. The regional climate is classified as As' and local soils are sandy Neosols. Random walks to collect botanical material were made in the three different vegetation physiognomies found in the area - forest

  20. Análise da dinâmica sazonal e separabilidade espectral de algumas fitofisionomias do cerrado com índices de vegetação dos sensores MODIS/TERRA e AQUA Analysis of the seasonal dynamics and spectral separability of some savanna physiognomies with vegetation indices derived from MODIS/TERRA AND AQUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraldo Liesenberg

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Composições de 16 dias de índices de vegetação do sensor MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, com resolução espacial de 1km, a bordo dos satélites TERRA e AQUA, foram usadas para caracterizar a dinâmica sazonal em 2004 de cinco fitofisionomias de Cerrado e analisar a sua separabilidade espectral. Os índices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI e Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, calculados a partir dos dados dos sensores de ambas as plataformas e de uma base comum de pixels, foram comparados entre si. Os resultados indicaram que: (a dentre as fitofisionomias estudadas, a Floresta Estacional decídua apresentou uma dinâmica sazonal muito marcante em função da perda de folhas da estação chuvosa para a seca (substancial redução nos índices e do rápido verdejamento com o início da precipitação no final de outubro (rápido incremento de NDVI e EVI; (b o NDVI mostrou maior variabilidade entre as classes de vegetação do que o EVI apenas na estação seca; (c a discriminação entre as fitofisionomias melhorou da estação chuvosa para a seca; (d o NDVI foi mais eficiente do que o EVI para discriminar as classes de vegetação na estação seca, ocorrendo o contrário na estação chuvosa; e (e na maioria das datas selecionadas para estudo, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os índices de vegetação gerados de ambas as plataformas, apesar das variações na qualidade dos pixels selecionados para as composições de 16 dias e na geometria de iluminação e de visada.MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS 16-day vegetation index composites with 1 km of spatial resolution from TERRA and AQUA satellites were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics of five Brazilian savanna physiognomies and to analyze their spectral separability in 2004. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, using data from both platforms and from a

  1. Fisonomía vegetal y abundancia de aves en un bosque templado con dos niveles de perturbación en el Eje Neovolcánico Transversal Vegetation physiognomy and abundance of birds in a temperate forest with two disturbance levels in the Eje Neovolcanico Transversal

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    Saúl Ugalde-Lezama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante noviembre 2003 y junio 2004 se estudió la abundancia de especies de aves y su relación con la fisonomía vegetal en un bosque templado bajo 2 condiciones: bosque de pino no perturbado (ZOQ1 y bosque de pino perturbado (ZOQ2 de la Estación Forestal Experimental Zoquiapan (EFEZ, Estado de México. Para el conteo de aves se empleó el método de puntos de conteo con radio fijo (25 m. Los principales gradientes de las variables descriptoras de la vegetación se determinaron con análisis de componentes principales (ACP y la relación fisonomía-abundancia por especie y grupos de aves mediante análisis de regresión Poisson (ARP. Los ejes principales del ACP explicaron el 84.3, 83.4 y 81.7% de la variabilidad presente en la vegetación de ZOQ1, ZOQ2 y ZOQ1-ZOQ2. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de árboles fueron las variables que explicaron el 41.5, 43.7 y 41.8% de la varianza para el componente 1. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de arbustivas explicaron el 28.4, 25.0 y 25.3% para el 2; por último, la cobertura de herbáceas y arbustivas el 14.4, 14.6 y 14.5% para el componente 3. Los ARP indicaron una relación estadísticamente significativa (pFrom November 2003 to June 2004, we studied the abundance of bird species and their relationship with vegetation physiognomy (structure in a temperate forest under 2 conditions: undisturbed forest (ZOQ1 and disturbed forest (ZOQ2 of the Zoquiapan Forest Experimental Station (EFEZ, acronym in Spanish in central Mexico. Birds were recorded using the method of fixed radius point counts (25 m. We identified the major gradients of variation of descriptive variables of vegetation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and the relationship between vegetation physiognomy and bird abundance through Poisson regression analyses (ARP. The three main axes of PCA explained the 84.3, 83.4 and 81.7% of the variability present in the vegetation of ZOQ1, ZOQ2 and ZOQ1-ZOQ2, respectively. Tree cover, diameter

  2. Análise da dinâmica sazonal de fitofisionomias do bioma Mata Atlântica com base em índices de vegetação do sensor MODIS/TERRA / Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of some Atlantic Forest biome physiognomies with basis of vegetation indices derived from MOD

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    Elói Lennon Dalla Nora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Composições de dezesseis dias de índices de vegetação do sensor Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, com resolução espacial de 250 metros, a bordo do satélite TERRA, foram utilizadas para caracterizar a dinâmica sazonal no ano de 2008 de duas fitofisionomias do bioma Mata Atlântica e analisar a sua dinâmica espectral. Os índices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI e Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, calculados a partir dos dados do sensor MODIS e uma base comum de pixels, foram comparados entre si e com uma base de dados de ordem climática (temperatura e precipitação, para cada fitofisionomia. Os resultados indicaram que os fragmentos de floresta estacional decídua e floresta ombrófila mista apresentam um padrão sazonal comum, porém, com variações de amplitude em relação a cada índice. O EVI apresentou-se mais sensível às variações anuais da vegetação em relação ao NDVI, demonstrando-se mais eficiente. Para ambas as formações florestais se estabelece uma correlação positiva entre o perfil EVI e NDVI com as variações de temperatura. A dinâmica espectral/temporal revelou um contraste marcante sob condições sazonais distintas convergindo com o padrão apresentado pelos índices de vegetação. Os dados produzidos indicam potencialidades da utilização do sensor MODIS para o monitoramento contínuo das formações florestais sulinas com resolução espacial moderada e alta resolução temporal. AbstractModerate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS 16-day vegetation index composites with 250 meters of spatial resolution from TERRA satellites were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics in the period of 2008 of two physiognomies of Atlantic Forest biome and to analyze its spectral dynamics. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, calculated from the data of MODIS sensor and a common base of pixels, were compared between themselves

  3. Impactos do agrupamento do bambu Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE sobre a vegetação lenhosa de duas fitofisionomias de Cerrado na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica Impact of Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE clumps on the woody vegetation in two Cerrado physiognomies in transition Cerrado & Floresta Amazônica, east of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Divino Vicente Silvério

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou os efeitos do agrupamento de uma espécie de bambu nativa do Cerrado (Actinocladum verticillatum sobre a composição florística, diversidade e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de um cerradão e de um cerrado típico adjacentes no Parque Municipal do Bacaba, Nova Xavantina-MT. Foram instaladas 60 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo 30 no cerradão e 30 no cerrado típico. Em cada fitofisionomia, foram instaladas 15 parcelas em um sítio sem bambu (SB e 15 em um sítio com cobertura estimada de folhagem de bambu superior a 90% (CB. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com diâmetro a 30 centímetros do solo (DAS ≥ 3 cm. Foi avaliada a riqueza, a diversidade de espécies, a similaridade florística, a distribuição de diâmetros e alturas e o índice de valor de importância das espécies (VI. De forma geral, os sítios CB das duas fitofisionomias apresentaram menores valores quanto ao número de indivíduos, espécies, gêneros, famílias, densidades e áreas basais em relação aos sítios SB, com redução mais acentuada nestes parâmetros no cerrado típico em relação ao cerradão. Os resultados sugerem que a ocupação do espaço e a redução da incidência luminosa causada pelas touceiras do bambu dificultam a germinação das sementes e o estabelecimento das plântulas de espécies arbustivo-arbóreas, selecionando as espécies mais tolerantes ao sombreamento modificando a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação.This study evaluated the effects of a Cerrado native bamboo species (Actinocladum verticillatum clumps on the floristic composition, diversity and structure of the woody vegetation in two adjacent areas of “cerradão” and typical “cerrado” in the Bacaba Municipal Park, Nova Xavantina, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sixty plots of 10 x 10 m were established, 30 in each forest physiognomy. In each physiognomy, 15 plots were placed in a bamboo-free site (SB and 15 in a site

  4. Shrinking men syndrome accompanying physiognomy change caused by renal osteodystrophy: A case report and review of literature%尿毒症肾性骨病致退缩人综合征及面容改变1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金磊; 魏日胞; 丁瑞; 汤力

    2011-01-01

    目的 报道并分析1例尿毒症透析患者合并严重肾性骨营养障碍致退缩人综合征、发生面容改变的病因及临床诊治特点.方法 分析患者的临床及影像学资料并结合相关文献,探讨本病的临床特点及防治思路.结果 该患者确诊尿毒症规律血液透析1年后出现血全段甲状旁腺激素(PTH)升高至2208pg/L,曾行罗盖全2.0μg,2次/周冲击治疗4周,后停药.2年后颜面及双手关节逐渐变形并加重,伴脊柱左侧弯,严重骨痛及皮肤瘙痒.第6年出现v右侧股骨自发性骨折v,自透析以来身高缩短8cm.入我院后给予高通量血液透析、纠正钙磷代谢紊乱、甲状旁腺次全切除术后,患者骨痛及皮肤瘙痒明显缓解,PTH显著下降至160pg/L.结论 通过早期干预慢性肾脏病钙磷代谢紊乱,合理补充活性vitD3,控制甲状旁腺激素在目标水平,减少重度肾性骨营养障碍的发生,提高患者生活质量.%Objective To report a case of shrinking men syndrome (SMS) accompanying physiognomy change caused by renal osteodystrophy in a female patient with uremia undergoing dialysis and to analyze its pathogenesis. Methods Clinical and imaging data about the patient were analyzed. Clinical characteristics of SMS as well as its prevention and treatment were studied by reviewing the related literature. Results The iPTH of the patient increased to 2 208pg/L one year after regular renal dialysis. She was treated with 2.0μg Rocaltrol, twice a week for 4 weeks. Malformation of her face and articulations of both hands occurred and exacerbated accompanying left spinal bending, severe bone pain, and skin itching 2 years later. Spontaneous left femoral fracture occurred 6 years later. Her body height was 8cm shorter after dialysis. After high-volume blood dialysis, subtotal parathyroidec-tomy, correction of Ca and P metabolic disturbance, her bone pain and skin itching were significantly relived with her iPTH decreased to 160pg

  5. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are published here in the appendix. Since 1603 von Vicken was also in the service of Emperor Rudolf II; again he got imprisoned in Prague at least once. An interesting speculation based on some hints in the documents is that after reading Paracelsus and during his time in Leipzig von Vicken authored a book on mining, that was later to become part of the works of the alleged medevial monk Basilius Valentinus.

  6. Effects of reduced-impact logging and forest physiognomy on bat populations of lowland Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Presley; Michael R. Willig; Wunderle Jr. Joseph M.; Luis Nélio. Saldanha

    2008-01-01

    1.As human population size increases, demand for natural resources will increase. Logging pressure related to increasing demands continues to threaten remote areas of Amazonian forest. A harvest protocol is required to provide renewable timber resources that meet consumer needs while minimizing negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Reduced-impact...

  7. Face facts: a history of physiognomy from ancient Mesopotamia to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, J

    1997-01-01

    Inscribed on the face is a code, the translation of which has entertained and eluded humankind for many centuries. The practice of reading the face dates back as early as the paleobabylonian period in Mesopotamia. It wasn't until much later, however, that this ancient tradition was named.

  8. Physiognomy and distribution of mountain meadows in an alpine valley over 150 years of spontaneous forest expansion

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    Sitzia T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the classification of current and historical aerial photosbetween 1973 and 2006, we analysed the evolution of size, shape and connectivity of 59 mountain meadows (maggenghi of the Pejo district (Trentino, Northern Italy. The maggenghi are scattered patches within a forested matrix. We conducted the same analysis on an Austro-Hungarian cadastral map of 1859. The total surface covered by maggenghi was 137.4 ha in 1973, and decreased to 78.3 ha (57% in 2006. The mean shape and connectivity index in 1973 are significantly lower than those of 2006. Within a 1-km radius around the studied patches, woodlands increased by 7% in the same time range. Among the 25 maggenghi present in 1958, 12 has been subdivided into 39 smaller fragments and 13 has been reduced in their size without any fragmentation. A general process of meadow patches evolution which included area and connectivity reduction and shape simplification has been noticed. This process is common to many other alpine landscapes. The study of these processes is fundamental for policies aimed to conservation of mountain meadows, as well as to identify the single patches deserving conservation for their current and historical landscape structure, as many studies report their significant effects on local floristic diversity.

  9. Estructura informativa y fisonomía acústica en oraciones copulativas ecuacionales (Information structure and acoustic physiognomy in equational copulative sentences

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    Claudio Pinuer Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio acústico y gramatical de 21 oraciones ecuacionales o copulativas enfáticas, a través de un análisis melódico (Cantero, 2002; y Cantero y Font, 2009 seguido de una interpretación pragmática de los principales hallazgos en términos de su funcionalidad como correlatos fónicos de la fisonomía informativa que singulariza a las oraciones ecuacionales como construcciones de foco (Gutiérrez, 1997; Cid y Maluenda, 2005; NGLE 2009 especializadas en realzar un segmento oracional con independencia a su grado de novedad (dado o nuevo y función comunicativa (contraste o ampliación. La investigación se desarrolló bajo los principios generales del funcionalismo (Silva-Corvalán, 2001; Halliday y Matthiessen, 2004; Halliday, 2005, por lo cual los rasgos prosódicos, sintácticos y pragmáticos relevados en el análisis se consideraron pertinentes para las diversas presentaciones de la oración copulativa enfática. Los resultados mostraron una tendencia robusta en la realización del acento enfático en posición inicial de enunciado, con independencia al tipo focal (contrastivo o neutro y modalidad ecuacional (hendida, pseudohendida y pseudohendida inversa. (This article presents the results of an acoustic and grammatical study of 21 equational or emphatic copulative sentences through melodic analysis (Cantero, 2002; Cantero & Font, 2009. This study was then followed by a pragmatic interpretation of the main findings in relation to their functionality as phonic correlates of the informative structure that individualizes the equational sentences as focus constructions (Gutiérrez, 1997; Cid & Maluenda, 2005; NGLE, 2009. The research was conducted under the general principles of functionalism (Silva-Corvalán, 2001; Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004; Halliday, 2005, whereby the prosodic, syntactic and pragmatic features relieved in the analysis are considered relevant in the expression of the focuser role of the emphatic copulative sentences. The results showed a strong trend in the performance of emphatic accent in the utterance’s initial position, regardless of the focal type (contrastive or neutral and equational type (cleft, pseudocleft and pseudocleft reverse.

  10. Development of a toolkit in Silverlight to detect physiognomies in real time - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.13713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabral Ghilardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security demands, forensic practices and the identification of criminals require the detection and recognition of iris and fingerprints and of faces in videos and photographs. Moreover, there is an increasing need for multiple forms of human-machine interaction. Control devices by body stimulus are a need and a trend. For example, currently some computers, laptops, phones and video games provide interaction from their cameras, not only for face detection but also for body movements and the detection of objects. Most devices are Internet accessed, which creates an even greater range of possibilities. These technological trends have prompted the development a toolkit for detecting faces in real time. The choice of Silverlight framework for the development of this toolkit provides these applications with instruments that could be implemented in a web browser. This toolkit may be used for other purposes, such as face and iris recognition, body movement and the monitoring of premises. An application was developed as example and proof of concept.  

  11. ONTOGENIA Y FISIONOMÍA DEL PAISAJE EPIGENÉTICO: UN MODELO GENERAL PARA EXPLICAR SISTEMAS EN DESARROLLO Ontogeny and Physiognomy of the Epigenetic Landscape: A General Model to Explain Developmental Systems

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    LUKAS TAMAYOORREGO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El paisaje epigenético es una metáfora gráfica propuesta por Conrad H. Waddington para explicar el desarrollo de los organismos mediante la imagen de un paisaje compuesto por una superficie ondulante con cimas y valles, que representan las vías por las cuales se desplazan las células del organismo en su proceso de diferenciación. C.H. Waddington, considerado como el padre de la epigenética, es notable por sus aportes teóricos, que incluyen las nociones de asimilación genética, la canalización del desarrollo y el epigenotipo. Estas ideas surgieron a partir de estudios experimentales en biología del desarrollo, los cuales resultaron en el descubrimiento del "organizador" en embriones de aves y, posteriormente, de fenocopias inducidas por factores ambientales en Drosophila. En el presente artículo se presenta una interpretación del paisaje epigenético y conceptos relacionados, que ponen en evidencia el poder heurístico de este modelo y su importancia para la biología contemporánea. Este trabajo es un homenaje a la vida de C. H. Waddington, cuya obra continúa siendo de gran actualidad.The epigenetic landscape is a graphic metaphor proposed by Conrad H. Waddington to explain the development of organisms and their parts. It is depicted as a wavy surface with summits and descending valleys, representing the paths followed by cells along their differentiation process, as part of organismal development. Conrad H. Waddington, regarded as the father of epigenetics, stands out for his theoretical contributions, that include the notions of genetic assimilation, canalization of development and epigenotype. These ideas were inspired by experimental works in developmental biology, that lead to the discovery of the organizer in bird embryos, as well as environmentallyinduced phenocopies in Drosophila. In the current essay, I present an interpretation of the epigenetic landscape and related concepts that highlight the heuristic power of this model and its importance for contemporary biology. This work is a tribute to the life of C. H. Waddington, whose work is still of great significance.

  12. A Wittgensteinian Approach to Discerning the Meaning of Works of Art in the Practice of Critical and Contextual Studies in Secondary Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    This article advocates an approach for teaching critical and contextual studies in secondary art education based on Wittgenstein's philosophy of language in relationship to meaning as use, custom, rule following, and physiognomy. The references to meaning form four metaphorical points on a compass for directing the will for making judgments about…

  13. Vascular epiphytic flora of a high montane environment of Brazilian Atlantic Forest: composition and floristic relationships with other ombrophilous forests

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    Samyra Gomes Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Only a few studies regarding vascular epiphytes have been conducted in mixed ombrophilous forests (MOF in Serra da Mantiqueira, a mountainous environment in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where the relationships of epiphytic flora with other physiognomies are unknown. This study aimed to survey the epiphytes of a MOF remnant located in Serra da Mantiqueira, and to analyze the floristic relationships with ombrophilous forests of the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. The checklist was compared with 51 other areas composed of ombrophilous forests and/or ecotones with other physiognomies using UPGMA (with Sørensen index, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. We recorded 138 species, and Orchidaceae and Polypodiaceae were the richest families (51 and 23 species, respectively. The UPGMA showed the importance of physiognomy and elevation in the floristic relationships, and CCA reinforced the influence of elevation, in addition to the shortest distance to the ocean and minimum annual temperature; however, in this analysis, the physiognomies showed little influence on the relationships. The epiphytic flora of MOF of Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil has different relationships compared with the data available for shrubs and trees, suggesting a greater importance of phorophytic species than geographical distance and, to some extent, environmental variables.

  14. Towards understanding (religious) (in)tolerance in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-26

    Rangus 2001:2). In recent years .... intolerance as a view (Walzer 1997:80, 81) but in essence does ..... 'form' – the colour of their skin, the physiognomy of their .... order for children to learn the virtues of tolerance towards.

  15. The páramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello A., N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal páramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based on analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  16. The paramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, A.N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal paramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based oil analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  17. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  18. The ecology of the elephants in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi with specific reference to management of elephant populations in the Brachystegia biome of Southern Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jachmann, Hugo

    1984-01-01

    The elephant is one of the most important animals in African Wildlife Management, firstly because it is capable of modifying through cropping. The latter also makes it a prime poaching target. The main problems caused by elephant concern changes in the physiognomy of the habitat with its consequence

  19. Disturbance and climate change in United States/Mexico borderland plant communities: a state-of-the-knowledge review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. McPherson; Jake F. Weltzin

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates the effects and importance of disturbance and climate change on plant community dynamics in the United States/Mexico borderlands region. Our primary focus is on knowledge of physiognomic-level change in grasslands and woodlands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Changes in vegetation physiognomy have broad implications for...

  20. Forested land cover classification on the Cumberland Plateau, Jackson County, Alabama: a comparison of Landsat ETM+ and SPOT5 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Wang; Shanta Parajuli; Callie Schweitzer; Glendon Smalley; Dawn Lemke; Wubishet Tadesse; Xiongwen Chen

    2010-01-01

    Forest cover classifications focus on the overall growth form (physiognomy) of the community, dominant vegetation, and species composition of the existing forest. Accurately classifying the forest cover type is important for forest inventory and silviculture. We compared classification accuracy based on Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat ETM+) and Satellite...

  1. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts The Formation of Antisemitic Sterotypes in Press-Media of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.The stereotypes of Jews are developed in visual jokes and caricatures in the second half of 19th century. Immediately they were copied in illustrated magazines and picture-sheets of that period. Within these three visual mediums some attributes characterise the Jewish figure beside its physiognomy. The book follows the stereotypes’ development and formation into the anti-Semitic picture.

  2. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy.

  3. Landslide and Rockfall Distribution by Reservior of Stepped Hydropower Station in the Jinsha River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; FAN Xiaoyi; CHENG Genwei

    2006-01-01

    The landslides and rockfalls were studied in this paper from Xiangjiaba to Baihetan in the lower reach of Jinsha river. Their volume, distribution density and landslide index were studied which indicated that there existed close relationships between landslides and rockfalls and geological structure, stratum. The fold and faultage influenced on the stability of slope and offered the geological condition to landslides and rockfalls. The physiognomy controlled their distribution. Slope angles of landslides were 10°-50°and slope angles of rockfalls were mainly 35°-50° in the valley in the studied area. The results indicated the geology and physiognomy of distribution area of the landslides and rockfalls in the studied area. They offered the theoretical foundation to prevent and cure geological disaster and protect the water power engineering.

  4. Construction of Near-natural Forests as Ecological Restoration of Urban Ecosystem in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DALiangjun

    2004-01-01

    A model stand of near-natural forest with an area of 3 000 m2 was established as a case study in Pudong New District, Shanghai City in 2000. Eleven species were planted in model stand. As the dominant species of community, 4 evergreen broad-leaved tree species, namely: Machilus thunbergii, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, C.mylsinafolia and Castanopsis sclerophylla were chosen, accompanying with evergreen broadleaved shrub species like Pittosporum tobira, Ligustrum quihoui and Dis~'lium racemosum, etc. as well as deciduous tree species, Liquidambarformosana, etc. After three-year growth, the community physiognomy had changed to be a shrub stage, and the highest tree reached to 4.6 m. A forest physiognomy would be formed in about 10 years estimated. The method of construction of near-natural forest that had been worldwidely applied would also play a key role in the construction of urban forest in China.

  5. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable" spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) with palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Adriana A; Lapenta, Marina J; Oliveira, Fátima; Motta-Junior, José C

    2004-12-01

    The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi, a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent, is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetation) physiognomies in São Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C. bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii) and armadillo burrows. Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station, southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C. bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos. There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C. bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations). It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant. The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.

  6. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 465.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-24

    and the crimes of those who practice witchcraft for the purpose of spreading rumors or swindling people out of money. When practicing physiognomy... witchcraft also frequently fabricate rumors in order to swindle people out of money and property. If the case is serious in nature and if they violate...the criminal law, they can be dealt with according to Article 165 of the criminal law con- cerning "those who practice witchcraft for the purpose

  7. Mapping of Phytoecological Units of the ’Cerrados’ of the Central Plateaus of Brazil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mapping of phytoecological units in the Region of Cerrado , of Brazil, has the purpose of giving a global view of the result obtained through the...mapping of a big extension of the country’s vegetation cover, where predominates the ’ cerrado ’. The phytoecological units represent the close links...which, besides several ’ cerrado ’ physiognomies, some forests were found. On the north of the area it occurs the contact between the dominium of the

  8. TEMPORARY AESTHETIC RECONSTRUCTION OF A FRACTURED FRONT TOOTH DURING ENDODONTIC TREATMENT BY MEANS OF A HALLOW POST MADE IN A DENTAL OFFICE. A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona IONAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A fractured front tooth at gum level triggers significant changes in human physiognomy. If, in addition to this, a chronic apical lesion occurs, the aesthetic treatment is postponed in most cases. This article describes the way in which we managed to temporarily restore the aesthetic aspect of some patients with fractured superior incisors and chronic apical lesions using a hollow post made in the dental office.

  9. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 2. Floristic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Deall

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous vegetation of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area is classified with the aid of the PHYTOTAB program package. Four ecological-formation classes (efc based on floristics. physiognomy and climate correspond to four data subsets. Plant communities in each efc are defined by means of 46 differential species-groups distributed amongst forest, thicket, woodland, shrubland and grassland structural types. Environmental correlation is facilitated by means of 21 habitat types.

  10. Small Metropolitan Areas in Rapid Transition: The Case of Patras

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Vassilis

    2006-01-01

    Patras is the third urban complex in Greece, concerning the population size, sited in the North-West Pelopennese and one of the oldest ones, having a continuous history of 4.000 years. The modern history of city of Patras is characterized by a rapid and continuous development and transformation, concerning its structure, function and its physiognomy. This fact is documented by studying a lot of facts and figures, but mainly from a simple reading of its spatial evolution, characteristics and c...

  11. Behavioral Considerations for Space Station Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    example, provide individuals an opportunity for shared experiences, common values and shared outlooks ( Durkheim , 1964; Homans, 1974). Different roles...efforts are required to achieve the desired goals ( Durkheim , 1964; Goffman, 1961). Conversely, role specification may impede cohesion if the roles are...as a function of office space and physiognomy: Two studies of influence. Psychological Reports, 40, 758-760. Durkheim , E. (1964). The division of

  12. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.

  13. Genesis and characteristics of woodlot forms in the landscape of southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fortuna-Antoszkiewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The paper is a synthesis of the research on the genesis and characteristics of woodlot forms in the traditional English landscape. Historically, their origin is related among other things to the British being inspired by the Arcadian myths popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, as a result of trips to places like Italy or the Far East, and a fascination with nature. At the same time the 16th century was characterized by a progressive and gradual deforestation of the landscape of the island. Therefore, during the 17th and 18th centuries a very particular cultural landscape of England developed, of which the specific pastoral physiognomy found some representation in the archetype of the 19th-century English park. This can be clearly stated on the example of woodlots, which very similar forms can be shown both in English agricultural landscape and in English parks. The aim of this research was to analyse forms and functions of selected examples of woodlots in southern England. Material and methods. The collection of field data took place in April 2015 during scientific workshops organized by the Polish Dendrology Society (PTD, devoted to woody plants of southern England (including Surrey and vicinity. As a result, the physiognomy of the complex system of woodlots was analysed in situ and a rich photo documentation was collected. Results and conclusions. It can be stated that the forms of woodlots occurring in the contempor­ary English landscape bear a strong resemblance to those presented in 19th-century landscape paintings. This is a phenomenon of effective protection of the physiognomy of the cultural landscape, which has survived virtually unchanged after more than two centuries. As a result, the authors characterized exceptional values of woodlots to traditional rural and parkland landscape in southern England as an example for development and protection of the cultural landscapes in Poland – both in the past and the present.

  14. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  15. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. O.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Baker, T.; Costa, A. C. L.; Espejo, J. S.; Higuchi, N.; Laurance, W. F.; López-González, G.; Monteagudo, A.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Almeida, S.

    2009-09-01

    Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  16. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of alluvial terrain forest, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  17. Reception of Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac’s composing creativity in the musical life of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Austro-Hungarian period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paćuka Lana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Bosnia and Herzegovina encountered Western European social trends, which affected the shaping of musical life physiognomy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In this extremely intricate relationship between national and pro-European-oriented cultural trends, Serbian composer Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac had a special position as a unique musical phenomenon, since he was a composer whose musical talent imposed itself as an authority in strengthening the national musical expression and serving as a guideline for numerous BH artists.

  18. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  19. Internationalization of the RMB under the new normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baomzhen

    2015-01-01

    internationalization of the RMB is China's economic development and integration into the global integration process of the inevitable trend, can not be avoided. In this trend, with the risks and opportunities. To avoid the risk, to seek opportunities, RMB internationalization strategy must. Any time the risks and opportunities are born with physiognomy. RMB internationalization is not just whether the conditions ripe problems because of what any society in the world, always advancing side edges to create the conditions, until everything is ready only a strong wind when it began to do things, it is a chance factor dictates , can not be the norm. RMB internationalization versa.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NDVI AND FLORISTICS IN SEASONALLY DECIDUOUS FOREST IN THE PARANA VALLEY, GOIAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potira Meirelles Hermuche

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between NDVI and the patterns of the dominant species in three fragments of seasonally deciduous forest (SDF in the Parana Valley in Goias State, Brazil. Landsat 7 ETM+ images from the year 2001 were used. The study showed a relation between NDVI and floristic patterns during the dry and rainy seasons for the three fragments studied. Exclusive species showed greater influence in the spectral response measured by NDVI than did the total species. The results confirmed the three fragments as SDF showing that even within the same physiognomy there were small phenological variations.

  1. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  2. Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯希杰; 戴王强

    2004-01-01

    Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin is a popular phenomenon and its characteristics are also typical.Taking the activity migrations of Wangshun Mountain piedmont fault toward Lishan piedmont fault and Weinan platform front fault, Dabaopi-Niujiaojian fault toward Shenyusi-Xiaojiazhai fault, among a serial of NE-trending faults from Baoji city to Jingyang County as examples, their migration time and process are analyzed and discussed in the present paper. It is useful for further understanding the structure development and physiognomy evolution history of Weihe basin.

  3. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  4. Research on the conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wenke; KONG; Jinling; DUAN; Lei; WANG; Yanlin; MA; Xi

    2004-01-01

    Conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area are studied in this paper based on the geologic and physiognomy conditions and the data of the groundwater regime, isotope, groundwater flow field and field survey. Then eight recharge and discharge modes on the relationships are put forward and the hydraulic characteristics of the modes are analysed, which provides a scientific basis for quantitatively simulating and assessing the conversion relationships,maintenance mechanism of the Yellow River and the regeneration ability of the groundwater in the area.

  5. Gradient Index in Wear Debris Image Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVZhi-yong; GAOHui-liang; YANXin-ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve a problem of oil on-line monitoring, this instrument adopts a prinripium of self-focus lens of Gradieat index fiber( GRIN Len) to design optics system and magnetic circuit. For the magnetic circuit, the monitor can catch particle wear debris in oil. And for the optics circuit. GRIN Len can transfer image of debris to apparatus of gather image, e . g, CCD and camera. And the image of debris is transferred to computer for analyzing seize and physiognomy of debris. The character of the monitor is of micro weight, micro volume andcurve imaging And it is directly pluged into oil to catch image of wear particles.

  6. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  7. Annual and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of Litter-Dwelling Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Atlantic Semideciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Siqueira de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed ant fauna in the leaf litter in an Atlantic Semideciduous forest in the State Park of Rio Doce (PERD. The work aimed to produce basic information about habitat effects on diversity, as well as about how the ant fauna in a such buffered forest habitat, as the litter layer, could respond the climate variation in a short and long term. We sampled two years in two distinct forest physiognomies, which respond to different geomorphologic backgrounds, in dry and rainy seasons. Species composition, richness and abundance of these forests were distinct. However, both forests hosted similar numbers of rare and specialized, habitat demanding species, thus suggesting both are similarly well preserved, despite distinct physiognomies. However, the lower and more open forest was, more susceptible to dry season effects, showing a steeper decline in species numbers in such season, but similar numbers in the wet seasons. The pattern varied between years, which corroborates the hypothesis of a strongly variable community in response to subtle climatic variation among years. The present results are baselines for future long term monitoring projects, and could support protocols for early warnings of global climatic changes effects on biodiversity.

  8. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  9. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Castro, Alinne; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  10. INDIRECT ASSESSMENT OF RIVER-TORRENTIAL EROSION BY MEASURING THE ERODED VOLUM CASE STUDY: THE REGHIU STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE LUCICA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The landform, as a whole, is the basic component of the environment and evolves as an open system controlled by two categories of components, in a close relationship of dynamic interconditioning. The endodynamic components are stable and they define the relief physiognomy: hypsometry, the gradient and length of the slope, lithologic conditions and the drainage density. The exodynamic components, with high spatial and temporal mobility, control the flow of matter and energy within the hydrographic basin, the solar energy, the rainfalls, the temperature, the plant cover, and the anthropic activity. The volume of eroded material of a hydrographic basin will set the relationship between the present physiognomy of the landform and the flow of materials carried and discharged. The quantitative evaluation of the erosion in a hydrographic basin, specific to a certain region, will deal with the parameters reflecting the intensity of the morphogenetic processes over a specified period of time. The Reghiu Stream, a left-side tributary of the River Milcov, drains varied landforms, developed on geological formations with different physical properties; moreover, it manifests a regressive erosion, weaker than the Zabala River (they used to have a common evolution during the geological past, and the interfluve is very narrow – there are few facts which lead to the conclusion that the erosion is differential, depending on the local conditions of shaping.

  11. ANALISIS KINERJA DOSEN JURUSAN MATEMATIKA FMIPA UNUD DENGAN METODE CHERNOFF FACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTI AYU MADE ARNA PUTRI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing work performance of lectures in Math Department Faculty of Science UNUD by using Chernoff faces method. Chernoff faces method was initiated for the first time by Herman Chernoff in1973, that is visualization technique in the form of graphic method which presents data with many variables in cartoon face model. This method showsmultivariant data in the shape of human face with position of eyes, nose, ears and mouth which shows the value of variable in different shape, size, position and direction. Since it uses face as research object, in this research  the writer combined Chernoff faces method with physiognomy method. Physiognomy method is science that studies about face characteristic which depicts someone’s personal quality and character. Based on the combination of both methods, it is obtained the result of analysis taken from 80 questioners with 9 variables for students of Math Department Faculty of Science UNUD. It is concluded that work performance of lectures in Math Department Faculty of Science UNUD has been good.

  12. The Beautiful Soul in the Confessional: Crafting the Moral Self in Friederike Helene Unger's Confessions of a Beautiful Soul written by Herself

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    Michelle A. Reyes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Unger’s Confessions of a Beautiful Soul written by Herself creates a new model of moral acquisition. This model finds its place between religious morality and moral performance, calling for the novel’s protagonist, Mirabella, to cultivate a moral self through the spiritual practice of reading. Such a model still revolves around moral transformation, but it is no longer of her soul, but rather her thoughts; that is, Mirabella must first collect various depictions of morality from a wide scope of literature, then choose from these which ones she deems as of greatest importance to her, namely virginity and the control of the passions, and then apply these two concepts in great measure to her self. The proof of her successful cultivation is then evident in her physiognomy. This model is as new as it is radical; first, it provides an alternative to Goethe’s model in his fictional autobiography, Confessions of a Beautiful Soul; second, it contains implications for Mirabella in terms of both gender and class; finally, it allows for a new form of moral authenticity during a time of growing artifice in late eighteenth-century Germany. Foucault’s notions of self-cultivation in The Care of the Self, as well as the commentaries on physiognomy advanced in the works of Lavater and Winckelmann, provide the interpretive lens for this new model.

  13. Climatic and tectonic implications of the late Miocene Jakokkota flora, Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory-Wodzicki, Kathryn M.; McIntosh, W. C.; Velasquez, Kattia

    1998-12-01

    When compared to a database of modern foliar physiognomy and climate, the physiognomy of a new collection of dicotyledonous leaves from the 10.66±0.06 Ma Jakokkota flora, Bolivian Altiplano, implies a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 18.6-21.0±2.5°C. Similarly, a literature-derived sample of the early-middle Miocene Potosı´flora, Cordillera Oriental, implies a MAT of 21.5-21.7±2.1°C. We estimate that both floras experienced a growing season precipitation of 50±40 cm. The paleoclimate thus appears considerably warmer than the current highland climate, with MATs of 8-9°C; the paleoprecipitation is indistinguishable from modern levels. A comparison of the Miocene MATs with the modern MATs, with the effects of latitudinal continental drift and global climate change subtracted, suggests that the Jakokkota flora grew at an elevation of 590-1610±1000 m, and the Potosı´flora grew at an elevation of 0-1320±1000 m. Both paleoelevation estimates are significantly lower than the present elevations of 3940 and 4300 m, respectively, requiring a substantial component of Andean uplift since 10.7 Ma. This uplift history is consistent with two-stage tectonic models of Andean orogeny.

  14. Diversity and similarity of native forest fragments located in the northeast region of Minas Gerais

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    Christianne Riquetti Corsini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study 26 distributed fragments of native forest in four located hydrographical Basins in the northeast region of Minas Gerais had been showed, with the purpose of analyzing the floristic similarity exists between 26 forest fragments native inserted in four basins in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais and the diversity and evenness of physiognomies studied and groups of fragments formed. Systematic sampling with units was used shows of 1000 m² each, where the sample area varied of 1 the 6 has, as the area I break up of it. We measured the circumference at 1.30m (CAP and the total height and collected botanical material of all individuals with CAP greater or equal to 15.7 cm. Six groups were formed according to the floristic similarity coefficient Sorensen, with four groups there was an association of more than a physiognomy, showing regions of transition within the area. The Shannon diversity index, ranged from 2.236 in deciduous forest to 4.523 in Semideciduous Forest. The maximum and minimum values of evenness index Pielou were 0.850 and 0.616 , respectively. The floristic group 2 (Semideciduous Forest and Cerrado sensu stricto had the highest average value of diversity (3.585 and evenness (0.750 , and group 1 (Deciduous Forest had the lowest values (H': 2.426 and J': 0.687 .

  15. A study on the Chinese beliefs and their effects on small and medium sized business after 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Wall; Zhang Runtong; Yang Yancheng; Lin Hua

    2008-01-01

    As a result of economic reform commencing in 1978 in China, cultural beliefs of the Chinese business owners are changing. While much has been published concerning large and multinational businesses, there is a gap in knowledge Of cultural beliefs of small and medium sized enterprises. To provide new knowledge, a survey on these smaller sized enterprises located throughout China was conducted in the summer of 2006. Respondents were selected from urban and rural areas, coastal and inland provinces and various industries to provide information on their opinions on how some of their cultural beliefs have changed from 1990 to present. Specific beliefs questioned include: Use of fengshui, Traditional Forbidden Activities, Company Naming Responsibility, Company Name Basis, Use of Numbers, Use of Physiognomy, and Prediction of a Company's Future. The importance of fengshui has risen over in the last sixteen years and certain traditional forbidden activities such as not turning over the fish while eating has remained important as a cultural belief Naming a company is important and the desirability of a good name is based on various factors. Use of numbers, physiognomy, and non-scientific methods for predicting the future success of companies are of lesser use. These aspects of cuhure are reviewed in consideration of the change from a planned economy to a market-based economy.

  16. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil

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    Batalha Marco Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland, we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. The savanna physiognomies were richer than the forest one. The ratio between herbaceous and woody species was approximately 2:1. We analysed the whole flora and its two components separately, woody and herbaceous, comparing them with other disjunct cerrado areas. We obtained similarity values (Sørensen index from 0.47 to 0.81, which showed that the 3 diversity of the cerrado was higher in the herbaceous component than in the woody one.

  17. Ecological recovery of affected areas by a forest fire in the Tintales watershed (Boyacá, Colombia

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    Fernando Fernández-Méndez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tintales watershed, located in the Santuario de Flora y Fauna (SFF of Iguaque, Boyaca, was affected by a wildfire. In that area, the natural regeneration was evaluated in 29 permanent plots. Two phyto-physiognomies, a rocky outcrop and oak were evaluated to compare their richness, diversity and dominance, with rocky outcrop yielding a greater richness and diversity. The Asteraceae family was the one that obtained greater representation, with a dominance of species such as Hypoxis decumbens, Pterídium aquilinum and Andropogon bicornis. The diversity in the whole sampling was low and uniform due to the repeated incidence of forest fires that have caused changes in the structure and composition of vegetation. The vegetation found did not differ substantially from other studies reported for this life zone and the region, where the dynamics of land use are similar, with high deforestation and fires. The vegetation established after the fire is dominated by colonizing and pioneering species. In the two phyto physiognomies studied after a year of the fire, two plant communities with statistically significant differences in wealth and homogeneity could be stablished. To start the restoration process, it is recommended to use as one of the inputs, the taxonomic differences found between oak  and rocky outcrop.

  18. Soil Fertility Gradient in the Restinga Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    América Castelar da Cunha, Joana; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    The restinga ecosystem (coastal plain vegetation) can be termed as a set of plant communities that suffer strong influenced by fluvial and marine factors and is characterized as an ecosystem of great biological diversity, therefore, represents areas of great importance in the context of ecological preservation. The degradation processes from many forms of anthropogenic disturbances that has taken place since the colonization of the country, made studies on the characterization and dynamics of soil fertility of these areas even more important in relation to the maintenance of its biodiversity and conservation. The sites studied were the Cardoso Island and Comprida Island, and in these, we analyzed four physiognomies, restinga, low restinga, dune and antedune (from continent to ocean). Chemical analyses were performed and soil salinity in these areas in depths 0-5; 0-10; 0-20; 20-40; 40-60 cm. In all soils the cationic exchange capacity was intimately associated with the concentration of soil organic matter, which makes this parameter essential to the maintenance of soil fertility of these areas; in more superficial layers (0-20 cm) there was an increase of pH and base saturation and decline of organic matter, aluminum saturation and cationic exchange capacity in the nearby sea, physiognomies what determines the existence of fertility gradient towards the continent-coast; restinga forests showed a chemical standard that is heavily marked by sandy texture, high degree of leaching, nutrient poverty, low base saturation, high saturation by aluminum and acidity, opposite conditions to soils of the dunes and antedunes, with the exception of sandy texture; despite the existence of a chemical gradient of fertility among the physiognomies studied it is possible to determine the soil acts more strongly as a physical support than as provider of fertility; as for salinity, soil collected in Cardoso Island did not present salinity in any depth, a fact which can be explained due

  19. Effects of Climate Change and Various Grassland Management Practices on Grasshopper (Orthoptera Assemblages

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    Zoltán Kenyeres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different grassland management practices on Orthoptera assemblages inhabiting humid grassland areas was studied since 2003 to 2011. The examined sites were within the protected area of Balaton Uplands National Park. The physiognomy and climatic conditions of the studied habitats were similar but their land use types were significantly different. After the preliminary analyses of Nonmetric multidimensional scaling, neighbour joining clustering, and Spearman rank correlation, we examined the possible effects of such independent variables as land use (nonmanagement, mowing, grazing, microclimate (humidity and temperature, regional macroclimate (annual and monthly mean temperatures and rainfall, using General Linear Mixed Models, and canonical correlation analysis. Our results showed that the effect of grassland management practices on the organization of Orthoptera assemblages was at least as important as that of macro- and microclimate. Furthermore, grassland management could intensify the influence of several local and regional parameters. These results can help finding the most suitable type of grassland management to conserve the grasshopper assemblages.

  20. Study of the wide area of a lake with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini C.

    2016-08-01

    Water bodies are particularly important for environment and development issues. Their study requires multiple information. Remote sensing has been proven useful in the above study. This paper concerns the wide area of Lake Orestiada in the region of Western Macedonia in Greece. The area is of particular interest because Lake Orestiada is included in the Natura 2000 network and is surrounded by diverse landcovers as built up areas and agricultural land. Multispectral and thermal Landsat 5 satellite images of two time periods are being used. Their processing is being done by Erdas Imagine software. The general physiognomy of the area and the lake shore are examined after image enhancement techniques and image interpretation. Directions of the study concern geomorphological aspects, land covers, estimation of surface temperature as well as changes through time.

  1. 辽东半岛滨海砂金矿成矿规律%Metallogenic Regularity of the Coastal Gulch-gold Deposit in Liaodong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长纯; 姚志宏; 孙鹏慧

    2016-01-01

    Liaodong peninsula coastal gulch-gold mine is not development,less resources,in order to provide the theoretical reference for the prospecting work of coastal gulch-gold deposit in Liaodong pen-insula,the metallogenic conditions of the coastal gulch-gold deposit are analyzed,the results show that:①the new archean strata and ancient proterozoic strata are developed in Liaodong peninsula,intrusive rocks and native gold deposits (points)with the characteristics of more material source and multi-stage forma-tion;②the climatic conditions along the Yellow sea coast are conducive to weathering and erosion,with more rainfall and large rive transport capacity,a large number of ore-forming materials are transported for the gulch-gold deposit;③the favorable metallogenic environment for the formation of coastal gulch-gold deposits is provided by the abundant land physiognomy,sea bottom physiognomy,coastal types physiogno-my and Quaternary type physiognomy with alluvial-diluvial causes;④the new tectonic movement is mainly for overall lift long up,which caused the the peninsula suffered the strong erosion in the entire Quaterna-ry,so,the sufficient material source for the gulch-gold deposit is provided.Based on the above analysis re-sults,the metallogenic material source,metallogemnic dynamic and metallogenic environment are dis-cussed from the aspects of ore-forming material supply conditions,climate and hydrodynamic conditions and sedimentary environment.The above study results can provide some reference for the prospecting work of coastal gulch-gold deposit in Liaodong peninsula.%辽东半岛滨海砂金矿不发育、资源量少,为进一步加强寻找滨海砂金矿,对滨海砂金矿的成矿条件进行了分析,结果表明:①区内具有新太古、古中元古代地层,侵入岩和原生金矿床(点)具有多物质来源和形成的多阶段性;②半岛黄海沿岸的气候条件有利于风化剥蚀作用的进行,伴随着降雨较多

  2. Unusual injury pattern in a case of postmortem animal depredation by a domestic German shepherd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, M; Schulz, F; Püschel, K

    1999-09-01

    A case is presented of a 38-year-old woman with skeletization of the head, neck, and collar region and a circumscribed 26-cm x 19-cm defect on the left chest with sole removal of the heart through the opened pericardium but undamaged mediastinum and lungs. The injuries showed V-shaped puncture wounds and superficial claw-induced scratches adjacent to the wound margins that have been described as typical for postmortem animal depredation of carnivore origin and derived from postmortem animal damage by the woman's domestic German shepherd. The circumscribed destruction of the left chest with unusual opening of the pericardium is explained by the physiognomy of the muzzle of the German shepherd and differs from previous reports. Any case presented as postmortem animal mutilation should be viewed with skepticism and undergo a full autopsy.

  3. Internal thermal origin mechanism of Karstic collapse column with no smoothly extrinsic cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-jun; PENG Su-ping; LI Pei-quan; LIU Deng-xian; LIAN Hui-qing

    2008-01-01

    Huainan coal field as main object, investigation of Karstic hydrogeological conditions were developed in Huainan structureal unit, and the basic conditions, features and rules of Karstic growth were summarized. Geology background and causes of Karstic collapse columns were analyzed. Combined with ancient physiognomy, environment and litho-facies features. After studying synthetically Karstic collapse columns, shape of collapse body, filling feature, hydrodynamic condition and agglutinate material in Huainan area, considering mine hydrogeological conditions of Xuhuai coal field and referenced Karstic collapse columns characters of other mines in North China, the internal thermal origin theory is elementarily formed for Karstic collapse columns extrinsic cycle can not operate smoothly. Finaly, three aspects including distributing features of different kinds of Karstic collapse columns in north China type coal field, conditions of Karstic collapse columns origined from internal thermal with no smoothly extrinsic cycle, mechanics of causes were analyzed and demonstrated.

  4. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  5. 敦煌铁路工程建设的土地荒漠化影响%The impact of Dunhuang railway construction on land desertification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑韶峰; 徐建春; 杨丽霞

    2006-01-01

    The area that the railway will cross is a region with the main physiognomies of desert and Gobi, with a most fragile ecological environment. It is also a region that is highly susceptible to man-made disturbance. The construction of railway will intensify soil erosion along the railway line to a certain degree. The map of soil erosion conditions in the section from Liugou to Dunhuang City in the range of 10 km each side along the line was compiled by using the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS). Based on analysis of the status of desertification and the influence of the railway construction projects, the changes of the types, intensities and the total amount of the soil erosion caused by the construction were predicted.

  6. Geografski pristopi k proučevanju kriznih območij = Geographical attempts to research of crisis areas

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    Jernej Zupančič

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals on the phenomenon of crisis areas in the world in the light of international relations in transformation of world political map. Analysing the physiognomy, structures and functions the paper is seeking the reasons for the confl icts, describe their genesis, characteristical developmental stages and particulary the spatial and social consequences. Those mostly regenerate their confl ictual potential and are relatively constant geopolitcial neuralgic areas. They are the crossroads of world-power interesses, even they are poor world periphery by their structure. The paper undertake the geographic point of research of crisis areas. The shown cases of North Dalmatia (Croatia and Kosovo (South Serbia the author ilustrate the characteristical development of two different crisis areas.

  7. Pesticide risk assessment in free-ranging bees is weather and landscape dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mickaël; Bertrand, Colette; Le Féon, Violette; Requier, Fabrice; Odoux, Jean-François; Aupinel, Pierrick; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Decourtye, Axel

    2014-07-10

    The risk assessment of plant protection products on pollinators is currently based on the evaluation of lethal doses through repeatable lethal toxicity laboratory trials. Recent advances in honeybee toxicology have, however, raised interest on assessing sublethal effects in free-ranging individuals. Here, we show that the sublethal effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide are modified in magnitude by environmental interactions specific to the landscape and time of exposure events. Field sublethal assessment is therefore context dependent and should be addressed in a temporally and spatially explicit way, especially regarding weather and landscape physiognomy. We further develop an analytical Effective Dose (ED) framework to help disentangle context-induced from treatment-induced effects and thus to alleviate uncertainty in field studies. Although the ED framework involves trials at concentrations above the expected field exposure levels, it allows to explicitly delineating the climatic and landscape contexts that should be targeted for in-depth higher tier risk assessment.

  8. “Nantong Through Eyes of Foreigners” Photo Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoLinjin

    2004-01-01

    Nantong is one of the first 14 coastal cities in China opened to the outside world. In the past 20 years, foreign friends have come to Nantong one batch after another to conduct studieson investment environment, do business, teach and carry out researches, go sightseeing, etc.They, with a friendly as well as critical eye, look at the natural environment, landscape, economic development, social physiognomy, life and customs of the city. To enrich the cultural life of foreign friends working and residing in Nantong and enhance communication and exchanges between them and the local people, the Foreign Affairs Office of the Nantong City Government,the Nantong City People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, the Nantong Daily, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of Nantong and the Nantong Photographers' Association jointly sponsored a photo exhibition entitled “Nantong Through the Eyes of Foreigners”.

  9. PRODUÇÃO CARTOGRÁFICA PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE INVENTÁRIO FÍSICO-TERRITORIAL DE BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA NO PONTAL DO PARANAPANEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Magro Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop the cartographic production that composes the physical-territorial inventory of a sub-watershed of the Unit of Pontal do Paranapanema Water Resources Management (UGRHI-22. The study area consists of the middle reaches of the watershed river Pirapozinho, State of São Paulo. It was produced the following thematic maps: slope, hypsometry, pedology, exposed geological units, morphological units, climatic subsystem, use and land cover, vegetation, physiognomy, erosion susceptibility and drainage distribution. These maps were designed using data compilation process. Results allow understanding physical attributes of the middle reaches of the watershed river Pirapozinho, which aid in the interpretation of the environmental dynamics of the watershed. We conclude that cartographic production contributes to the development of territorial physical inventory of the basin and, consequently, for the environmental planning of it.

  10. The image of the body-face: The case of Franz X. Messerschmidt and Bill Viola

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    Maria POPCZYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am predominantly interested in interpretations of emotional states portrayed in images of the face. In particular, the interpretations which have grown around the series of busts by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, as well as those which attempt to expound Bill Viola’s video works. I will refer to aspects of physiognomy, artistic practices and aesthetics, in order to show what each of these tells us about our attitude to the body and emotions and what happens to the body while a person is experiencing an emotion. My aim is to demonstrate how the act of depicting the body, regarded as a cognitive process in an artistic medium accompanied by a special kind of aesthetic experience, becomes a means of communication which is capable of conveying a universal message and of allowing us to define our attitude to the body.

  11. MR imaging of the abdomen in pregnancy; MR-Diagnostik des Abdomens in der Schwangerschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, J.; Antoch, G.; Blondin, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-06-15

    Sonography is still the method of choice for imaging diseases in pregnant women. The changed physiognomy of the women increases the known limitations of sonography while the advantages of MRI (large field of view, excellent soft-tissue contrast, sensitive diagnosis of edema) are not affected. The available sequences allow the differentiation of various pathologies. Most of these can frequently be visualized without intravenous administration of contrast material. Although the significance of techniques like DWI and ASL has not yet been explored, initial descriptions are promising and MR imaging in pregnancy will be increasingly important in the future. Therefore, knowledge of the most frequent diseases in pregnancy and their image appearance is relevant to radiologists. The advantages of MRI in comparison to sonography and its important role in imaging pathologies of the acute abdomen in pregnancy are illustrated and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Polyphemus in Greek and Latin poems

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    Panajiotis Asimopulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intertextual approach to the personality of the Cyclops Polyphemus through poetic works of ancient Greek and Latin authors. Since the comparative method constitutes a reliable condition for every cognitive process, at least so far as the human thought is able to comply with the new knowledge to the existing notions and terms, the distinct physiognomy of poetic inspiration is clarified, but also the structural similarities and fundamental differences related to this famous mythical person are illustrated. Having as a reference point the Homeric “Odyssey” and the cruelty and inhumanity attributed to Polyphemus, we experience the gradual alleviation of the negative features of his character and unexpectedly witness an emotionally wounded, romantic, even gentle and helpless creature. In this way an impressive bridging is held between religion axioms and sociopolitical parameters that are effectively and creatively embodied in poetic works.

  13. Individual recognition and phenotypic variability in Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. W.

    1982-10-01

    A coding method for identifying individuals by utilizing natural attributes (numbers and disposition of arms, madrporites, anuses, spines and deformities) permits individual recognition of crown-of-thorns sea stars Acanthaster planci. Because natural injuries altering parts of the code are frequent in A. planci (present in 20% to 40% of the individuals in a population), the physiognomy of the centrally located periproct, which is much less frequently injured than peripherally located areas, was used in combination with the arrangement of arms and madreporites. Identical madreporite/arm codes occurred in fewer sea stars in Guam (0%) than in Panamá (14%). The greater variability among sea stars at the western Pacific locality could be due in part to the higher incidence of gross deformities (presumed injuries) in Guam (43%) compared with Panamá (17%).

  14. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  15. Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam Mart. (Annonaceae: implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae

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    EM. Varanda

    Full Text Available Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins and physical (sclerophylly defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves.

  16. Dalang Anak dalam Pakeliran Wayang Kulit Purwa Gaya Surakarta

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    Junaidi -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Young Puppeteers on Solonese Wayang Performance. The aim of these research are to identify the structureof story, shadow puppet forms, and young puppeteer’s motivations in pakeliran of Surakartanese purwa shadowpuppets. This research applies multidiscipline approach, encompassing puppetry dramaturgy, iconography,physiognomy, and ethnochoreology, in order to study the stories, shadow puppets, and motivations. The pakeliranof purwa shadow puppets by young puppeteers performed in short time, short structure, skillful technique, andchildish characteristic are a puppetry learning medium for children, appreciation of puppetry since early ages, andan effort of future art life continuity. In addition, the motivation of young puppeteer tends to be intrinsic which isbased on the pleasant feeling in conducting non-commercial and profane activity.

  17. 雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林%ASPEN (Populus davidiana) FOREST IN WULING   MOUNTAIN NATURAL RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文增

    2001-01-01

    The researches on Populus davidiana forest were carried out in Wuling Mountain Natural Reserve. It expounded its distribution, habitat, physiognomy character (biological spectrum, leaf-size class, leaf-tepe, leaf-margin), structural feature(synusia, vertical stratification, quantitative character), and predicated on the succession dynamic status of Populus davidiana forest was put forward.%对雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林进行了研究。详细论述了其分布、生境、种类组成、外貌特征(生活型谱、叶级、叶形、叶缘)、结构特征(层次、层片、综合数量特征),并对其演替动态进行了分析。

  18. Petroleum and geopolitics; Petrole et geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaigneau, P. [Centre d' etudes diplomatiques et strategiques de Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-04-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela.

  19. REPERELE PSIHOMORALE ALE RURALULUI ŞI PĂSTRAREA SPECIFICULUI SĂU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Lidia MARGHITAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional integrated rural development perspective, a harmonious convergence of the urban area, the cultural phenomenon it is a dimension-order essentially moderator role of social learning village.In a way, how the village culture is understood, the village community humanising its function depends on physiognomy that will, through modernization and urbanization, the very areas. Keeping notes characteristic of the rural and urban civilization finishing their purchases lead to the construction of a rural programmed with multiple natural and social meanings, with positive effects on quality of life of people. Preserved in modern form rural universe requires, first, recovery of traditions, customs, and blending their specific rural life in a subtle dialectic technique and modern culture, science and information to date.

  20. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of pure european beech forests in Oraştie river basin (central-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BURESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Festuco drymejaeFagetum Morariu et al. 1968 (Syn.: Fagetum sylvaticae transylvaticum facies with Festuca drymeja I. Pop et al. 1974, found in the pure European beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, lying in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done byselecting the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to the Orăştie river basin. The phytocoenoses of these beech forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  1. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, fir (Abies alba and spruce (Picea abies with Pulmonaria rubra belonging to the Orăştie river basin.The phytocoenoses of these forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  2. Hitler and Bormann identifications compared by postmortem craniofacial and dental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sognnaes, R F

    1980-06-01

    After Stalin told President Truman at Potsdam, July 17, 1945, that Hitler got away, a secret U.S. mission was designated to establish anthropological skull projections pertinent to a potential recovery of Hitler's remains, i.e., by experimentally eliminating the "flesh." Then, conversely, in 1972, when one of the two skulls unearthed next to the Lehrter Railroad station in West Berlin (where Hitler's physician and Bormann had last been seen alive on May 2, 1945), an attempt was made to put facial flesh back on the skull with a view to reconstruct the original facial physiognomy of Martin Bormann. All things considered, it will be documented that the only convincing forensic evidence of Hitler's and Bormann's deaths proved to be the dental data.

  3. Methodological process for chromatic reading of traditional architectural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Costa Romão Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to research the complex phenomenon of color in an architectural environment from the presentation of a specific methodology, based on historical-document research and technical-architectural developed for the particular case of six religious monuments of the Historical Center of São Cristóvão, in Sergipe – Brazil. The implementation of this type of research becomes relevant due to the fact the color is inserted in the space physiognomy as a cultural factor, related to historical issues of symbolic associations, although, due to its heterogeneity, is subject to constant changes in their appearance. Therefore, the documentation becomes an important tool for organization and registration of renascent color memory, safeguarding it at the same time can help restoration work that may occur.

  4. EPIGENETIC VALLEYS IN THE TIKVES BASIN IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Pavlov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic valleys as part of the fluvial relief are of special geomorphologic significance. As ostensibly anomalous phenomena, they mirror the inconsistent fluvial relief, i.e. a phase of adjustment of longitudinal profiles of rivers. The subject of research in this paper involved some forms of the fluvial relief in the drainage basin of the Vardar River, in the Tikves Basin, which had some predispositions to be classified as an epigenetic valleys. The necessary geological-and-lithological and morphological parameters have shown that specific segments in the river valleys in Tikves are distinguished by special physiognomy, lithology and genesis, which correspond to epigenetic valleys and gorges. Thus arguments indicated in total ten created epigenetic valleys and gorges on the level of the Tikves Basin. Seven epigenetic occurrences were formed below the neogene level, whereas three of them were formed above the neogene level.

  5. Community and alternative media in the citizen´s protest cycle since the 15M-movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barranquero Carretero

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current economical and institutional crisis of journalism in Spain has contributed to the revitalization of media and communicational experiences of social movements and non-profit organizations. This revival of citizen participation reaches prominence from the 15M movement in May 2011, which has contributed to the strengthening of networks among the Third Sector of Media, as well as to the first large-scale coordinated broadcasts by community radios in Spain. This article aims at describing the physiognomy of an emerging sector at the margins of public and private-commercial media. Methodology combines observation and documentary research along with structured in-depth interviews to coordinators and citizen reporters of these media coverages.

  6. Workers’ Housing Estates In Postindustrial Cities - Modernization Or Revitalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaweł Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a part of the results on the physiognomy of a postindustrial city under conditions of economic transformation in Poland. The study area encompasses industrial centers located in the region of the Central Industrial District (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy - COP in the Świętokrzystkie and Mazowieckie voivodeships (districts. The specific urban structure of the industrial city and unemployment among its inhabitants resulting from ownership transformations generate various problems. The workers’ neighborhoods and colonies, which sprouted up so quickly at the beginning of the XX century, were a supply base for the rapidly developing industrial centers. Their clear urban structure and cultural potential they possess predispose them to developing necessary repair programs. Thus, the article draws attention to this form of settlement on the one hand, and on the other characterizes the activities assumed by gminas (municipalities in the scope of modernizing and revitalizing these areas.

  7. Workers' Housing Estates In Postindustrial Cities - Modernization Or Revitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweł, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a part of the results on the physiognomy of a postindustrial city under conditions of economic transformation in Poland. The study area encompasses industrial centers located in the region of the Central Industrial District (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy - COP) in the Świętokrzystkie and Mazowieckie voivodeships (districts). The specific urban structure of the industrial city and unemployment among its inhabitants resulting from ownership transformations generate various problems. The workers' neighborhoods and colonies, which sprouted up so quickly at the beginning of the XX century, were a supply base for the rapidly developing industrial centers. Their clear urban structure and cultural potential they possess predispose them to developing necessary repair programs. Thus, the article draws attention to this form of settlement on the one hand, and on the other characterizes the activities assumed by gminas (municipalities) in the scope of modernizing and revitalizing these areas.

  8. Abundance and distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Xiamen Western Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wenqing; LIN Yuanshao; FANG Luping

    2004-01-01

    In a grid investigation, dinoflagellate cysts were collected from sediments in Xiamen Western Harbor in May of 2000,from which five species of cysts were identified: Alexandrium tamarensis, A. minutum, Lingulodinium polyedra,Gonyaulax scrippsae and Gymnodinium catenatum, account for about 21% in the species composition. The quantitative analysis of the sediments shows that the number of dinoflagellate cysts varies from 51 to 256 cysts/g of sediment, the highest value (>200 cysts/g) being recorded at the stations of the central part of the bay, while the lowest (<100 cysts/g) at the bay mouth. A good linear relationship is found between cyst amount and fine-grained sediments. Complex physiognomies on the seabed, topographty in the bay and weak water exchange are the main factors not only in cyst accumulation but also in their distribution pattern, and have resulted in the difference in cyst densities between the inner bay and the outer bay in the harbor.

  9. Abundance and distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Xiamen Western Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wenqing; LIN Yuanshao; FANG Luping

    2004-01-01

    In a grid investigation, dinoflagellate cysts were collected from sediments in Xiamen Western Harbor in May of 2000,from which five species of cysts were identified: Alexandrium tamarensis, A. minutum, Lingulodinium polyedra,Gonyaulax scrippsae and Gymnodinium catenatum, account for about 21% in the species composition. The quantitative analysis of the sediments shows that the number of dinoflagellate cysts varies from 51 to 256 cysts/g of sediment, the highest value (>200 cysts/g) being recorded at the stations of the central part of the bay, while the lowest (<100 cysts/g) at the bay mouth. A good linear relationship is found between cyst amount and fine-grained sediments. Complex physiognomies on the seabed, topographty in the bay and weak water exchange are the main factors not only in cyst accumulation but also in their distribution pattern, and have resulted in the difference in cyst densities between the inner bay and the outer bay in the harbor.

  10. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  11. Pollen-rain-vegetation relationships along a forest-savanna transect in southeastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincens; Dubois; Guillet; Achoundong; Buchet; Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala V; de Namur C; Riera

    2000-07-01

    Modern soil and litter samples from southeastern Cameroon, collected along a continuous forest-savanna transect were analysed for pollen content to define modern pollen-vegetation relationships. The pollen results, completed and compared with botanical inventories, leaf area index and basal area measurements performed in the same area, clearly registered the physiognomy, the main floristic composition and floral richness of the two sampled ecosystems. Distortions were observed between sampled vegetations and their pollen rain, related to important differences in pollen production and dispersal of plant species: this is a general feature in many tropical regions. The pollen data in the area studied reflected well the recent transgression of forest versus savanna. This permitted us to define inside the forest ecosystem more successional vegetation communities than the botanical surveys allowed.

  12. The woody vegetation communities of the Hluhluwe-Corridor- Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Whateley

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Land units for the 900 km- Hluhluwe-Corridor-Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex in north eastern Natal were identified on aerial photographs. The physiognomy, dominants and description of the woody vegetation for each unit were identified during ground inspections and. where necessary, the point-centred quarter method was applied. Two forest, two riverine forest, ten woodland and two thicket communities were recognized. These communities are described according to their distribution, height and percentage frequency of the components in the different canopy strata. A map at a scale of 1:25 000 was also compiled. Some of these communities are compared with other similar woodlands previously described for Natal. In some communities the frequency of certain dominant canopy species in the under tree strata was extremely low and autecological research has been suggested.

  13. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  14. Wood anatomy reveals high theoretical hydraulic conductivity and low resistance to vessel implosion in a Cretaceous fossil forest from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The Olmos Formation (upper Campanian), with over 60 angiosperm leaf morphotypes, is Mexico's richest Cretaceous flora. Paleoclimate leaf physiognomy estimates indicate that the Olmos paleoforest grew under wet and warm conditions, similar to those present in modern tropical rainforests. Leaf surface area, tree size and climate reconstructions suggest that this was a highly productive system. Efficient carbon fixation requires hydraulic efficiency to meet the evaporative demands of the photosynthetic surface, but it comes at the expense of increased risk of drought-induced cavitation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the Olmos paleoforest had high hydraulic efficiency, but was prone to cavitation. We characterized the hydraulic properties of the Olmos paleoforest using theoretical conductivity (Ks), vessel composition (S) and vessel fraction (F), and measured drought resistance using vessel implosion resistance (t/b)h(2) and the water potential at which there is 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50). We found that the Olmos paleoforest had high hydraulic efficiency, similar to that present in several extant tropical-wet or semi-deciduous forest communities. Remarkably, the fossil flora had the lowest (t/b)h(2), which, together with low median P50 (-1.9 MPa), indicate that the Olmos paleoforest species were extremely vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation. Our findings support paleoclimate inferences from leaf physiognomy and paleoclimatic models suggesting it represented a highly productive wet tropical rainforest. Our results also indicate that the Olmos Formation plants had a large range of water conduction strategies, but more restricted variation in cavitation resistance. These straightforward methods for measuring hydraulic properties, used herein for the first time, can provide useful information on the ecological strategies of paleofloras and on temporal shifts in ecological function of fossil forests chronosequences.

  15. Biologia floral e fenologia reprodutiva de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae em Restinga do Norte Fluminense Floral biology and reproductive phenology of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae in the restinga of northern Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Farizel Cesário

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia reprodutiva, a morfologia floral e o sistema reprodutivo de Schinus terebinthifolius foram investigados em duas fisionomias de vegetação da restinga de Grussaí/Iquipari, Rio de Janeiro, no período de janeiro a dezembro/2004. Schinus terebinthifolius apresentou estratégia de florescimento do tipo cornucópia, com dois picos de floração ao ano na estação chuvosa, e frutificou no período seco. A análise morfológica das flores e os experimentos de polinização confirmaram que esta espécie é dióica e apresenta reprodução xenógama obrigatória. Ocorreu alta sincronia entre plantas masculinas e femininas, considerada importante estratégia para espécies dióicas. Não houve diferença entre a frutificação por polinização natural e polinização cruzada, nem entre as duas fitosionomias estudadas, sendo os valores encontrados menores do que os observados em outros trabalhos.Reproductive phenology, floral morphology and the reproductive system of Schinus terebinthifolius were investigated in two physiognomies of restinga vegetation at Grussai/Iquipari, Rio de Janeiro, from January to December/2004. Schinus terebinthifolius had cornucopia flowering strategy, with two flowering peaks during the year, both in the rainy season; fruit was set in the dry period. Morphological analysis of the flowers and pollination experiments confirmed dioicism and obligatory xenogamy in this species. High synchrony between male and female plants occurred, an important strategy for dioecious species. No difference in fruit set was found between natural and cross pollinations in the two physiognomies studied, indicating lower values than those observed in others studies.

  16. Mapping Brazilian savanna vegetation gradients with Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieder, Marcel; Leitão, Pedro J.; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Ferreira, Laerte Guimarães; Rabe, Andreas; Hostert, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Global change has tremendous impacts on savanna systems around the world. Processes related to climate change or agricultural expansion threaten the ecosystem's state, function and the services it provides. A prominent example is the Brazilian Cerrado that has an extent of around 2 million km2 and features high biodiversity with many endemic species. It is characterized by landscape patterns from open grasslands to dense forests, defining a heterogeneous gradient in vegetation structure throughout the biome. While it is undisputed that the Cerrado provides a multitude of valuable ecosystem services, it is exposed to changes, e.g. through large scale land conversions or climatic changes. Monitoring of the Cerrado is thus urgently needed to assess the state of the system as well as to analyze and further understand ecosystem responses and adaptations to ongoing changes. Therefore we explored the potential of dense Landsat time series to derive phenological information for mapping vegetation gradients in the Cerrado. Frequent data gaps, e.g. due to cloud contamination, impose a serious challenge for such time series analyses. We synthetically filled data gaps based on Radial Basis Function convolution filters to derive continuous pixel-wise temporal profiles capable of representing Land Surface Phenology (LSP). Derived phenological parameters revealed differences in the seasonal cycle between the main Cerrado physiognomies and could thus be used to calibrate a Support Vector Classification model to map their spatial distribution. Our results show that it is possible to map the main spatial patterns of the observed physiognomies based on their phenological differences, whereat inaccuracies occurred especially between similar classes and data-scarce areas. The outcome emphasizes the need for remote sensing based time series analyses at fine scales. Mapping heterogeneous ecosystems such as savannas requires spatial detail, as well as the ability to derive important

  17. L'utilisation de la polarimetrie radar et de la decomposition de Touzi pour la caracterisation et la classification des physionomies vegetales des milieux humides : le cas du lac Saint-Pierre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Gabriel

    Wetlands fill many important ecological functions and contribute to the biodiversity of fauna and flora. Although there is a growing recognition of the importance to protect these areas, it remains that their integrity is still threatened by the pressure of human activities. The inventory and the systematic monitoring of wetlands are a necessity and remote sensing is the only realistic way to achieve this goal. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute and improve the wetland characterization using satellite polarimetric data acquired in L (ALOS-PALSAR) and C (RADARSAT-2) band. This thesis is based on two hypotheses (Ch. 1). The first hypothesis stipulate that classes of plant physiognomies, based on plant structure, are more appropriate than classes of plant species because they are best adapted to the information content of polarimetric radar data. The second hypothesis states that polarimetric decomposition algorithms allow an optimal extraction of polarimetric information compared to a multi-polarized approach based on the HH, HV and VV channels (Ch. 3). In particular, the contribution of the incoherent Touzi decomposition for the inventory and monitoring of wetlands is examined in detail. This decomposition allows the characterization of the scattering type, its phase, orientation, symmetry, degree of polarization and the backscattered power of a target with a series of parameters extracted from an analysis of the coherency matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The lake Saint-Pierre region was chosen as the study site because of the great diversity of its wetlands that are covering more than 20 000 ha. One of the challenges posed by this thesis is that there is neither a standard system enumerating all the possible physiognomic classes nor an accurate description of their characteristics and dimensions. Special attention was given to the creation of these classes by combining several data sources and more than 50 plant species were grouped into nine

  18. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  19. Palaeoclimate reconstruction within the upper Eocene in central Germany using fossil plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraweck, Karolin; Kunzmann, Lutz; Uhl, Dieter; Kleber, Arno

    2013-04-01

    The Eocene has been commonly called "The world`s last greenhouse period" covering the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) as well as the Eocene-Oligocene turnover. In the mid-latitudes of Europe this turnover was characterized by pronounced climatic changes from subtropical towards temperate conditions that were accompanied by significant vegetational changes on land. Fossil plants are regarded as excellent palaeoenvironmental proxies, because leaf physiognomy often reflects climate conditions. The study site, the Paleogene Weißelster basin in central Germany, including fluvial, estuarine and lacustrine deposits, provides several excellently preserved megafloras for reconstructions of terrestrial palaeoclimate. For our case study we used material from different stratigraphic horizons within the late Eocene Zeitz megafloral assemblage recovered from the open-cast mines of Profen and Schleenhain. These horizons cover a time interval of ca. 3 Ma. The Zeitz megafloral assemblage ("Florenkomplex") was characterized by mainly evergreen, notophyllous vegetation, consisting of warm-temperate to subtropical elements. Tropical species are present but very rare. To infer the regional climatic conditions and putative climate changes from these fossil plants we compare proxy data obtained by the application of standard methods for quantitative reconstruction of palaeoclimate data: the coexistence approach (CA), leaf margin analysis (LMA) and Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP).Before the CA was applied to the material the list of putative nearest living relative species (NLR) was carefully revisited and partly revised. In case of the LMA approach information of so-called "silent taxa" (fossil species preserved by diaspores, leaf margin state is inferred from NLR data) were partly included in the data set. The four floras from the Zeitz megafloral assemblage show slightly different floral compositions caused by various taphonomic processes. An aim of the

  20. Did tropical rainforest vegetation exist during the Late Cretaceous? New data from the late Campanian to early Maastrichtian Olmos Formation, Coahuila, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, G. R.; Estrada-Ruiz, E.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    A major problem in paleobotany and paleoclimatology is the origin of modern tropical and paratropical rainforests. Studies of leaf macrofossils, beginning with those of Wolfe and Upchurch, have suggested that tropical and paratropical (i.e., megathermal) rainforests with dominant angiosperms are of Cenozoic origin, and that comparable vegetation was either absent or greatly restricted during the Late Cretaceous. Earth System modeling studies, in contrast, predict the existence of megathermal rainforest vegetation during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, though with less areal extent than during the Late Cenozoic and Recent. Megathermal climate with year-round precipitation is simulated along the paleoequator and along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean, and tends to occur in highly focused regions, in contrast to the more latitudinally zoned pattern of the Recent. Low-resolution climatic indicators, such as the distribution of coals and tree fern spores, are consistent with evidence from climate modeling for megathermal wet climates during the Late Cretaceous, and by extension megathermal rainforest vegetation. However, corroborative data from plant macrofossil assemblages is needed, because the physiognomy of leaves and woods directly reflects plant adaptation to the environment and can estimate climate independently of the generic and familial affinities of the paleoflora. Newly collected plant macrofossil assemblages from the late Campian to early Maastrichtian Olmos Formation of Coahuila, Mexico, provide evidence for megathermal rainforest vegetation on the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean at approximately 35 degrees paleolatitude. The newly collected leaf flora is 72 percent entire- margined and has abundant palms, features typical of modern megathermal rainforests. Thirty percent of the species have large leaves, and 50 percent of the species have drip tips, features indicative of wet conditions. Simple and multiple regression functions based on the

  1. Application of "correction of the smoothing effect" in investigation ofgeomorphological forms. (Polish Title: Zastosowanie "korekty efektu wygładzenia" w badaniach form geomorfologicznych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, A.; Zarychta, R.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive exploitation of natural environment resources, including natural aggregates - among them sand used for industrial purposes e.g. building industry, production of glass or backfilling contributes to significant physiocenotic changes. Concerning the problem, the area of Łódż voivodeship merits attention, especially Kobiele Wielkie commune (Dudki village) where progressive degradation of a parabolic dune occurs. It is caused by excessive extraction of Pleistocene fluvioglacial sand for building purposes. Overexploitation of natural resources has already caused and it is still causing decrease of the primary range and form of the discussed geomorphological form. Therefore, the authors of the paper decided to aim at reconstruction of the physiognomy (of the period prior to extraction) of the dune which had been formed in Dudki village. Geostatistical methods, including ordinary kriging, have been app lied for the purpose. The lack of archival cartographic materials of the investigated area made the authors go on numerous field trips which goal was to analyse and estimate the current state of the aeolian form and to determine its shape and range by mean s of a GPS receiver. A hypothetical three - dimensional model of the investigated dune made by application of an ordinary kriging method has not brought satisfying effects. Too many overestimated and underestimated values of altitude values caused significant generalisations resulting in smoothing of the whole model. Application of the correction of the smoothing effect proposed by J. K. Yamamoto in 2000 enabled considerable reduction of the "falsification effect". Therefore, the reconstructed shape and range of the dune is considerably different from the one obtained at the initial stage of the investigation by means of the digital model. The obtained results of the correction of the smoothing effect giving in result perfectly matching variograms prove properly performed geostatistical analysis. Hence

  2. Simulation of the erosion and drainage development of Loess surface based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Tang, Guoan; Ge, Shanshan; Li, Zhanbin; Zhou, Jieyu

    2006-10-01

    The research probes into the temporal-spatial process of drainage development of Loess Plateau on the basis of a carefully designed experiment. In the experiment, the development of a simulated loess watershed is tested under the condition of lab-simulated rainfall. A close-range photogrammetry survey is employed to establish a series of high precision and resolution DEM (Digit Elevation Model) of the simulated loess surface. Based on the established DEM, the erosion loss, the slope distribution, the topographic index , the gully-brink, and the drainage networks are all derived and discussed through comparison analysis and experimental validation. All the efforts aim at revealing the process and mechanism of erosion and drainage development of loess surface .This study demonstrates: 1) the stimulation result can effectively reflect the truth if those experimental conditions, i.e. loess soil structure, simulated rainfall, are adjusted in accord with true situation; 2) the remarkable character of the erosion and drainage up-growth of loess surface include the drainage traced to the source, the increased of the drainage's density, the enlarged of gully, the durative variety of multiple terrain factor's mean value and its distribution, such as slope and topographic index; 3) The slope spectrum is the more felicitous terrain factor for depicting the erosion and drainage development of loess surface, including the rule of erosion and evolution process. It is the new way and mean for studying the loess physiognomy.

  3. Humeaneyes (“one particular shade of blue”

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    Angela Coventry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-blue eyes and a fixed look: Is he a philosopher or a dumb ox? Hume’s eyes and face are trifle which can lead us into some curiosities connected with his life and writings. Looking through Hume’s eyes, we can outline the scholars’ propensity to describe the (painted face of their favourite philosopher and spread upon it their reading of his work. We can ask questions about portraits and resemblance as a standard of beauty. We can survey the eighteenth-century sentiments on physiognomy, and the paradox of the “fat philosopher”, at once, both clumsy and refined. We can inquire into Hume’s use of physiognomic descriptions, his account of corpulence and his own vacant look. We can observe how far Ramsay’s theory of a just graceful resemblance was put into practice in the dispute between Rousseau and Hume, and how the portraits were part of it. We can outline the role the eyes play in the body of Hume’s work. Finally, we can recall his aversion to “the prefixing a Print of the Author” and remember that the picture which he deemed “the likest”, as well as “the best Likeness”, has now disappeared. Yet, there remains something which is still engraved.

  4. Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Proteins and Age Reset in Yeast Are Regulated by Vac17-Dependent Vacuolar Functions

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    Sandra Malmgren Hill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan. The link between damage asymmetry and vesicle trafficking can be explained by a direct interaction between aggregates and vesicles. We also show that the protein disaggregase Hsp104 interacts physically with endocytic vesicle-associated proteins, such as the dynamin-like protein, Vps1, which was also shown to be required for Vac17-dependent sequestration of protein aggregates. These data demonstrate that two physiognomies of aging—reduced endocytosis and protein aggregation—are interconnected and regulated by Vac17.

  5. Influence of groundwater depth on species composition and community structure in the transition zone of Cele oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank; M.; THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the hypothesis that the distribution of dominant plant species and characteristics of plant communities are related to groundwater depth. The results showed that variations of groundwater depth impacted distributions and characteristics of dominant plant communities. However, besides groundwater depth, the community composition and species diversity were also influenced by physiognomy of the habitat. Based on the similarity coefficient, the differences between dominant plant communities were significant at different groundwater depths. Compared with other results relating to desert vegetation and groundwater depth, variations of community distribution were similar at the large spatial scale. However, in this extremely arid region, there were significant differences in community type and community succession when compared with other arid regions, especially in relationship to deep groundwater depth. With groundwater depth from deep to shallow, communities transformed with the sequence of Alhagi communities, Tamarix spp. communities, Populus communities, Phragmites communities, and Sophora communities. At groundwater depth of less than 6.0 m, the community type and composition changed, and the species diversity increased. Among these dominant species, Tamarix exhibited the biggest efficiency in resource utilization according to niche breadth, which means it possessed the best adaptability to environmental conditions at the oasis margins.

  6. Influence of groundwater depth on species composition and community structure in the transition zone of Cele oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangYi LI; LiSha LIN; Qiang ZHAO; XiMing ZHANG; Frank M.THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the hypothesis that the distribution of dominant plant species and characteristics of plant communities are related to groundwater depth.The results showed that variations of groundwater depth impacted distributions and characteristics of dominant plant communities.However,besides groundwater depth,the community composition and species diversity were also influenced by physiognomy of the habitat.Based on the similarity coefficient,the differences between dominant plant communities were significant at different groundwater depths.Compared with other results relating to desert vegetation and groundwater depth,variations of community distribution were similar at the large spatial scale.However,in this extremely arid region,there were significant differences in community type and community succession when compared with other arid regions,especially in relationship to deep groundwater depth.With groundwater depth from deep to shallow,communities transformed with the sequence of Alhagi communities,Tamarix spp.communities,Populus communities,Phragmites communities,and Sophora communities.At groundwater depth of less than 6.0m,the community type and composition changed,and the species diversity increased.Among these dominant species,Tamarix exhibited the biggest efficiency in resource utilization according to niche breadth,which means it possessed the best adaptability to environmental conditions at the oasis margins.

  7. De temperamentis disputatio medica (1593 – a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski

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    Agnieszka Raubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a forgotten work of Daniel Naborowski – “De temperamentis disputatio medica” (1593. Naborowski was a poet who lived at the turn of the 17th century and the work considered here is the result of his medical studies in Switzerland. The article addresses the poet’s scholarly interests, but first and foremost, it focuses on the subject of the research – the theory of temperaments. With ancient lineage and extremely popular in the sixteenth century, the theory was most frequently presented in the contexts of physiognomy, astrology and the lesions that were conditioned by the theory, yet in Naborowski’s work, it gained a new, solely theoretical perspec-tive. It was also concerned with the meticulous consideration of the systematics of temperaments (e.g. their differentiation – one was moderate and eight were merged, as well as their detailed division. The style of these considerations is characteristic for medical works of that period, and they constitute an interesting example of how practical issues in 16th and 17th century medicine were systematized. Furthermore, Naborowski’s considerations are a vivid example of permeable nature of disciplines – philosophy and medicine, and medicine with the broadly understood field of the humanities.

  8. Contributions to the heavy metal vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilia. Beitraege zur Schwermetallvegetation von Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger-Porto, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    For the first time, a heavy-metal vegetation on top of oxidic and pyritiferous show deposits in the mining areas of Sanga Negra, Seival and Volta Grande. A subtropical mesophytic forest develops in non-metal-containing areas. The following types of vegetation can be discerned on increasing heavy-metal contents: shrub savannah, waste-dump savannah, waste-dump steppe. The physiognomy of these types of vegetation is characterized above all by narrism of woody plants showing xeromorphic configurations frequently. Those plants growing on top of pyritiferous or oxidic ores, resp., showed differences in copper resistance. Anatomical studies of the leaves of Schinus lentiscifolius revealed marked histological changes with an increase of the glandular cells and the oxalate granules were especially noticeable. The following heavy metals were examined in the soils and in the plants: Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo, Ag, Cd. Elements available to plants were established in the soils by three different methods. A number of plants were shown to have relatively high heavymetal contents in their leaves. The feru Dryopteris triphylla showed particularly high contents of lead and silver. The shrub Daphnopsis racemose, however, revealed the highest Cadmium content. Non-linear correlations between the copper contents of soil and plant were found with Schinus lentiscifolius. Certain plants are discussed as to what extent they may be used for bioprospection.

  9. The Bignoniaceae Juss. family (ipes in the municipal district of Lavras, Minas Gerais

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    Mariana Esteves Mansanares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bignoniaceae family has 120 genera and 800 species with pantropical distribution, occurring mainly in the neotropics. About 32 genera and 350 species occur in Brazil, which is considered the center of diversity of the family. In Minas Gerais, some surveys indicate the occurrence of species such as Dolichandra unguis-cati, Fridericia speciosa and Handroanthus chrysotrichus. Lavras studies show 58 species. The municipality is located in a transition zone between savanna and semideciduous forest, with rugged terrain, which promotes a diversity of vegetation physiognomy. The objective was to catalog the species of native and exotic Bignoniaceae of Lavras, Minas Gerais, besides the elaboration of an identification key for them. Data were collected from all herbarium specimens with record collection in the city incorporated in the Herbarium ESAL; species cited in phytosociological studies of the county and registration of ornamental species found in parks, gardens and nurseries of the city were also raised. The specimens were identified in situ, by comparisons, consultations with specialists and specialized taxonomic literature. Fifty eight species (51 native and seven exotic were found, distributed in 21 genera, of which Jacaranda (10 species was the most common, followed by Fridericia (8 species and Handroanthus (7 species. Among the ornamental species stood out Handroanthus impetiginosus (Purple-ipe and Handroanthus serratifolius (Yellow-ipe. The number of species was superior to other localities, the largest similarity observed was with species of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais.

  10. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally.

  11. Spurensuche einer Rezeptionsgeschichte Alexander von Humboldt und Johann Gottfried Herder

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    Bernhard Hunger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English, German and Spanish.Alexander von Humboldt's work displays traces of Johann Gottfried Herder which are as multifaceted as the references to the latter are scarce. In light of this aspect, the present essay focuses on Humboldt's Physiognomy of Plants (1806, in which he explicitly mentions Herder for the first time in a publication. Two years later, the text is incorporated within Aspects of Nature (1808 ff.. In the third edition of Aspects (1849, Herder's name is curiously omitted. This omission is incomprehensible both in form and content. The historical context characterising the years between 1805 and 1808 suggests that Humboldt's references to Herder must have been made very deliberately. Humboldt's correspondence with the historian Johannes von M¸ller and other sources shows that Humboldt carefully studied Herder's writings. As the publisher of Herder's complete works, Johannes von M¸ller, who was Humboldtís friend and neighbour at the time, even considered Humboldt to be a direct descendant of the Herder school.

  12. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

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    Elinor McKone

    Full Text Available Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony. Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese, with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian.

  13. A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach to Study the Long-Term Vegetation Recovery of a Fire-Affected Pine Forest in Southern Greece

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    Foula Nioti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management strategies and silvicultural treatments of fire-prone ecosystems often rely on knowledge of the regeneration potential and long-term recovery ability of vegetation types. Remote sensing and GIS applications are valuable tools providing cost-efficient information on vegetation recovery patterns and their associated environmental factors. In this study we used an ordinal classification scheme to describe the land cover changes induced by a wildfire that occurred in 1983 in Pinus brutia woodlands on Karpathos Aegean Island, south-eastern Greece. As a proxy variable that indicates ecosystem recovery, we also estimated the difference between the NDVI and NBR indices a few months (1984 and almost 30 years after the fire (2012. Environmental explanatory variables were selected using a digital elevation model and various thematic maps. To identify the most influential environmental factors contributing to woodland recovery, binary logistic regression and linear regression techniques were applied. The analyses showed that although a large proportion of the P. brutia woodland has recovered 26 years after the fire event, a considerable amount of woodland had turned into scrub vegetation. Altitude, slope inclination, solar radiation, and pre-fire woodland physiognomy were identified as dominant factors influencing the vegetation’s recovery probability. Additionally, altitude and inclination are the variables that explain changes in the satellite remote sensing vegetation indices reflecting the recovery potential. Pinus brutia showed a good post-fire recovery potential, especially in parts of the study area with increased moisture availability.

  14. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

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    J. BOLONI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  15. Post-Pliocene establishment of the present monsoonal climate in SW China: evidence from the late Pliocene Longmen megaflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T.; Jacques, F. M. B.; Spicer, R. A.; Liu, Y.-S.; Huang, Y.-J.; Xing, Y.-W.; Zhou, Z.-K.

    2013-08-01

    The paleoclimate of the late Pliocene Longmen flora from Yongping County located at the southeastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was reconstructed using two leaf-physiognomy-based methods, i.e., leaf margin analysis (LMA) and Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP), to understand the paleoclimate condition and geographical pattern of monsoonal climate in southwestern China during the late Pliocene. The mean annual temperatures (MATs) estimated by LMA and CLAMP are 17.4 ± 3.3 °C and 17.4 ± 1.3 °C, respectively, compared with 15.9 °C at present. Meanwhile, the growing season precipitation (GSP) estimated by CLAMP is 1735.5 ± 217.7 mm in the Longmen flora, compared with 986.9 mm nowadays. The calculated monsoon intensity index (MSI) of the Longmen flora is significantly lower than that of today. These results appear consistent with previous studies on the late Pliocene floras in western Yunnan based on the coexistence approach (CA), and further suggest that there was a slightly warmer and much wetter climate during the late Pliocene than the present climate in western Yunnan. We conclude that the significant change of the monsoonal climate might have been resulted from the continuous uplift of mountains in western Yunnan, as well as the intensification of the eastern Asian winter monsoon, both occurring concurrently in the post-Pliocene period.

  16. Post-Pliocene establishment of the present monsoonal climate in SW China: evidence from the late Pliocene Longmen megaflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Su

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paleoclimate of the late Pliocene Longmen flora from Yongping County located at the southeastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was reconstructed using two leaf physiognomy based methods, i.e. Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA and Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP, to understand the paleoclimate condition and geographical pattern of monsoonal climate in southwestern China during the late Pliocene. The mean annual temperatures (MATs estimated by LMA and CLAMP are 17.4 ± 3.3 °C and 17.4 ± 1.3 °C, respectively, compared with 15.9 °C at present. Meanwhile, the growing season precipitation (GSP estimated by CLAMP is 1735.5 ± 217.7 mm in the Longmen flora, compared with 986.9 mm nowadays. The calculated monsoon index (MSI of the Longmen flora is significantly lower than that of today. These results appear consistent with previous studies based on the coexistence approach (CA, and further suggest that there was a slightly warmer and much wetter climate during the late Pliocene than the present climate in western Yunnan. We conclude that the significant change of the monsoonal climate might have been resulted from the continuous uplift of mountains in western Yunnan, as well as the intensification of eastern Asian winter monsoon, both occurring concurrently in the post-Pliocene period.

  17. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

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    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  18. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  19. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

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    Francine Rubin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  20. Reserva biológica estadual da Praia do Sul (Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro: lista preliminar da flora

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    Dorothy Sue Dunn de Araujo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Biológica Estadual da Praia do Sul está localizada na parte meridional da Ilha Grande - RJ (23º10' S.; 44º17' W.Gr., abrangendo uma área de 3600 ha. Foram identificadas nesta Reserva 5 comunidades vegetais, a saber: psamofila reptante de anteduna, mata de cordão arenoso, mata alagadiça de planície, manguezal e mata de encosta. A fitofisionomia de cada comunidade está descrita, incluindo as espécies mais comuns e a área da Reserva ocupada por cada uma. O levantamento florístico ainda incompleto constitui uma lista de cerca de 300 espécies: as 4 famílias mais importantes são: Leguminose, Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, BromeliaceaeThe Praia do Sul State Biological Reserve is located on Ilha Grande, State oí Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23º10' S.; 44º17' W.Gr.. Five plant communities were identified within the limits of this 3600 ha tract: creeping foredune psammophytes, beach ridge forest, coastal plain swamp forest, mangrove and montane forest. The physiognomy of each community is described, including the most common species found and the area of occurrence within the Reserve. A list of approximately 300 species has been compiled to date; the 4 most important families are: Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae

  1. COUPLING ANALYSES OF FRAGILE ECO-ENVIRONMENT IN THE WEST OF THE SONGNEN PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fragile eco-environment is a special type of ecosystem, its response to the change of environmental conditions is very susceptive. So it is rather prone to be disturbed under unfavorable conditions. Human activity has greatly changed the geo-chemical process in the ecosystem, thus caused a series of positive and negative effects. In the ecosystem, especially in the fragile eco-environment, different systems and regimes are interconnected and interdetermined.For the suntainable development of ecosystem and the protection and rational utilization of resources, it is of great importance to study these internal relationships and seek rational regulation and control measure. This paper takes the fragile eco-environment in the west of the Songnen Plain as an example. Based on the study of the topograph, physiognomy,soil, vegetation and their geographic distribution in the landscape, the paper explains thestructure of the ecologic landscape and quantifies the ecologic geo-chemical processes under different landscape conditions. In addition, the paper also tries making coupling analyses of the ecologic succession and the landscape geochemical environment. And in the paper, some research results are given.

  2. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  3. From the human capital defined as "homo oeconomicus rationalis" to that of the rationally bounded and oportunistic "homo contractualis". An institutionalist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POHOATA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The rationality (its presence or its absence of the business, be it producer or consumer, has been a constant preoccupation of all those who dedicated their energy and talent on the sinuous road of the history of economic thinking. Without rational behaviour it was inconceivable to determine a development path. From this point of view the position of the great schools of thought is based, essentially, on two main approaches. The classics and the neoclassics had in mind the perfectly rational and well-informed individual. In reply, the institutional economy, in its old or new form (NIE, opposes to homo oeconomicus rationalis a narrow-minded and insufficiently informed homo contractualis. The consequences of this re-evaluation of the basics of the business’s potencies on the physiognomy of the theoretical approach and also on the results of practical actions are significant. Those linked to the bounded rationality hypothesis, an important operating concept in the analytical structures of NIE, may trigger debates on the theoretical basis of standard economics.

  4. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

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    A. KUN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  5. Agribusiness Opportunity Costs and Environmental Legal Protection: Investigating Trade-Off on Hotspot Preservation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km2 covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  6. COMUNIDADE ARBÓREA DE UMA MANCHA FLORESTAL PERMANENTEMENTE ALAGADA E DE SUA VEGETAÇÃO ADJACENTE EM OURO PRETO-MG, BRASIL

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    Gabriel Pedreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to raise the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure of the tree community of an permanent flooded swamp forest known as 'Floresta Padulosa' as well as its adjacent vegetation (semi-deciduous seasonal forest 'Alto Montana' in Itacolomi State Park, Ouro Preto and Mariana, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study site is located at an altitude of 1,350m, and the regional climate is classified as Cwb by Köppen¿s system, with average annual rainfall varying from 1.100mm to 1.800mm and the average annual temperature from 17.4 ºC to 19.8 ºC. In order to make the phytosociological survey 14 plots (10m X 30m were located, seven in each physiognomy, and all individuals with a minimum CBH (Circunference at Breast Height of 15cm were sampled. A total of 1136 individuals were sampled, belonging to 24 families, 37 genders and 53 species. The families with higher richness values were Myrtaceae (11, Melastomataceae (5 and Annonaceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (3. The similarity among the studied fragments can be considered lower than expected, showing the existence of individual phytogeographic units, with distinct floristic characteristics. The influence of the adjacent vegetation on the swamp forest may be the most important factor in its floristic differentiation if compared to other swamps areas of Brazil.

  7. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil

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    DS França

    Full Text Available We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  8. Study of energy flows in Pantanal - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate fluxes using the eddy covariance method in a wetland area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 4m height. The geographical position of the Pantanal, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Pantanal presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 30% and the latent heat flux (LE) 58%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 46% and the latent heat flux (LE) 40% of the energy budget.

  9. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  10. Assessing the Habitat Suitability of Dam Reservoirs: A Quantitative Model and Case Study of the Hantan River Dam, South Korea

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    Hyeongsik Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate ecologically healthy regions near a dam reservoir. This study developed a model for assessing habitat suitability as a proxy for the ecological value of reservoirs. Three main factors comprising nine assessment variables were selected and classified as having a habitat suitability (HS between 0 and 1: (1 geomorphic factors of altitude, slope steepness, and slope aspect; (2 vegetation factors of forest physiognomy, vegetation type, and tree age; and (3 ecological factors of land cover, ecological quality index, and environmental conservation value assessment. The spatial distribution of the nine HS indices was determined using geographic information systems and combined into one HS index value to determine ecologically healthy regions. The assessment model was applied to areas surrounding the Hantan River Dam, South Korea. To verify the model, wildlife location data from the national ecosystem survey of the Ministry of Environment were used. Areas with an HS index between 0.73 and 1 were found to contain 72% of observed wildlife locations. Ecologically healthy areas were identified by adding the indices of each variable. The methods shown here will be useful for establishing ecological restoration plans for dam reservoirs in South Korea.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats.

  12. Mapping the Cerrado vegetation classes using Rapid Eye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Cerrado biome is a world's important biodiversity hotspot. Its natural vegetation is being severely converted by agriculture and pasture, with a large risk to be reduced into small fragments. The Cerrado is the second largest biome of South America and is considered the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. Its vegetation is divided into three major physiognomies: grassland, forest and savanna. The main objective of this study is to classify the major vegetation classes of the Cerrado and its converted areas. A very common issue faced by scientists when using remote sensing to map the Cerrado's vegetation is finding some confusion between the vegetation and the converted areas. It is believed that satellites with a finer spatial resolution would help improve the classification of this biome. In order to test this hypothesis, we have selected the RapidEye 3A imagery for the year 2012 to use in this work. Decision Trees method were tested in this work to classify the vegetation classes with an effective result. Mapping the Cerrado classes and its converted areas is very important to understand and develop studies to monitor its land use change and prioritize areas for conservation.

  13. Data sources on landscape structure in a highly industrialized area

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    Mazurek Kinga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape may be described as a part of space characterized by a certain physiognomy, which is a dynamic system subject to evolution. An important factor influencing the type and condition of the landscape is human activity which shapes or rebuilds its structure. Interesting results may be obtained on comparison of archival cartographic materials with contemporary studies and zoning plans. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is a region with a clearly transformed landscape. The determinant of the geographical environment transformation here is the anthropogenic factor. The study area includes the upper part of the Kłodnica catchment (229.6 sq km. The study is a review, and its aim is to systematize data sources used in the research on the transformation of landscape structure of a heavily industrialized area. In the first half of the nineteenth century created the "Urmesstischblätter" in the scale of 1:25 000. Afterwards preparations began to take new topographic images of the country (the "Messtischblätter". In the 1990s initiated the development of a new topographic map (in the scale of 1:10 000. Recent data source is for example the project CORINE Land Cover 2006. There are many of various sources of data on land cover. An important aspect is the proper selection of documents and maps, and their proper interpretation.

  14. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

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    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  15. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  16. THE ROMANIAN RURAL SPACE AND ITS LANDSCAPES: ATTRACTION AND MOTIVATION FOR RELOCATING TOWNSPEOPLE

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    IULIAN DINCĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Rural Space And Its Landscapes: Attraction And Motivation For Relocating Townspeople. It is an easily noticed fact that a new generation of residents has been establishing new habitation structures all over Romania. This also applies to the south-eastern Oradea Suburban Area, in north-western Romania. The analysed suburban landscapes bring out open attitudes in former city dwellers, strongly biased pro-landscape (78.52% of all interviewees. The landscape criterion ranks second in reasons for relocation, indicating that local nature meets the expectations of the new residents. Indubitable spiritual benefits are also involved, the new residents’ perception of local landscapes being dominated by responses like beauty, repose, naturalness. However, the new residents do not have a narrowed-down, specialised definition in their minds when expressing opinions on local landscape physiognomy in detail, and on outstanding features that render local landscapes attractive. Even the landscape management interventions of new residents and of local authorities revolve around land estate categories and tailored urbanistic requisitions. Consequently, the configuration of neo-landscapes with a distinct suburban identity emerges. The major directions of this case study may serve as groundwork for further studies on the issue of landscape as subject matter in attracting city dwellers to suburban locations.

  17. REVIEW: Possibilities of Mount Lawu to be a National Park

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    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available National Park is an area of natural conservation that having indigenous ecosystem managed with zonation system and can be utilized for education, research, crop development and recreation. This concept seems still to be the most suitable technique for biodiversity conservation, and can be applied in Indonesia, where the high biodiversity richness taken place. Mount Lawu and surrounding areas are ideal location to be developed in to National Park. This is due to all criteria needed such as: the width was mare than 10.000 ha, the natural ecosystem and endemic species are still existing, having ancient sites, spiritual and aesthetic value; having typical physiography and physiognomy, as well as the high chance of developing tourism industries. Jobolarangan area is a natural ecosystem that represents the whole ecosystem and problems of Lawu Mountains. This area having quite high diversity and richness consisted of plants, animals and microbes. That development of National Park at Mount Lawu need to be supported by the formation of biodiversity conservation centers, i.e. botanical garden, wild live sanctuary, agro-tourism park, etc., so that becomes an integrated biodiversity conservation area.

  18. Multiseasonal-multispectral remote sensing of phenological change for natural vegetation inventory. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Variations in phenological development among plant species was noted, as well as the tendency for the seasonal appearance of some vegetation types to be dominated by the appearance of one or a few similarly developing species. Most of the common plants in the study area could be characterized by temporal aspects of their phenological development. There was a strong similarity among the spectral signatures of vegetation types in which the spectral return was dominated by green plant material. When the soil background dominated the spectral return from a vegetation stand, then the spectral radiance and the vegetation physiognomy were apparently related. When the deciduous shrubs lost their leaves, their spectral signature altered with a slight decrease of radiance in the visible wavelengths and a strong decrease in the near infrared. As the foliage of perennial grasses cured from August to November, its apparent green radiance remained unchanged, red radiance increased over 50 percent, and near infrared radiance decreased approximately 30 percent. A reflective mineral surface exhibited high radiance levels in all four bands, thus providing a marked contrast to the absorption characteristics of vegetation canopies.

  19. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci.

  20. ESTRUTURA E FLORÍSTICA DE UM REMANESCENTE FLORESTAL NA FAZENDA RIBEIRÃO, MUNICÍPIO DE JUVENÍLIA, MG, BRASIL

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    Rubens Manoel dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the extreme North of Minas, due to your character ecotone, involves a large number of physiognomies and floristic complexes, but presumably unknown. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine the structure and the floristic composition of an area of arboreal caatinga in Juvenília, Minas Gerais. Hopes to contribute with information that allow, in the future, that is arrived to a classification it aims at and coherent of this vegetation. A sample of 10 (20x20m plots was allocated (400m2, distributed on a parallel transect to the largest axis of the fragment, and to each 20 meters in this transect two plots were allocated, distanced 10 meters to each other, totaling 0.4ha. All the individuals were registered with CBH (circumference at breast height > 10cm. In the structure, 36 species with diversity of H' = 2.4 and eqüability of J' = 0.67 were sampled, values middlemen if compared with results of other works developed at Brazilian deciduous seasonal forests. Acacia martii, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Eugenia uniflora and Tabebuia impetiginosa presented the largest values in all the structural parameters analyzed. This links with the high abundance of those species. The community's diameter distributions tended to the normality with smaller amount of individuals in the classes smaller and larger diametric.

  1. Chalet en Aravaca - Madrid – España

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    Martín Artajo, A.

    1973-11-01

    Full Text Available The building has an original physiognomy, in the middle of the broad meadow that surrounds it. Enclosures, fences and roofs have the same texture and an identical shade of white with a green note provided by the bushes and slender cypress trees. The ground floor includes: a lobby, a livingdining room; three bedrooms, with a very complete bathroom area; kitchen; diningroom entrance; office; bedroom and service restroom. On the top floor are the study, game rooms and terraces. There is also a large garage, patios and swimming pool. The décor expresses great simplicity in lines and colors, thereby achieving remarkable harmony and elegance.El edificio presenta una fisonomía original, en medio de la amplia pradera que lo rodea. Cerramientos, vallas y cubiertas tienen la misma textura e idéntica blancura, con alguna nota verde proporcionada por los arbustos y los esbeltos cipreses. La planta noble comprende: vestíbulo; salón-comedor-estar, tres dormitorios, con zona de baño y aseo muy completos; cocina; antecomedor; oficio; dormitorio, y aseo de servicio. En la planta alta están el estudio, juegos y terrazas. Hay, además, un amplio garaje, patios y piscina. El tratamiento interior es de una gran sencillez, en líneas y colores, consiguiéndose una armonía y elegancia notables.

  2. STUDY ON METHODS OF LAND USE DYNAMIC MONITORING AT COUNTY LEVEL Taking Dehui County, Jilin Province for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing technique has played an important role in land use dynamic monitoring, but as for the land use dynamic monitoring at county level, traditional remote sensing methods such as satellite imagery visual interpreta tion and computer classification can not meet its demand for accuracy. The result of 1:10 000 land use investigation map has high accuracy, but this method can not be used to dynamically monitor the land use because of its big expenses, long period and difficulty in updating data. In this paper, the characteristics of physiognomy, climate and the status of land use in Dehui County are taken into consideration and a set of method, which takes use of 3S techniques and applids to Northeast China Plain, is come up with. When the land use type of a land parcel changed as a whole, the date updating can be make by changing its land type ID in the attribute table in a GIS. When the land use type of an irregular area changed, GPS receivers are used to position its border. This set of method is characteristic of high accuracy and low expens es. It gets the information of land use change timely and can be used to dynamically monitor the land use.

  3. BODY SIZE REDUCTION AND TOOTH AGENESIS IN LATE PLEISTOCENE MELES MELES (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM INGARANO (SOUTHERN ITALY

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    DAWID ADAM IURINO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals combined factors such as body size reduction and loss of peripheral teeth are often associated with endemism phenomena. This condition is particularly evident in insular contexts where is a complete geographic isolation. During the Pleistocene there have been several glacial stages, which changed the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula strongly influencing the distribution and morphology of mammalian faunas. Several genetic studies have shown that some Southern Italian areas have particular endemic species of small and medium size mammals. During Pleistocene these areas have been characterized by particular climatic/environmental conditions, and are generally called "glacial refugia". They represent geographically isolated areas over time, where the origin of faunas with peculiar features is favoured. In this study, the occurrence of Meles meles from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Apulia, Southern Italy is documented for the first time. This taxon is represented only by a partial skull (splancnocranum that, despite the relative completeness, includes peculiar and well-preserved dental features that could be related to a partial endemic condition. The fossil shows a reduced body size and the agenesis of peripheral teeth, both conditions that are typical of the extant badgers from Crete, Rhodes and Japan. To test this hypothesis, tomographic analysis have been provided to establish the dental agenesis, and, in order to understand the magnitude of the body size reduction, biometric analyses have been carried on. The obtained data have been compared to measures of the extant Eurasian badgers.SHORT NOTE

  4. Comparative phytosociology of tree sinusiae between contiguous forests in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, A; Soares, J J; Figueiredo, M A

    2000-11-01

    The Baturité Mountain Range, located in the State of Ceará (BRA), displays on its highest levels a vegetation viewed as a disjunction from the Atlantic Forest in the East of Brazil. Among the various attributes associated with this vegetation, the abundance of water resources and a high biodiversity have a more outstanding relevance. However, in view of the current accelerated deforestation process, those attributes may be threatened in a near future. Therefore, the present work is a comparative study with its focus on vegetal community organization (tree sinusiae) and the floristic similarity and the phytodiversity of two areas in different successive stages, preserved and deforested 24 years ago. The aim of that intent was to obtain information that could essentially shed light on the deforestation effects on tree vegetation and which could suggest scientific support regarding urgent projects of habitat reconstruction. The methodology used folowed the model utilized for rain forest, i.e. consisting of a random distribution of 10 x 20 m plots surveying the living woody species with DBH >/= 5 cm. The results obtained suggest that a possible new physiognomy type is emerging on the Baturite Mountain Range because of deforestation. The Myrtaceae and Mimosaceae families were the ones that contributed most significantly to species richness, being the most outstanding for Areas 1 and 2, respectively. The deforestation which occurred in Area 2 eliminated 28 species and gave birth to a current densely distinct floristic composition.

  5. Searching the animal psyche with Charles Le Brun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah R

    2010-07-01

    Around 1670 the French court painter and Academician Charles Le Brun produced a series of drawings featuring naturalistic animal heads, as well as imaginary heads in which he refashioned various nonhuman animal species to make humanoid physiognomies. What were the purpose and significance of these unusual works? I argue that they show Le Brun's interest in what we today would call animal psychology: focusing upon the sensory organs and their connections with the animal's brain, Le Brun studied his animals as conscious protagonists of the natural realm. One source that may have served him in this project was Marin Cureau de La Chambre's De la Connoissance des bestes of 1645, in which the physician argued that animals possess a conscious soul grounded in the senses. However, Le Brun's animal-humans have no clear place in the artist's taxonomy--nor, indeed, in any seventeenth-century understandings of species. It is rather John Locke, at his most skeptical, who offers the best parallel in the realm of natural philosophy to Le Brun's unsettling animal-humans. Probably without meaning to, Le Brun demonstrated through his eerie, boundary-crossing creatures the limits of visual classification.

  6. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop.

  7. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  8. Quantification and qualification of the alterations in Permanent Preservation Areas in a stretch of Rio das Mortes, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Handerson Batista de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA of a 20-km stretch of Rio das Mortes in the Municipality of Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso. The areas were determined utilizing low-cost resources: Google Earth (GE, small format aerial photographs (SFAP and GE Path software. Additionally, a field visit was made to distinguish the use of the land. A total of 457.02 ha of the PPA were analyzed, showing that 15.6% were altered and subdivided into 45 fragments. The introduction of pastures for cattle was the principal cause of the alterations, where among the 19 points visited, seven were new pastures, six in initial regeneration, four in intermediate regeneration and two occupied by housing. Degradation was significantly related to the proximity of the city. Google Earth images, superimposed by SFAPs, provided satisfactory results for the identification of environmental alterations, but confirmation in the field was crucial for the determination of the physiognomies.

  9. Laboratorio nuclear para la Duke University - Durham (EE. UU.

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    Odell, Arquitectos Asociados

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available This building will actually serve three universities, with research departments surrounding an FN reactor. It has been placed next to the physics building and other smaller laboratories. With three floors, the ground floor containing laboratories, the middle floor access and offices, and the top floor for vehicle parking, the arrangement harmonizes with the considerable slope of the site. The construction Is fundamentally reinforced concrete with prefabricated elements which respect the architectural physiognomy of the area.El edificio servirá a tres Universidades, con secciones de investigación alrededor de un reactor FN, y se ha emplazado junto al edificio de Física y a otros dos laboratorios más pequeños. Se compone de tres plantas: — baja, con los laboratorios; — intermedia, con el acceso y oficinas, y — alta, que comprende el estacionamiento de vehículos. Esta disposición es función de la gran pendiente del solar. Construcción a base de hormigón armado, elementos prefabricados, fundamentalmente, tratando de respetar la fisonomía arquitectónica del entorno.

  10. Dracula, le monstre et les savants : entre Darwin et Bunyan Dracula, the Monster and the Scientists: between Darwin and Bunyan

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    René Gallet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the novel’s characters, two are well identified scientists, Seward and Van Helsing; but a third also plays a major, though covert, role in it. Mina mentions the names of Nordau and Lombroso quite late in the book (chapter XXV; however, the latter had begun to leave his mark on the narrative almost from the very start: much of Dracula’s «physiognomy» is borrowed from Lombroso’s description of the «born criminal», the anthropological type defined in L’Uomo Deliquente. The same is true with Renfield’s «temperament». Lombroso’s view was that the two human types linked in Dracula (the «born criminal» and the «morally insane man» are basically one. This theory thus proves a significant contribution to the structure of the book. The presence of such a scientific layer in it beneath the more conspicuous layer of Transylvanian legends and superstitions also leads to a reassessment of Stoker’s work which could then be seen as adapting Bunyan’s technique of multiple allegory to a Victorian intellectual context.

  11. Vegetation development in a sand dune ten years after restoration, Parque Municipal das Dunas da Lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

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    Nina Rosa Zanin Zanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation cover of a sand dune was surveyed ten years after the improvement of a restoration project that utilized seed sowing, seedling planting and seedling transplantation from an adjacent area with watering in the first months. On the upper part of the restored dune, the vegetation was sparse (53% but more developed than that of the adjacent control area (34%, both presenting herbaceous/subshrub physiognomy with predominance of Panicum racemosum. On the slope of the restored dune, a shrub vegetation developed, presenting a percentage cover (90% similar to that of the control area (100%. Dodonaea viscosa was the dominant species on this restored face. The establishment of arboreal and shrub species seedlings on the upper dune was good. In part, this improved the species richness, but contributed to dissimilarity between this area and the control site.  A lower species richness was presented on the slope and the similarity to the control area was even lower. Plants introduced by sowing and seedling transplantation showed success and contributed to the similarity with the adjacent vegetation. Seedlings of arboreal and shrub plants survived on the upper dune. These species are represented in a more developed stage of succession, differing from the adjacent control area.

  12. Temporal variations of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in the semiarid Caatinga in northeastern Brazil

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    Aila Soares Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The richness and abundance of Collembola species can be influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors, mainly humidity. The semiarid region of Brazil is dominated by Caatinga dryland vegetation which experiences distinct seasonal alterations of its physiognomy linked to regional rainfall regimes. The present study evaluated the environmental factors affecting populations of Collembola in an area of Caatinga vegetation in Northeastern Brazil during a 12-months period. Specimens were collected by active searching in ten 20 x 20 m plots, with a sampling effort of 1 hour/person/plot. A total of 1231 specimens were collected, comprising 15 morphospecies, 12 genera, and nine families. Both species richness and individual abundances demonstrated oscillations during the year, with the highest values occurring during the rainy season; rainfall was the principal predictive variable for the observed temporal oscillations. Minimum temperatures and precipitation influenced the structural composition of the Collembola. Populations of Collembola demonstrated clustered distribution during the year. The direct and indirect effects of precipitation on the quality of microhabitats and resource availability were apparently responsible for the numerical and compositional alterations of the Collembola fauna observed in the Caatinga site.

  13. Leaf beetle (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) assemblages in a mosaic of natural and altered areas in the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, M; De Marco, P

    2015-06-01

    In landscape mosaics, species may use different vegetation types or be restricted to a single vegetation type or land-use feature highlighting the importance of the interaction of species requirements and environmental heterogeneity. In these systems, the determination of the overall pattern of β-diversity can indicate the importance of the environmental heterogeneity on diversity patterns. Here, we evaluate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as habitat quality bioindicators in a system with varying intensities of human impacts and different phyto-physiognomies (from open field to forests). We collected 1117 leaf beetles belonging to 245 species, of which 12 species and 5 genus were considered possible bioindicators based on IndVal measures. Higher species richness was observed in forests and regenerating fields, and habitats with lower species richness included pastures, mines, and veredas. Natural fields, regenerating fields, natural cerrado, and forest had higher values of β-diversity. Bioindicator systems that include not only species richness and abundance but also assemblage composition are needed to allow for a better understanding of Chrysomelidae response to environmental disturbance.

  14. Metodologias de análise e de classificação das paisagens. O exemplo do projecto Estrela

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    António de Brum Ferreira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION METHODOLOGIES. THE EXAMPLE OF THE ESTRELA PROJECT. Landscape ecology studies experience at the moment an increase of interest by researchers, developers and end-users. However, the subject matter is still too dispersed, not only in methods used but also in objects of analysis as well as space and time-scales. Progress on quantitative methods and the use of Geographical Information Systems frequently lead to excessive emphasis on physiognomic patterns to the detriment of landscape dynamics. Furthermore, the study of landscape as a geosystem suffers from problems related to calculation of mass and energy fluxes, which are barely possible, even with the powerful and costly equipment available only in few laboratories. The integrated environmental research, albeit at a more modest level, requires a multidisciplinary approach (defended by many, but seldom applied. The objective of the ESTRELA Project is to study the relations between the physiognomy and dynamics of the landscape in a mountain environment. Geomorphology, climate and vegetation are analysed at three spatial scales. The research carried out on each domain is presented and an example is given of their integration in a sample-site. The conclusion refers to the temporal transformations of the landscape of the Serra da Estrela. The problem of landscape units definition is still under investigation.

  15. [Akhenaton--pharaoh and heretic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albretsen, C S; Albretsen, C

    1999-03-20

    Akhenaten has been called the first individualist in history. As the eldest son of the pharaoh Amenhotep III and queen Tiy he grew up between a weak and sick father and an ambitious and intelligent mother at a time when Egypt was at the peak of its power. At court they led a life in luxury; however, the pharaoh went out hunting while his wife was ruling the strongest empire of the ancient world. The gifted young pharaoh to be was a philosopher with great interests in the arts. He took over his parents' scepticism against the powerful priesthood. Later, as Akhenaten, he created a monotheistic religion with a good-natured God symbolized by the disc of the life-giving sun. He appointed himself high priest, thus dethroning the numerous priests serving the many animal-shaped gods of ancient Egypt. His introduction of one single deity might, from a psychoanalytic point of view, be interpreted as an extension of his needs for a warm mother. The physiognomy of Akhenaten was peculiar; statues of him convey the impression of a man with acromegaly. His reluctance in defending the borders of his country was perhaps also a result of an endocrine development, making him lethargic.

  16. Expo 2010 Promotes Urban Planning and Construction of Shanghai%2010世博会推动上海城市的规划和建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍江

    2009-01-01

    文章通过分析2010上海世博会的主题、选址、规划等,指出这届世博会可优化上海城市规划的新理念,在基础设施、公共设施方面提升上海的城市功能,并留下一批丰富城市空间与生活的优秀建筑和公共艺术作品.世博会不仅是上海发展的千载难逢的重大机遇,也为上海带来前所未有的压力和挑战.%By analyzing the theme, site selection and planning of the Expo 2010, the article indicates that the Expo 2010 introduces new ideas and physiognomy to the urban planning and construction of Shanghai, which will improve the urban functions in respect of infrastructure and public facilities and leave Shanghai a host of outstanding architectural works and public art works that will enrich the urban space and urban life. The Expo 2010 is not only a significant opportunity for the development of Shanghai, but also brings with it unprecedented pressure and challenges.

  17. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  18. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: dental, clinical, genetic and dermatoglyphic findings of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargül, B; Alcan, T; Kabalay, U; Atasu, M

    2001-01-01

    Patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) are characterized by the clinical manifestations of hypodontia, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and a highly characteristic facial physiognomy. This disorder is inherited as an X-linked trait. This report presents three cases with HED in which the clinical evaluation (intraoral and radiological), genetic findings and SEM examination of hair. Boys 6 to 14 year old and a 11 year old girl were referred to the Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, complaining of oligodontia in the maxillary and mandibular arches and delay in eruption of other teeth. Peg-shaped teeth have been observed. The dermatoglyphs of the patients were striking. SEM examination of hair demonstrated a distinctly abnormal longitudinal grooving along the entire length of each hair and a desquamation of the surface cuticles. The treatment was planned in a multidisciplinary odontological group involving pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, prosthodontics and oral surgery and maxillofacial radiology of future dental habilitation. A specially designed overdenture, a removable prosthesis and osseointegrated implants were constructed. Periodic recall visits were advised, to monitor the dentures and implants during periods of growth and development, and eruption of the permanent teeth.

  19. EFEITO DE BORDA E DINÂMICA DE PLANTAS LENHOSAS EM ÁREAS DE CAATINGA EM CARNAUBAIS RN

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    AIRTON DE DEUS CYSNEIROS CAVALCANTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of studies in communities dynamics, especially in vegetation sites with anthropogenic disturbs as Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil, was evaluate the edge effect caused by the opening of a oil duct on the dynamics of plants in three physiognomies of Caatinga (open shrub, riparian shrub dense and shrub dense over 15 months (May/2007, January/2008 and August/2008, taking into account the hypothesis that there are differences in the dynamics in areas near edge and more distant. In each situations were evaluated edge and interior, so much in terms of trees in five plots of 10×10 m contiguous as of regeneration of the plants in plots of 2×2 m. Were calculate mortality, recruitment and growth rates in the edge and interior. Most important differences in terms of edge and interior occurred in open shrub Caatinga. The largest fluctuations in the values of density and diameter occurred at the edge, which indicates that the opening of the duct caused greater interference in this situation.

  20. The development of race-based perceptual categorization: skin color dominates early category judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Stepanova, Elena V; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Prior research on the development of race-based categorization has concluded that children understand the perceptual basis of race categories from as early as age 4 (e.g. Aboud, 1988). However, such work has rarely separated the influence of skin color from other physiognomic features considered by adults to be diagnostic of race categories. In two studies focusing on Black-White race categorization judgments in children between the ages of 4 and 9, as well as in adults, we find that categorization decisions in early childhood are determined almost entirely by attention to skin color, with attention to other physiognomic features exerting only a small influence on judgments as late as middle childhood. We further find that when skin color cues are largely eliminated from the stimuli, adults readily shift almost entirely to focus on other physiognomic features. However, 6- and 8-year-old children show only a limited ability to shift attention to facial physiognomy and so perform poorly on the task. These results demonstrate that attention to 'race' in younger children is better conceptualized as attention to skin color, inviting a reinterpretation of past work focusing on children's race-related cognition.

  1. Brain asymmetry and facial attractiveness: facial beauty is not simply in the eye of the beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A C; German, C; Zaidel, D W

    1997-04-01

    We recently reported finding asymmetry in the appearance of beauty on the face [Zaidel et al., Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, pp. 649-655, 1995]. Here, we investigated whether facial beauty is a stable characteristic (on the owner's very face) or is in the perceptual space of the observer. We call the question 'the owner vs observer hypothesis'. We compared identity judgements and attractiveness ratings of observers. Subjects viewed left-left and right-right composites of faces and decided which most resembled the normal face (Experiment 1). Identity judgements (resemblance) are known to be associated with perceptual factors in the observer. Another group viewed the same normal faces and rated them on attractiveness (Experiment 2). In each experiment, there were two separate viewing conditions, original and reversed (mirror-image). Lateral reversal did affect the results of Experiment 1 (confirming previous findings [Bennett et al., Neuropsychologia, Vol. 25, pp. 681-687, 1987; Gilbert and Bakan, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 183, pp. 593-600, 1993]) but did not affect the results of Experiment 2. The fact that lateral reversal did not affect the results of Experiment 2 suggests that facial attractiveness is more dependent on physiognomy (of the owner) and less dependent on an asymmetrical perceptual process (in the observer) than is facial identity. The results are discussed in the context of beauty's biological significance and facial processing in the brain.

  2. Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, Travis E; Smith, Melinda D; Fay, Philip A; Knapp, Alan K; Shaw, M Rebecca; Loik, Michael E; Smith, Stanley D; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C; Weltzin, Jake F; Pockman, William T; Sala, Osvaldo E; Haddad, Brent M; Harte, John; Koch, George W; Schwinning, Susan; Small, Eric E; Williams, David G

    2004-06-10

    Water availability limits plant growth and production in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. However, biomes differ substantially in sensitivity of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) to between-year variation in precipitation. Average rain-use efficiency (RUE; ANPP/precipitation) also varies between biomes, supposedly because of differences in vegetation structure and/or biogeochemical constraints. Here we show that RUE decreases across biomes as mean annual precipitation increases. However, during the driest years at each site, there is convergence to a common maximum RUE (RUE(max)) that is typical of arid ecosystems. RUE(max) was also identified by experimentally altering the degree of limitation by water and other resources. Thus, in years when water is most limiting, deserts, grasslands and forests all exhibit the same rate of biomass production per unit rainfall, despite differences in physiognomy and site-level RUE. Global climate models predict increased between-year variability in precipitation, more frequent extreme drought events, and changes in temperature. Forecasts of future ecosystem behaviour should take into account this convergent feature of terrestrial biomes.

  3. [Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolin, Teresinha A; Lopes, João R S; Querino, Ranyse B; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Zanol, Kety; Azevedo Filho, Wilson S; Mendes, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.

  4. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  5. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  6. [Application of 3S techniques in ecological landscape planning of Harbin suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyi; Gong, Wenfeng; Liu, Dandan; Zhou, Hongze; Zhu, Ning

    2005-12-01

    With the image data (SPOT), soil utilization map (1:50000) and other related materials of Harbin, and under the support of GIS, RS and GPS techniques, this paper obtained the landscape pattern of Harbin suburb and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Harbin. Indices including mean patch area, landscape dominance, mean slope, mean altitude, and fragmentation degree were selected and synthetically analyzed, with the ecological landscape planning made by DEM model. The results showed that 3S techniques could help to decide typical landscape types. The landscape type database was established, and the landscape type thematic map was generated, with land use status and landscape distribution, physiognomy, and land use types combined. The ecological landscape planning was described in large scale with the image data and DEM combined, and the landscape structure of Harbin suburb was reflected directly with the ecological landscape planning and DEM combined, which improved the ecological function in this region, and provided scientific bases to the healthy development in urban-rural integration area.

  7. "[G]azing into the synaptic chasm": the Brain in Beckett's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rina

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that Samuel Beckett's interest in functions of the brain is not only evidenced in his notebooks, taken from a number of psychology and psycho-physiognomy texts in the early 1930s, but is also explored and expanded in his fiction and drama. This paper investigates Beckett's fascination with the limits of "cerebral consciousness" and the brain's failure to consciously perceive certain bodily modifications especially when processing emotion. Like Antonio Damasio's definition of emotion as essentially the bodily modifications that include chemical changes, Beckett often exploits the idea of emotion as sorely a bodily phenomenon by creating characters who are unable to consciously perceive and process their emotion. For example, when talking about his own weeping, the narrator of The Unnamable attributes the tears to the malfunctioning of the brain, "liquefied brain", denying, displacing or making physical the feeling of sadness. By examining the ways in which Beckett emphasizes a somatic dimension of emotion and its relation to the brain function and perception in his writing, this paper reveals how he explores the idea of the self and extends the idea to what he calls the "impenetrable self" that cannot be consciously recognized. I argue that if, for Joseph LeDoux, the "notion of synapses as points of communication between cells is […] essential to our efforts to understand who we are in terms of brain mechanisms", for Beckett to expose such unconscious biological mechanisms and "gaps" becomes his own artistic challenge.

  8. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  9. Self Healing Concrete: A Biological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Henk M.

    Concrete can be considered as a kind of artificial rock with properties more or less similar to certain natural rocks. As it is strong, durable, and relatively cheap, concrete is, since almost two centuries, the most used construction material worldwide, which can easily be recognized as it has changed the physiognomy of rural areas. However, due to the heterogeneity of the composition of its principle components, cement, water, and a variety of aggregates, the properties of the final product can widely vary. The structural designer therefore must previously establish which properties are important for a specific application and must choose the correct composition of the concrete ingredients in order to ensure that the final product applies to the previously set standards. Concrete is typically characterized by a high-compressive strength, but unfortunately also by a rather low-tensile strength. However, through the application of steel or other material reinforcements, the latter can be compensated for as such reinforcements can take over tensile forces.

  10. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  11. Phyto climatic characterization and cartography of sub antarctic native forests in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina); Caracterizacion y cartografia fitoclimaticas del bosque nativo subantartico en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allue, C.; Arranz, J. A.; Bava, J. O.; Beneitez, J. M.; Collado, L.; Garcia-Lopez, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is especially peculiar in phytoclimatic terms, situated as it is at an extreme southerly latitude, surrounded by large water masses and close to the great mass of Antarctic ice. Its main peculiarities in this sense are the coolness of its summers and a very narrow temperature range. As a result, the woodland landscapes in the parts with forest cover are dominated by microphyllous broadleaf physiognomies, both evergreen and deciduous, of the Nothofagus genus. This paper reports a more in-depth investigation of the hitherto little-known phytoclimatic conditions in that territory which included calibration and validation of a model of phytoclimatic suitability that addresses the principal plant physiognomic units and phytoclimatic mapping. It discusses the causes behind the presence of broadleaf formations in thermal conditions which in the northern hemisphere would allow only coniferous formations or no tree formations at all, and also the edaphic peculiarities that may explain the presence of a evergreen species like Nothofagus betuloides in subantarctic mixed forests. (Author) 111 refs.

  12. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

  13. Fauna reptiliana do norte da grande Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Lema

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preliminary results of two years of herpetogeographic studies in the region called «Grande Porto Alegre» at its northern portion. The physiognomy shows, at North, slopes of the Brazilian Southern Plateau, more or less forested in a general view; these elevations graãuálly decrease to the South until the levei of the sea to Atlantic littoral by the eastern border, and to Rio Grande do Sul savanah, which extends to Uruguay and Argentina. The biota is transitional from the highland prairies and forests of the plateau to lowland prairies of the pampas. Three faunistic Provinces are included: Guarani, Pampean, and Tupi. The most conspicuous dispersion is shown by the taxa proceeding from the plateau to savanah (Dispersion Centre Guarani; the pampean species occur in low percentage (Dispersion Centre Uruguay, and an inappreciable account of Tupi fauna (Dispersion Centre of «Serra do Mar». The new records are: presence of Chironius pyrrhopogon, Hydrodynastes gigas, Bothrops neuwiedi para-naensis, Micrurus corallinus; intergradation zone of Guarani and Pampean geographic roces; and new taxa of snakes, which will be described brieflly. The systematic composition presents: Chelonia, 4 (3 Chelidae, 1 Testudinidae; Sauria, 10 (1 Gekkonidae, 2 Iguanidae, 1 Anguidae, 3 Teiidae, 3 Amphisbaenidae; Serpentes, 45 (35 Colubridae, 4 Elapidae, 6 Viperidae; Crocodylia (1 Crocodylidae.

  14. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: jesper.persson@slu.se [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  15. Landscape changes in a neotropical forest-savanna ecotone zone in central Brazil: The role of protected areas in the maintenance of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea S; Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Ballester, Maria Victoria R

    2017-02-01

    In the Amazon-savanna ecotone in northwest Brazil, the understudied Araguaia River Basin contains high biodiversity and seasonal wetlands. The region is representative of tropical humid-dry ecotone zones, which have experienced intense land use and land cover (LULC) conversions. Here we assessed the LULC changes for the last four decades in the central portion of the Araguaia River Basin to understand the temporal changes in the landscape composition and configuration outside and inside protected areas. We conducted these analyzes by LULC mapping and landscape metrics based on patch classes. During this period, native vegetation was reduced by 26%. Forests were the most threatened physiognomy, with significant areal reduction and fragmentation. Native vegetation cover was mainly replaced by croplands and pastures. Such replacement followed spatial and temporal trends related to the implementation of protected areas and increases in population cattle herds. The creation of most protected areas took place between 1996 and 2007, the same period during which the conversion of the landscape matrix from natural vegetation to agriculture occurred. We observed that protected areas mitigate fragmentation, but their roles differ according to their location and level of protection. Still, we argue that landscape characteristics, such as suitability for agriculture, also influence landscape conversions and should be considered when establishing protected areas. The information provided in this study can guide new research on species conservation and landscape planning, as well as improve the understanding of the impacts of landscape composition and configuration changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bengali communities in Tripura, northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joydeb Majumder; Partha P. Bhattacharjee; Badal K. Datta; Basant K. Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern India has high medicinal plant diversity due to variance in topography and physiognomy. We documented the uses of various medicinal plants by the Bengali people of West district and South district of Tripura state for their own health care as well as for domesti-cated animals. Based on semi structured interviews, group discussions and information from local informants, a total of 93 species of medicinal plants of 52 families and 83 genera were documented. These plants were used to treat more than 55 different human diseases and 6 diseases of livestock. Sixty-eight plant species were used singly and the rest were used in combination with other species for therapeutic formulations of various diseases. Leaves of plants were most often used for most of the ethnobotanical preparations. Maximum consensus value of 96% was recorded for Chromolaena odorata (L.) King &H. Rob., and the mini-mum was 15%for Bambusa balcooa Robx. Of the 93 plant species, 75 species showed pharmacological properties. Prospects for augmenting existing knowledge and enhancing the use of traditional medicinal plants are discussed.

  17. Caracterização fisionômica - estrutural de um remanescente de floresta ombrófila montana de Pernambuco, Brasil Physiognomic and structural characterization of a montane rain forest remnant in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Maria Nogueira Ferraz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas ombrófilas montanas de Pernambuco são pouco estudadas quanto a fisionomia, florística, estrutura e semelhanças com as florestas de terras baixas. Visando este entendimento, foi realizada a caracterização fisionômica-estrutural do maior remanescente (São Vicente Férrer, 600 ha dessa floresta no Estado e sua comparação com outras florestas ombrófilas nordestinas de terras baixas e montanas. A área estudada localiza-se na encosta oriental do planalto da Borborema (07º38' S e 35º30' W, em altitudes entre 600 e 640 m, e tem precipitação média anual de 1.103 mm. Foram alocadas 50 parcelas de 10×20 m e incluídos os indivíduos com DAP > 5 cm. Os 1.521 indivíduos amostrados pertenceram a 58 famílias, 96 gêneros e 152 espécies. Cerca de 50% deles tiveram altura entre 6,1 e 12,0 m e diâmetro entre 5 e 10 cm, sendo representados, predominantemente, por Clusiaceae, Quiinaceae, Myrtaceae e Sapindaceae. As famílias de maior valor de importância (Myrtaceae, Clusiaceae, Moraceae, Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Vochysiaceae, Myristicaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Lecythidaceae e Anacardiaceae foram dominantes em diferentes classes de altura, tiveram número de espécies variado (1 a 10 e, geralmente, as maiores densidades. A floresta estudada foi melhor relacionada em composição de espécies e famílias com as florestas de terras baixas, embora tenha se destacado pela elevada riqueza de taxa, maior altura e principalmente pela abundância de famílias e espécies pouco comuns às florestas ombrófilas de terras baixas de Pernambuco.The montane forests of Pernambuco, Brazil, are poorly understood in relation to their flora, physiognomy, structure, and similarity to lowland forests. The physiognomy and structure of the largest ombrophilous forest fragment in the state of Pernambuco (São Vicente Ferrer, 600 ha were described and compared with other montane and lowland forests in northeastern Brazil. The study site is located on the

  18. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREZA V. NERI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Paraopeba National Reserve. It aims to classify and evaluate the soil of the studied area and to verify the influence of soil attributes on vegetation by testing the following hypotheses: 1 under woodland physiognomies (Cerradão the soil fertility is higher and the Al content lower; 2 open savanna occurs only in areas with high Al contents. For this purpose, representative soils in the Paraopeba National Reserve were mapped, identified, and samples from five profiles were analyzed. The environmental gradient was easily observed by principal components analyses, where the differences between the sites were highlighted. The Spearman correlation was used to verify the hypothesis. The correlation between vegetation (basal area, density, and richness and soil (K, Ca2+, and Al3+ was statistically significant. The hypotheses were accepted, but hypothesis 1 only partially. Soil features seem to have an influence on the Cerrado phytophysiognomies and structure. Available phosphorous was an important factor for the maintenance of woodland Cerrado. Also, exchangeable Al3+ plays a major role in the establishment of different Cerrado physiognomies in Paraopeba National Reserve.Este trabalho foi conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba. O objetivo desse estudo foi classificar e avaliar o solo, assim como verificar a influência dos atributos do mesmo na vegetação. Para isso, foram também testadas as seguintes hipóteses: 1 nas áreas de Cerradão a fertilidade é mais alta e os teores de alumínio são mais baixos; 2 os cerrados stricto sensu ocorrem nas áreas com altos teores de Al3+. Para isso, os solos da FLONA foram mapeados e identificados, além da análise química e física dos solos de cinco perfis. O gradiente ambiental foi facilmente observado pela análise de componentes principais (PCA, onde as diferenças entres as áreas foram evidenciadas. A correlação de Spearman foi usada para verificar as hip

  19. Diversidade e ocorrência temporal da anurofauna (Amphibia, Anura em São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil Diversity and seasonal occurrence of anurans in São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Conte

    2006-03-01

    and Araucaria Forest, in the southeastern of Paraná state. In the survey, accomplished from January 2003 to May 2004, 34 species from five families were registered: Bufonidae (two species, Hylidae (17 species, Leptodactylidae (13 species, Microhylidae (one species and Ranidae (one species. The species richness is one of the largest of Paraná state and eight of the nine studied sites presented high diversity of species. The fact that the studied area is located in an ecotone supports the occurrence of typical species from two physiognomies. Besides, an additional hypothesis to explain this great diversity is the intermediate disturbance due to the deforestation that occurred until thirty years ago, which made the occurrence of some typical species from open areas possible. The largest number of species (48% occurred during the rainy season, however, the proportion of annual species was great (25%, similar to the one found in regions with wet tropical climate (30%. The similarity in species composition among nine localities in Atlantic Forest in Paraná State was associated to the vegetal physiognomy of the studied areas.

  20. Relação entre solo, vegetação e topografia em área de cerrado (Parque Estadual de Vassununga, SP: como se expressa em mapeamentos? The relationship among soil, vegetation and topography in a cerrado area (Vassununga State Park, SP: how well is it expressed in maps ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guidão Cruz Ruggiero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as relações entre mapas de fitofisionomias, solos e topografia, na Gleba Pé-de-Gigante (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. A área estudada constitui a planície de inundação do córrego Paulicéia e colinas no entorno, onde predominam fisionomias de cerrado, havendo também manchas de floresta estacional, floresta ripária e campo úmido, sobre solos predominantemente arenosos. As cartas temáticas analisadas compreenderam: a mapa pré-existente de fisionomias de vegetação, b mapa hipsométrico, baseado em curvas de nível de 5 em 5 m e c mapa de solos, feito a partir de dados químicos e físicos do solo (amostras coletadas em 54 pontos, nas profundidades: 0-5, 5-25, 40-60 e 80-100 cm e fotografias aéreas (1988, 1:40.000. Os mapas foram re-classificados, para se obter diferentes níveis de detalhamento, e cruzados, em sistema de informação geográfica. Nas tabelas de contingência, geradas a partir dos cruzamentos, foi aplicado o teste de Qui-quadrado e obtido o valor de correlação de Cramér, para investigar a relação entre os mapeamentos. A floresta estacional semidecídua se mostrou fortemente associada à classe geral de Latossolos, e o campo cerrado às altitudes de 620-650 m, provavelmente associado à dinâmica sub-superficial da água. O detalhamento da informação mapeada nos temas analisados não garantiu melhores resultados à interpretação de suas relações, pois as classes fitofisionômicas não respondem diretamente, nem isoladamente, à topografia ou à classificação usual dos solos.Relationships among vegetation, soil and topography maps were investigated in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (21º37'30''S; 47º37'30''W, SP. The studied area is the Paulicéia river basin, where soils are predominantly sandy and the vegetation includes a gradient of savanna physiognomies and patches of semideciduous forest, wet fields, and riparian forest. The cartographic material included: a pre-existent vegetation

  1. Fitossociologia do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo em campo limpo úmido no Brasil Central Phytosociology of the herb-subshrub layer of a moist grassland community in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Beatriz Rodrigues Munhoz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O campo limpo úmido é uma das fisionomias de Cerrado onde o lençol freático é superficial durante o ano todo. Em geral ocorrem bordeando as matas de galeria, sendo um local de ligação entre estas e as fitofisionomias bem drenadas de Cerrado. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a estrutura fitossociológica do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo de uma comunidade de campo limpo úmido na Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília, e avaliar possíveis alterações na composição e cobertura de espécies, em diferentes ocasiões no período de 13 meses, após incêndio. Uma área de 400×400 m foi subdividida em quatro porções de 200×200 m onde foram sorteadas as linhas de amostragem. No levantamento fitossociológico, adotou-se o método de interseção na linha, onde cada linha foi dividida em seções de 1 m. Foram amostradas 84 espécies incluídas em 54 gêneros e 24 famílias. A similaridade de Sørensen entre as quatro transeções amostradas foi baixa, entre 0,26 e 0,55%. As linhas sobre solos com lençol freático superficial o ano todo apresentaram composição de espécies diferenciada das linhas sobre solos com flutuação sazonal do lençol freático. A similaridade entre os cinco períodos de inventário foi elevada, pois as espécies mais importantes mostraram pouca variação nas suas taxas de cobertura ao longo do ano.The moist grassland community vegetation of the Cerrado is one of the physiognomies where the water table is superficial throughout the year. It generally occurs bordering the gallery forests, located between these forests and the well-drained Cerrado physiognomies. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytosociological structure of the herb-subshrub layer in a moist grassland at Água Limpa farm, Brasília, DF, and assess possible changes in species composition and cover, at different times throughout a 13-month period, after a fire. An area of 400×400 m was subdivided into four sections of 200×200 m and the

  2. 安徽皇藏峪自然保护区青檀林的群落特征%Community characteristics of Pteroceltis tatarinowii forests in Huangcangyu natural reserve of Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤海梅; 于法展; 阎传海

    2012-01-01

    To understand the developing state and to effectively conserve the community of natural Pteroceltis tatarinowii forests in Huangcangyu natural reserve, the characteristics of the species composition, community structure and physiognomy were studied based on sampling survey method. The results show that there were 61 vascular plants in the community belonging to 56 genera and 39 families. The analysis of floristic geographical elements indicate that both tropical and temperate elements occupied high percentage respectively, however, the contribution of genera and species belonging to temperate areal-types was larger, and the composition of the flora appeared transitional character of temperate flora to tropical flora. The analysis of life form spectrum and leaf characters shows that the physiognomy of the community was characterized by deciduous phanerophytes and the hemicryptophytes had a large contribution. The community vertical structure was simple, which composed of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer, and Pteroceltis tatarinowii was dominated in each layer; the forest natural regeneration was good, most populations of main tree species were increasing type, and the community had higher stability. However, many coppice shoots of Pteroceltis tatarinowii caused mainly by human disturbance (e.g. cutting the shrubs and herbs), were mainly distributed in shrub layer and herb layer with bundle consist of coppice sprouts, affecting the growth of understory plants and the stability of the community. Thus, the vegetation in understory should be conserved effectively.%为了解皇藏峪自然保护区内天然青檀林的发展状况、有效地保护青檀群落,采用样方调查法,对青檀群落的种类组成、结构、外貌特征进行了调查研究.结果表明:群落中有维管束植物61种,隶属39科56属.植物区系中热带成分和温带成分均占有较大比例,但以温带属种居多,呈现出由温带向亚热带过渡的特点.群落的组

  3. 天目山第三纪孑遗植物缺萼枫香的群落特征及其生态学意义%Tertiary relict plant Liquidambar acalycina Chang on Mt. Tianmu in Eastern China: Characteristics of the community and the ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商侃侃; 王婕; 余倩; 赵明水; 达良俊

    2011-01-01

    通过选择代表性地段,设置第三纪孑遗植物缺萼枫香群落样方,开展群落学调查,分析群落的物种组成,外貌及结构特征等.研究结果表明,群落中生长维管柬植物177种,分属65科128属,科属组成较为复杂.在该地区,物种的区系地理成分丰富多样,以温带成分占优势,并含有较多古老属种.群落外貌由中、小型草质单叶的高位芽植物占优势,其中落叶成分所占比例相对较高.群落垂直结构分化明显,可以分为乔木层、亚乔木层、灌木层和草本层,树冠分布较为连续.天目山缺萼枫香群落是以落叶成分为主的、由中小型草质单叶的高位芽植物决定的常绿落叶阔叶混交林,具有古老性和残遗性.缺萼枫香林集中分布在中亚热带南部和中亚热带北部,种类组成表现较强的替代规律,随纬度升高落叶成分比例增加,常绿树种由适生冷凉气候的种类替代,常伴生有丰富的第三纪孑遗植物.应进一步研究缺萼枫香林群落的演替规律和演变历史,探讨枫香属植物的起源和进化以及冰期对第三纪森林的影响.%The floristic composition, physiognomy and community structure of Liquidambar acalycina forests at the typical sites have been studied in this paper. The results showed that a total of 177 species of vascular plants were recorded, belonging to 128 genera and 65 families.The analysis of floristic geographical elements indicated that the areal-types are complicated and the dominant elements are of the temperate type. An analysis of life form spectrum and leaf characters showed that the physiognomy of these communities was characterized by phanerophytes with meso- and microphyllic-herbaceous simple leaves. In these forests, four distinct layers were distinguished from the forest floor to the canopy, namely the herb layer, the shrub layer, the subtree layer and the tree layer, respectively. In conclusion, the L. acalycina communities were remnant

  4. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  5. Duchenne De Boulogne: a pioneer in neurology and medical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2005-08-01

    Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne was born 200 years ago in Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais, France). He studied medicine in Paris and became a physician in 1831. He practiced general medicine in his native town for about 11 years and then returned to Paris to initiate pioneering studies on electrical stimulation of muscles. Duchenne used electricity not only as a therapeutic agent, as it was commonly the case earlier in the 19th century, but chiefly as a physiological investigation tool to study the anatomy of the living body. Without formal appointment he visited hospital wards across Paris searching for rare cases of neuromuscular disorders. He built a portable electrical device that he used to functionally map all bodily muscles and to study their coordinating action in health and disease. He gave accurate descriptions of many neuromuscular disorders, including pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy to which his name is still attached (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). He also invented a needle system (Duchenne's histological harpoon) for percutaneous sampling of muscular tissue without anesthesia, a forerunner of today's biopsy. Duchenne summarized his work in two major treatises entitled De l'électrisation localisée (1855) and Physiologie des mouvements (1867). Duchenne's iconographic work stands at the crossroads of three major discoveries of the 19th century: electricity, physiology and photography. This is best exemplified by his investigation of the mechanisms of human physiognomy in which he used localized faradic stimulation to reproduce various forms of human facial expression. The album that complements his book on this issue is considered a true incunabulum of photography. Duchenne de Boulogne, a shy but hard-working, acute and ingenious observer, became one of most original clinicians of the 19th century. He died in Paris in 1875.

  6. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  7. Paleotemperature proxies from leaf fossils reinterpreted in light of evolutionary history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A Little

    Full Text Available Present-day correlations between leaf physiognomic traits (shape and size and climate are widely used to estimate paleoclimate using fossil floras. For example, leaf-margin analysis estimates paleotemperature using the modern relation of mean annual temperature (MAT and the site-proportion of untoothed-leaf species (NT. This uniformitarian approach should provide accurate paleoclimate reconstructions under the core assumption that leaf-trait variation principally results from adaptive environmental convergence, and because variation is thus largely independent of phylogeny it should be constant through geologic time. Although much research acknowledges and investigates possible pitfalls in paleoclimate estimation based on leaf physiognomy, the core assumption has never been explicitly tested in a phylogenetic comparative framework. Combining an extant dataset of 21 leaf traits and temperature with a phylogenetic hypothesis for 569 species-site pairs at 17 sites, we found varying amounts of non-random phylogenetic signal in all traits. Phylogenetic vs. standard regressions generally support prevailing ideas that leaf-traits are adaptively responding to temperature, but wider confidence intervals, and shifts in slope and intercept, indicate an overall reduced ability to predict climate precisely due to the non-random phylogenetic signal. Notably, the modern-day relation of proportion of untoothed taxa with mean annual temperature (NT-MAT, central in paleotemperature inference, was greatly modified and reduced, indicating that the modern correlation primarily results from biogeographic history. Importantly, some tooth traits, such as number of teeth, had similar or steeper slopes after taking phylogeny into account, suggesting that leaf teeth display a pattern of exaptive evolution in higher latitudes. This study shows that the assumption of convergence required for precise, quantitative temperature estimates using present-day leaf traits is not

  8. Spatial Patterns of Fire Recurrence Using Remote Sensing and GIS in the Brazilian Savanna: Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Antunes Daldegan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil after the Amazon and is the savanna with the highest biodiversity in the world. Serra Tombador Natural Reserve (STNR is the largest private reserve located in Goiás State, and the fourth largest in the Cerrado biome. The present study aimed to map the burnt areas and to describe the spatial patterns of fire recurrence and its interactions with the classes of land-cover that occurred in STNR and its surroundings in the period between 2001 and 2010. Several Landsat TM images acquired around the months of July, August and September, coinciding with the region’s dry season when fire events intensify, were employed to monitor burnt areas. Fire scars were mapped using the supervised Mahalanobis-distance classifier and further refined using expert visual interpretation. Burnt area patterns were described by spatial landscape metrics. The effects of fire on landscape structure were obtained by comparing results among different land-cover classes, and results summarized in terms of fire history and frequencies. During the years covered by the study, 69% of the areas analyzed had fire events. The year with the largest burnt area was 2004, followed by 2001, 2007 and 2010. Thus, the largest fire events occurred in a 3-year cycle, which is compatible with other areas of the Brazilian savanna. The regions with higher annual probabilities of fire recurrence occur in the buffer zone around the park. The year 2004 also had the highest number of burnt area patches (831. In contrast, the burnt area in 2007 showed the most extensive fires with low number of patches (82. The physiognomies that suffered most fires were the native savanna formations. The study also identified areas where fires are frequently recurrent, highlighting priority areas requiring special attention. Thus, the methodology adopted in this study assists in monitoring and recovery of areas affected by fire over time.

  9. Study on the Plant Diversity of Karst Forest Community in Tianlong Mountain of Puding County%普定县天龙山喀斯特森林群落植物多样性对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成华; 陈景艳; 丁访军

    2012-01-01

    The primary community of karst forest in Tianlong Mountain of Puding County was studied in terms of species composition, community physiognomy, and structure feature. The result showed there in the eonmmunity are 40 species belonging to 33 genera in 26 families; the appem:ance of the community was determined mainly by the evergreen phanerophytes with leathery, sample, mesophyllous, and entire leaves; the community structure could be divided into arbors layer, shrub layer, herbaceous layer, and interstratum plants; as for the plant diversity, the Shannon-wiener index is 1.33, and the Simpson index is 0.93,both of which are obviously higher than that of shrub-tree, shrub, and shrub-grass communities.%以贵州省普定县天龙山的喀斯特森林原生群落为研究对象,分析了群落的物种组成、外貌、结构。结果表明,该群落中共有26科33属40种植物;外貌主要由革质、单叶、中型叶和全缘叶为主的常绿高位芽植物景观所决定,结构分为乔木层、灌木层、草本层和层间植物层。植物多样性的香隆一威纳(Shannon-wiener)指数(H)为1.33,辛普森(Simpson)指数(D)为0.93,明显大于灌木林群落、灌丛群落和灌草群落的相应指标。

  10. Improving the Projections of Vegetation Biogeography by Integrating Climate Envelope Models and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, M. J.; Kim, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing changes in vegetation is increasingly important for conservation planning in the face of climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are important tools for assessing such changes. DGVMs have been applied at regional scales to create projections of range expansions and contractions of plant functional types. Many DGVMs use a number of algorithms to determine the biogeography of plant functional types. One such DGVM, MC2, uses a series of decision trees based on bioclimatic thresholds while others, such as LPJ, use constraining emergent properties with a limited set of bioclimatic threshold-based rules. Although both approaches have been used widely, we demonstrate that these biogeography outputs perform poorly at continental scales when compared to existing potential vegetation maps. Specifically, we found that with MC2, the algorithm for determining leaf physiognomy is too simplistic to capture arid and semi-arid vegetation in much of the western U.S., as well as is the algorithm for determining the broadleaf and needleleaf mix in the Southeast. With LPJ, we found that the bioclimatic thresholds used to allow seedling establishment are too broad and fail to capture regional-scale biogeography of the plant functional types. In response, we demonstrate a new approach to determining the biogeography of plant functional types by integrating the climatic thresholds produced for individual tree species by a series of climate envelope models with the biogeography algorithms of MC2 and LPJ. Using this approach, we find that MC2 and LPJ perform considerably better when compared to potential vegetation maps.

  11. The profile of upper integument lip of Baduy and the nearby living Sundanese in South Banten, West Java, Indonesia

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    Rachman Ardan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the Two Migration Theory and on cultural anthropology, the Baduy is classified as Protomalay and the Sundanese as Deuteromalay. Historically and socioculturally the Baduy is part of the Nearby Living Sundanese (NS who has isolated themselves and settled down in Kanekes. Linguistics and archaeology could not tell whether the culture’s spread was due to a source population’s migrating or to a destination population’s copying the technology and language. Craniofacial anthropometry could resolve this because people’s physiognomy does not change rapidly due to mere migration. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether the people of Baduy are Protomalay or Deuteromalay based on Profile of Upper Integument Lips (PUIL, which is the size of the angle formed by (sn-Ls line to Frankfurt Horizontal Plane. Angle size < 90º = Procheili, 90º = Orthocheili, and > 90º = Opisthocheili. Lip prominence is strongly influenced by racial and ethnical characteristics, its form is determined especially by genetic factor. Method: Subject sample consisted of 43 Inner Baduys (IB; 92 Outer Baduys (OB; and 135 NS of South Banten were measured using Fasiogoniometer to determine PUIL. Average value data was determined and analyzed by Testing Equal Variances to compare two variances between groups. Result: The result of this study showed that IB, OB as well as NS are Mild Procheili (angle size = 50º–69.9º. PUIL of IB and OB compared to NS are slightly different, however, between IB and OB are similar. Conclusion: Based on the characteristic of PUIL, IB, OB, as well as NS, are classified as Mongoloid subrace, and physically should be classified as Deuteromalay.

  12. Too Big, Will Fail. Megaevents and Protest Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Massidda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between “social democratic megaevents” (Olympic Games and World Expos and political protests. It tries to analyze the reasons that led these popular ceremonies to act in our societies as catalysts of social conflict and activators of an “agonistic citizenship”. Today some structural characteristics of the network society – growth of urban populations; increase in migration flows; widening of socioeconomic disparities – determined a renewed “political” interest for these great public rituals, which in a previous season of the modernity had shown themselves capable to patch up the lacerations of the social fabric. But in recent years something is broken in the relationship between megaevents and urban populations and we are witnessing a growing antagonism against events histori-cally conceived with a function of social “glue”. The aim is therefore to reflect on the meaning of this “an-tagonistic drift” of “social democratic mega-events” through the analysis of a specific case study: the Atti-tudine NoExpo Network (Milan 2015. We identified four crucial dimensions to trace the NoExpo move-ment’s physiognomy and define the reasons for its opposition to the world fair: the historical relation be-tween Milan and a cultural form of antagonism; the crucial role of the territorial factor in the formation and evolution of the movement; the centrality of the practices in the structuring of the movement’s iden-tity; the adoption of an instrumental and tactical approach in the choice and use of media

  13. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M E

    1993-11-01

    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  14. On Fire regime modelling using satellite TM time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, F.; . Ghermandi, L.; Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfires can cause an environment deterioration modifying vegetation dynamics because they have the capacity of changing vegetation diversity and physiognomy. In semiarid regions, like the northwestern Patagonia, fire disturbance is also important because it could impact on the potential productivity of the ecosystem. There is reduction plant biomass and with that reducing the animal carrying capacity and/or the forest site quality with negative economics implications. Therefore knowledge of the fires regime in a region is of great importance to understand and predict the responses of vegetation and its possible effect on the regional economy. Studies of this type at a landscape level can be addressed using GIS tools. Satellite imagery allows detect burned areas and through a temporary analysis can be determined to fire regime and detecting changes at landscape scale. The study area of work is located on the east of the city of Bariloche including the San Ramon Ranch (22,000 ha) and its environs in the ecotone formed by the sub Antarctic forest and the patagonian steppe. We worked with multiespectral Landsat TM images and Landsat ETM + 30m spatial resolution obtained at different times. For the spatial analysis we used the software Erdas Imagine 9.0 and ArcView 3.3. A discrimination of vegetation types has made and was determined areas affected by fires in different years. We determined the level of change on vegetation induced by fire. In the future the use of high spatial resolution images combined with higher spectral resolution will allows distinguish burned areas with greater precision on study area. Also the use of digital terrain models derived from satellite imagery associated with climatic variables will allows model the relationship between them and the dynamics of vegetation.

  15. 南岸区酸雨污染现状及成因分析%On Currant Status of Acid Rain Pollution in Nan'an District of Chongqing and Its Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筱琳; 李杰; 熊万明; 曾雪梅; 钟成华

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis of precipitation data in Nan'an District in the past 10 years,this study deals with the pollution characteristics and the changing tendency of acid rain in this area. The result shows that contaminants can be eliminated by precipitation,and the formation of acid rain does not have direct relationship with the concentration of air contaminants,but the amount of precipitation,air temperature,wind speed,relative humidity and so on. Meantime,this study has concluded that the fundamental causes for acid rain in Nan'an District and Chongqing are the massive emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide,the bad diffusion condition for air contaminants caused by the physiognomy of mountain city and the steamy weather condition.%在对重庆市南岸区近十年的降水监测数据进行综合分析的基础上,研究了南岸区酸雨污染特征和变化趋势,分析了酸雨的成因.结果表明,降水对空气污染物有清除作用,但酸雨的形成与空气污染物浓度无直接关联,而是取决于降水量、气温、风速、相对湿度等气象因子.大量二氧化硫和氮氧化物的排放、不利于污染物扩散的山城地貌以及潮湿闷热的气象条件是导致南岸乃至重庆酸雨污染的根本原因.

  16. Law Analysis and Control Measures of Highway Flood Hazard Caused by Typhoon Rainstorm%台风暴雨引发公路水毁规律分析及防灾对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈水进; 孙红月; 朱汉华

    2011-01-01

    The causations of typhoon-rainstorm-induced highway flood hazard were summed up by collecting and settling correlative datas in recent years and analyzing meteorological, engineering geological background condition. Within intergrated superposition and reciprocity between external and internal causes, such as the meteorological characteristic of typhoon rainstorm process, the landform-physiognomy conditions and the construction-features of mountain roads, highway flood hazard can easily happen. Then, the development stages of flood hazard were classified, and the effect degree of disaster mechanism process at all stages were studied. In end of the paper, practical and effective control measures are presented, to afford scientific basis while relevant functional departments in decision-making.%通过对近几年台风暴雨引发公路水毁相关资料收集和整理,分析气象、工程地质背景条件,总结了我国东南地区台风暴雨引发公路水毁灾害的成因条件.台风暴雨过程的气象特点、地形地貌条件及山区公路建设特点等外因与内因的综合叠加,相互作用,水毁灾害也就自然发生;并划分水毁发育阶段,研究各个阶段成灾机理过程的作用程度.提出切实有效的防灾对策,为公路职能部门的相关决策提供科学依据.

  17. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.

    2009-02-01

    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from

  18. "嫦娥二号"卫星CMOS相机技术及应用%The Application of Chang'E-2 CMOS Camera Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳涛; 张宏伟; 黄长宁; 陈晓丽

    2011-01-01

    There are one landing camera and three surveillance cameras loaded on Chang'E-2 satellite.These cameras, based on CMOS imaging technique, accomplish smart-and-light, low-consuming, and highly-integrated camera design, and they also break through auto-exposure technology, high-speed compress technology of color image and static gray image, and sub-sampling technology.The four cameras have taken satisfying pictures of moon physiognomy, expansion of satellite solar battery wing, working state of 490N engine, and deployment of directional antenna.The successful application of four cameras means that China has seized deep-space CMOS imaging technology independently.%"嫦娥二号"卫星上装载了1台降落相机和3台监视相机,相机采用CMOS成像技术,突破了轻小型低功耗高度集成化相机设计技术、自动曝光技术、高速彩色图像静态压缩技术以及开窗和亚采样技术,对月面、卫星太阳翼展开、490N发动机工作以及定向天线展开等卫星关键动作进行了成功拍摄,是中国CMOS成像技术在深空探测领域的首次成功应用,具有重要的里程碑意义和广阔的应用前景.

  19. ¿Favoritas de la corona? Los amores del rey y la promoción de la orden de Santa Clara en Castilla (ss. XIII-XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graña Cid, María del Mar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of female mendicant houses by the kings of Castile offers a typology of “partnering foundations” associated with women. Alfonso X and Pedro I collaborated with their lovers, Mayor Guillén and María de Padilla, and the latter also with his daughters, Beatriz and Isabel, in order to create monasteries of the Order of Saint Clare or its previous forms. These pages analyse the foundational processes that connect the familiar with the political and the personal, offer visible forms of interaction between sexes and reveal some of the physiognomies adopted by the nuns that constituted an exclusively female religious order in which women acted as its main historical agents.En la política de promoción de las monjas mendicantes que desarrollaron los reyes de Castilla se percibe una tipología de “fundaciones en relación” con mujeres. Alfonso X y Pedro I colaboraron con sus amantes, Mayor Guillén y María de Padilla, y el segundo también con sus hijas, Beatriz e Isabel, para dar origen a monasterios de la Orden de Santa Clara o de sus formas previas. Estas páginas analizan unos procesos de fundación que enlazan lo personal y lo familiar con lo político, visibilizan formas de interacción entre los sexos y desvelan algunas de las fisonomías adoptadas por las religiosas que constituyeron la institución clarisa, una orden religiosa exclusivamente femenina en la que tuvieron gran peso las mujeres como agentes históricos.

  20. Paisaje agrario y prácticas agrícolas en la Ribeira Sacra (Galicia durante los siglos XIV y XV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Sabatel, José Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to approach what appears to be the physical contour and extent of the land recovered for agricultural use at the heart of the area falling under the influence of five monasteries situated on both banks of the River Sil in the stretch immediately preceding its flowing into the mouth of the Miño during the 14th and 15th centuries. It will also focus on the various agrarian practices used in chestnut and vine cultivation as well as work on the lands growing cereal crops. These are practices which in the relative system of cultivation will have an effect on the physiognomy of the agrarian lands throughout this period.

    Este artículo pretende un acercamiento a lo que debió ser el semblante físico y extensión de los terrenos ganados en beneficio de la actividad agrícola en el seno del área de influencia de cinco cenobios situados a ambos márgenes del río Sil en el tramo precedente a su desembocadura en el Miño durante los siglos XIV y XV. También se centrará en las diversas prácticas agrícolas destinadas al cuidado de la castaña y la vid así como al trabajo en las tierras de cereal. Prácticas éstas que en lo relativo al sistema de cultivos tendrán incidencia en la fisonomía del espacio agrario a lo largo de este periodo.

  1. Positioning of anterior teeth in removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper was to present methods of placement of artificial anterior teeth in edentulous individuals. The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Geometric aspect Gysi (1895-1920 produced the first scientific theory about the position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiognomic theory The aim of this theory is to find the most natural position for artificial anterior teeth for each individual. Camper's "face angle" as a physiognomic criterion, has been introduced in papers of Wehrli (1961, Marxhors (1966, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973. Esthetic aspect Important names in the field of dental esthetics are: Schön and Singer (1961, Arnheim (1965, Krajiček (1969, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973, Goldstein (1976. They have introduced principles of visual aspects for selection of contours, dimension and position of artificial anterior teeth. Constitution aspect Flagg (1880, Williams (1913 and Hrauf (1957, 1958, have considered body constitution and individual characteristics regarding position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiological theory In 1971, Marxhors pointed to the fact that the position of artificial teeth corresponds with the function of the surrounding soft tissue and from the aspect of physiognomy as well. Phonetic aspect According to Silverman (1962 artificial anterior teeth are nearest when we pronounce the sound "S". Cephalometrical research Rayson (1970, Watson (1989, Strajnić Lj. (1999, Bassi F. (2001 have presented cephalometric radiographic analyses of natural anterior teeth compared with cephalometric radiographic analyses of artificial anterior teeth. A review of dental literature shows several factors suggesting modalities which should determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Numerous methods have been designed for

  2. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  3. Appearance is a function of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  4. Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Sidhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. Aim: In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under Χ100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Results: Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Conclusion: Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.

  5. Pedological and isotopic relations of a highland tropical peatland, Mountain Range of the Espinhaço Meridional (Brazil

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    Ingrid Horák

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of organic matter sources in soil is related to climate and vegetation dynamics in the past recorded in paleoenvironmental Quaternary deposits such as peatlands. For this reason, a Histosol of the mineralotrophic peatland from the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area - SPA, Espinhaço Meridional, State of Minas Gerais, was described and characterized to evidence the soil constituent materials and properties as related to changes in environmental conditions, supported by the isotopic and elementary characterization of soil C and N and 14C ages. Samples were collected in a depression at 1,350 m asl, where Histosols are possibly more developed due to the great thickness (505 cm. Nowadays, the area is colonized by vegetation physiognomies of the Cerrado Biome, mainly rocky and wet fields (Campo Rupestre and Campo Úmido, aside from fragments of Semidecidual Seasonal Forest, called Capões forests. The results this study showed that early the genesis of the analyzed soil profile showed a high initial contribution of mostly herbaceous organic matter before 8,090 ± 30 years BP (14C age. In the lower-mid Holocene, between 8,090 ± 30 years AP (14C age to ± 4,100 years BP (interpolated age, the vegetation gradually became more woody, with forest expansion, possibly due to increased humidity, suggesting the existence of a more woody Cerrado in the past than at present. Drier climate conditions than the current were concluded ± 2,500 years BP (interpolated age and that after 430 years BP (14C age the forest gave way to grassland, predominantly. After the dry season, humidity increased to the current conditions. Due to these climate fluctuations during the Holocene, three decomposition stages of organic matter were observed in the Histosols of this study, with prevalence of the most advanced (sapric, typical of a deposit in a highly advanced stage of pedogenetic evolution.

  6. Current vegetation status in the area of potential laurisilva from the Monte del Agua - Erjos watershed (Tenerife, Spain after the 2007 wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Arozena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of Pinus canariensis to support the effect of the fire and the fact that great part of the fires happened in Canaries have concerned to forests of this species in the last decades explain the focus put in the study about fires of the pinegrove. However, few works were done on the fire in the Canarian laurel forest. The fire of August 2007 in Tenerife affected a sector of the potential area of laurel forest, in the west of the island, and provided the opportunity of an approximation to the knowledge of the way in which the fire concerns this type of forest. The study area has a mosaic of different plant communities ecologically and floristically related to the laurel forest: a structured forest, dominated by evergreen broadleaf species, Erica arborea scrubs and old fields at different stages of recolonization after the abandonment of crops, as well as small areas with Pinus canariensis and Pinus radiata plantations. Through analysis of the floristic composition, of the vegetation physiognomy and the post-fire reproduction systems by species in forest and bush areas, a very active regeneration has been found in all situations. The importance of "self-succession" as a process of regeneration is remarkable, with a domination of the asexual reproduction in the forest areas and the combination of this one with the sexual one in those of the bushes formations. So, in the same way that happens with other types of vegetation, has been observed that the reaction of the laurel forest is very related with the features of the vegetation pre-fire, at least when the fire does not concern the soil, as in this case.

  7. Characterizing Shorea robusta communities in the part of Indian Terai landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. S. Chitale; M. D. Behera; S. Matin; P. S. Roy; V. K. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.(Sal)is one of the important tim-ber-yielding plants in India, which dominates the vegetation of Terai landscape of Uttar Pradesh state in India forming various communities based on its associations. The present study deals with delineation, map-ping and characterization of various communities of Sal (Shorea robusta) forests in Terai landscape of Uttar Pradesh, India ranging across over 16 districts. Field survey and visual interpretation based forest vegetation type classification and mapping was carried out as part of the project entitled ‘Biodiversity characterization at landscape level using remote sensing and GIS’. Indian Remote Sensing-P6 (Resourcesat-1) Linear Imaging Self Scanner-III satellite data was used during the study. The total area covered by different Sal forests was found to be approximately 2256.77 km2. Sal communities were identified and characterized based on their spectral properties, physiognomy and phytosociological charac-teristics. Following nine Sal communities were identified, delineated and mapped with reasonable accuracyviz.,Chandar,Damar, dry plains, moist plains, western alluvium, western alluvium plains, mixed moist deciduous, mixed dry deciduous andSiwalik. It is evident from the area estimates that mixed moist deciduous Sal is the most dominant commu-nity in the region covering around (1613.90 km2), other major communi-ties were found as western alluvium plains Sal (362.44 km2), mixed dry deciduous Sal (362.44 km2) and dry plains Sal (107.71 km2). The Terai landscape of Uttar Pradesh faces tremendous anthropogenic pressure leading to deterioration of the forests. Community level information could be used monitoring the status as well as for micro level conserva-tion and planning of the Sal forests in Terai Landscape of Uttar Pradesh.

  8. High Latitude Forest Dynamics - CO2 EXCHANGE Measurements and Forest Growth at the Altitudinal Forest Line in High Subarctic Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, S.; Siivola, E.; Aakala, T.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Back, J. K.; Grace, J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in high subarctic fell regions of Fennoscandia belong to the most northern forests in the world, a dynamic ecosystem vulnerable under a changing climate with treelines moving further north and also higher up slopes. An ecosystem is characterised by the interaction between micrometeorology, macroecology and the underlying terrain and topography. The current study is carried out at 68° North (Värriö strict nature reserve), the most sensitive zone of the high subarctic in Finnish Lapland. As the treeline is climbing up the slopes trees and eventually forests establish along the slopes leading to a greening of the area ("Greening of the Arctic" effect) and to an increase in CO2 uptake, also as a result of rising air temperatures and Nitrogen fertilization effects. Such developments and the little grazing (in this area) are leading to an increase in photosynthesising biomass. In order to fully understand the atmosphere - forest interaction in the fell region of Finnish Lapland, several important aspects are taken in consideration: its high latitudinal location, on-going climate change, polar day, its topographic characteristic and the dynamic of the progressing tree line. All these physiognomies cumulate in the capacity and efficiency of high latitude biomes in converting energy into photosynthate and contributing to removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Carrying out CO2 and energy exchange measurements at ecosystem level in such extreme environments are challenging in particular when trying to follow and fulfil established assumptions set out by the application of the eddy covariance technique. Results from the first four consecutive snow free growing seasons show this site to act as a sink for atmospheric CO2. We are investigating the orographic effect on the observed fluxes and evaluate the performance of the flux setup determining if the topography has any systematic effects on fluxes or whether its external properties bias the carbon balance.

  9. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Liu, Xuehua; Bai, Xueliang; Jiang, Yanbin; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon.

  10. Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.

  11. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robyn J; Johnson, Kirk R

    2004-10-29

    Extant neotropical rainforest biomes are characterized by a high diversity and abundance of angiosperm trees and vines, high proportions of entire-margined leaves, high proportions of large leaves (larger than 4500 mm2), high abundance of drip tips and a suite of characteristic dominant families: Sapotaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae and Palmae (Arecaceae). Our aim is to define parameters of extant rainforests that will allow their recognition in the fossil record of South America and to evaluate all known South American plant fossil assemblages for first evidence and continued presence of those parameters. We ask when did these critical rainforest characters arise? When did vegetative parameters reach the level of abundance that we see in neotropical forests? Also, when do specific lineages become common in neotropical forests? Our review indicates that evidence of neotropical rainforest is exceedingly rare and equivocal before the Palaeocene. Even in the Palaeocene, the only evidence for tropical rainforest in South America is the appearance of moderately high pollen diversity. By contrast, North American sites provide evidence that rainforest leaf physiognomy was established early in the Palaeocene. By the Eocene in South America, several lines of evidence suggest that neotropical rainforests were diverse, physiognomically recognizable as rainforest and taxonomically allied to modern neotropical rainforests. A mismatch of evidence regarding the age of origin between sites of palaeobotanical high diversity and sites of predicted tropical climates should be reconciled with intensified collecting efforts in South America. We identify several lines of promising research that will help to coalesce previously disparate approaches to the origin, longevity and maintenance of high diversity floras of South America.

  12. Delusional Cities: beyond the projected identity of urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Puşcaşu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Narratives intermediate the perception of place along with image, which is according to Burgin an integrated part of the “cultural promotion” and “city marketing” process (1996. In this manner, social and cultural meanings of place are re-modelled with relation to significant events or icons and, therefore, a more enchanting and attractive portrait of the city is promoted to be explored and experienced. Cities introduce a representation based on an idealised projection of their reality while exposing “key attractions”. As such, their projected image may have a greater influence than the reality in shaping the views of visitors, investors or even residents. The advertised portrait of the city has the power to reshape its appearance, as it is usually perceived, into a misleading one. Such chimera physiognomies of cities are often, if not in every case, presented in a captivating manner. This paper relies on the remarkable quality of narratives to go beyond the fabricated image of the city and to engage with the real identity of place while profiling the visual and experiential layout of the city. The investigation focus is primarily placed upon the mode in which historical and spatial humanities theoretical knowledge along with narratives of place can enrich the morphological study. The interaction between architecture, people, and narrative codes in the city spaces and on the way spatial layout relates to them is therefore explored. Particular emphasis is laid towards the manner in which spoken narratives of place can provide us with perceptual tools to shape the complexity of the urban phenomena and its cultural meaning. In doing so, we can start overlaying memories that are situated “beyond the city” and as such are brought to light and merged with maps of “lived experiences”.

  13. El hilo sutil de la rememoración. Felicidad y redención histórica en la obra de Walter Benjamin

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    Palermo, Sandra Viviana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structure of the Messianic time that Benjamin tries to think from the point of view of its inextricable connection to the concepts of happiness and redemption. The conceptual route goes from the early writings, in which the constellation happiness-redemption acquires a definite physiognomy —combining with an elegant and specific critique of modernity— to the thesis Über den Begriff der Geschichte, in which this constellation is intertwined with the figure of Eingedenken, which determines an important conceptual shift in the theoretical horizon of the author, also representing the specificity and richness of his reflections on time and history.

    El texto presenta un análisis de la estructura del tiempo mesiánico que Benjamin intenta pensar desde el punto de vista de su indisoluble conexión con los conceptos de felicidad y redención. El recorrido conceptual va desde los escritos de juventud, en los que la constelación felicidad-redención adquiere una fisionomía definida —conjugándose con una crítica elegante y puntual de la modernidad—, a las tesis Sobre el concepto de historia, en las cuales tal constelación se entrelaza con la figura del Eingedenken, que determina un desplazamiento conceptual importante en el horizonte teórico del autor, representando además la especificidad y la riqueza de su reflexión sobre el tiempo y la historia.

  14. The Pilgrimage to The San Nicola Shrine in Bari and its Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rizzello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilgrimage is defined as a journey to the Holy but more specifically as an inner journey to one’s deepest religious feelings. This type of journey has assumed new forms and types that bring it closer to modern tourism in general, though it maintains its distinctive characteristics, which will be the object of this paper. These changes in the nature of pilgrimage, which in part reflect the parallel socio-cultural transformation of the average visitor, have brought about a major reorganisation of the places involved and have had a significant socio-economic impact on the territories involved. The concentration of visitors and in some cases the presence of various categories of visit have led to structural changes in holy places and their surroundings. These changes, which arise from the need to meet the requirements of travellers as consumers, in turn have social and environmental impacts on the surrounding area that are similar to those caused by mass tourism. The most evident types of impact are structural, resulting from the creation or expansion of hotel and catering infrastructure and the start-up of new businesses such as travel agencies, specialised tour operators, shops selling religious souvenirs and establishments providing entertainment. All this alters the physiognomy and the layout of the towns where the religious sites are located, in some cases completely transforming the economy of the location and the use of land. The aim of this research is to study pilgrimage flows associated with the cult of Saint Nicholas (San Nicola in Bari, specifically concerning the pilgrimage's main characteristics and the most significant impacts on the district. The study follows a mixed approach that includes participant observation, use of archival documents and empirical evaluation of the material landscape and observed practices.

  15. ESTRUTURA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS DE CAATINGA EM PERNAMBUCO

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    JOÃO TAVARES CALIXTO JÚNIOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. (jurema preta is a xerophytic species of the shrub-arboreal habit, indicative of secondary succession stage of recovery or progressive, widely disseminated by different caatinga physiognomies of northeastern Brazil, bringing great potential. For the few studies that address their environmental performance, this study aimed to investigate structural and ecological aspects of its population, based data in diameter and height, and characterize the spatial distribution pattern of this species in the study areas. The phytosociological survey was conducted in two areas with 2 and 80 hectares of caatinga at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Semiarid, Petrolina - PE. 10 units were plotted on a random sample measuring 8.0 x 40m, and included all individuals living in diameter at soil level K 3 cm, and measured the total height of the same. Were sampled 283 and 61 individuals in 100 and 80% of plots in areas I and II respectively, inserted mostly in the first diameter classes (3.0 - 6.0 cm and 6.1 - 9.0 cm and height (2.0 - 3.0 m and 3.1 - 4 m, without trend to standard reverse-J-shape in areas. The spatial distribution, measured by the Payandeh index, reached a value of 2.4 in area I and 7.8 in area II, indicating that the species has a aggregated distribution in both areas. The calculated values for the of Liocourt quotient in areas I and II respectively, got an average of 0.67 and 1.12 with great variation, showing unbalance, despite being in progressive process of natural regeneration.

  16. Estudios sobre la vegetación del estado de Paraná (Brasil meridional

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    de Bolòs, Oriol

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to knowledge about the vegetation of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil (Serra do Mar, Planaltos, Iguaçu Valley. Numerous plant associations are described and grouped together in the following classes: Pistio-Eichhornietea (communities of floating cormophytes Xyrido-Typhetea (helophytic herbaceous vegetation Polypodio-Tillandsietea (epiphytic and comophytic vegetation Ruderali-Manihotetea (ruderal and segetal vegetation Andropogono-Baccharidetea (savanoid vegetation Rhizophoretea (mangroves Lantano-Chusqueetea (woody marginal communities of the forest Cedrelo-Ocoteetea (rain and mesophilous forest. Special attention is paid to the study of the physiognomy, structure and dynamism of the vegetation and its biogeographical significance.

    Aportación al conocimiento de la vegetación del estado de Paraná en el Brasil meridional (Serra do Mar, Planaltos, valle del Iguaçu. Se describen numerosas asociaciones vegetales agrupadas en las clases siguientes: Pistio-Eichhornietea (comunidades de cormófitos flotantes. Xyrido-Typhetea (vegetación herbácea helofítica. Polypodio-Tillandsietea (vegetación epifítica y comofítica. Ruderali-Manihotetea (vegetación ruderal, viaria y arvense. Andropogono-Baccharidetea (vegetación sabanoide. Rhizophoretea (manglar. Lantano-Chusqueetea (manto marginal leñoso de la selva. Cedrelo-Ocoteetea (selva pluvial y mesófila. Se dedica atención especial al estudio de la fisionomía, estructura y dinamismo de la vegetación y a su significación biogeográfica.

  17. Tree ring growth by core sampling at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots. The deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L. type

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    Maria Chiara MANETTI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Radial growth analysis evaluates the ability of trees to grow under different site and environmental conditions, thus contributing to bio-ecological studies aimed at increasing understanding of forest stand evolution. Tree ring growth is analysed in five Permanent Monitoring Plots (PMPs dominated by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.. Common structural features of these PMPs are their origin (coppice forest and their current physiognomy as stored coppice and transitory crop. A dendroecological approach was used to analyse past radial stem growth, the influence of silvicultural background and stand age, as well as to compare the growth rhythm of stands in different site-indexes and environmental conditions. Tree coring was carried out at the time of the first inventory (winter 1996/97 by sampling 8 to 11 dominant and co-dominant trees representative of the upper storey in the buffer area of each PMP. The basic stem and crown growth variables were measured for each tree sampled and two cores collected at 1.30 m. Annual ring width was determined by the Tree Ring Measurement System SMIL3 and the data were elaborated by the ANAFUS software. Site mean curves and growth trend per social class in each stand were defined both by visual comparison and statistical analysis among individual tree series. The main results were as follows: i social differentiation becomes established earlier with better site indexes and higher tree densities; ii sensitivity to external disturbances is higher and more defined in the dominant class than in the co-dominant tree layer; iii competition cycles are clearly discernible and related to both stand density and site-index in young stands under natural evolution (stored coppices; iv when silvicultural interventions were performed in the past is quite visible readable in the stands under conversion into high forest (transitory crops; v the mean series per site are statistically related and common periods characterized by a

  18. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies

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    R Cavasini

    Full Text Available Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA – Parque Municipal das Araucárias and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL – Fazenda Brandalise, in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H′ = 2.221 was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H′ = 1.592. This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602 only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128, which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  19. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, M L T; Machado, L P B; Mateus, R P

    2014-11-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA - Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL - Fazenda Brandalise), in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H' = 2.221) was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H' = 1.592). This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602) only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128), which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni) and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  20. Sciascia e Camilleritra Racconto e Cronaca Sociale

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    Giuseppe Marci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In “a very strange guide” of Bahia, Jorge Amado proposes a self-definition that can also be used to explain an aspect, not secondary, of the narrative work by Leonardo Sciascia and Andrea Camilleri: “They tell what they lived, the hero of their books is the people, their goal is to achieve the future”. Sciascia, to talk about his first work (which will be entitled Le parrocchie di Regalpetra, uses the term “cronaca” (that appears in the title of the chapter “Cronache scolastiche”: chronicles of a village – Regalpetra – a place the writer knows very well, in its social and historical physiognomy, which he can write about, because he lived it. Camilleri, in the same way, not only in historical, civil, and crime novels, but also in writings of minor narrative structure, when not occasional, as may be the pages that describe some aspects of Porto Empedocle, in which the author explicitly qualifies herself as a witness (“I saw from my terrace”. Both Italian writers tell what they know – each with their own narrative strategy and with their own world view – and constitute the people as the hero of their books. More complex is to say if they consider (as the Brazilian writer that the goal to be achieved is the future, and what it would mean, for one and the other, the idea of future: which its political and social tone is, which (and several moods compose the concept, destined to innervate vivid narrative pages.

  1. Changes in Ecosystem Service Values on the Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; REN Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province of China covers Yulin, Yan'an, and Tongchuan cities mainly. The kind of physiognomy is complicated and various, including the transitional region of the sand and wind, the hilly-gully fragile region, the pimple mound region from North to South. Large-scale land reclamation projects that are severely affecting these ecosystems have been implemented. In this paper, we reported an investigation to the changes in land use and ecosystem services on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province from 1978 to 2000. We used three LANDSAT TM and/or ETM data sets to estimate the changes in the size of five land-cover/land-use categories, and we also used previously published value coefficients to estimate the changes in the value of ecosystem services delivered by each land category. Finally, we ranked the contribution of various ecosystem functions to the overall value of the ecosystem services, we have estimated that the annual value of the ecosystem services is 56.95 billon RMB yuan in the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province in 2000. In the region, from 1978 to 2000, the economic value of the fixing carbon was higher,the economic value of water conservation was the lowest, but the economic value of the NPP, fixing carbon, and supplying oxygen accounted for above ninety percent of the total value, obviously the vegetation created the biggest ecosystem service value. We can conclude that future land-use policy formulation should give precedence to the conservation of these ecosystems over uncontrolled reclamation, and that further land reclamation should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses.

  2. RELAÇÃO ENTRE O ÍNDICE DE AVERMELHAMENTO DO SOLO E O ESTOQUE DE CARBONO NA BIOMASSA AÉREA DA VEGETAÇÃO DE CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacilio Antunes Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The color variety of soil is response of its physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical composition. The Munsell color system is based on an objective color evaluation in which it is possible to evaluate different color soil factors such as the presence of iron oxides, particle size, and accumulated organic material. The objective of this study was to identify the relation between the redness index (IAV of soil and the amount of carbon content present in the aerial part of Cerrado vegetation. The study was conducted in seven cities in western Bahia state, in native areas of Cerrado. The determination o soil color was made in the field, with moist soil samples, using the Munsell color chart. From the evaluation of hue, value and chroma, the redness index (IAV was calculated. The estimation of carbon stock above ground was carried out from: trunk and branches, both living and dead trees by the allometric equation developed in Cerrado areas. The redness index of soil, from the layer 0.00 to 0.20 m, has a significant and directly proportional relationship with the carbon stock of above ground biomass of Cerrado vegetation. This may be extrapolated to calculate the carbon stock (EC by the redness index (IAV of soil by the equation [EC = 0.4936 · IAV + 4.2286 (-1.5%]. The practicality of sampling of data by IAV with Munsell chart, and the reliability of data fit by results of residual error less than 5%, make that this relationship may be used for academic and corporative in carbon stocks estimation for use in forest and environmental management. The EC variation between the studied physiognomies is mainly by distinct density of tree individuals per hectare. The variation of IAV in studied areas is due to the accumulated organic matter on the soil surface, the mineral content and drainage capacity, according to inferences of literature, and this reflecting the different colors of soil in the studied phytophysiognomies.

  3. Structure and diversity of intertidal benthic diatom assemblages in contrasting shores: a case study from the Tagus estuary(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lourenço; Brotas, Vanda; Rincé, Yves; Jesus, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The structure of intertidal benthic diatoms assemblages in the Tagus estuary was investigated during a 2-year survey, carried out in six stations with different sediment texture. Nonparametric multivariate analyses were used to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of the assemblages and to link them to the measured environmental variables. In addition, diversity and other features related to community physiognomy, such as size-class or life-form distributions, were used to describe the diatom assemblages. A total of 183 diatom taxa were identified during cell counts and their biovolume was determined. Differences between stations (analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), R = 0.932) were more evident than temporal patterns (R = 0.308) and mud content alone was the environmental variable most correlated to the biotic data (BEST, ρ = 0.863). Mudflat stations were typically colonized by low diversity diatom assemblages (H' ~ 1.9), mainly composed of medium-sized motile epipelic species (250-1,000 μm(3) ), that showed species-specific seasonal blooms (e.g., Navicula gregaria Donkin). Sandy stations had more complex and diverse diatom assemblages (H' ~ 3.2). They were mostly composed by a large set of minute epipsammic species (<250 μm(3) ) that, generally, did not show temporal patterns. The structure of intertidal diatom assemblages was largely defined by the interplay between epipelon and epipsammon, and its diversity was explained within the framework of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. However, the spatial distribution of epipelic and epipsammic life-forms showed that the definition of both functional groups should not be over-simplified. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Nose muscular dynamics: the tip trigonum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figallo, E E; Acosta, J A

    2001-10-01

    In 1995, the senior author (E.E.F.) published an article in which he described the musculus digastricus septi nasi labialis. In the article presented here, work carried out by anatomists and other researchers who, over the last two centuries, studied nose muscular dynamics is described. The present study is based on Gray's Anatomy, which, in 1858, first described the nasal tip muscles, along with the other nasal muscles. Later works not only used different terminology for these muscles but also ignored some, creating tremendous confusion. The study presented here provides an update of the exact terms, location, insertions, and muscle functions of the muscles of the nose. Each nose muscle is described with regard to the two portions able to produce separate contractions. In this study, the term "dual function" is used and characterizes the nasal mimetic muscles that do not have well-defined fascia. Therefore, there is doubt about the existence of a real nasal superficial muscle aponeurotic system. The musculus myrtiformis seems to have a dual function, inserting in the canine fosse and in the periosteum of the central incisors, forming two portions-one to the septum and the other to the nostril-each of which has specific functions. This study has been based on research in physiognomy, the science of expression. With regard to the basis for nose expressions, common anatomical research is excluded because it provides a different view of the dynamics studied to date. The term trigonum musculare apicis nasi defines the interaction of the musculi compressor narium minor and dilator naris anterior, connecting with the columellar bundle of the musculus digastricus and levering the nasal spine. This muscular trigone creates circular concentric and eccentric movements of the nasal tip.

  5. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae in Tibet, China.

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    Shanshan Song

    Full Text Available Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon.

  6. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Laurie; Loveral, Milagros; Arrindell, Pauline; Aguilar, Victor Hugo; Hasmy, Zamira; Cuenca, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry forest destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela). Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m) (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2'), and two were left untreated (R1 and R1'), and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community). Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment). Soil of the NRI treatment (with a higher herbaceous component) showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Rhizophagus intraradices were found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurca and Funnefformis geosporum were only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites) were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role.

  7. Use of AIRSAR to identify woody shrub invasion and other indicators of desertification in the Jornada LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad; Schaber, Gerald G.; Breed, Carol S.

    1995-01-01

    The replacement of semidesert grassland by woody shrubland is a widespread form of desertification. This change in physiognomy and species composition tends to sharply reduce the productivity of the land for grazing by domestic livestock, increase soil erosion and reduce soil fertility, and greatly alter many other aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning. Remote sensing methods are needed to assess and monitor shrubland encroachment. Detection of woody shrubs at low density would provide a particularly useful baseline on which to access changes, because an initially low shrub density often tends to increase even after cessation of the disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, drought, or fire suppression) responsible for triggering the initial stages of the invasion (Grover and Musick, 1990). Limited success has been achieved using optical remote sensing. In contrast to other forms of desertification, biomass does not consistently decrease with a shift from grassland to shrubland. Estimation of green vegetation amount (e.g., by NDVI) is thus of limited utility, unless the shrubs and herbaceous plants differ consistently in phenology and the area can be viewed during a season when only one of these is green. The objective of this study was to determine if the potential sensitivity of active microwave remote sensing to vegetation structure could be used to assess the degree of shrub invasion of grassland. Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were acquired for a semiarid site containing varied mixtures of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation and compared with ground observations of vegetation type and other landsurface characteristics. In this preliminary report we examine the response of radar backscatter intensity to shrub density. The response of other multipolarization parameters will be examined in future work.

  8. Physiognomic und Schicksal? Oder wie der altmesopotamische Mensch mit einem durch ein physiognomisches Omen angekündigtes Unheil umgegangen sein mag

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    Böck, Barbara

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In my Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie, Wien 2000 (= AfO Bh. 27 I discussed the practical use of the cuneiform handbook of physiognomic omens, Alamdimmû. In comparison with morphoscopic treatises in Greek, Latin, Syriac, Arabic, and Hebrew I came to the conclusion that also the Akkadian handbook served as instrument for the checking and examination of people once they would enter the service of the king or, when applied to women, once they would get married. In the present paper I pose the question whether in case of an illportending physiognomy the person described in the Alamdimmû treatise could himself perform apotrapaic rituals or undertake other protective measures.

    En nuestro estudio Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie, Wien 2000 (= AfO Bh. 27, incluimos una discusión sobre el uso que pudo tener el libro cuneiforme sobre presagios fisiognómicos denominado, en acadio, Alamdimmû. Por analogía con los tratados de morfoscopia en lengua griega, latín, siríaco, árabe y hebreo, propusimos entonces que Alamdimmû pudo servir para examinar al personal antes de su posible incorporación al servicio del rey, o bien, si se trataba de mujeres, antes de que contrajesen matrimonio. En este estudio planteamos la posibilidad de que, si se producía un presagio fisiognómico ominoso, la persona implicada podía recurrir a medidas apotropaicas o de otro tipo para librarse del destino funesto que le aguardaba.

  9. A low diversity, seasonal tropical landscape dominated by conifers and peltasperms: Early Permian Abo Formation, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Nelson, W.J.; Lucas, S.G.; Looy, C.V.; Quick, K.; Jun, W.

    2007-01-01

    ], calcrete in paleosols, and abundant mud cracks evidencing ephemeral flow in streams) and biology (low floristic diversity, xeromorphic plant physiognomies). ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acoustic communication and vocalization microhabitat in Ameerega braccata (Steindachner, 1864) (Anura, Dendrobatidae) from midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, L R; Strüssmann, C; Mott, T

    2010-02-01

    Ameerega braccata is an aposematic, small dendrobatid anuran known from its type-locality, Chapada dos Guimarães, in the State of Mato Grosso, and from a few additional localities in Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás States, Brazil. The advertisement call of A. braccata is composed of a single unpulsed note, with a frequency range from 3.5 to 4.2 KHz (N = 110), and average duration of 65.8 ms (N = 110, SD = 11.6). The territorial call is composed of five or six repeated notes, structurally similar to advertisement call notes. The courtship call is emitted in close-range interactions between male-female during the courtship event and may reach frequencies of 2.2 to 5.3 KHz (N = 10), with shorter notes (average duration 43 ms; N = 10; SD = 4.9). Call duration, note duration and call rate of the advertisement call showed high variation (>15% of coefficient of variation), and dominant frequency showed low variation (<4%). The properties with higher variation possibly respond to climatic features and male social position. When producing advertisement calls, males were usually found at an average height of 31.4 cm (N = 19, SD = 12.2 cm), mainly on leaves of shrubs and herbaceous plants (59%). Individuals of A. braccata were found in open physiognomies in the Cerrado ('campo sujo' and 'cerrado stricto sensu'), as opposed to that found by previous researchers, who reported an association of the species with gallery forests in the Cerrado.

  11. The environmental education in the Italian Renaissance: the geoethical model of Machiavelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liserre, Battista; De Pascale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the environmental and geoethical education is also present in the thought of one of the greatest intellectuals of the Italian Renaissance: the philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527). In the "Discorsi" of Machiavelli, the natural character of the place where a city is built is a determining factor in the overall measure of the need on the character of the citizens; but the barren place, if can keep away the people from idleness, and thereby constitute an essential tool of virtuous civic life, prevents the development of the power which can be fostered only by the fertility of the site. It may give rise own laziness which hinders the development of virtue; and then, according to Machiavelli, laws must be to impose the need to produce good behavior through education. Already in the Renaissance, Machiavelli recognized the importance of establishing a harmonious relationship between man and environment and suggested that the institutions should give a virtuous model of environmental education. The physiognomy of the geographical and natural environment conditions in an essential way the exercise of civil life and the development of virtues. If the Rome's model imposes the primacy of fertile places, it happens, however, that, in his general conception of virtue and of historical dialectic, Machiavelli tended toward ultimately to increased functionality of the desolate places, which make difficult the life, and through the exercise of the need, make men more virtuous, keeping them away from the destructive threat of idleness. This aspect emerges from a different perspective, but convergent in "Asino" of Machiavelli (Chapter V). The link between the natural places and civic life that takes place isn't something absolutely default. Men's work, orders underpinning their collective life, laws that place the compulsion of necessity by the behavior of citizens, change the data of nature. Although the structure of a territory unequally, according to

  12. Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

    2014-12-01

    to late Holocene, when somewhat wetter and warmer conditions (since around 9000 cal yr BP) enabled a stronger colonization of the ridge of Pico Caratuva by mainly C3 plants, especially grassland species. However, at the same time, even near the summit, the soil core from the forest site already presented the current physiognomy (or a shrubby/elfin or successional forest), indicating that the colonization of the neighboring uppermost saddles and valleys were probably populated mainly by upper montane forest species.

  13. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

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    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    show a tendency to co-occur which can be an artifact. A plant-focused method that included a rarefaction analysis yielded more insightful results and shed more light on the differences between the dominant plants that shape the physiognomy of plant communities in a possible pollination specialization.

  14. La vegetación de los Altos Andes II: Las Vegas del flanco oriental del Cordón del Plata (Mendoza, Argentina Vegetation of the high Andes II: The meadows on the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata (Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez

    Full Text Available Para completar estudios de vegetación de la vertiente oriental del Cordón del Plata, se analizaron las comunidades vegetales de sitios húmedos de vegas. Se determinaron dos tipos de vegas: de baja altura, entre los 1200- 2000 m s.m. y de altura, por encima de los 2000 m s.m. representadas por 9 y 11 comunidades respectivamente. Estas se describieron fisonómica, florística y ecológicamente. Se establecieron relaciones de distribuciones de las vegas entre altitudes y temperaturas, involucrando también a procesos de congelamiento de los suelos. Además, se consideraron aspectos biológicos, de origen y corológica de las especies. En coincidencia con los pisos de vegetación del área sobre las vegas de altura se reconocen tentativamente una de mediana altura distribuída entre los 2000 a 3200 m s. m. y una de tundra que no fue considerada en este trabajo , por encima de 3200 m s.m.. Se elaboró un mapa de localización de las vegas del área de estudio.In this study I present a description of the plant communities of humid sites of vegas or mallines of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata were analyzed. Two types of vegas were identified: 1 low altitude vegas between 1200- 2000 m a.s.l. represented by 9 communities; and 2 high altitude vegas above 2000 m a.s.l. represented by 11 communities. These communities were described through their physiognomy, floristic composition, and ecology. In order to analize the distribution of the vegas, relationships were drawn among altitude, temperature, and soil freezing processes. In addition, biological and chorological characteristics of the species, as well as their origins were considered. With respect to the vegetation distribution, high-altitude vegas occur at a intermediate altitudes between 2000 and 3,200 meters above sea level, and tundra (which was not considered as part of the study occurs above 3,200 meter above sea level. A map was produced of the location of the area's wetlands.

  15. Nuevo puente de Florídsdorf en Viena — Austria

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was characterised by the great speed with which it was built, 18 months, a world record for this type of job. This was possible thanks to the compenetraron and perfect organisation of the companies who intervened most directly: Voest Alpine and Wagner. The construction system is described, made of large metal and concrete elements; the physiognomy of the bridge, with its parts on both sides of the riverbed and that which covers the real course of the river; spans and free heights of the different stretches; elevations and assembly, as well as laying prefabricated parts; foundations, piling and ancillary work. Work still to be done is also enumerated, although many of the jobs will shortly be completed or are in a very advanced stage, under the direction of the company Wiener Wrückenbau AG.

    Esta obra se caracteriza por la gran rapidez de construcción, 18 meses, fecha récord mundial para este tipo de trabajos. Ello ha sido posible por la compenetración y perfecta organización de las empresas que más directamente han intervenido: Voest Alpine y Wagner. Se describen el sistema de construcción, a base de grandes elementos metálicos y de hormigón; la fisonomía del puente, con sus partes a ambos lados del cauce y la que salva el curso propiamente dicho del río; luces y alturas libres de los diferentes tramos; elevación y montaje, así como colocación de las piezas prefabricadas; cimentación, pilotaje y obras auxiliares. Asimismo se enumeran las obras que quedan por hacer, aunque muchas de ellas están en vías de próxima terminación o muy avanzadas, bajo la dirección de la empresa Wiener Brückenbau AG.

  16. DINÂMICA DA VEGETAÇÃO EM UM FRAGMENTO DE MATA ATLÂNTICA NO NORDESTE DO BRASIL

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    Felipe Rodrigo de Carvalho Rabelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the physiognomy, structure and dynamics of woody species are influenced by the spatial gradient edge-interior, data were collected from these parameters in 2004, 2007 and 2010 in an Atlantic forest fragment. Species were sampled for the Canopy (DS, with circumference > 15 cm to 1.3 m MARTÍNEZsoil and understory (SB in circumference between ground level> 3 cm and CAP 150 m from the forest boundary, and analyzed 1,000 m² per site, divided into plots of 10 m², to measure individuals of higher class. In each plot a sub-plot of 5 m² for sampling understory was installed. Branches were collected from three adult individuals from the species to obtain the density of the wood. The number of individuals (NI, basal area (BA, mortality (TM, recruitment rate (TR, periodic annual diameter increment (IPA, loss rate (P and gain rate (G Area and basal turnover rates in number of individuals (TN and basal area (TA class tree component in the three locations showed no significant edge effect. At the edge, the understory had lower values of NI and AB and higher TM than in the forest interior. Differences between the strata occur regardless of edge sealing, since young plants present in most individuals in the sample class SB, which are more sensitive than adult trees to changes caused by the creation of the edge. Rates of loss and gain of AB and AB turnover in NI and in SB presented higher values than on the DS, which points to a stratum with larger changes. In DS there were no differences in species richness among environments differs from that observed in SB. The floristic composition of the DS in environments closer to the forest limit was quite distinct from that of the interior, indicating that there has been no recovery of floristic composition. All environments SB had low similarity. The edges of the DS and SB had a higher concentration of individuals in class intervals smaller density values timber. The DS has already

  17. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  18. Research and application of groundwater geophysical exploration in desert and gobi regions of northwestern China%沙漠戈壁地貌地区地下水电性勘查研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程辉; 曹福祥; 底青云

    2009-01-01

    在新疆阿克苏地区水文地质调查基础上,根据当地地形、地貌条件,采用EH-4型电导率成像系统,在研究区域内做了面积性的水文物探工作,结合水文地质与地球物理场特征,根据剖面上纵横向电性特征以及深度切片资料,在当地的地质条件下,从水文地质的角度分析当地地下水赋存位置、埋深和类型,并查明地下水资源可开发利用情况,根据电阻率值的变化圈定和保护低矿化度地下水层位与区域,并指出可重点关注的区域,为当地政府规划解决人畜饮用高矿化度地下水问题提供了科学的依据.%Based on hydrological geology survey in Aksu Xinjiang, and conditios of to the terrain, and physiognomy, we have done a lot of hydrological geophysical research with EH-4 electric conductivity imaging system in the region. Combined with the local hydrological geology and geophysical features, in view of the longitudinal and transverse electricity features on the section plane and slice with the depth imformation of the work area, based on the local geological conditions, we analyzed the bed position, depth and type from the point of hydrologic geology, and find out the exploitable condition of the groundwater resources. Resistivity value changes have laid foundation for delineation and protection of the low mineralization groundwater horizon or area, and for pointing out the important areas to be paid attention. Scientific basis is provided to local government plan, which can solve the problem that people's drinking water if of high mineralization.

  19. Preliminary global paleogeographic maps through the Greenhouse-Icehouse transition: forcing of the Drake Passage and Asian Monsoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Licht, Alexis; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Roperch, Pierrick; Guillocheau, Francois; Baby, Guillaume; Baatsen, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Paleogeographic maps are essential for understanding Earth dynamics. They provide the necessary boundary conditions for climate and geodynamic modeling, surface processes and biotic interactions. In particular, the opening and closing of ocean gateways and the growth of major mountain belts are major drivers of climate changes and biotic interchange. However, the timing and spatial extent of such events are highly controversial and regularly questioned by new data. As part of the ERC "MAGIC" project focusing on Asian Monsoons during the Icehouse to Greenhouse transition we thus produced a set of worldwide Cenozoic paleogeographic maps in the period time between 60 to 20 Ma, with a set of boundary conditions specific to the India-Asia collision zone and the Drake Passage. The creation of a paleogeographic map followed a rigorous and reproductively methodology that integrates paleobathymetric, paleoshoreline and paleotopographic data into a coherent plate tectonic model using the open source software GPlates. (1) We use the model provided by Seton et al. (2012) as a first order tectonic model modified to integrate the full restoration of five regions: the Andes, the Scotia Arc, Africa, The Mediterranean Sea and the Tibet-Himalayan collision zone. (2) The paleobathymetry was provided by Müller et al. (2008) using age-depth relationships and assuming symmetric ridge spreading. (3) Paleoshoreline maps were modified according to the fossil database from fossilworks.org and the geological record and were used to represent the boundary between terrestrial and marine paleo-environments. (4) To reconstruct paleoelevations, the most controversial task, we compiled a wide range of data including stable isotope, leaf physiognomy, and thermochronology combined with regional fossil and geological records (tectonic setting) and geomorphological data. Finally, we use the open source GMT software and a set of masks to modify the current Earth relief model (ETOPO) according to the

  20. Quantification of a greenhouse hydrologic cycle from equatorial to polar latitudes: The mid-Cretaceous water bearer revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M.B.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the global hydrologic cycle during the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse by utilizing the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates (calcite and siderite) as proxies for the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation. The data set builds on the Aptian-Albian sphaerosiderite ??18O data set presented by Ufnar et al. (2002) by incorporating additional low latitude data including pedogenic and early meteoric diagenetic calcite ??18O. Ufnar et al. (2002) used the proxy data derived from the North American Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) in a mass balance model to estimate precipitation-evaporation fluxes. We have revised this mass balance model to handle sphaerosiderite and calcite proxies, and to account for longitudinal travel by tropical air masses. We use empirical and general circulation model (GCM) temperature gradients for the mid-Cretaceous, and the empirically derived ??18O composition of groundwater as constraints in our mass balance model. Precipitation flux, evaporation flux, relative humidity, seawater composition, and continental feedback are adjusted to generate model calculated groundwater ??18O compositions (proxy for precipitation ??18O) that match the empirically-derived groundwater ??18O compositions to within ??0.5???. The model is calibrated against modern precipitation data sets.Four different Cretaceous temperature estimates were used: the leaf physiognomy estimates of Wolfe and Upchurch (1987) and Spicer and Corfield (1992), the coolest and warmest Cretaceous estimates compiled by Barron (1983) and model outputs from the GENESIS-MOM GCM by Zhou et al. (2008). Precipitation and evaporation fluxes for all the Cretaceous temperature gradients utilized in the model are greater than modern precipitation and evaporation fluxes. Balancing the model also requires relative humidity in the subtropical dry belt to be significantly reduced. As expected calculated precipitation rates are all greater than modern

  1. Magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum: The role of plant community change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francesca A.; Wing, Scott L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon-isotope measurements ( δ13C) of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ larger than that observed in marine carbonate δ13C records. Reconciling these records requires either that marine carbonates fail to record the full magnitude of the CIE or that the CIE in plants has been amplified relative to the marine. Amplification of the CIE has been proposed to result from an increase in available moisture that allowed terrestrial plants to increase 13C-discrimination during the PETM. Leaf physiognomy, paleopedology and hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax lipids from the Bighorn Basin, however, all suggest that rather than a simple increase in available moisture, climate alternated between wet and dry during the PETM. Here we consider two other explanations and test them quantitatively with the carbon isotopic record of plant lipids. The "marine modification" hypothesis is that the marine carbonate record was modified by chemical changes at the PETM and that plant lipids record the true magnitude of the CIE. Using atmospheric CO 2δ13C values estimated from the lipid record, and equilibrium fractionation between CO 2 and carbonate, we estimate the expected CIE for planktonic foraminifera to be 6‰. Instead, the largest excursion observed is about 4‰. No mechanism for altering marine carbonate by 2‰ has been identified and we thus reject this explanation. The "plant community change" hypothesis is that major changes in floral composition during the PETM amplified the CIE observed in n-alkanes by 1-2‰ relative to marine carbonate. This effect could have been caused by a rapid transition from a mixed angiosperm/conifer flora to a purely angiosperm flora. The plant community change hypothesis is consistent with both the magnitude and pattern of CIE amplification among the different n-alkanes, and with data from fossil plants

  2. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  3. Discuss on the Visual Landscape Impact Assessment of Railway Construction Project Based on GIS%基于GIS的铁路建设项目视觉景观影响评价探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占雄; 朱正清; 张丽君

    2012-01-01

    Being restricted by rnultifactor such as topography and physiognomy and station location and so on, certain railway routes which may affect or destroy the visual landscape environment have to be constructed within or near the sensitive regions of visual landscape such as scenic spot, Geopark and so on. So visual landscape impact assessment must be executed prior to the construction. However, visual landscape impact assessment in China started so late that no complete and standard assessment method can be utilized at present. To improve the efficiency and quality of the assessment work, in this paper, Dacheng Mountain scenic spot was cited as an example, and a set of relatively complete and quantitative method on visual landscape impact assessment was proposed based on the strongly spatial analysis function of GIS( geographical information system). It is considered that this method could be applied in similar visual landscape impact assessment of railway construction project.%铁路项目由于地形地貌、车站设置要求等多因素的限制,线路无法绕避风景名胜区、地质公园等视觉景观敏感区,项目实施前须进行视觉景观影响评价.我国的视觉景观影响评价起步较晚,没有一套完整的评价方法.以长昆客运专线对大乘山风景名胜区的视觉景观影响为例,利用地理信息系统强大的空间分析功能,提出了一套比较完整、定量的视觉景观影响评价技术方法,可推广应用于类似铁路建设项目的视觉景观影响评价中,提高工作效率及评价质量.

  4. 挖掘与传承:全球重要农业文化遗产兴化垛田的文化内涵探析%Excavating and Inheriting:Study on Cultural Connotation of GIAHS Project Xinghua Duotian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢勇; 高亮月

    2015-01-01

    Culture is the basement to agricultural heritage.Excavating and sorting out the culture from agricul-tural heritage will benefit enriching people’s spiritual life and improve the quality of our life,thus we should better protect the heritage and enable it to play a greater value.Duotian (Stacking Farmland)is a unique land utilization type and also agricultural landscape to marshland of the central region of Jiangsu province.In 2013 and 2014 it was successively selected as China’s important agricultural cultural heritage and globally important agricultural cultural heritage.Duotian is rich and fertile,where there is special physiognomy and beautiful scenery.The cultivation of Duotian generated distinctive regional characteristic of culture,mainly including the spirit of never yielding in water control,the farming system of heaven-man unity,and the inclusive regional culture and light diet culture.The cul-ture should be given priority to in preserving and inheriting of Xinghua Duotian,and a strategic plan should be made on the basis of deep investigation and excavating.%文化是农业遗产之根,挖掘和整理这些文化内涵,有利于丰富民众精神生活,提升生活品味,从而契合全球重要农业文化保护的宗旨。垛田是江苏省中部地区沼泽地带独有的一种土地利用方式与农业景观,2013、2014年先后被遴选为中国重要农业文化遗产和全球重要农业文化遗产。垛田地貌特殊,景色秀丽,不仅出产丰饶,而且孕育了鲜明丰富的地域特色文化,主要包括永不屈服的治水精神、天人合一的农耕体系、特色鲜明的地域文化和清淡自然的垛田美食等多个方面。兴化垛田的保护和传承一定要坚持文化优先,在深入调研挖掘的基础上作战略谋划,才能使其发挥更大的价值。

  5. About the melodic type of the song čubro maro and about its geographical diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a melodic type which has been recognized in three regions in Serbia: as a melodic pattern for two spring songs in the region of Crnorečje (Eastern Serbia; in a strižbajska, a službarska and in several wedding songs in the region of Preševo and Bujanovac (Southern Serbia; and in the old town of Prizren (Metohija region where the same melodic type has been recorded as the first part of numerous wedding songs. These groups of variants are similar in the course of the melody, in their ritual function monophony and ceremonial character. They differ on the level of form, meter ornamentation and, partly, of metric organization (number of syllables of the verse. The similarity of these melodies might be explained by the metanastic streams from the southern areas to the north. Migrations were permanent throughout the time of Turkish occupation (from the 15th century onwards. One of the oldest streams, which also led to the region of Crnorečje, had been formed in the regions of Kosovo and Metohija. The inhabitants from this region migrated both to the North - to different parts of North and East Serbia - and to the East - to the region of Preševo and Bujanovac. Also, the region of Preševo, together with two smaller river valleys (South Morava and Moravica, is considered to be a middle region between the two big river valleys of Morava and Vardar, significant as directions of migrations towards the North. It may be concluded that this melodic type was brought to the North by migrations as an important and still vital element of the old Southern Serbian ritual tradition. On the other hand, there is another group of variants within this melodic type diffused in other parts of Serbia, with the function of entertainment and in the physiognomy of the songs na bas - of newer rural Serbian vocal style. The trace of these variants should be investigated in the future.

  6. Application of 3D Visualization Remote Sensing Interpretation Technology in Geological Survey of Xiang- Pu Railway Long Tunnels%长大隧道三维可视化遥感地质解译技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:向莆铁路长大隧道众多,在地面地质调查中存在地形高差大、地质构造复杂、植被发育、基岩露头少、勘察周期短、大面积地质测绘难等问题,难以快速准确地获取大比例尺区域工程地质信息.研究结论:基于研究多源地质资料信息化集成、三维可视化遥感影像建模和三维可视化遥感解译方法,建立了向莆铁路戴云山一高盖山段的线路、地貌、地质等三维场景,进行地貌特征、断裂构造和不良地质的定量解译.解译成果可有效指导地质调查,减少外业工作量,保证长大隧道大比例尺地质调查精度.%Research purposes: Ground geological survey of Xiang - Pu Railway long tunnels face the problems of terrain level difference large, geological structure complexity, vegetation thick, bedrock outcrops lack, surveying cycle short, large area geological surveying and mapping difficulty, and it is difficult to quickly and accurately for large scale region engineering geological information.Research conclusions:Based on the study of muti -geological information integration, 3D visualization remote sensing image modeling and 3D visualization remote sensing image interpretation method to establish route, physiognomy and geology 3D scene of DaiYun -shan to Gao Gai -shan Zone for qualitative interpretation of the morphological characteristics, fault structures and bad geology. Interpretation results can effectively guide geological survey, reduce the workload, ensure tunnel large scale geological survey precision.

  7. Regeneração de espécies arbóreas sob a influência de Merostachys multiramea Hack. (Poaceae em uma floresta subtropical Regeneration of tree species influenced by Merostachys multiramea Hack. (Poaceae in a subtropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cyrino dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de bambúseas é comum em muitas fisionomias florestais, sendo que a elevada abundância destas espécies pode interagir com a regeneração de espécies arbóreas. Foi avaliada a regeneração de espécies arbóreas e de Merostachys multiramea Hack. em uma área de transição entre Floresta Ombrófila Mista e Floresta Estacional no Sul do Brasil e comparada a estrutura de regeneração da área entre dois e quatro anos após floração, frutificação e morte de M. multiramea. Foram alocadas 25 unidades amostrais de 100 m² dispostas de forma aleatória, onde foram amostrados todos os colmos vivos de M. multiramea e indivíduos regenerantes de espécies arbóreas > 30 cm de altura e com perímetro à altura do peito The occurrence of bamboo species is common in several forest physiognomies, and the high abundance of these species may affect the regeneration of other ones. We evaluated both tree species and Merostachys multiramea Hack. recruitment in a transition area between mixed Araucaria rain forest and seasonal semideciduous forests in southern Brazil. We compared the regeneration structure of the areas evaluated two and four years after flowering, fruiting and death of M. multiramea. We randomly distributed 25 100 m² sampling units, and surveyed all living culms of M. multiramea and tree saplings. We sampled 4,372 living bamboos and 2,918 tree saplings, belonging to 32 plant families and 75 species. Most species were classified as zoochorous and canopy light-demanding. On the other hand, plant abundance revealed a greater contribution of autochorous, understory and shade-tolerant trees. M. multiramea density was higher over the four years after the reproductive event (p<0.05, with taller culms (p<0.01, but with the same mean number of culms (p=0.46. A NPMANOVA revealed significant differences in composition and abundance between surveys, with higher similarity among samplings two years after the reproductive event of M

  8. Calibration of the ``Simplified Simple Biosphere Model—SSiB'' for the Brazilian Northeast Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral Cunha, Ana Paula Martins; dos Santos Alvalá, Regina Célia; Correia, Francis Wagner Silva; Kubota, Paulo Yoshio

    2009-03-01

    The Brazilian Northeast region is covered largely by vegetation adapted to the arid conditions and with varied physiognomy, called caatinga. It occupies an extension of about 800.000 km2 that corresponds to 70% of the region. In recent decades, considerable progress in understanding the micrometeorological processes has been reached, with results that were incorporated into soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer schemes (SVATS) to study the momentum, energy, water vapor, carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics changes of different ecosystems. Notwithstanding, the knowledge of the parameters and physical or physiological characteristics of the vegetation and soil of the caatinga region is very scarce. So, the objective of this work was performing a calibration of the parameters of the SSiB model for the Brazilian Northeast Caatinga. Micrometeorological and hydrological data collected from July 2004 to June 2005, obtained in the Agricultural Research Center of the Semi-Arid Tropic (CPATSA), were used. Preceding the calibration process, a sensibility study of the SSiB model was performed in order to find the parameters that are sensible to the exchange processes between the surface and atmosphere. The results showed that the B parameter, soil moisture potential at saturation (ψs), hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil (ks) and the volumetric moisture at saturation (θs) present high variations on turbulent fluxes. With the initial parameters, the SSiB model showed best results for net radiation, and the latent heat (sensible heat) flux was over-estimated (under-estimated) for all simulation periods. Considering the calibrated parameters, better values of latent flux and sensible flux were obtained. The calibrated parameters were also used for a validation of the surface fluxes considering data from July 2005 to September 2005. The results showed that the model generated better estimations of latent heat and sensible heat fluxes, with low root mean square error. With

  9. Evaluation of Sentinel-1A Data For Above Ground Biomass Estimation in Different Forests in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Use of remote sensing data for mapping and monitoring of forest biomass across large spatial scales can aid in addressing uncertainties in carbon cycle. Earlier, several researchers reported on the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for characterizing forest structural parameters and the above ground biomass estimation. However, these studies cannot be generalized and the algorithms cannot be applied to all types of forests without additional information on the forest physiognomy, stand structure and biomass characteristics. The radar backscatter signal also saturates as forest parameters such as biomass and the tree height increase. It is also not clear how different polarizations (VV versus VH) impact the backscatter retrievals in different forested regions. Thus, it is important to evaluate the potential of SAR data in different landscapes for characterizing forest structural parameters. In this study, the SAR data from Sentinel-1A has been used to characterize forest structural parameters including the above ground biomass from tropical forests of India. Ground based data on tree density, basal area and above ground biomass data from thirty-eight different forested sites has been collected to relate to SAR data. After the pre-processing of Sentinel 1-A data for radiometric calibration, geo-correction, terrain correction and speckle filtering, the variability in the backscatter signal in relation tree density, basal area and above biomass density has been investigated. Results from the curve fitting approach suggested exponential model between the Sentinel-1A backscatter versus tree density and above ground biomass whereas the relationship was almost linear with the basal area in the VV polarization mode. Of the different parameters, tree density could explain most of the variations in backscatter. Both VV and VH backscatter signals could explain only thirty and thirty three percent of variation in above biomass in different forest sites of India

  10. Preliminary Study on Occurrence and Harm of the Banana Anthracnose in Hekou County of Yunnan%云南河口地区香蕉炭疽病的发生危害动态研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟强; 郑毅; 黄绍忠; 赵素梅; 邓成菊; 张建春; 刘学敏; 李芹; 胡原鸿; 杨绍琼; 王晓燕

    2014-01-01

    依据河口县的地形地貌特征,分东部、西部及中南部并采用定点监测、分级调查法对香蕉炭疽病的发生危害动态进行研究。结果表明:香蕉炭疽病在河口地区1~3月基本维持较低的危害水平,4月初开始发病,8~12月中旬处于危害的高峰值,12月份后逐渐下降;全年月平均危害率达38.44%,月平均危害指数0.81,处于危害率较高的水平;西部地区与东部、中南部地区的差异达到显著水平,月平均危害率西部地区(49.61%)>中南部地区(35%)>东部地区(30.72%);不同海拔对香蕉炭疽病的田间发生危害有一定影响,但未达显著水平。%According to landform and physiognomy of Hekou county, occurrence and harm of the banana anthracnose were fixed-point monitored, classified and surveyed in east region, west region and middle south region. The results showed that harm of banana anthracnose maintained a lower level between January and March, occurred in the early April, kept in a high peak between August and middle December, and then reduced by degrees after December. Harm rate of banana anthracnose was very high all the year round. Its monthly mean harm rate is 38.44%. And its monthly mean disease index is 0.81. The difference of harm rate of banana anthracnose reached significance level among west region, east region and middle south region. Its monthly mean harm rate is 49.61% in west region, 35% in middle south and 30.72% in east region. The harm rate is influenced by different altitudes, but its difference doesn't reach significance level.

  11. Realities of life and future prospects within two cultures: unaccompanied minor refugees from South East Asia in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jockenhovel-schieke, H

    1986-09-01

    From August 1979 on, more than 30,000 refugees from South East Asia were accepted in the Federal Republic of Germany as quota refugees in a special program; among them were 1600 unaccompanied minor refugees. About 1500 were accompanied Vietnamese children and youths who had fled their home country as 'boat people' across the South China Sea. Unaccompanied minor refugees have, like all other recognized refugees, a legal claim to family reunion in the Federal Republic. Today, only parents can join their children and vice versa, and spouses their spouses. The 1st phase of socialization in the lives of the unaccompanied minor refugees evolved in the cultural traditions of their South East Asian country of origin up to the age of 10 to 15 years. In the 2nd phase of socialization--the enculturation--the child establishes its culturally specific emotionality, language, mentality, and patterns of behavior through interaction and verbal communication with the people nearest him. The 3rd phase of socialization begins at school age and reaches full significance at the age of starting to work, with the accompanying expectations of society. Most of the minor unaccompanied refugees from South Asia had already completed their enculturation--the establishment of their cultural identity. The realities of life the young single refugees as foreigners in German society are determined by 4 special factors: 1) the great cultural differences between their country of originin South East Asia and the resettlement country, 2) the young people left their homes as refugees and their resettlement in the Federal Repulic was determined by chance events, 3) they have to live there alone and without the emotional support of their families in a situation of cultural change, and 4) because of their Asian physiognomy they will always appear as foreigners even if they have integrated well. The future prospects of the young South East Asian refugees in German society will be determined primarily by to

  12. Evolução da cobertura vegetal e uso agrícola do solo no município de Lagoa Seca, PB Evolution of vegetation covering and land use in the municipal district of Lagoa Seca, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris do S. Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo consiste no levantamento de informações relacionadas aos aspectos biofísicos, mapeamento e quantificação da vegetação natural e das áreas agricultáveis, mediante interpretação de fotos aéreas de 1984, análise visual de imagem digital do satélite Landsat, canais Tm³, TM4 e TM5, datada de 10 de julho de 1989 e no levantamento de coordenadas através do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS, 2001. Foram elaborados, para a área em estudo, arquivos digitais georreferenciados, referentes aos temas limite municipal, cobertura vegetal natural e uso agrícola do solo, em ambos os períodos, 1984 e 2001, utilizados para a classificação da vegetação secundária dominante, na circunscrição das áreas de uso agrícola, de acordo com a prática agrícola peculiar, na identificação das fisionomias vegetais e avaliação do processo evolutivo das fisionomias no período mencionado.This study comprised of the collection of data on biophysical aspects, the mapping and quantification of natural vegetation and arable areas, through interpretation of aerial pictures taken in 1984, visual analysis of digital images from Landsat satellites, Tm³, TM4 and TM5 channels, carried out on July 10, 1989 and the survey of coordinates through the Global Positioning System (GPS, 2001. Digital geo-referenced files elaborated for the studied area comprising basic data about the municipal limit, natural vegetation covering, land use, in both periods, 1984 and 2001, were used for classification of the dominant secondary vegetation, definition of the agricultural use of soil in agreement with the peculiar agricultural practices, identification of the vegetable physiognomies and evaluation of their evolutionary process in the mentioned period.

  13. A Brief Study on Hidden Narrative Clues in Romance of the Three Kingdoms%简论《三国演义》的叙事暗线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋婷

    2016-01-01

    《三国演义》的叙事有明线和暗线两套线索。明线即表层线索,是在叙事过程中自然展示的事件发展的逻辑线索;暗线则是在事件沿着表层线索推进的过程中,在特定时候以梦境、星象、灾异、谶谣、甚至卜筮、面相等方式预先布设,用以预示事件结局或人物命运走向的深层线索。《三国演义》通过诸多方式布设叙事暗线可以藉此传达“天命”和“天道”思想,向受众提前透露相关情节推进和人物命运方面的信息,满足受众的好奇心,以便留住受众,也可使小说形成严整的内外结构,形式更加完善。%Obvious clue and logical clue are both included in the narration of Romance of the Three Kingdoms . The obvious clue also called as surface clue and is the logical clue shown naturally in the course of narration . The logical clue is previously set up and buried in advance in events pro-cessing along surface clue via dreams , star images , disasters resulting from unusual phenomena , supersti-tious prediction even divination and physiognomy . In this situation , the clue is hidden from the ending of the stories and the direction of character's life can be predicated . Through many ways to set up the narrative logical clue , Romance of Three Kingdoms can express the thoughts of both the“Mandate of Heaven”and“Natural Law”. Meanwhile , it also can disclose on the relevant plots processing and infor-mation of character's fate to audiences in advance , so as to satisfy curiosity of audiences and retain the audiences . At the same time , the external and internal structure and the novel forms can be more inte-grated and perfected as well .

  14. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed.in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we

  15. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    greater weight, the values of SQI have tended to be more discrepant between the combinations with upper and lower level of MO. In the case of Mod2, regardless of the method of allocation of weight used, it has not been possible to find clear distinction among the three physiognomies used, despite having been detected clear difference between the two types of soil, with the higher values to those presenting the Oxisol and Podzol. This situation can lead to consideration of what might be more interesting to use various combinations of random weights that a specific combination chosen empirically.

  16. La ciudad al sur de la ciudad: historia sociourbana de los barrios Villa Lugano y Villa Riachuelo The City South of the City: A History of Socio-urban Slum Neighborhoods Villa Lugano and Villa Riachuelo A cidade ao sul da cidade: história sócio-urbana dos bairros Villa Lugano e Villa Riachuelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Perea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo del trabajo es presentar el derrotero de la urbanización, de la configuración de la estructura económica y de la dinámica del mercado inmobiliario local de los barrios Villa Lugano y Villa Riachuelo. Ambos se localizan al sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y comprender el proceso de su urbanización permite entender mejor cuáles han sido los procesos que explican, en parte, la fisonomía actual de la ciudad. El trabajo se apoya en investigaciones previas y material de archivo existente sobre el proceso de urbanización e historia de ambos barrios, entrevistas a informantes clave (funcionarios y líderes de organizaciones barriales y fuentes de datos secundarias. AbstractThe objective of this article is to present the course of the urbanization, the configuration of the economic structure and the dynamics of the local real estate market of Villa Lugano and Villa Riachuelo neighborhoods. Both are located in the south of Buenos Aires city and understanding its urbanization process allows to understand in a better way the processes that explain, in part, the current physiognomy of the city. The work relies on previous investigations and archival material on the process of urbanization and the history of both neighborhoods, interviews with key informants (officials and leaders of community organizations and secondary data sources.ResumoO objetivo do trabalho é apresentar o curso do mapa do urbanization, da configuração da estrutura econômica e da dinâmica do mercado de propriedade real local do Villa Lugano e Villa Riachuelo. Ambos são ficados situados ao sul da cidade de Buenos Aires e, para compreenda que o processo de seu urbanization reserva para compreender mais melhor que foram os processos que explicam, em parte, a aparência atual da cidade. O trabalho inclina-se em investigações e no material precedentes de lima existente no processo do urbanization e da história de ambos os distritos, em entrevistas aos

  17. Caracterização florística de uma área de contato entre Cerrado e Mata Atlântica na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole da Silva PINTO

    2012-06-01

    Station – EExI submits those attributes since it shelters remnants of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Cerrado. The EExI is located in the Alto Paranapanema basin – BHAP, in the southwestern region of the São Paulo state, considered highly degraded and prior for studies on flora and fauna. The objectives of this work were: to inventory and characterize the vegetation and vascular flora of the EExI; increase knowledge about the biodiversity of the BHAP and support management proposals. We carried out a physiognomy and floristic characterization considering all the habits, with monthly collections of botanical material, from May 2009 to December 2010. In the two plant formations present in EExI, Atlantic Forest (Seasonal Semideciduous Forest – FES and Cerrado (campo rupestre, campo sujo, campo sujo úmido, cerrado ralo and cerrado denso, 605 species were recorded. The richest families in the FES were: Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae and Lauraceae, and in the Cerrado were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae and Bignoniaceae. The arboreous species with 54.1% of the total predominated in FES, unlike the Cerrado where the not arboreous species predominated (67.5%. Between the species surveyed 14 are threatened species, but only Araucaria angustifolia was cited in the state, national and global level lists. Considering FES mosaic and Cerrado physiognomies, high species diversity and the presence of threatened species, the remaining vegetation of the EExI is extremely important for conservation and study of regional biodiversity.

  18. Tropical monsoon forest in Yunnan with comparison to the tropical rain forest%云南热带季雨林及其与热带雨林植被的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese botanical literature, the term "tropical monsoon forest" is explained and used inconsistently and is often confused with tropical rain forest. My objective is to clarify differences between the two forests. Schimper defined tropical monsoon forest as being more or less leafless during the dry season and considered it a transitional vegetation type between tropical rain forest and savanna in terms of physiognomy and distribution. I compared tropical monsoon forest and rain forest in physiognomy, floristic composition and geographical elements to describe and characterize the monsoon forest in Yunnan, China. The tropical monsoon forest in Yunnan occurs mainly on river banks and in basins of several large rivers below 1 000 m altitude. The forest has one or two tree layers, and trees of at least the top layer are deciduous in the dry season. In life forms, the forest is rich in hemicryptophytes and relatively rich in geophytes and therophytes, but less rich in woody lianas and almost lacks megaphanerophytes and chamaephytes compared to tropical rain forest. In leaf size and form, the forest has more microphyllous leaves and compound leaves (24% and 44% of tree species, respectively) than tropical rain forest.In terms of floristic elements, the forest has a greater percentage of species of pantropic distribution (30% of the genera) and tropical Asia and tropical Africa disjunct distribution than tropical rain forest. Thus, the tropical monsoon forest in Yunnan has more diverse geographical elements in its flora and a complicated evolution history.%在中国植物学文献中,对热带季雨林的解释和运用是不一致的,特别是易于把季雨林与热带雨林相混淆.季雨林是在具有明显干、湿季变化的热带季风气候下发育的一种热带落叶森林植被,是介于热带雨林与热带稀树草原(savanna)之间的一个植被类型.云南的热带季雨林在分布生境、生态外貌特征、植物种类组成和地理

  19. Vegetation recovery dynamics of tropical lowland rain forest in Bawangling of Hainan Island,South China%海南岛霸王岭热带低地雨林植被恢复动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁易; 臧润国

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese botanical literature, the term "tropical monsoon forest" is explained and used inconsistently and is often confused with tropical rain forest. My objective is to clarify differences between the two forests. Schimper defined tropical monsoon forest as being more or less leafless during the dry season and considered it a transitional vegetation type between tropical rain forest and savanna in terms of physiognomy and distribution. I compared tropical monsoon forest and rain forest in physiognomy, floristic composition and geographical elements to describe and characterize the monsoon forest in Yunnan, China. The tropical monsoon forest in Yunnan occurs mainly on river banks and in basins of several large rivers below 1 000 m altitude. The forest has one or two tree layers, and trees of at least the top layer are deciduous in the dry season. In life forms, the forest is rich in hemicryptophytes and relatively rich in geophytes and therophytes, but less rich in woody lianas and almost lacks megaphanerophytes and chamaephytes compared to tropical rain forest. In leaf size and form, the forest has more microphyllous leaves and compound leaves (24% and 44% of tree species, respectively) than tropical rain forest.In terms of floristic elements, the forest has a greater percentage of species of pantropic distribution (30% of the genera) and tropical Asia and tropical Africa disjunct distribution than tropical rain forest. Thus, the tropical monsoon forest in Yunnan has more diverse geographical elements in its flora and a complicated evolution history.%热带次生林具有重要的物种保育和固碳功能,然而高强度的干扰会导致次生林早期出现类似季雨林的阶段,因而群落恢复速度和方向是当前热带生态学研究中最为关注的议题之一.该文以海南岛在刀耕火种弃耕地形成的不同演替阶段的次生林为研究对象,比较森林不同恢复时间(12年、25年、55年)群落中的不同年龄(幼

  20. 仙湖植物园风景林群落调查及其景观优化策略%Investigation on Scenic Forest Community and Research of Optimized Strategy on Plant Landscape of Fairylake Botanical Garden in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶显龙; 王丹; 王晓明; 包志毅

    2015-01-01

    采用样方调查法对深圳仙湖植物园马占相思( Acacia mangium)群落特征和物种多样性进行调查分析。结果表明,在3200 m2的样地中,共有维管束植物58种,隶属于35科49属,整个群落的物种丰富度指数Margalef指数为7.4428,Shan-non-Wiener指数为3.6308,Simpson指数为0.8433,均匀度指数为0.8980,该群落的层次格局为灌木层>草本层>藤本层>乔木层,成层现象较为明显;该群落是以马占相思为主的单优种群落,群落种类组成多样性和水平分布不均匀,其外貌终年常绿,种群处于退化状态。在尊重原有自然植被的前提下,提出仙湖植物园内的面状风景林植被提升改造策略,从而恢复仙湖植物园地域性的季风常绿阔叶林植物景观。%The characteristics and species diversity of the Acacia mangium community at Fairylake Botanical Garden in Shenzhen, were studied by quadrat survey.The results showed that there are 58 species of vascular plants belonging to 35 families in the sample plots totaling 3200 m2.The species diversity of the community is relatively low with Margalef index of 7.4428,Shannon-Wiener index of 3.6308,Simpson index of 0.8433,and the evenness index of 0.8980.The diversity pattern from maximum to minimum is ordered by shrub,herb,liana and arbor.Litsea glutinosa is the dominant species of the community and its composition diversity and horizontal distribution is uneven.The analysis on species important value and frequency showed that the physiognomy of the community was ev-ergreen.The age structure of dominant population showed that the main population of the community belongs to rudimentary popula-tion.On the premising the respect for the original natural vegetation, this paper puts forward a improve transformation strategy for fairy lake botanical garden planar scenic forest vegetation to restore the fairy lake regional monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest bo-tanical garden

  1. Altitudinal vegetation belts in the high-Andes of central Chile (33°S Pisos altitudinales de vegetación en los Andes de Chile central (33°S

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    Lohengrin A. Cavieres

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The limits of alpine vegetation belts have been established mainly based on physiognomic criteria. However, a more objective approach for fixing limits of vegetation belts are methods based on species composition and relative abundance of each species. While these methods are more time consuming, they are more detailed and permit the detection of physical factors affecting the limits of vegetation belts. In this paper we: 1 describe the altitudinal changes of vegetation above timberline, 2 compare vegetation belts defined with physiognomy and two floristic methods (a qualitative one based on altitudinal changes in species composition, and a quantitative one based on changes in dominant species; and 3 detect some environmental factors responsible for the altitudinal distribution of alpine vegetation between 2100 and 3700 masl in the Andes of Santiago, central Chile (33°S. There was a complete agreement between the different methods in delimiting the subalpine belt. However, in the lower alpine belt (the cushion's belt floristic methods subdivided it in 2-3 sub-belts. In the floristic methods, elevations 3500-3700 that formed the higher alpine belt segregated in separate ways because they have no species in common. Physiognomic descriptions lose relevant information about species distribution, especially at higher elevations. Mean annual temperature and nitrogen content of soil are the main environmental factors affecting the altitudinal limits of vegetation belts in the central Chilean AndesLa delimitación de los pisos altitudinales de vegetación andina se ha basado principalmente en criterios fisionómicos. Sin embargo, un criterio más objetivo para la delimitación es usar métodos basados en la composición y abundancia relativa de las especies presentes. Mientras estos métodos requieren de un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo, son más detallados y permiten detectar factores físicos involucrados en la delimitación altitudinal de la vegetaci

  2. Disturbance regimes, gap-demanding trees and seed mass related to tree height in warm temperate rain forests worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Peter J; Bellingham, Peter J; Kohyama, Takashi S; Piper, Frida I; Valido, Alfredo

    2013-08-01

    For tropical lowland rain forests, Denslow (1987) hypothesized that in areas with large-scale disturbances tree species with a high demand for light make up a larger proportion of the flora; results of tests have been inconsistent. There has been no test for warm temperate rain forests (WTRFs), but they offer a promising testing ground because they differ widely in the extent of disturbance. WTRF is dominated by microphylls sensu Raunkiaer and has a simpler structure and range of physiognomy than tropical or subtropical rain forests. It occurs in six parts of the world: eastern Asia, New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, SE Australia and the Azores. On the Azores it has been mostly destroyed, so we studied instead the subtropical montane rain forest (STMRF) on the Canary Islands which also represents a relict of the kind of WTRF that once stretched across southern Eurasia. We sought to find whether in these six regions the proportion of tree species needing canopy gaps for establishment reflects the frequency and/or extent of canopy disturbance by wind, landslide, volcanic eruptions (lava flow and ash fall), flood or fire. We used standard floras and ecological accounts to draw up lists of core tree species commonly reaching 5 m height. We excluded species which are very rare, very localized in distribution, or confined to special habitats, e.g. coastal forests or rocky sites. We used published accounts and our own experience to classify species into three groups: (1) needing canopy gaps for establishment; (2) needing either light shade throughout or a canopy gap relatively soon (a few months or years) after establishment; and (3) variously more shade-tolerant. Group 1 species were divided according the kind of canopy opening needed: tree-fall gap, landslide, lava flow, flood or fire. Only some of the significant differences in proportion of Group 1 species were consistent with differences in the extent of disturbance; even in some of those cases other factors seem

  3. Relação entre índice de área foliar e frações de componentes puros do modelo linear de mistura espectral, usando imagens ETM+/Landsat Relationship between leaf area index and endmember fractions from linear spectral mixture modelling, using ETM+/Landsat images

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    Alexandre C. Xavier

    2004-08-01

    LSMM: vegetation, soil, and shade. The relationship between all LAIs and vegetation and soil fractions (FVG and FSO were significant, although weak. The relationship between sugar-cane LAI with FVG and with FSO showed better fits. These results indicated that the vegetation type had influenced on the LSMM and that the stratification by vegetation physiognomy is suggested to improve the LAI estimation. Relationship between LAI and shadow fraction was not statistically significant.

  4. [First results of an epidemiological survey on abortion in the "Ceramic District" and in other areas of Emilia (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, R

    1981-01-01

    groups was performed; it only concerns married women and regards the pregnancies during the 7-year period under investigation in connection with the variables of age, woman's occupation, number of previous pregnancies, abortions, and livebirths. It was found that the abortion rate in the Ceramic District corresponded to 26.09% while it equalled 17.83%, 17.18%, and 15.23% for Carpi, Vignola, and Pavullo. These data indicate that there is an approximate equivalent abortion rate between Carpi and Vignola, even though they have diverse economic physiognomies and a decidedly inferior abortion rate in Pavullo which has an agricultural economy. This characteristic was also confirmed by the analysis of the quantitative variables considered. The comparison of women's occupational status (nonactive, ceramic worker in the Ceramic District, worker, self-employed, office worker) further confirmed the differences which distinguish the various groups. In particular, it was observed that: 1) the abortion rate of the ceramic workers (30.23%) was the highest of all occupations except for self-employed women in the Ceramic District (31.05%); and 2) the abortion rate of nonactive women (26.32%) who live in the Ceramic District was higher than that of nonactive women and of workers in other groups. The Ceramic District, therefore, seems to have a higher rate of abortion which is not only confined to women working in the ceramic industry. In conclusion, the author maintains that sufficient elements to verify the original hypothesis have emerged from this preliminary study. A subsequent, more detailed, comparative and explanatory analysis will allow further confirmation of this hypothesis. (author's)

  5. Adoration of Virgin Mary Attended by Two St. Johns in Wawel Cathedral Collection

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    Magdalena Piwocka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a canvas (98,5 x 222,5cm in the Wawel Cathedral that is not connected with any existing or historically documented altars inside the church (il. 1-3. Owing to its shape it has so far been considered to have been a predella, which - taking into account its size and proportions - seems rather unlikely. It may have been the top of the middle part of a retable, possibly in an altar dedicated to the two St. Johns. The painting presents the Virgin Mary with the Child seated under a canopy, attended by the two Saints, adored by kneeling angels with censers in their hands. A graphic model of the scene has been found; it is an engraving by Jan Sadeler (1550-1600 based on a design by Hans von Aachen (1552-1615, released in Munich in 1589 (il. 4. In Albertina, in Vienna, a working copy of the graphic made by Hans von Aachen has been preserved (il. 5 as well as a composition sketch by the same artist at the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum in Braunschweig. An inscription on the drawing from 1589 reads: POENA ET PROEMIVM; there are also quotations from psalms and a dedication to Phillip Wilhelm (1576-1598, bishop of Regenzburg in 1589, later cardinal (1596, son of a Bavarian ruler Wilhelm V Wittelsbach (1548-1626. The young hierarch got it in the year of his consecration as a bishop. A pendant to it is the plate by Jan Sadeler of 1590, after Peter Candid (1548-1628, which was dedicated to Phillip Wilhelm’s younger brother - Ferdinand (1577-1650, later bishop of Cologne. The engraving also shows St. Mary with the Child in the company of St. Stephen and St. Laurence. Both works coincide with the artistic activity of Jan Sadeler and Hans von Achen in Munich, where they were summoned by Wilhelm V, and represent strictly planned art created for his court. Another painted version of Sadeler’s engraving was found in a Polish private collection. This is a small, good painting on panel, faithfully reproducing physiognomy and inscriptions known from the

  6. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  7. Solos e vegetação nativa remanescente no Município de Campinas Soil and native vegetation remnant in Campinas, SP, Brazil

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    Ivan Carlos de Moraes Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    the first two axes. Soil classes at the Brazilian System of Soil Classification discriminated the studied vegetation: soils with argillic B horizons were more associated to forests, and soils with oxic B horizons, low fertility and good drainage were associated to tropical savannahs. Low fertility, low water retention and good drainage benefit cerrado vegetation establishment. Multivariate analysis identified n parameter of the water retention curve, bulk density, exchangeable H+Al, Ca, Al, K and Mg, macropores and soil organic matter as the most effective soil attributes to plant physiognomy differentiation. The chemical barrier imposed by excess aluminum and calcium deficiency, at B horizon, as well as low water retention in soils under savannah vegetation benefit Luehea grandiflora, Persea willdenovii, Xylopia aromatica and Erythroxylum daphnites, abundant and exclusive species on savannah fragments.

  8. Estrutura da vegetação arbórea de um remanescente ecotonal urbano floresta-savana no Parque do Sabiá, em Uberlândia, MG Tree vegetation structure in an urban forest-savanna ecotone remnant, southeastern Brazil

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    Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme

    2007-04-01

    distributed in 46 botanical families with Shannon diversity index of 3.99 were recorded. Fabaceae showed the greatest species richness in the survey, corroborating the pattern found in other studies on the Cerrado Biome. Maprounea guianensis had the largest density, frequency and dominance relative values in the remnant. The semideciduous forest presented the largest floristic richness and characteristic species of that formation when compared with other studies. Hirtella glandulosa showed the largest importance value in the cerradão 2, suggesting the existence of a dystrophic soil in this physiognomy. The similar structural characteristics between cerradão 2 and semideciduous forest, tree species diversity significantly larger in cerradão 2 than in cerradão 1, besides the presence of typical species of swamp forests and semideciduous forest in cerradão 2 confirm the occurrence of transition areas in the remnant. Few individuals were recorded in the smallest diameter classes in cerradão 1. Continuous and varied human disturbances probably are responsible for this, indicating the need for conservation and management preventive actions of this biological patrimony.

  9. DERAPÂND PRIN ISTORIE. DISCURS IDENTITAR, CINEMA ŞI IDEOLOGIE ÎN ROMÂNIA COMUNISTĂ

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    Gabriel MOISA

    2017-08-01

    historical source and to render it unusable. With very few exceptions, film and television productions distorted in varying degrees the presented realities. InRomania, as in other totalitarian states, both fiction and the documentary films were used as a historical source only on certain conditions. In fact, obser­ving the film production, one can see how they were marked by the evolution of the regime’s censorship and political emphasis.Next we shall try to follow the evolution of the Romanian historical film during the communist regime, an extremely interesting and often favourable period for this category of films, through the ideological intrusion of the communist regime in this area and the way the communist regime interfered in this type of film production.The new Romanian new realities favoured by the events of 23 August, 1944 had negative consequences on the Romanian cinema. Along with other areas of the Romanian life, the cinema underwent several transformations as to comply with Romania’s new physiognomy.

  10. 3-Dimensinal evaluation of soft tissue cephalometric analysis after bimaxillary surgery in skeletal Angle Ⅲ%骨性安氏Ⅲ类错(牙合)双颌手术后软组织的三维头影测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓娟; 张苗苗

    2012-01-01

    corrected.The relationship of dental articulation were stable and perfect.The measurements of soft tissue variables after surgery: The width of nasal base, alae nasi and upper cupid bow point were significant increase.The width of cheilion and mandible were obviously decreased.The angle of LL-B'-Pog' and Go'-N'-Go' were evidently diminished.The rate of upper lip and chin dissymmetry were strikingly changed. Conclusion ①Satisfactory physiognomy of soft tissue can be obtained with bimaxillary surgery in severe skeletal class III malocc lusions with facial asymmethy; ②The 3-dimensional CT can precisely reflect characteristic of soft tissue in Maxillofacial region.In clinically,3D cephalometric analysis has a more use value.

  11. Relative humidity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum via combined hydrogen-oxygen isotope paleohygrometry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, F. A.; Bloch, J. I.; Secord, R.; Wing, S. L.; Kraus, M. J.; Boyer, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    relative humidity during the first half of the PETM followed by a decline during the second half of the event. The rise is punctuated by at least one small drop in relative humidity. Other proxies for available soil moisture (soil weathering indices) and mean annual precipitation (leaf physiognomy) suggest an initial drying at the onset of the PETM followed by subsequent periods of wetter and dryer conditions in the southeastern Bighorn Basin. In contrast, the isotope results presented here suggest that the onset of the PETM was marked by an increase in relative humidity. This discrepancy might indicate increased seasonality during the PETM. Leaf wax hydrogen isotope values are likely biased to record primarily the growing season, which may have become more humid, while soil and plant proxies could reflect an overall decrease in available moisture as a result of increased seasonality of precipitation.

  12. Macroalgas bentônicas associadas a bancos de Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta - Gigartinales em duas praias do litoral baiano Macroalgae associated with banks of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales on two beaches on the coast of Bahia

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    Iara Oliveira Costa

    2012-06-01

    , which had an average biomass of 136 g.m-² (dry weight and average rates of H' and J' of 2.7 and 0.97, respectively. There was a predominance of red algae, both in values of richness and in biomass. The contribution of the morpho-functional group of the cortical algae was greater. Among the flora recorded, Gelidiella acerosa, Sargassum cymosum and Palisada perforata had higher biomasses. The reef compartment with the highest species richness and biomass was the frontal region. The communities of the beaches studied were considered distinct because of the physiognomy of the reef formations.

  13. North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of physiognomy of Late Cretaceous leaf assemblages and of structural adaptations of Late Cretaceous dicotyledonous woods indicate that megathermal vegetation was an open-canopy, broad-leaved evergreen woodland that existed under low to moderate amounts of rainfall evenly distributed through the year, with a moderate increase at about 40-45??N. Many dicotyledons were probably large, massive trees, but the tallest trees were evergreen conifers. Megathermal climate extended up to paleolatitude 45-50??N. Mesothermal vegetation was at least partially an open, broad-leaved evergreen woodland (perhaps a mosaic of woodland and forest), but the evapotranspirational stress was less than in megathermal climate. Some dicotyledons were large trees, but most were shrubs or small trees; evergreen conifers were the major tree element. Some mild seasonality is evidenced in mesothermal woods; precipitational levels probably varied markedly from year to year. Northward of approximately paleolatitude 65??N, evergreen vegetation was replaced by predominantly deciduous vegetation. This replacement is presumably related primarily to seasonality of light. The southern part of the deciduous vegetation probably existed under mesothermal climate. Comparisons to leaf and wood assemblages from other continents are generally consistent with the vegetational-climatic patterns suggested from North American data. Limited data from equatorial regions suggest low rainfall. Late Cretaceous climates, except probably those of the Cenomanian, had only moderate change through time. Temperatures generally appear to have warmed into the Santonian, cooled slightly into the Campanian and more markedly into the Maastrichtian, and then returned to Santonian values by the late Maastrichtian. The early Eocene was probably warmer than any period of the Late Cretaceous. Latitudinal temperature gradients were lower than at present. For the Campanian and Maastrichtian, a gradient of about 0.3??C/1

  14. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea em uma floresta estacional decidual em afloramento calcário (Fazenda São José, São Domingos, GO, bacia do rio Paranã Floristic composition and structure of the tree community in a deciduous forest on a limestone outcrop in São Domingos, Goiás, Paranã river basin, Brazil

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    Luciana Álvares da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do rio Paranã (Goiás e Tocantins com 5.940.382ha, tem alta diversidade de fitofisionomias, incluindo a floresta estacional decidual sobre afloramento calcário, que ainda não foi estudada nesta região. Este trabalho objetivou o levantamento quantitativo da vegetação arbórea de uma floresta estacional decidual sobre afloramento calcário (13°49'34''S e 46º 41'55''W; 478m de altitude na fazenda São José, São Domingos, GO. Foram demarcadas cinco linhas a intervalos de 100m, onde foram aleatoriamente alocadas 25 parcelas permanentes de 20 × 20m (1,0 ha. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP igual ou maior que 5cm, onde foram medidos o DAP e a altura, e identificadas as espécies. Foram amostrados 588 indivíduos (536 vivos e 52 mortos ainda em pé, pertencentes a 36 espécies, 31 gêneros e 21 famílias, com índice de Shannon 2,99 e Equabilidade 0,83. As principais espécies em valor de importância (VI, foram: Tabebuia impetiginosa (43,81, Aspidosperma pyrifolium (35,64, Luetzelburgia sp. (21,77, Commiphora leptophloeos (18,79, Myracrodruon urundeuva (15,79, Pseudobombax tomentosum (13,42, Combretum duarteanum (13,04, Luehea divaricata (12,24, Cabralea canjerana (11,99, Ficus pertusa (11,82, Jacaranda brasiliana (11,68 e Aspidosperma sp. (10,57 que juntas somaram 73,5% do VI total, enquanto as 24 espécies restantes somaram 26,5%. Esta floresta é similar, em termos de diversidade, a outras áreas de afloramentos na região.The Paranã river basin (States of Goiás and Tocantins, Brazil, with 5,940,382 ha, has many different plant physiognomies, including the deciduous forest on limestone outcrops which has not yet been studied in this region. In this paper we present the structure of the tree community of a deciduous forest on a limestone outcrop (13º49'34'' S; 46º 41'55'' W in São Domingos municipality, Goiás State, Brazil. Twenty-five plots of 20m × 20m (400m² were

  15. Quantifying spatial patterns in the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest to assess forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, T. F.

    2013-05-01

    Over the past century western United States have experienced drastic anthropogenic land use change from practices such as agriculture, fire exclusion, and timber harvesting. These changes have complex social, cultural, economic, and ecological interactions and consequences. This research studied landscapes patterns of watersheds with similar LANDFIRE potential vegetation in the Southern Washington Cascades physiographic province, within the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest (YTF) and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Naches Ranger District (NRD). In the selected watersheds, vegetation-mapping units were delineated and populated based on physiognomy of homogeneous areas of vegetative composition and structure using high-resolution aerial photos. Cover types and structural classes were derived from the raw, photo-interpreted vegetation attributes for individual vegetation mapping units and served as individual and composite response variables to quantify and assess spatial patterns and forest health conditions between the two ownerships. Structural classes in both the NRD and YTF were spatially clustered (Z-score 3.1, p-value 0.01; Z-score 2.3, p-value 0.02, respectively), however, ownership and logging type both explained a significant amount of variance in structural class composition. Based on FRAGSTATS landscape metrics, structural classes in the NRD displayed greater clustering and fragmentation with lower interspersion relative to the YTF. The NRD landscape was comprised of 47.4% understory reinitiation structural class type and associated high FRAGASTAT class metrics demonstrated high aggregation with moderate interspersion. Stem exclusion open canopy displayed the greatest dispersal of structural class types throughout the NRD, but adjacencies were correlated to other class types. In the YTF, stem exclusion open canopy comprised 37.7% of the landscape and displayed a high degree of aggregation and interspersion about clusters throughout the YTF. Composite cover

  16. Life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in plant communities on ironstone outcrops, SE Brazil Formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes em comunidades vegetais sobre afloramentos ferruginosos, SE do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Jacobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rock outcrops play an important role in enhancing plant diversity in montane ecosystems. Ironstone outcrops (cangas are among the lithotypes less known and most threatened in SE Brazil, due to mining activities. Besides species composition, a key feature to promote their conservation and restoration is the knowledge of the community prevalent life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The analyses were done based on published floristic surveys of cangas in SE Brazil. A total of 353 species of angiosperms (70 families were assigned to one of the two predominant physiognomies (open areas and forest islands on ironstone outcrops. Sixteen families responded for 70% of all species. Compared to Raunkiaer's spectrum, phanerophytes were over- and therophytes were under-represented. Phanerophytes were the predominant life-form in forest islands, while hemicryptophytes were outstanding in open areas. Entomophily was the dominant pollination syndrome in both habitats. Zoochory was dominant in forest islands and ranked last in open areas, where anemochory and autochory prevailed. Considering that both forest islands and open areas are subjected to the same climatic conditions, the results corroborate the influence of geoedaphic components in the three traits analysed.Afloramentos rochosos têm um papel importante na diversidade vegetal de ecossistemas montanos. As cangas (afloramentos ferruginosos estão entre os litotipos menos conhecidos e mais ameaçados do sudeste do Brasil, devido às atividades minerarias. Além da composição de espécies, um aspecto fundamental para promover sua conservação e restauração é o conhecimento das formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes dominantes. As análises foram baseadas em listas florísticas publicadas de cangas do sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 353 espécies de angiospermas (70 famílias foi distribuído entre as duas fisionomias predominantes (áreas abertas e cap

  17. Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil Seed rain of woody species in mosaics of Araucaria forest and grasslands in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Marchesini Grassotti dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    southern Brazil, Araucaria forest forms a mosaic with grassland (Campos and advance of forest over grassland is observed. This study aims to evaluate the pattern of diaspore dispersal of woody plants associated with ecotones between Araucaria forest and grassland and with isolated woody individuals in the grassland matrix. The study was carried out at the Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata PUCRS, in São Francisco de Paula, in grassland vegetation excluded from fire and grazing for 16 years, and which is surrounded by forest. Diaspore dispersal was evaluated for eight months by using collectors positioned in forest-grassland ecotones with different physiognomies and under isolated woody individuals in the grassland matrix. The different types of environment were compared by univariate and multivariate analysis of variance to verify seed-rain patterns. The results indicated that seed dispersal occurs preferentially associated with isolated woody individuals of Araucaria angustifolia and with continuous patches of Baccharis uncinella. We suggest that these habitats would function as extensions of more similar forest conditions within the grassland matrix.

  18. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after the Renaissance, it still remains of considerable significance in countries like China and Tibet. Astrology took on a prominent medical component in the Old Babylonian Era (1900-1600 BC when diseases were first attributed to stellar bodies and associated gods. In the Neo-Babylonian Era (6th century BC the zodiac came into being: an imaginary belt across the skies (approximately 16o wide which included the pathways of the sun, moon and planets, as perceived from earth. The zodiac belt was divided into 12 equal parts (“houses” or signs, 6 above the horizon and 6 below. The signs became associated with specific months, illnesses and body parts – later with a number of other objects like planets, minerals (e.g. stones and elements of haruspiction (soothsaying, mantic, gyromancy. In this way the stellar objects moving through a zodiac “house” became associated with a multitude of happenings on earth, including illness. The macrocosm of the universe became part of the human microcosm, and by studying the stars, planets, moon, etcetera the healer could learn about the incidence, cause, progress and treatment of disease. He could even predict the sex and physiognomy of unborn children. The art of astrology and calculations involved became very complex. The horoscope introduced by the 3rd century BC (probably with Greek input produced a measure of standardisation: a person’s position within the zodiac would be determined by the date of birth, or

  19. Analysis of private natural heritage reserves as a conservation strategy for the biodiversity of the cocoa region of the southern State of Bahia, Brazil Análise das reservas particulares do patrimônio natural como estratégia de conservação na região cacaueira do Sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schiavetti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first country in Latin America to establish and regulate this type of reserve, and there are currently more than 700 Private Nature Heritage Reserves (RPPN in Portuguese officially recognized by either federal or state environmental agencies. Together, these RPPN protect more than a half million hectares of land in the country. The coastal forests in the southern part of Bahia State extend 100 to 200 km inland, gradually changing in physiognomy as they occupy the dryer inland areas. The coastal forest has been subjected to intense deforestation, and currently occupies less than 10% of its original area. For this work the creation processes of the RPPN were consulted to obtain the data creation time, size of property, the condition of the remaining forest, succession chain and the last paid tax. After that, interviews with the owners were made to confirm this data. Sixteen RPPN have been established in this region until 2005. Their sizes vary from 4.7 to 800 ha. Ten of these RPPN are located within state or federal conservation areas or their buffer zones. In spite of the numerous national and international conservation strategies and environmental policies focused on the region, the present situation of the cocoa zone is threatening the conservation of the region's natural resources. The establishment of private reserves in the cocoa region could conceivably improve these conservation efforts. This type of reserve can be established under a uniform system supported by federal legislation, and could count on private organizations.O Brasil foi o primeiro País na América Latina a estabelecer e regulamentar este tipo de reserva e hoje, há mais de 700 Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN oficialmente reconhecidas pelos órgãos ambientais federais ou estaduais. Juntos, estas reservas protegem mais de meio milhão de hectares em diferentes biomas dos Pais. A Floresta Atlântica na região Sul da Bahia se estende at

  20. ESTRUCTURA, DIVERSIDAD Y DINÁMICA DE LA VEGETACIÓN EN EL ECOTONO BOSQUE-PÁRAMO: REVISIÓN DE LA EVIDENCIA EN LA CORDILLERA DE MÉRIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel LLAMBÍ

    2015-07-01

    páramo forests. Land planning in these ecosystems has become a highly topical subject given the growing threat for conservation generated by agricultural and mining activities. In this paper we review the research carried out in the Cordillera de Mérida (Venezuela on the changes in vegetation structure, diversity and response to disturbance along the forest-páramo transition zone. The results of these studies document the high species and life form richness which characterize the ecotone vegetation, as well as a high rate of species turnover (beta diversity along the elevation gradient. Studies on elevation changes in vegetation successional dynamics in plots disturbed by agriculture at different altitudes along the transition zone indicate that forest woody species have a lower capacity to colonize disturbed areas than dominant páramo species, a process that results in forests patches with a paramo physiognomy. On the basis of the available evidence, the structural elements that could be used for delimiting the different ecosystems present along transition zone are discussed, emphasizing the need to design conservation and restoration strategies which interpret the forest-páramo ecotone as a dynamic and integrated system.

  1. Astrology and medicine in antiquity and the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrology is a pseudo-science based on the assumption that the well-being of humankind, and its health in particular, is influenced in a constant and predictable fashion by the stars and other stellar bodies. Its origins can probably be traced back to Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BC and was particularly popular in Graeco-Roman times and the Medieval Era. Astrology in Western countries has always differed from that in the Far East, and while it largely lost its popularity in the West after the Renaissance, it still remains of considerable significance in countries like China and Tibet. Astrology took on a prominent medical component in the Old Babylonian Era (1900-1600 BC when diseases were first attributed to stellar bodies and associated gods. In the Neo-Babylonian Era (6th century BC the zodiac came into being: an imaginary belt across the skies (approximately 16o wide which included the pathways of the sun, moon and planets, as perceived from earth. The zodiac belt was divided into 12 equal parts (“houses” or signs, 6 above the horizon and 6 below. The signs became associated with specific months, illnesses and body parts – later with a number of other objects like planets, minerals (e.g. stones and elements of haruspiction (soothsaying, mantic, gyromancy. In this way the stellar objects moving through a zodiac “house” became associated with a multitude of happenings on earth, including illness. The macrocosm of the universe became part of the human microcosm, and by studying the stars, planets, moon, etcetera the healer could learn about the incidence, cause, progress and treatment of disease. He could even predict the sex and physiognomy of unborn children. The art of astrology and calculations involved became very complex. The horoscope introduced by the 3rd century BC (probably with Greek input produced a measure of standardisation: a person’s position within the zodiac would be determined by the date of birth, or

  2. Effects of silvicultural treatment on the stability of black pine plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pine plantations have been established at the purpose of recovering a forest cover to marginal soils, mostly throughout the Apennines range in Italy, since the end of the eighteenth century and up to the mid 1900. Both the decay of forest cover and soil erosion were the outcome of the long-lasting overuse through the intensive forest exploitation practices, grazing of the forest floor and wildfires, occurring since many centuries ago. The primary function of pine reafforestation was therefore to re-establish a first cover with a pioneer species, preparatory to future mixed forest types based on the natural reintroduction of broadleaves originally living in the same areas, mainly deciduous oaks and beech in the upper part. These goals have been partly met over the wide reafforestation area; the key functions of pine stands are today the protection against soil erosion and the hydrological regulation of catchments. The pine stands have been assuming today also a scenic role because they have been incorporated in the landscape physiognomy. A series of thinning up to the regeneration phase had been planned by foresters since the design of these plantations, but many stands have grown unthinned and fully stocked for a long time, this condition contributing a less mechanical stability of trees. Alternative forms of regeneration in grown-up stands have been and are being tested to improve both the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species, but thinnings remain, even if a tardy measure, the main practice enforceable to these pine forests. The results of experimental trials undertaken in the black pine forest stand located in Pratomagno casentinese (Arezzo are being reported in the paper. The study started in 1978 and the following theses were tested (A heavy thinning from below; (B moderate thinning from below; (C control. Three thinnings were carried out in 1978, 1999 and 2009 at the ages of 24, 45 and 55. The action over time of

  3. Assessment of Sea Area Usage Rights about Sea Sand Mining from the View of Sea Area Real Right%以海域物权视角探讨海砂开采海域使用权价格评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡灯进; 郭晓峰; 杨顺良

    2016-01-01

    在海砂开采海域使用权价格评估中,因对海域使用权与采矿权权利边界认识模糊,不同评估人员对采矿权价款采取不同的计算处理,导致评估结果相差甚大。文章从海域物权的视角分析海域使用权和采矿权的法律属性,研究两者权利标的物的不同法律性质,从而明确海域使用权的海域是由三维空间(水面、水体、海床和底土)、地貌、水深地形、地质条件、潮流、波浪、生态环境、景观等不可分割的固有自然条件要素组成的立体空间,本质上为海域空间资源,是海砂等其他海洋自然资源的载体;海域使用权和采矿权之间的相互独立性,决定了海域使用权价格与采矿权价款间的非包含关系;因此,采用收益法评估海砂开采海域使用权价格时,采矿权价款宜以成本列入计算。%Due to the inkling recognition of the connotation between the sea area usage right and the mining right,different evaluators had diverse treatments at mining right cost in assessing the sea area usage right about sea sand mining,which had led to a widely results.The paper analyzed the legal attribute of the sea area usage right and the mining right,studied the different legal char-acteristics of their subject-matters on the perspective of the Real Right of Sea Area.As a conclu-sion,based on the constitution of stereoscopic space by indivisible inherent natural elements,the sea area,which is made up of three-dimensional space (i.e.sea surface,water volume,seabed and subsoil),physiognomy,marine topography,geological conditions,tide,wave,ecotope,landscape etc.,is the sea area spatial resources in nature.It’ s the carrier of sea sand and other natural ma-rine resources.The exclusive relation of the value of the sea area usage right and the mining right cost is determined by the mutual independence between the sea area usage right and the mining right.Therefore,mining right cost should

  4. STUDY ON THE SPATIAL PATTERNS OF LAND-USE CHANGE AND ANALYSES OF DRIVING FORCES IN NORTHEASTERN CHINA DURING 1990-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    physicalelements change promoting the expansion of paddy field, results from two reasons: one is that the implementation of mar-ket-economy in China has given farmers the right to decide what they plant and how they plant their crops, the other fac-tor is originated partially from the change of dietary habit with the social and economic development The conversion frompaddy field to dry land is caused primarily by the shortfall of irrigation water, which in turnis caused by poor water alloca-tion managed by local governments. The shaping of the reclamation and abandoned zone is partially due to the lack of environ-ment protection consciousness among pioneer settlers. The reason for the conversion from grassland to cropland is the relative-ly higher profits of farming than that of pasturing in the interlocked zone of farming and pasturing. In northeastern China,the rapid expansion of built-up areas results from two factors: the first is its small number of towns; the second comesfrom the huge potential for expansion of existing towns and cities. It is noticeable that urban expansion in the northeasternChina is characterized by gentle topographic relief and low population density. Physiognomy, transportation and economyexert great influences on the urban expansion.

  5. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  6. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  7. Plant Functional Types and Biomes of China at a Regional Scale%区域尺度的中国植物功能型与生物群区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪健

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-nine dominant plant functional types (PFTs) of China wereidentified based on the present Chinese vegetation types and their distributional pattern using the “eco-physiognomy" principle. They are alpine evergreen conifer, boreal evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen conifer, cool temperate evergreen conifer, temperate evergreen conifer, warm temperate evergreen conifer, tropical evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen broadleaf, cool temperate summergreen broadleaf, temperate summergreen broadleaf, cold warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, intermediate warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, southern warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, warm-temperate schlerophyllous broadleaf, warm temperate summergreen broadleaf, tropical evergreen broadleaf, tropical raingreen broadleaf, tropical deciduous broadleaf, warm temperate bamboo, alpine/subalpine shrub, temperate steppe shrub, temperate desert shrub, cool temperate shrub, temperate shrub, warm temperate shrub, tropical shrub, xeric shrub, alpine forb, desert forb, temperate steppe grass, temperate grass, sedge, mangrove, boreal crop, cool temperate crop, temperate crop, warm temperate crop, tropical crop, and bare land. Twenty-one potential biomes were then assigned on the basis of dominant PFTs. They are boreal deciduous forest, boreal evergreen forest, cold temperate mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, warm temperate mixed deciduous-evergreen broadleaf forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen monsoon forest, tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest, mangrove forest, xeric woodland/savannas, temperate meadow/savannas, temperate steppe, temperate semi-steppe, temperate desert, temperate semi-desert, alpine/subalpine coniferous forest, alpine/subalpine shrub/meadow, alpine/subalpine steppe, and alpine/subalpine desert. If the agricultural vegetation was taken into account, twenty-five actual biomes

  8. Mustafa Bin Bâlî ve İlm-i Firâset’i Mustafa Bin Bâlî And İlm-i Firâset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan SARIÇİÇEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There wasn’t any study over this work which was Mustafa bin Bâlî’s, who lived 16th century, plain-text. But there is some information about works which were made over firâset, physiognomy and like sciences.2 The study which we make over this work comes last stage and it is firstly presented to science-world here. Although it is said that it was compiled from Fahreddin Razi veMuhyiddin-i Arabî at primary of the work, it is quality of an academicstudy which was prepared with study of many more works over scienceof firâset. Not only Fahreddin Razi and Muhyiddin-i Arabî but also theauthor benefited from works of many more scientists from HamdullahHamdi to İbni Sina. we can say that it is unique in its field with thiscourse. In that works, which were written in this field, are generallyover application of firaset science. That is, they pay attention overresults instead of the basic criterion of this science. Nevertheless,thiswork is a well-coorinated study which was made over firaset aswhole.That work compile and gather informations about firaset withcare of an academician while they are in bits and disorganized atanother works.In addition, the work is included various verses like Arabic,Persian and Turkish in spite it is plain-text. As for aspect of language,also it is included materials of language which belonging to Turkish ofAncient Anatolian. 16. yüzyılda yaşayan Mustafa bin Bâlî’nin mensur olan bu eseri üzerinde daha önce bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Ancak firâset, kıyâfet ve benzeri ilimler üzerinde yapılan çalışmalarda hakkında bazı bilgiler verilmiştir.1 Bizim ise bu eser üzerinde yaptığımız çalışma son aşamasına gelmiş olmakla beraber ilk defa burada bilim âleminin dikkatine sunulmaktadır.Her ne kadar eserin başında Fahreddin Razi ve Muhyiddin-i Arabî’den derlendiği söyleniyor ise de eser firâset ilmi üzerine daha birçok eser de taranarak hazırlanmış akademik bir

  9. The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of High Plateaux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershaw, John

    High topography significantly affects climate and atmospheric circulation, often separating areas of intense precipitation from relatively arid rainshadows inland. Temporal variations in climate on high plateaux have been inferred from both rocks and ice and may be related to changes in global climate, local atmospheric circulation, and/or changes in surface elevation. Constraints on how and when surface topography was generated not only provide insight into the relationship between high plateaux and climate, but help us distinguish between different geodynamic mechanisms responsible for their formation. The following research employs multiple techniques across the Andean Plateau, the Pamir, and Tibetan Plateau, to better understand both the tectonic evolution of high plateaux and how they affect climate and atmospheric circulation, particularly in continental settings. The Andean Plateau in South America is the second highest and most extensive topographic feature on Earth. Paleoelevation constraints from fossil leaf physiognomy and stable isotopes of sedimentary carbonate suggest that significant surface uplift of the northern Andean plateau, on the order of 2.5 +/- 1 km, occurred between ˜10.3 and 6.4 million years ago (Ma). South American teeth from modem and extinct mammal taxa spanning from the Oligocene (˜29 Ma) to present were collected as they preserve a record of surface water isotopes and the type of plants that animals ingested. Previous studies have shown that the isotopic composition of oxygen (delta18O) in modern precipitation and surface waters decreases systematically with increasing elevations across the central Andes. Results from high elevation sites show substantially more positive delta18O values for late Oligocene tooth samples compared to mammals, suggesting that by ˜8 Ma in the northern Altiplano and by ˜3.6 Ma in the southern Altiplano, both regions had reached high elevation and established a latitudinal rainfall gradient similar to

  10. Comparação da vegetação arbórea e características edáficas de um cerradão e um cerrado sensu stricto em áreas adjacentes sobre solo distrófico no leste de Mato Grosso, Brasil A comparison of the woody vegetation and soil characteristics of a cerradão and a Cerrado sensu stricto in adjacents areas on dystrophic soils in eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Marimon Junior

    2005-12-01

    conditions. The factors which contribute to the existence of cerradão in this situation are not well established. The objective of the present study was to compare the floristic composition and phytosociology of a Cerrado and cerradão on a dystrophic soil in eastern Mato Grosso and to determine whether higher soil fertility was contributing to the existence of the cerradão. Fifty 10 m×10 m plots were laid out in each vegetation type and a phytosociological survey was conducted of all trees with a minimum diameter of 5 cm at 30 cm above ground level. Soil samples were collected up to a depth of 2 m of soil profiles and from surface layer (0-10 and 10-20 cm in each area. The two physiognomies showed distinct floristic, structural and phytosociological characteristics. The basal area (21.4 m² ha-1 and the mean heights (6.4 m of the cerradão were greater than that of the cerrado sensu stricto (14.9 m² ha-1 and 3.7 m. The three most important species were Hirtella glandulosa Spreg., Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. in the cerradão, representing 29% of the total Importance Value (IVI, and Qualea parviflora Mart., Davilla elliptica A. St.-Hil. and Roupala montana Aubl. in the cerrado sensu stricto, representing 21% of the total IVI. The soils of both areas were acid (pH 1.3 cmol c kg-1. The fertility of the soils of the two areas was not different to support the hypothesis that the occurrence of the cerradão was due to the higher fertility of its soil. However, the cerradão soil showed higher percentages of clay than the cerrado soil at all depths up to 2 m, which could result in a higher availability of water throughout the year for the trees. This is an aspect worth investigating in future studies.

  11. FROM BODY TO MAP & BACK. DRAWING BODY MAPS: ON SKIN, ON PAPER, ON BIT AND ON NEURONS. A CORE FOR RECENTLY ESTABLISHED ANTHROPOKINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tanga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Man creates maps of land, of earth, of sky, of real or imaginary worlds, of micro- and macro-cosmos, of everything, including his own body. Maps are useful for knowledge and for practice, linking one another these two kind of relation with the mapped space. When we say “body maps” we can mean both “maps of body” (representing body and “maps on body” (representing something else that is projected on body, even forced to be adapted for coinciding with body. Maps are not simply a double of a country or of a body. Mapping gives a different and further ontology to the represented objects by a cause-effect circle, by a dialectic relation between two extended territories (the concrete one and the mapped one. Human body has been mapped as a land to orient our own or other’s navigation. To do this we need marks, references, directional systems: polarities, oriented lines, preferential protocols. Marks may be based on existing anatomical features or on projection of conceptual/symbolic elements, transcending somatic concreteness, relatively heterogeneous to flesh. The anatomical features can regard soft or hard tissues, similarly to “complexio” and “constitutio” of ancient physiognomy. This navigation is aimed to find signs, to read text(s that is/are written on its surfaces and in its deepness, to act on it. The body maps taxonomy can be based on supports: skin, paper or bit or to contexts/purposes: official medicine (that presents iconographic maps as 4D body imaging and not iconographic maps as DNA, alternative medicine, figurative arts, physiognomics, mantics, motion capture in cinema, erotic contexts (the ancient ars erotica and the modern scientia sexualis mystic cosmology and so on. A particular case of neuronal mapping is related to movements. This perspective leads us toward a precise direction, grounding the study of the human movement in a very interesting way. This study is still looking for its own center that can define

  12. 台湾植被分类方案%A Scheme of Vegetation Classification of Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永昌; 徐国士

    2003-01-01

    The complexity of natural conditions leads to the complexity of vegetation types of Taiwan ofChina, which has both tropical and cold-temperate vegetation types, and could be depicted as the vegeta-tion miniature of China or even for the world. The physiognomic-floristic principle was adopted for thevegetation classification of Taiwan. The units of rank from top to bottom are: class of vegetation-type,order of vegetation-type, vegetation-type, alliance group, alliance and association. The high-rank units(class,order and vegetation-type) are classified by ecological physiognomy, while the median and lowerunits by the species composition of community. At the same time the role of dominant species andcharacter species will also be considered. The dominant species are the major factor concerned with themedian ranks (alliance group,and alliance) because they are the chief components of community, addition-ally their remarkable appearance is easy to identify; the character species (or diagnostic species) are forrelatively low ranks (association) because they will clearly show the interspecies relation-ship and thecharacteristics of community. According to this principle, vegetation of Taiwan is classi-fied into fiveclasses of vegetation-types (forests, thickets, herbaceous vegetation, rock fields vegetation, swamps andaquatic vegetation), 29 orders of vegetation-types (cold-temperate needle-leaved forests, cool-temper-ate needle-leaved forests, warm-temperate needle-leaved forests, warm needle-leaved forests, deciduousbroad-leaved forests, mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests, evergreen mossy forests, ev-ergreen sclerophyllous forests, evergreen broad-leaved forests, tropical rain forests, tropical monsoonforests, coastal forests, warm bamboo forests, evergreen needle-leaved thickets, sclerophyllous thickets,deciduous broad-leaved thickets, evergreen broad-leaved thickets, xerothermic thorn-succulent thickets,bamboo thickets, meadows, sparse shrub grasslands

  13. Variações florística e estrutural e relações fitogeográficas de um fragmento de floresta decídua no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Floristic and structural variations, and the phytogeographical relationships of a deciduous forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Cestaro

    2004-06-01

    nos Cerrados.This work was undertaken in a deciduous forest fragment (~270 ha, centered on 5°53'S and 35°23'W spanning two distinct edaphic environments (Areas 1and 2, and sought to floristically and structurally characterize the tree layers in both environments, as well as to assess their phytogeographical relationships. All living and standing dead trees with CBH >10 cm were sampled using the point-centered quarter method. The results for areas 1and 2 were, respectively: total density, 1.587 and 1.924 individual.ha-1; total basal area, 15.88 and 15.86m².ha-1; most frequent height classes of living trees, 5-5.9m and 6-6.9m; most frequent stem diameters of living trees, 5.09.9cm and 3.2-4.9cm; Shannon diversity index 3.19 and 3.26; and Pielou evenness index, 0.79 and 0.86. The tree layers in both areas 1 and 2 were considered structurally similar. A total of 66 tree species were observed (56 in area 1 and 45 in area 2. Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. showed the greatest importance value in both areas, followed by Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. in area 1, and Chamaecrista ensiformis (Vell. H.S. Irwin & Barneby in area 2. Both edaphic environments showed a high floristic similarity (S S = 0.69 and S C = 0.53.Species typical of deciduous forests were more abundant in, or exclusive to, area 1. Species more typical of Caatingas environments were more abundant in, or exclusive to, area 2. The small floristic and structural differences noted between the two areas are apparently attributable to soil conditions. This forest fragment contains many species showing wide distributions in both Neotropical dry forests and Cerrados, and was considered a transitional vegetation type between the Atlantic and Caatingas phytogeographical provinces, in terms of species composition and physiognomy, as well as local environment conditions.

  14. The Community Characteristics of Endangered Species Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast%濒危植物篦子三尖杉的群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎学东; 苏建荣; 张志钧; 李帅峰; 刘万德; 缪迎春

    2011-01-01

    chinense , Macro-panax rosthornii z Chimonobambusa grandifolia and Phyllostachys heterocycla (Cam ) Mitford cv. "Pubescens"were the main dominant species in the community composition. The community physiognomy of Cephalotaxus oliveri was very similar to that of Subtropical evergreen broad-leaf forest, according to Raunkiaer'life form system, the ratios of phanerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, cryptophytes and therophytes were 62. 78% ,12. 67% ,9. 73% , 12.29% and 2.53% respectively. The study of leaf types indicated that the compositions of leaf was made up for nanophyll of 68.49% , without macrophyll and megaphyll. For leaf texture, the papery leaf took the largest propor-tion (55. 89% ) and that of membranous leaf the least (4.93% ). The proportion of simple leaves was 76. 99% and that of compound leaves was 23. 11%, the entire leaves took 49. 04% and no-entire leaves took 50.06%. And the spatial pattern of individual distribution in all communities belonged to be clumped. The characteristics of vertical structure of communities indicated that the layer higher than 3. 5m, with 68. 71% of mean value of coverage, was the dominant layer in the communities' Also the statistics of static life table explained that the populations growing in Daozhen, Jiangkou, Taijiang and Zhenyuan counties belonged to expanding populations, but the populations in Luxi, Kaili, Pinbian and Xinping counties were stable populations. In addition, the species diversity in different communities also existed significant differences and the similarity between communities was not significant.

  15. 基于多源数据的月球大地构造纲要图编制:以LQ-4地区为例%Compilation of the lunar geotectonic outline map based on multisource data:A case study of LQ-4 Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 王翔; 许延波; 颜丹平; 刘少峰; 郑永春; 闫柏琨; 吴昀昭

    2012-01-01

    spectrometer data,Clementine ultraviolet-visible spectrometer image data and LOLA laser altimeter data are used to identify the mineral components,linear structures,ring structures,volcanic structures and dome structures on the lunar surface,to determine the era of the geotectonic elements and tectonic units,to identify the boundaries of old impact craters and large basins,to interpret the shape,size,distribution and density of the impact craters on the lunar surface,and to interpret the lunar rupture and ring images.This research has referred to and compared the international research improvements in determining the fundamentals of tectonic division and in determining the major tectonic events on the lunar surface and their evolution sequence.Thus a substantial understanding of the basic conditions on the surface is obtained.Then,relying on the classification of rocks,lunar soil,tectonic geomorphology and tectonic traces,the legends and icons for the geotectonic division are specified,and geotectonic units including different types of ring images,linear images,highlands,basins and mares are identified,then a geotectonic division map is developed,and the tectonic traces in key regions are investigated.This study includes the digital lunar tectonic mapping of Sinus Iridum(LQ-4),developing China's own geologic mapping code,standard and process flow of the moon and planets by reference to the existing international technical codes and standards regarding the geologic mapping of the planets.Furthermore,this research offers basic physiognomy and tectonics information for final completion of the lunar geotectonic division.

  16. 基于GGE-Biplot的甘肃省不同生态区燕麦生产性能及适应性分析%Analysis of oats productivity and adaptability in different ecological regions of Gansu Province using GGE-Biplot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕平; 赵桂琴; 柴继宽

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同燕麦品种在甘肃省不同生态地区的生产性能和适应性,筛选适宜不同产区推广种植的品种,本文从2011—2013年采用7个燕麦品种在甘肃省天祝县、通渭县、夏河县、岷县、安定区、榆中县、合作市等7个不同生态区进行了为期3年的田间试验,分析参试材料干草和种子产量、生育期、株高、有效分蘖、穗长、穗粒数、穗粒重等指标的变化情况,利用GGE-Biplot双标图法对供试品种的生产性能及适应性进行了分析。结果表明,种植区生态环境对燕麦的生产性能有显著影响,7个试验点中通渭县的平均种子产量最高,为5671.3 kg·hm-2,安定区种子产量和干草均最低,分别为1709.7 kg·hm-2和3301.2 kg·hm-2。不同品种在不同地区的适应性、丰产性和稳产性差异很大。‘陇燕2号’和‘陇燕3号’在天祝县、岷县、通渭县和榆中县种植可收获较高的青干草产量;‘陇燕1号’、‘陇燕3号’、‘青引2号’在合作市、通渭县、岷县种植可获得较高的种子产量;‘白燕7号’适宜在通渭县生产种子。7个试验点中最具代表性的是通渭县和岷县,通渭县适合干草生产,岷县适合种子生产。GGE-Biplot双标图法可以简便而直观地分析不同燕麦品种在不同利用目的下、不同生态区域的生产性能及其稳定性和试验点的代表性,提高试验效率和试验结果的准确性。%Gansu Province is a major oat production area in northwestern China. Both oat hay and grain are very good feeds for livestock animals. Due to high variations in topography and physiognomy from east to west of Gansu Province, oat production in the province varies significantly. In order to determine the productivity and adaptability of different oat varieties in different eco-regions of Gansu Province, a 3-year experiment consisting 7 oat varieties (‘Longyan No.1’,‘Longyan No. 2’,‘Longyan No. 3’,

  17. 云南山地土壤垂直带信息图谱分析%Information Tupu Analysis on Mountainous Soil Vertical Zone in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨月圆; 王金亮; 陈有君

    2013-01-01

    地学信息图谱是一种以图形方式显示地理事物或现象空间形态结构、揭示时空变化规律的手段与方法.为了实现基础地理信息数字化,推动“数字山地”研究的开展和区域可持续发展,在地学信息图谱理论和ArcGIS软件环境支撑下,利用云南省第二次土壤普查资料、1∶25万电子地图和DEM数据等建立了云南省土壤垂直带信息图谱,实现了山地土壤垂直带的数字化显示及其与地理位置的链接.基于空间维度的土壤信息带谱显示,在纬度方向上土壤带谱滇西比滇东复杂,且长度随纬向递增;在经度方向上,热带区域的土壤垂直带谱结构相对较简单,亚热带区域的土壤垂直带谱结构、长度趋于一致,温带高原气候区的土壤垂直带谱结构最为丰富和复杂,且再次体现了相同基带上发育的土壤带组成基本相似的规律,但各区内部随经度变化规律不明显.%Geo-informatic tupu is a means and method of using graphics mode to display the spatial configuration and reveal the spatial-temporal change rule of earth system and its elements and phenomena.This paper has taken Yunnan province as a research area due to the various physiognomies and typical mountainous characteristics.High complexity of the landscape and biological climate make the soil that is an essential factor of mountainous region environment to be clearly vertical differentiation.By researching the mountaionous soil vertical vertical zone could help us to recognize its distribution and variety law.It is not only beneficial to explore the methods of regional ecological and geographical pattern,but also to three-dimensional development of agriculture,afforestation,soil and water conservation,mountain environmental protection.Data model of mountainous soil vertical zone had been built by using the China soil database of 1 ∶ 1 000 000,the second soil survey data of Yunnan Province,electronic map of 1∶250 000 and DEM

  18. 湖南桃源洞国家级自然保护区南方铁杉种群结构与生存分析%Structure and Survival Analysis of Tsuga chinensis Populations in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve,Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁巧玲; 刘忠成; 王蕾; 蔡松辰; 石祥刚; 曾茂生; 廖文波

    2016-01-01

    Two T.chinensis communities,from Niushiping and Lishuzhou in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve,are studied by using the methods of plots for the composition and structure of the communities, using Shannon-Weiner index,Simpson index and Pielou index for species diversity of every layers and u-sing diameter class frequency distribution of T.chinensis to analyze the age class frequency distribution and the regeneration of the target population.The results are as follows:(1)since the evergreen plants are dominant,the physiognomy of the two communities show some seasonal changes of dark green in summer and light yellow-green in autumn and winter.(2)Twenty-six species in 21 genera of 13 families compose the T.chinensis community of Niushiping and the T.chinensis community of Lishuzhou contains 22 fami-lies,30 genera with 36 species.Their proportions of temperate genera of seed plants are higher than that of tropical genera,which shows the subtropical montane property of geographical elements.(3)The verti-cal structure of above two communities can be divided into three layers,i.e.tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer and the tree layer includes three sub-layers,i.e.upper layer,middle layer and lower layer.(4) Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index arrange as lower layer of tree > middle layer of tree > shrub layer > upper layer of tree in both communities,and Pielou index of middle layer of tree and lower layer of tree is higher than that of upper layer of tree and shrub layer in both communities.(5)The dominant pop-ulations of the T.chinensis community in Niushiping are Rhododendron ovatum,T.chinensis,Camellia cuspidata and Rhododendron latoucheae while the dominant populations of the T.chinensis community in Lishuzhou are Schimaargentea,T.chinensis,Rhododendronlatoucheae and Rhododendronhypoblemato-sum.(6)According to the age frequency distribution and the survival analysis,the T.chinensis popula-tion from Niushiping is a declining population and unable to regenerate

  19. Ephemeral skin-flows on talus affected by permafrost degradation (Corral del Veleta, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Gómez, A.

    2009-04-01

    destroyed but rather tends to ‘blur' as the years pass, although it does not completely lose its original shape: the fine material inside the lobes becomes compacted and the multiple lobes become blurred. In contrast, in other sectors of the slope, where the presence of permafrost levels or buried ice has been detected, the skin flows, once formed, change their physiognomy from year to year, which may be related to the influence of the nival dynamic along with the degradation of the permafrost and the dislodgement of the active layer. References Akerman, H, .J, 1984: Notes on talus morphology and processes in Spitsbergen. Geografiska Annaler 66A (4): 267-284. Benedict, J. B. 1970. Downslope soil movement in a Colorado alpine region: rates, processes, and climatic significance, Arctic and Alpine Research, 2(3): 165-226 Caine N (1976). The influence of snow and increased snowfall on contemporary geomorphic processes in alpine areas. In: Steinoff HW, Ives JD (eds) Ecological impacts of snowpack augmentation in the San Juan Mountains. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, pp 145-200 Castillo, A. and Fedeli, B. 2002. Algunas pautas del comportamiento hidrogeológico de rocas duras afectadas por glaciarismo y periglaciarismo en Sierra Nevada (España). Geogaceta, 32: 195-197. Gómez, A., Palacios, D., Ramos, M., Tanarro, L.M., Schulte, L and Salvador, F., 2001: Location of permafrost in marginal regions: Corral del Veleta, Sierra Nevada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12: 93-110. Gómez, A.; Palacios, D.; Luengo, E.; Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. & Ramos, M. 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relantionship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografiska Annaler, 85 A(2): 165-182. Hall, K., 1985: Some observations on ground temperatures and transport processes at a nivation site in northern Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 39: 27-37. Harris, C., 1987: Mechanisms of mass movement in periglacial

  20. The wall painting on the western façade and the lunette of the southern portal of St. Nicholas in Ljuboten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radujko Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wall painting on the façades of St. Nicholas in Ljuboten near Skopje, the endowment of 'Lady Danica', a noblewoman in the time of King Dušan, was destroyed in 1928, during the restoration of the church. Evidence of the appearance of the hitherto unnoticed decoration on the western facade and the southern entrance can be seen on glass plates in the Photograph Collection of the National Museum in Belgrade. When the photographs Nos. 1438, 1444 and 1567 were taken, the painting on the Ljuboten church façades, although damaged or washed away, was still partly visible. On the western façade it extended in three zones (the socle, the standing figures and the busts across the entire façade and from the ground to the porch, the roof of which stood at the foot of the western wall archivolt, while the ornamentation of the southern façade covered the lunette above the entrance and its archivolt. Although in 1925, the painting did not contain a single legible signature or physiognomy, thematically, the outer ornamentation of Ljuboten is essentially clear. The bust of the Mother of God with the infant Christ, facing south, was in the centre of the compositional focus of the western façade. Three figures stood on the left and on the right sides of the portal, one on each of the pilasters, and one monumental figure in each of two niches. From the south, a church hierarch, with short, curly beard, was moving in a stooping position towards the Mother of God. He, certainly, could be identified as the patron of the church, St. Nicholas. The saint raises his right hand in a gesture of exhortation. Behind him, a figure in monastic habit was painted. This person holds a model of the church in the left hand, with the right hand in a gesture of prayer. Undoubtedly, it was the donatrix of the church painted here. As opposed to the figures in the southern part of the western façade, those in the northern part were facing forward. We recognized a saint on the

  1. 河西内陆干旱区地表和地下水资源的相互转化研究%STUDY ON THE MUTUAL TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE HEXI INLANG ARID REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝永超; 康尔泗; 张济世; 胡兴林; 陈仁升

    2002-01-01

    The quantities, the distributing characteristics, the variation law and the mutual transformation relationship of surface water resources and ground water resources in the Hexi inland arid region of Gansu Province are analyzed on the basis of the hydrological and meteorological measured data at the concerned hydrometric stations and weather stations, and the related research achievements of National Science and Technology Tackle Key Problem Item (project 96-912). The results show that the surface runoff mainly are formed in the middle and the high mountainous area in the inland arid areas and dissipate in the pediment plain and desert. The supply of runoff mainly is atmosphere precipitation, ice and snow melting water and ground water. The quantity and temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation possess quite important effect to water resources forming in the region. There the mutual transforming relationship between surface water resources and ground water resources is quite clear. The most primary characteristic of water resources in inland arid region just is the mutual transformation between the river runoff and the ground water in the different geology and physiognomy cells from the mountainous area to plain area. The transforming relationship among surface water resources, ground water resources and the flowing mode are dissimilar in the different regions from the runoff forming situated the mountainous area to the lower reaches situated plain and desert, that is, the most of the mountainous area ground water formed by ice and snow melting water and precipitation is excreted in the form of the base runoff and entered into the basin in the form of the surface runoff. Surface runoff largely supplies groundwater again after rivers enter into the basin or the pediment plain which penetrating power are quite strong. Ground water in the basin or the pediment alluvial and diluvial plain largely overflow from the surface and inflow into river to transform as