WorldWideScience

Sample records for physics experiment triggers

  1. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment

  2. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    the expression 'CSC studies' ('computing system commissioning'), which is occasionally referred to in these volumes. The work reported does generally assume that the detector is fully operational, and in this sense represents an idealised detector: establishing the best performance of the ATLAS detector with LHC proton-proton collisions is a challenging task for the future. The results summarised here therefore represent the best estimate of ATLAS capabilities before real operational experience of the full detector with beam. Unless otherwise stated, simulations also do not include the effect of additional interactions in the same or other bunch-crossings, and the effect of neutron background is neglected. Thus simulations correspond to the low-luminosity performance of the ATLAS detector. This report is broadly divided into two parts: firstly the performance for identification of physics objects is examined in detail, followed by a detailed assessment of the performance of the trigger system. This part is subdivided into chapters surveying the capabilities for charged particle tracking, each of electron/photon, muon and tau identification, jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction, b-tagging algorithms and performance, and finally the trigger system performance. In each chapter of the report, there is a further subdivision into shorter notes describing different aspects studied. The second major subdivision of the report addresses physics measurement capabilities, and new physics search sensitivities. Individual chapters in this part discuss ATLAS physics capabilities in Standard Model QCD and electroweak processes, in the top quark sector, in b-physics, in searches for Higgs bosons, supersymmetry searches, and finally searches for other new particles predicted in more exotic models.

  3. Expected performance of the ATLAS experiment detector, trigger and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.A.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atkinson, T.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.A.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, A.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.B.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.B.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.B.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.B.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednar, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Bodine, B.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boeser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.S.L.; Booth, J.R.A.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.B.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Buescher, Volker; Bugge, L.; Bujor, F.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Cantero, J.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A.M.; Castaneda Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.C.; Charlton, D.G.; Chatterjii, S.C.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheng, T.L.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, Mark S.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.C.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.C.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C.V.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Davey, W.D.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; Vale, M.A.B.do; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Donszelmann, T.; Dopke, J.; Dorfan, D.E.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Dragic, J.D.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Duehrssen, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dueren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, E.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flacher, H.F.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fleta Corral, C.M.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Foehlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.F.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.G.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallas, M.V.; Gallop, B.J.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.G.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.G.; Gayde, J-C.; Gazis, E.N.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Gnanvo, K.G.; Godfrey, J.G.; Godlewski, J.; Goepfert, T.; Goessling, C.; Goettfert, T.; Goggi, V.G.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.P.; Gomes, A.; Goncalo, R.; Gong, C.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P.A.; Gordon, H.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S.A.; Goryachev, S.V.; Goryachev, V.N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.; Goussiou, A.G.; Gowdy, S.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafstroem, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Granado Cardoso, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Griesmayer, E.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Groer, L.S.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Gruse, C.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V.J.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.G.; Guillemin, T.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.G.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.B.; Harris, O.M.; Hart, J.C.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Haug, F.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; He, M.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heinemann, B.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Heldmann, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henriques Correia, A.M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henss, T.; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higon-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.C.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hinkelbein, C.; Hirsch, F.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.H.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.H.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holy, T.; Homma, Y.; Homola, P.; Horazdovsky, T.; Hori, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.A.; Hoummada, A.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Huang, G.S.; Huang, J.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Huse, T.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.I.; Ilyushenka, Y.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishizawa, Y.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issakov, V.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, J.N.; Jaekel, M.; Jahoda, M.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Jared, R.C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarron, P.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jez, P.; Jezequel, S.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L.G.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, A.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.W.; Jones, T.J.; Jonsson, O.; Joos, D.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P.M.; Jorgensen, S.; Jovanovic, P.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinovskaya, L.V.; Kalinowski, A.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V.A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz, Muge; Karr, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R.D.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayl, M.S.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V.A.; Kazarinov, M.Y.; Kazi, S.I.; Keates, J.R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P.T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kersten, S.; Khakzad, M.; Khalilzade, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kilvington, G.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.S.; Kim, S.H.; Kind, O.; Kind, P.; 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Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spogli, L.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.S.; Stewart, G.; Stewart, T.D.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szczygiel, R.R.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Taffard, A.T.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Tali, B.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.T.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Ueda, I.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van der Bij, H.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; VanBerg, R.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vassilieva, L.; Vataga, E.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives, R.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.W.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.W.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.W.; Winton, L.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, S.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.A.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinna, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zychacek, V.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector. The reconstruction of tracks, leptons, photons, missing energy and jets is investigated, together with the performance of b-tagging and the trigger. The physics potential for a variety of interesting physics processes, within the Standard Model and beyond, is examined. The study comprises a series of notes based on simulations of the detector and physics processes, with particular emphasis given to the data expected from the first years of operation of the LHC at CERN.

  4. High energy physics experiment triggers and the trustworthiness of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.

    1991-10-01

    For all the time and frustration that high energy physicists expend interacting with computers, it is surprising that more attention is not paid to the critical role computers play in the science. With large, expensive colliding beam experiments now dependent on complex programs working at startup, questions of reliability -- the trustworthiness of software -- need to be addressed. This issue is most acute in triggers, used to select data to record -- and data to discard -- in the real time environment of an experiment. High level triggers are built on codes that now exceed 2 million source lines -- and for the first time experiments are truly dependent on them. This dependency will increase at the accelerators planned for the new millennium (SSC and LHC), where cost and other pressures will reduce tolerance for first run problems, and the high luminosities will make this on-line data selection essential. A sense of this incipient crisis motivated the unusual juxtaposition to topics in these lectures. 37 refs., 1 fig

  5. Electronics, trigger, data acquisition, and computing working group on future B physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.

    1993-01-01

    Electronics, trigger, data acquisition, and computing: this is a very broad list of topics. Nevertheless in a modern particle physics experiment one thinks in terms of a data pipeline in which the front end electronics, the trigger and data acquisition, and the offline reconstruction are linked together. In designing any piece of this pipeline it is necessary to understand the bigger picture of the data flow, data rates and volume, and the input rate, output rate, and latencies for each part of the pipeline. All of this needs to be developed with a clear understanding of the requirements imposed by the physics goals of the experiment; the signal efficiencies, background rates, and the amount of recorded information that needs to be propagated through the pipeline to select and analyse the events of interest. The technology needed to meet the demanding high data volume needs of the next round of B physics experiments appears to be available, now or within a couple of years. This seems to be the case for both fixed target and collider B physics experiments. Although there are many differences between the various data pipelines that are being proposed, there are also striking similarities. All experiments have a multi-level trigger scheme (most have levels 1, 2, and 3) where the final level consists of a computing farm that can run offline-type code and reduce the data volume by a factor of a few. Finally, the ability to reconstruct large data volumes offline in a reasonably short time, and making large data volumes available to many physicists for analysis, imposes severe constraints on the foreseen data pipelines, and a significant uncertainty in evaluating the various approaches proposed

  6. Muon trigger, flavour tagging and physics performance of the LHCb experiment; Trigger a muons, etiquetage de la saveur et performances physiques de l'experience LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, O

    2007-10-15

    The LHCb experiment that is being settled in CERN is dedicated to the study of CP violation and rare decays in the field of beauty hadrons. The phenomenological background necessary to an adequate understanding of the physics of flavor is presented in the first chapter, it is shown how the flavordynamics can open the way to new physics. The second chapter is dedicated to a brief presentation of the LHCb detector. Two aspects of the design of the muon trigger are more detailed: the radiation resistance of the opto-electronic transmitters and the simulated performances of the trigger. The third chapter reviews the tasks linked to the tagging of the savors of B mesons which will be an important step in all the experiments made at LHCb. The recent progress in heavy savor physics as well as the expected contribution of LHCb in this field are presented in the fourth chapter, especially the search for new physics in penguin diagrams b {yields} s.

  7. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  8. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors at the ILC are planned to run without hardware trigger. The ... as not coming from the interaction point and not matching to the silicon detectors ... electrons so that additional dE/dx cuts can help, making also here a factor 10 or.

  9. Sub-nanosecond clock synchronization and trigger management in the nuclear physics experiment AGATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellato, M; Isocrate, R; Rampazzo, G; Bazzacco, D; Bortolato, D; Triossi, A; Chavas, J; Mengoni, D; Recchia, F

    2013-01-01

    The new-generation spectrometer AGATA, the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array, requires sub-nanosecond clock synchronization among readout and front-end electronics modules that may lie hundred meters apart. We call GTS (Global Trigger and Synchronization System) the infrastructure responsible for precise clock synchronization and for the trigger management of AGATA. It is made of a central trigger processor and nodes, connected in a tree structure by means of optical fibers operated at 2Gb/s. The GTS tree handles the synchronization and the trigger data flow, whereas the trigger processor analyses and eventually validates the trigger primitives centrally. Sub-nanosecond synchronization is achieved by measuring two different types of round-trip times and by automatically correcting for phase-shift differences. For a tree of depth two, the peak-to-peak clock jitter at each leaf is 70 ps; the mean phase difference is 180 ps, while the standard deviation over such phase difference, namely the phase equalization repeatability, is 20 ps. The GTS system has run flawlessly for the two-year long AGATA campaign, held at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy, where five triple clusters of the AGATA sub-array were coupled with a variety of ancillary detectors

  10. Sub-nanosecond clock synchronization and trigger management in the nuclear physics experiment AGATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, M.; Bortolato, D.; Chavas, J.; Isocrate, R.; Rampazzo, G.; Triossi, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Mengoni, D.; Recchia, F.

    2013-07-01

    The new-generation spectrometer AGATA, the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array, requires sub-nanosecond clock synchronization among readout and front-end electronics modules that may lie hundred meters apart. We call GTS (Global Trigger and Synchronization System) the infrastructure responsible for precise clock synchronization and for the trigger management of AGATA. It is made of a central trigger processor and nodes, connected in a tree structure by means of optical fibers operated at 2Gb/s. The GTS tree handles the synchronization and the trigger data flow, whereas the trigger processor analyses and eventually validates the trigger primitives centrally. Sub-nanosecond synchronization is achieved by measuring two different types of round-trip times and by automatically correcting for phase-shift differences. For a tree of depth two, the peak-to-peak clock jitter at each leaf is 70 ps; the mean phase difference is 180 ps, while the standard deviation over such phase difference, namely the phase equalization repeatability, is 20 ps. The GTS system has run flawlessly for the two-year long AGATA campaign, held at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy, where five triple clusters of the AGATA sub-array were coupled with a variety of ancillary detectors.

  11. Intelligent trigger by massively parallel processors for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbach, F.; Vesztergombi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The CERN-MPPC collaboration concentrates its effort on the development of machines based on massive parallelism with thousands of integrated processing elements, arranged in a string. Seven applications are under detailed studies within the collaboration: three for LHC, one for SSC, two for fixed target high energy physics at CERN and one for HDTV. Preliminary results are presented. They show that the objectives should be reached with the use of the ASP architecture. (author)

  12. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  13. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  14. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  15. ATLAS: triggers for B-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Simon

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will produce bb-bar events at an unprecedented rate. The number of events recorded by ATLAS will be limited by the rate at which they can be stored offline and subsequently analysed. Despite the huge number of events, the small branching ratios mean that analysis of many of the most interesting channels for CP violation and other measurements will be limited by statistics. The challenge for the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is therefore to maximise the fraction of interesting B decays in the B-physics data stream. The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is split into three levels. The initial B-physics selection is made in the first-level trigger by an inclusive low-p T muon trigger (∼6 GeV). The second-level trigger strategy is based on identifying classes of final states by their partial reconstruction. The muon trigger is confirmed before proceeding to a track search. Electron/hadron separation is given by the transition radiation tracking detector and the Electromagnetic calorimeter. Muon identification is possible using the muon detectors and the hadronic calorimeter. From silicon strips, pixels and straw tracking, precise track reconstruction is used to make selections based on invariant mass, momentum and impact parameter. The ATLAS trigger group is currently engaged in algorithm development and performance optimisation for the B-physics trigger. This is closely coupled to the R and D programme for the higher-level triggers. Together the two programmes of work will optimise the hardware, architecture and algorithms to meet the challenging requirements. This paper describes the current status and progress of this work

  16. Triggering on New Physics with the CMS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Tulika [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    The BU CMS group led by PI Tulika Bose has made several significant contributions to the CMS trigger and to the analysis of the data collected by the CMS experiment. Group members have played a leading role in the optimization of trigger algorithms, the development of trigger menus, and the online operation of the CMS High-Level Trigger. The group’s data analysis projects have concentrated on a broad spectrum of topics that take full advantage of their strengths in jets and calorimetry, trigger, lepton identification as well as their considerable experience in hadron collider physics. Their publications cover several searches for new heavy gauge bosons, vector-like quarks as well as diboson resonances.

  17. 2017 B-Physics trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The performance of the trigger used to select B-Physics decay channels in CMS is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $9.8\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$.

  18. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...

  19. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  20. Evaluation of technologies of parallel computers. Communication networks for a real-time triggering application for a high-energy physics experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertnagl, Ch.

    1997-12-01

    Experiments at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be faced with an extraordinary challenge of event selection in real time. The primary event rate, equal to the bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz, will have to be reduced by a factor of almost one-in-a-million in order to reveal traces of rare physics processes from an abundant background. This work presents various contributions to ongoing feasibility studies concerning the possible use of commercial technologies from the proximities of parallel computers and their communication networks for the second trigger stage, which faces an average data input rate of 100 kHz. Studies in this thesis apply a combination of methodologies, namely the build-up of lab-scale prototype implementations (including their exposition to test beam runs), algorithm development, technology tracking and benchmarking, as well as discrete event simulation. The main contribution consists of several technology case studies, which are based on the exploration of a set of standard benchmark programs for revealing simple parameters for characterizing delays during communication. Studied technologies include the communication sub-system of the Meiko CS-2, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), MEMORY CHANNEL, and Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI); all could be considered typical for candidate technologies. The discussion sheds light on the relative benefits and costs associated with different parallel programming models, in general, and with the use of message-passing libraries, such as Message Passing Interface (MPI), in particular. Best observed end-user-to-end-user latencies were ∼ 10 μs, best asymptotic bandwidths were ∼ 70 MByte/s. Typical sub-patterns of communication that have to be applied in the second trigger stage were sustained at ∼ 13 kHz, using today's technologies in realistic embeddings. (author)

  1. Towards a Level-1 tracking trigger for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cerri, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The future plans for the LHC accelerator allow, through a schedule of phased upgrades, an increase in the average instantaneous luminosity by a factor 5 with respect to the original design luminosity. The ATLAS experiment at the LHC will be able to maximise the physics potential from this higher luminosity only if the detector, trigger and DAQ infrastructure are adapted to handle the sustained increase in particle production rates. In this paper the changes expected to be required to the ATLAS detectors and trigger system to fulfill the requirement for working in such high luminosity scenario are described. The increased number of interactions per bunch crossing will result in higher occupancy in the detectors and increased rates at each level of the trigger system. The trigger selection will improve the selectivity partly from increased granularity for the sub detectors and the consequent higher resolution. One of the largest challenges will be the provision of tracking information at the first trigger level...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  3. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Plans for a physics-driven upgrade of the LHC foresee staged increases of the accelerator's average instantaneous luminosity, of up to a factor of five compared to the original design. In order to cope with the sustained luminosity increase, and the resulting higher detector occupancy and particle interaction rates, the ATLAS experiment is planning phased upgrades of the trigger system and of the DAQ infrastructure. In the new conditions, maintaining an adequate signal acceptance for electro-weak processes will pose unprecedented challenges, as the default solution to cope with the higher rates would be to increase thresholds on the transverse momenta of physics objects (leptons, jets, etc). Therefore the possibility to apply fast processing at the first trigger level in order to use tracking information as early as possible in the trigger selection represents a most appealing opportunity, which can preserve the ATLAS trigger's selectivity without reducing its flexibility. Studies to explore the feasibility o...

  4. The multilevel trigger system of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.; Gallas, M.; Goldin, D.

    2002-01-01

    The multilevel trigger system of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. It includes a fast first level trigger as well as various trigger processors to select events with a pair of pions having a low relative momentum typical of the physical process under study. One of these processors employs the drift chamber data, another one is based on a neural network algorithm and the others use various hit-map detector correlations. Two versions of the trigger system used at different stages of the experiment are described. The complete system reduces the event rate by a factor of 1000, with efficiency ≥ 95 % of detecting the events in the relative momentum range of interest

  5. Level Zero Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldi, D.; Chiozzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the ultra-rare decay K+ arrow π+ ν bar nu branching ratio with a precision of ~ 10% at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The trigger system of NA62 consists in three different levels designed to select events of physics interest in a high beam rate environment. The L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) is the lowest level system of the trigger chain. It is hardware implemented using programmable logic. The architecture of the NA62 L0TP system is a new approach compared to existing systems used in high-energy physics experiments. It is fully digital, based on a standard gigabit Ethernet communication between detectors and the L0TP Board. The L0TP Board is a commercial development board, mounting a programmable logic device (FPGA). The primitives generated by sub-detectors are sent asynchronously using the UDP protocol to the L0TP during the entire beam spill period. The L0TP realigns in time the primitives coming from seven different sources and performs a data selection based on the characteristics of the event such as energy, multiplicity and topology of hits in the sub-detectors. It guarantees a maximum latency of 1 ms. The maximum input rate is about 10 MHz for each sub-detector, while the design maximum output trigger rate is 1 MHz. A description of the trigger algorithm is presented here.

  6. A high-voltage triggered pseudospark discharge experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, K.; Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.

    1996-01-01

    The design and execution of a pulsed high-voltage (350 endash 400 keV) triggered pseudospark discharge experiment is reported. Experimental studies were carried out to obtain an optimal design for stable and reliable pseudospark operation in a high-voltage regime (approx-gt 350 kV). Experiments were performed to determine the most suitable fill gas for electron-beam formation. The pseudospark discharge is initiated by a trigger mechanism involving a flashover between the trigger electrode and hollow cathode housing. Experimental results characterizing the electron-beam energy using the range-energy method are reported. Source size imaging was carried out using an x-ray pinhole camera and a novel technique using Mylar as a witness plate. It was experimentally determined that strong pinching occurred later in time and was associated with the lower-energy electrons. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Trigger Algorithms for Alignment and Calibration at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Perez Tomei, Thiago Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The data needs of the Alignment and Calibration group at the CMS experiment are reasonably different from those of the physics studies groups. Data are taken at CMS through the online event selection system, which is implemented in two steps. The Level-1 Trigger is implemented on custom-made electronics and dedicated to analyse the detector information at a coarse-grained scale, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is implemented as a series of software algorithms, running in a computing farm, that have access to the full detector information. In this paper we describe the set of trigger algorithms that is deployed to address the needs of the Alignment and Calibration group, how it fits in the general infrastructure of the HLT, and how it feeds the Prompt Calibration Loop (PCL), allowing for a fast turnaround for the alignment and calibration constants.

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  9. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS is planning a trigger upgrade that will enable the experiment to use tracking information already at the first trigger level. This will provide enhanced background rejection power at trigger level while preserving much needed flexibility for the trigger system. The status and current plans for the new ATLAS Level-1 tracking trigger are presented.

  10. The new Global Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    For the 2016 physics data runs the L1 trigger system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent a major upgrade to cope with the increasing instantaneous luminosity of the CERN LHC whilst maintaining a high event selection efficiency for the CMS physics program. Most subsystem specific trigger processor boards were replaced with powerful general purpose processor boards, conforming to the MicroTCA standard, whose tasks are performed by firmware on an FPGA of the Xilinx Virtex 7 family. Furthermore, the muon trigger system moved from a subsystem centered approach, where each of the three muon detector systems provides muon candidates to the Global Muon Trigger (GMT), to a region based system, where muon track finders (TFs) combine information from the subsystems to generate muon candidates in three detector regions, that are then sent to the upgraded GMT. The upgraded GMT receives up to 108 muons from the processors of the muon TFs in the barrel, overlap, and endcap detector regions. The muons are...

  11. A trigger simulation framework for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinori, F; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Gheata, M

    2011-01-01

    A realistic simulation of the trigger system in a complex HEP experiment is essential for performing detailed trigger efficiency studies. The ALICE trigger simulation is evolving towards a framework capable of replaying the full trigger chain starting from the input to the individual trigger processors and ending with the decision mechanisms of the ALICE central trigger processor. This paper describes the new ALICE trigger simulation framework that is being tested and deployed. The framework handles details like trigger levels, signal delays and busy signals, implementing the trigger logic via customizable trigger device objects managed by a robust scheduling mechanism. A big advantage is the high flexibility of the framework, which is able to mix together components described with very different levels of detail. The framework is being gradually integrated within the ALICE simulation and reconstruction frameworks.

  12. The ATLAS muon trigger: Experience and performance in the first 3 years of LHC pp runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-level processing scheme for the trigger system. The Level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a Level-2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The ATLAS experiment has taken data with high efficiency continuously over entire running periods from 2010 to 2012, for which sophisticated triggers to guard the highest physics output while reducing effectively the event rate were mandatory. The ATLAS muon trigger has successfully adapted to this challenging environment. The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving muons in the final state. This work briefly summarizes these three years of experience in the ATLAS muon trigger and reports about efficiency, resolution, and general performance of the muon trigger

  13. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  14. Experience with the custom-developed ATLAS Offline Trigger Monitoring Framework and Reprocessing Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, V

    2012-01-01

    After about two years of data taking with the ATLAS detector manifold experience with the custom-developed trigger monitoring and reprocessing infrastructure could be collected. The trigger monitoring can be roughly divided into online and offline monitoring. The online monitoring calculates and displays all rates at every level of the trigger and evaluates up to 3000 data quality histograms. The physics analysis relevant data quality information is being checked and recorded automatically. The offline trigger monitoring provides information depending of the physics motivated different trigger streams after a run has finished. Experts are checking the information being guided by the assessment of algorithms checking the current histograms with a reference. The experts are recording their assessment in a so-called data quality defects which are used to select data for physics analysis. In the first half of 2011 about three percent of all data had an intolerable defect resulting from the ATLAS trigger system. T...

  15. The ATLAS Trigger: Recent Experience and Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the ATLAS trigger design and its innovative features. It will describe the valuable experience gained in running the trigger reconstruction and event selection in the fastchanging environment of the detector commissioning during 2008. It will also include a description of the trigger selection menu and its 2009 deployment plan from first collisions to the nominal luminosity. ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The trigger system needs to efficiently reject a large rate of background events and still select potentially interesting ones with high efficiency. After a first level trigger implemented in custom electronics, the trigger event selection is made by the High Level Trigger (HLT) system, implemented in software. To reduce the processing time to manageable levels, the HLT uses seeded, step-wise and fast selection algorithms, aiming at the earliest possible rejection of background events. The ATLAS trigger event selection...

  16. DYN1: a 66 MHz front end analog memory chip with first level trigger capture for use in future high luminosity particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Bonino, R.; Campbell, D.; Campbell, M.; Clark, A.G.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Santiard, J.C.; Verweij, H.

    1994-01-01

    DYN1 is a 32 channel, 128 cell analog memory with continuous write and read access. The chip amplifies the detector signals and integrates the signal currents onto capacitors within the memory during each bunch crossing interval. Dense dynamic logic circuitry accepts multiple first level triggers, freezes the corresponding analog data and stores their addresses in an external FIFO. The triggered data can then be read out at leisure whilst simultaneously sampling and storing new triggered events. A first level trigger latency of up to 2 μs is accepted at the maximum LHC clock frequency of 66 MHz. The chip shows an overall gain of 48.2 mV/25 000 e - . The mean channel noise is 4.5 mV and the pedestal variation from cell to cell within one channel is 1.9 mV. The total dynamic range has been measured at 4.6 V giving a resolution of 11 bits (0.05%) for the memory itself. (orig.)

  17. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim

  18. Relating triggering processes in lab experiments with earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro Urbea, J.; Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Charalampidou, E. M.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Vives, E.; Dresen, G.

    2016-12-01

    Statistical relations such as Gutenberg-Richter's, Omori-Utsu's and the productivity of aftershocks were first observed in seismology, but are also common to other physical phenomena exhibiting avalanche dynamics such as solar flares, rock fracture, structural phase transitions and even stock market transactions. All these examples exhibit spatio-temporal correlations that can be explained as triggering processes: Instead of being activated as a response to external driving or fluctuations, some events are consequence of previous activity. Although different plausible explanations have been suggested in each system, the ubiquity of such statistical laws remains unknown. However, the case of rock fracture may exhibit a physical connection with seismology. It has been suggested that some features of seismology have a microscopic origin and are reproducible over a vast range of scales. This hypothesis has motivated mechanical experiments to generate artificial catalogues of earthquakes at a laboratory scale -so called labquakes- and under controlled conditions. Microscopic fractures in lab tests release elastic waves that are recorded as ultrasonic (kHz-MHz) acoustic emission (AE) events by means of piezoelectric transducers. Here, we analyse the statistics of labquakes recorded during the failure of small samples of natural rocks and artificial porous materials under different controlled compression regimes. Temporal and spatio-temporal correlations are identified in certain cases. Specifically, we distinguish between the background and triggered events, revealing some differences in the statistical properties. We fit the data to statistical models of seismicity. As a particular case, we explore the branching process approach simplified in the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. We evaluate the empirical spatio-temporal kernel of the model and investigate the physical origins of triggering. Our analysis of the focal mechanisms implies that the occurrence

  19. Physics at the CERN collider using a ''minimum bias'' trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Bezaguet, A.; Boeck, R.; Calvetti, M.; Carroll, T.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ceradini, F.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; DiBitinto, D.; Ellis, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Jank, W.; Jorat, G.; Kowalski, H.; Kryn, D.; Lacava, F.; Markiewicz, T.; Maurin, G.; Muirhead, H.; Muller, F.; Naumann, L.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, G.; Placci, A.; Revol, J.P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohlf, J.; Rossi, P.; Rubbia, C.; Sadoulet, B.; Schinzel, D.; Tao, C.; Timmer, J.; Meer, S. van der; Vialle, J.P.; Vuillemin, V.; Xie, G.Y.; Zurfluh, E.; Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Rich, J.; Sass, R.; Saudraix, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spiro, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Geer, S.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Orkin-Lecourtois, A.; Sajot, G.; Vrana, J.; Bacci, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Corden, M.; Dallman, D.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Eggert, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Frey, R.; Fruehwirth, R.; Garvey, J.; Giboni, K.L.; Gibson, W.R.; Gutierrez, P.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hodges, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Karimaeki, V.; Keeler, R.; Kenyon, I.; Kernan, A.; Kinnunen, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Lehmann, H.; Leuchs, K.; McMahon, T.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Piano Mortari, G.; Pimiae, M.; Radermacher, E.; Ransdell, J.; Reithler, H.; Salvi, G.; Salvini, G.; Strauss, J.; Sumorok, K.; Szoncso, F.; Smith, D.; Thompson, G.; Tscheslog, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Wahl, H.D.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the physics of the events collected using this ''minimum bias trigger'' is described. After a brief description of the detector, I present results concerning particle production (pseudorapidity distributions, multiplicity and KNO scaling). Transverse energy distributions, long and short range correlations, and finally high psub(t) physics and jets. (orig./HSI)

  20. Upgrade of the global muon trigger at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00282545; Sakulin, Hannes

    2016-09-14

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the particle physics research laboratory in Geneva (CERN). As such it allows a broad array of physics analyses from precision measurements of the standard model of particle physics to searches for exotic new particles. A series of upgrades and maintenance procedures took place in the first shut down from 2013 to 2015. The aim was to prepare the LHC for the collision energy of 13 TeV and further increase its luminosity. During this shut down also upgrades of the CMS experiment were installed.Due to the high rate of collisions at the LHC, it is impossible to record all such events. In order to reduce the event rate to a manageable level, a trigger system is deployed that selects interesting events. At the CMS experiment this system is divided into two levels: A first hardware based system that is optimised for speed and a second that is software based and applies more time consuming and preci...

  1. Real time physics analysis with the ATLAS tau trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Lechuga, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the ATLAS tau trigger system at the LHC is most ambitious. It aims at reconstructing in real time, a matter of seconds, a detailed picture of the high energy proton proton collisions at the LHC. Such system is mandatory in order to select efficiently data needed for discovery of new physics in a proton proton collision environment where the rates of jets observed in the detector are high and the tau identification is difficult. New physics scenarios targeted specifically by the the ATLAS tau trigger system are Standard Model or Supersymmetric Higgs production, and production of new exotic resonances. This contribution will detail how the analysis techniques developed offline for efficient data analysis have been implemented in the algorithms which run online at the trigger. In particular, the focus will be on how to satisfy the requirements imposed by the physics goals while addressing the limitations from the overall event rate and latency allowed. The prospects for early running during the first LHC collisions and trigger evolution from first collisions to stable running will be also summarized, following change of trigger goals from commissioning of detector to measurement of Standard Model physics and discoveries. (author)

  2. Triggered fragmentation experiment with sodium, silicone oil and pentane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.

    1990-12-01

    Within the analysis of severe hypothetical fast breeder accidents the consequences of a fuel-coolant-interaction have to be considered, i.e. the thermal interaction between hot molten fuel and sodium. For the detailed understanding of the fragmentation during the thermal interaction of a hot liquid droplet with a cold fluid series of experiments were performed with sodium and solicone oil as hot liquid and pentane as cold easily volatile fluid. For the precise observation of the reaction an efficient high speed camera with a maximum recording frequency of 1x105 f/s was used. So the fragmentation caused by boiling phenomena could be observed. The pictures were used to estimate quantitatively e.g. the volume of the reaction zone and its expansion rate. By a special measuring device for the first time results on the time dependent portion of the liquid within the reaction zone could be gained. Based on the measured results of the experiments the course of a typical reaction, which can be devided into six phases, is presented and physically explained in this report. The influence of experimental parameters, as pressure of the external trigger and temperature of the hot liquid droplet, was investigated and from this the role of the homogeneous nucleation temperature and the external trigger for the reaction was deduced. (orig.) [de

  3. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  4. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  5. Particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory describes the work carried out in 1985 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  6. The Level 0 Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiozzi, S.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Mila, G.; Neri, I.; Petrucci, F.; Soldi, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the NA62 experiment at CERN, the intense flux of particles requires a high-performance trigger for the data acquisition system. A Level 0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) was realized, performing the event selection based on trigger primitives coming from sub-detectors and reducing the trigger rate from 10 to 1 MHz. The L0TP is based on a commercial FPGA device and has been implemented in two different solutions. The performance of the two systems are highlighted and compared.

  7. The Level 0 Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiozzi, S. [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Gamberini, E. [University of Ferrara and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Mila, G. [University of Turin and INFN, Turin (Italy); Neri, I., E-mail: neri@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Petrucci, F. [University of Ferrara and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Soldi, D. [University of Turin and INFN, Turin (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In the NA62 experiment at CERN, the intense flux of particles requires a high-performance trigger for the data acquisition system. A Level 0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) was realized, performing the event selection based on trigger primitives coming from sub-detectors and reducing the trigger rate from 10 to 1 MHz. The L0TP is based on a commercial FPGA device and has been implemented in two different solutions. The performance of the two systems are highlighted and compared.

  8. Recycled memories : can flashbacks be triggered through experience design?

    OpenAIRE

    Fridriksson, Fridrik Steinn

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon flashbacks, often named the Proust phenomenon, through the lens of experience design. The research question is Can flashbacks be triggered through experience design? It would then be possible to call flashbacks memories recycled memories. To answer the question former studies were researched, mainly from the standpoint of cognitive psychology. The thesis discusses how different senses produce flashbacks and how they can be used as triggers. The difference be...

  9. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedenmann, W

    2009-01-01

    Event selection in the Atlas High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The Atlas High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the Gaudi and Atlas Athena frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of Atlas, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking peri...

  10. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  11. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  12. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441925; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the trigger menu, the online algorithmic event-selection of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, are followed by adjustments to the ATLAS trigger monitoring systems. During Run 1, and so far in Run 2, ATLAS has deployed monitoring updates with the installation of new software releases at Tier-0, the first level of the ATLAS computing grid. Having to wait for a new software release to be installed at Tier-0, in order to update ATLAS offline trigger monitoring configurations, results in a lag with respect to the modification of the trigger menu. We present the design and implementation of a `trigger menu-aware' monitoring system that aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows by allowing monitoring configuration changes to be made at the Tier-0 site by utilising an Oracle SQL database.

  13. Upgrade of the Global Muon Trigger for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356020; Widmann, Eberhard

    The Large Hadron Collider is a large particle accelerator at the CERN research laboratory, designed to provide particle physics experiments with collisions at unprecedented centre-of-mass energies. For its second running period both the number of colliding particles and their collision energy were increased. To cope with these more challenging conditions and maintain the excellent performance seen during the first running period, the Level-1 trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment --- a sophisticated electronics system designed to filter events in real-time --- was upgraded. This upgrade consisted of the complete replacement of the trigger electronics and a full redesign of the system's architecture. While the calorimeter trigger path now follows a time-multiplexed processing model where the entire trigger data for a collision are received by a single processing board, the muon trigger path was split into regional track finding systems where each newly introduced track finder receives data from all th...

  14. Particle physics experiments 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, M.D.; Stuart, G.

    1983-01-01

    Work carried out in 1982 on 52 experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel is described. Each experiment is listed under title, collaboration, technique, accelerator, year of running, status and spokesman. Unedited contributions are given from each experiment. (U.K.)

  15. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  16. Sum-Trigger-II status and prospective physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francesco; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Schweizer, Thomas; Teshima, Masahiro [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Herranz, Diego; Lopez, Marcos [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Mariotti, Mose [Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Nakajima, Daisuke [The University of Tokio (Japan); Rodriguez Garcia, Jezabel [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    MAGIC is a stereoscopic system of 2 Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy, located at La Palma (Spain). Lowering the energy threshold of IACTs is crucial for the observation of Pulsars, high redshift AGNs and GRBs. A novel trigger strategy, based on the analogue sum of a patch of pixels, can lead to a lower threshold compared to conventional digital triggers. In the last years, a major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes took place in order to optimize the performances, mainly in the low energy domain. The PMTs camera and the reflective surface of MAGIC-I, as well as both readout systems, have been deeply renovated. The last important milestone is the implementation of a new stereoscopic analogue trigger, dubbed Sum-Trigger-II. The installation successfully ended in 2014 and the first data set has been already taken. Currently the fine-tuning of the main parameters as well as the comparison with Monte Carlo studies is ongoing. In this talk the status of Sum-Trigger-II and the future prospective physics cases at very low energy are presented.

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  18. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework: Experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenmann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Event selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the GAUDI and ATLAS ATHENA frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of ATLAS, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking periods with cosmic events and in a short period with proton beams from LHC. The contribution discusses the architectural aspects of the HLT framework, its performance and its software environment within the ATLAS computing, trigger and data flow projects. Emphasis is also put on the architectural implications for the software by the use of multi-core processors in the computing farms and the experiences gained with multi-threading and multi-process technologies.

  19. Report from the June Trigger and Physics Week

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Bee

    The week of June 4th saw the 5th ATLAS Trigger and Physics week at CERN. The meeting, bringing together people working in the trigger, data preparation, detector combined-performance and physics groups, aimed at focusing work and discussions on preparing ATLAS for first data-taking. The meeting started on Monday afternoon with a set of plenary presentations on topics ranging from software status and validation, the ATLAS analysis model and its implications for the computing model, and initial ideas for trigger menus for the expected LHC start-up luminosity of 1031cm-2s-1. There was also a report from Peter Jenni on the expected LHC start-up schedule. The participation exceeded the organisers' wildest dreams as the CERN Council Chamber (seating capacity 160) proved woefully inadequate to seat everyone. A packed Council Chamber for the opening plenary Tuesday was dedicated to parallel sessions of the trigger and combined performance groups. A great deal of progress was presented in all areas, notably on...

  20. Study of the electronic trigger system for HL-LHC project and search for new physics in top anti-top invariant mass spectrum with CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaupere, N.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes my thesis work within the CMS experiment of the LHC collider. It presents both subjects on which I worked: a detector subject and a data analysis subject. The first subject, detector, is situated within the framework of the HL-LHC project which plans an increase by a factor five of the instantaneous luminosity. Such an increase and the preservation of the high level trigger (HLT) system, generate new constraints on the CMS detector. This is particularly true for the electronic trigger (L1) system. The CMS collaboration intends to implant this within tracker detector. Two methods are proposed: the stub modules method and the associative memory method. However, associative memory method requires a clever pre-selection of electric signals to be usable. The cluster width method is jointly proposed by Fabrizio Palla's team (Pisa) and by Didier Contardo's team (IPNL) to pre-select electric signals. The optimization of this method, in particular geometrical parameters of modules and thresholds applied for the electric signals pre-selection, is the result of my own work. It is detailed throughout the part III of this manuscript. The second subject concerns the analysis of data collected by CMS during 2011. This analysis has for objective to look for new particles in the spectre of anti-top top invariant mass. Due to its big mass, close to the electroweak symmetry breaking energy, the top quark plays an important role in numerous extensions of the Standard Model. The observation of narrow resonances in the spectre could be the sign of new particles. The analysis is subdivided into three parts, the selection of top anti-top events, the reconstruction of top anti-top invariant mass and a statistical study to quantify the presence of new physics. The results of this work are limits on the cross-section production of new particles. They are presented in the part IV of this manuscript. (author)

  1. From the physical model to the electronic system - OMTF Trigger for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bluj, Michael; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Drabik, Pawel; Górski, Maciej; Kalinowski, A; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Miętki, Pawel; Okliński, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michal; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Zabołotny, Wojiech M; Zawistowski, Krystian; Żarnecki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the development of the Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) trigger for the CMS experiment at CERN. The transition from the data produced by the physical model to the algorithm suitable for practical implementation is shown. The paper also concentrates on the problems related to the necessity of continuous adaptation of the algorithm to the changing operating conditions of the detector

  2. Particle physics experiments 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1988 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. More than forty projects at different accelerators (SPS, ISIS, PETRA, LAMPF, LEP, HERA, BNL, ILL, LEAR) are listed. Different organisations collaborate on different projects. A brief progress report is given. References to published articles are given. (author)

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  5. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Xanthe; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present a“trigger menu-aware” monitoring system designed for the Run-2 data-taking of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Unlike Run-1, where a change in the trigger menu had to be matched by the installation of a new software release at Tier-0, the new monitoring system aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows. This is achieved by integrating monitoring updates in a quick and flexible manner via an Oracle DB interface. We present the design and the implementation of the menu-aware monitoring, along with lessons from the operational experience of the new system with the 2016 collision data.

  6. A Track Reconstructing Low-latency Trigger Processor for High-energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067518

    2009-01-01

    The detection and analysis of the large number of particles emerging from high-energy collisions between atomic nuclei is a major challenge in experimental heavy-ion physics. Efficient trigger systems help to focus the analysis on relevant events. A primary objective of the Transition Radiation Detector of the ALICE experiment at the LHC is to trigger on high-momentum electrons. In this thesis, a trigger processor is presented that employs massive parallelism to perform the required online event reconstruction within 2 µs to contribute to the Level-1 trigger decision. Its three-stage hierarchical architecture comprises 109 nodes based on FPGA technology. Ninety processing nodes receive data from the detector front-end at an aggregate net bandwidth of 2.16 Tbps via 1080 optical links. Using specifically developed components and interconnections, the system combines high bandwidth with minimum latency. The employed tracking algorithm three-dimensionally reassembles the track segments found in the detector's dr...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  9. A first-level calorimeter trigger for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, V.; Edwards, J.; Gee, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the RD27 collaboration the authors have carried out system studies on the implementation of the first level calorimeter trigger processor system for the ATLAS experiment to be mounted at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. A demonstrator trigger system operated successfully with the RD3 and RD33 calorimeters at the full 40 MHz LHC bunch crossing (BC) rate. The prototype application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in this system each processed data from only a single trigger cell and its environment, which would lead to an extremely large system for ATLAS. Using eight-bit parallel data even the use of ASICs, processing multiple trigger cells would demand unacceptably large numbers of input pins and module connections. Initial studies of this I/O problem produced a solution based on asynchronous transmission of zero-suppressed and BC-tagged data on 160 Mbit/s serial links. This approach appeared to be feasible but would have introduced additional latency of about 20 BCs. Further studies have led to the design of a fully-synchronous calorimeter trigger processor system using commercial high-speed optical links. The links will terminate in multi-chip modules (MCMs) incorporating custom-designed integrated optics, and the trigger algorithms will be implemented in ASICs

  10. The evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment, aimed at recording the results of LHC proton-proton collisions, is upgrading its Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system during the current LHC first long shutdown. The purpose of the upgrade is to add robustness and flexibility to the selection and the conveyance of the physics data, simplify the maintenance of the infrastructure, exploit new technologies and, overall, make ATLAS data-taking capable of dealing with increasing event rates. The TDAQ system used to date is organised in a three-level selection scheme, including a hardware-based first-level trigger and second- and third-level triggers implemented as separate software systems distributed on separate, commodity hardware nodes. While this architecture was successfully operated well beyond the original design goals, the accumulated experience stimulated interest to explore possible evolutions. We will also be upgrading the hardware of the TDAQ system by introducing new elements to it. For the high-level trigger, the current p...

  11. Particle physics experiments 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1993-03-01

    The research programs described here were carried out in 1992 at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The area covered in these experiments is particle physics. Unedited contributions from over forty experimental programs are included. Experiments are listed according to their current status, the accelerator used and its years of operation. (UK)

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  15. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  16. Internal interface for RFC muon trigger electronics at CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Pietrusinski, Michall

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes design and practical realization of an internal communication layer referred to as the Internal Interface (II). The system was realized for the RFC Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment. Fully automatic implementation of the communication layer is realized in the FPGA chips and in the control software. The methodology of implementation was presented in the description form of the interface structure from the sides of hardware and software. The examples of the communication layer realizations were given for the RFC Muon Trigger.

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  20. GPU-based real-time triggering in the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years the GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) paradigm represented a remarkable development in the world of computing. Computing for High-Energy Physics is no exception: several works have demonstrated the effectiveness of the integration of GPU-based systems in high level trigger of different experiments. On the other hand the use of GPUs in the low level trigger systems, characterized by stringent real-time constraints, such as tight time budget and high throughput, poses several challenges. In this paper we focus on the low level trigger in the CERN NA62 experiment, investigating the use of real-time computing on GPUs in this synchronous system. Our approach aimed at harvesting the GPU computing power to build in real-time refined physics-related trigger primitives for the RICH detector, as the the knowledge of Cerenkov rings parameters allows to build stringent conditions for data selection at trigger level. Latencies of all components of the trigger chain have...

  1. Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI. All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors. The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  12. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  13. A silicon track trigger for the DOe experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Meenakshi

    2000-01-01

    The design of a processor to trigger on long-lived particles (e.g. b-quarks) for the DOe experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is presented. This device reconstructs the trajectory of the charged particles in the DOe tracking system, which consists of a central fiber tracker and a silicon microstrip tracker. The r-phi impact parameter resolution of the fitted tracks is about 40 μm. This enables the identification of the long-lived b-quarks produced in the decays of various particles, e.g. the top quarks, Higgs Boson, techni-particles and other exotic particles produced in pp-bar collisions at the Tevatron. In this report we describe the design of the architecture and algorithms for the Silicon Track Trigger

  14. A silicon track trigger for the DOe experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, M

    2000-01-01

    The design of a processor to trigger on long-lived particles (e.g. b-quarks) for the DOe experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is presented. This device reconstructs the trajectory of the charged particles in the DOe tracking system, which consists of a central fiber tracker and a silicon microstrip tracker. The r-phi impact parameter resolution of the fitted tracks is about 40 mu m. This enables the identification of the long-lived b-quarks produced in the decays of various particles, e.g. the top quarks, Higgs Boson, techni-particles and other exotic particles produced in pp-bar collisions at the Tevatron. In this report we describe the design of the architecture and algorithms for the Silicon Track Trigger.

  15. The second level trigger of the L3 experiment. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Y.; Blaising, J.J.; Bonnefon, H.; Chollet-Leflour, F.; Degre, A.; Dromby, G.; Lecoq, J.; Morand, R.; Moynot, M.; Perrot, G.; Riccadonna, X.

    1994-01-01

    The second level trigger of the L3 experiment performs online background rejection and reduces the first level trigger rate to a value fitting with the third level trigger processing capability. Designed around a set of three bit-slice XOP microprocessors, it can process up to 500 first level triggers per second without significant dead time in the data acquisition. At each LEP beam crossing (45/90 kHz) the complete trigger information (5 kbytes) is memorized in a 1.4 gigabyte bandwidth real dual port memory. The XOP processor builds up the trigger block in less than 400 μs, and signs the background or physics origin of the current event in less than 3 ms. These very high performances rely essentially on the association of parallelism with high speed ECL technology, provided by dedicated processors fully integrated in Fastbus. Emphasis is given here to the specific hardware developed, to its operation and technical aspects of its installation and integration. The system described here ensures the L3 data taking since the beginning of LEP in July 1989 and the online rejection since 1990. (orig.)

  16. GPU Enhancement of the Trigger to Extend Physics Reach at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, V; Jindal, P; LeGresley, P; Lujan, P

    2013-01-01

    Significant new challenges are continuously confronting the High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, in particular the two detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, where nominal conditions deliver proton-proton collisions to the detectors at a rate of 40 MHz. This rate must be significantly reduced to comply with both the performance limitations of the mass storage hardware and the capabilities of the computing resources to process the collected data in a timely fashion for physics analysis. At the same time, the physics signals of interest must be retained with high efficiency. The quest for rare new physics phenomena at the LHC leads us to evaluate a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) enhancement of the existing High-Level Trigger (HLT), made possible by the current flexibility of the trigger system, which not only provides faster and more efficient event selection, but also includes the possibility of new complex triggers that were not previously feasible. A new tracking algorithm is evaluated on a ...

  17. A track reconstructing low-latency trigger processor for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuveland, Jan de

    2009-01-01

    The detection and analysis of the large number of particles emerging from high-energy collisions between atomic nuclei is a major challenge in experimental heavy-ion physics. Efficient trigger systems help to focus the analysis on relevant events. A primary objective of the Transition Radiation Detector of the ALICE experiment at the LHC is to trigger on high-momentum electrons. In this thesis, a trigger processor is presented that employs massive parallelism to perform the required online event reconstruction within 2 μs to contribute to the Level-1 trigger decision. Its three-stage hierarchical architecture comprises 109 nodes based on FPGA technology. Ninety processing nodes receive data from the detector front-end at an aggregate net bandwidth of 2.16 Tbit/s via 1080 optical links. Using specifically developed components and interconnections, the system combines high bandwidth with minimum latency. The employed tracking algorithm three-dimensionally reassembles the track segments found in the detector's drift chambers based on explicit value comparisons, calculates the momentum of the originating particles from the course of the reconstructed tracks, and finally leads to a trigger decision. The architecture is capable of processing up to 20 000 track segments in less than 2 μs with high detection efficiency and reconstruction precision for high-momentum particles. As a result, this thesis shows how a trigger processor performing complex online track reconstruction within tight real-time requirements can be realized. The presented hardware has been built and is in continuous data taking operation in the ALICE experiment. (orig.)

  18. A track reconstructing low-latency trigger processor for high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuveland, Jan de

    2009-09-17

    The detection and analysis of the large number of particles emerging from high-energy collisions between atomic nuclei is a major challenge in experimental heavy-ion physics. Efficient trigger systems help to focus the analysis on relevant events. A primary objective of the Transition Radiation Detector of the ALICE experiment at the LHC is to trigger on high-momentum electrons. In this thesis, a trigger processor is presented that employs massive parallelism to perform the required online event reconstruction within 2 {mu}s to contribute to the Level-1 trigger decision. Its three-stage hierarchical architecture comprises 109 nodes based on FPGA technology. Ninety processing nodes receive data from the detector front-end at an aggregate net bandwidth of 2.16 Tbit/s via 1080 optical links. Using specifically developed components and interconnections, the system combines high bandwidth with minimum latency. The employed tracking algorithm three-dimensionally reassembles the track segments found in the detector's drift chambers based on explicit value comparisons, calculates the momentum of the originating particles from the course of the reconstructed tracks, and finally leads to a trigger decision. The architecture is capable of processing up to 20 000 track segments in less than 2 {mu}s with high detection efficiency and reconstruction precision for high-momentum particles. As a result, this thesis shows how a trigger processor performing complex online track reconstruction within tight real-time requirements can be realized. The presented hardware has been built and is in continuous data taking operation in the ALICE experiment. (orig.)

  19. High level trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, U.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestabo, A.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Schulz, M.; Steinbeck, T.; Wiebalck, A.; Skaali, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of ∼75 MByte/event. The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system. Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques. Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition. One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, and connected by a high bandwidth, low latency network

  20. The evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment, aimed at recording the results of LHC proton-proton collisions, is upgrading its Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system during the current LHC first long shutdown. The purpose of such upgrade is to add robustness and flexibility to the selection and the conveyance of the physics data, simplify the maintenance of the infrastructure, exploit new technologies and, overall, make ATLAS data-taking capable of dealing with increasing event rates. The TDAQ system used to date is organised in a three-level selection scheme, including a hardware-based first-level trigger and second- and third-level triggers implemented as separate software systems distributed on commodity hardware nodes. The second-level trigger operates over limited regions of the detector, the so-called Regions-of-Interest (RoI). The third-level trigger deals instead with complete events. While this architecture was successfully operated well beyond the original design goals, the accumulated experience stimulated interest to...

  1. The Evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment, aimed at recording the results of LHC proton-proton collisions, is upgrading its Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system during the current LHC first long shutdown. The purpose of such upgrade is to add robustness and flexibility to the selection and the conveyance of the physics data, simplify the maintenance of the infrastructure, exploit new technologies and, overall, make ATLAS data-taking capable of dealing with increasing event rates. \

  2. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hoad, Xanthe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the trigger menu, the online algorithmic event-selection of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in response to luminosity and detector changes are followed by adjustments in their monitoring system. This is done to ensure that the collected data is useful, and can be properly reconstructed at Tier-0, the first level of the computing grid. During Run 1, ATLAS deployed monitoring updates with the installation of new software releases at Tier-0. This created unnecessary overhead for developers and operators, and unavoidably led to different releases for the data-taking and the monitoring setup. We present a "trigger menu-aware" monitoring system designed for the ATLAS Run 2 data-taking. The new monitoring system aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows, and allows for easy and flexible monitoring configuration changes at the Tier-0 site via an Oracle DB interface. We present the design and the implementation of the menu-aware monitoring, along with lessons from the operational experience of the ne...

  3. The Resource utilization by ATLAS High Level Triggers. The contributed talk for the Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011.

    CERN Document Server

    Ospanov, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the ATLAS experiment has successfully recorded data from LHC collisions with high efficiency and excellent data quality. ATLAS employs a three-level trigger system to select events of interest for physics analyses and detector commissioning. The trigger system consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger at level-1 (L1) and software algorithms executing on commodity servers at the two higher levels: second level trigger (L2) and event filter (EF). The corresponding trigger rates are 75~kHz, 3~kHz and 200~Hz. The L2 uses custom algorithms to examine a small fraction of data at full detector granularity in Regions of Interest selected by the L1. The EF employs offline algorithms and full detector data for more computationally intensive analysis. The trigger selection is defined by trigger menus which consist of more than 500 individual trigger signatures, such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. An execution of a trigger signature incurs computing and data storage costs. A composition of the depl...

  4. Sustained spheromak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, will study spheromak physics with particular attention to energy confinement and magnetic fluctuations in a spheromak sustained by electrostatic helicity injection. In order to operate in a low collisionality mode, requiring T e >100 eV, vacuum techniques developed for tokamaks will be applied, and a divertor will be used for the first time in a spheromak. The discharge will operate for pulse lengths of several milliseconds, long compared to the time to establish a steady-state equilibrium but short compared to the L/R time of the flux conserver. The spheromak and helicity injector ('gun') are closely coupled, as shown by an ideal MHD model with force-free injector and edge plasmas. The current from the gun passes along the symmetry axis of the spheromak, and the resulting toroidal magnetic field causes the safety factor, q, to diverge on the separatrix. The q-profile depends on the ratio of the injector current to spheromak current and on the magnetic flux coupling the injector to the spheromak. New diagnostics include magnetic field measurements by a reflectometer operating in combined O- and X-modes and by a transient internal probe (TIP). (author)

  5. Sustained spheromak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    1999-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, will study spheromak physics with particular attention to energy confinement and magnetic fluctuations in a spheromak sustained by electrostatic helicity injection. In order to operate in a low collisionality mode, requiring T e > 100 eV, vacuum techniques developed for tokamaks will be applied, and a divertor will be used for the first time in a spheromak. The discharge will operate for pulse lengths of several milliseconds, long compared to the time to establish a steady-state equilibrium but short compared to the L/R time of the flux conserver. The spheromak and helicity injector ('gun') are closely coupled, as shown by an ideal MHD model with force-free injector and edge plasmas. The current from the gun passes along the symmetry axis of the spheromak, and the resulting toroidal magnetic field causes the safety factor, q, to diverge on the separatrix. The q-profile depends on the ratio of the injector current to spheromak current and on the magnetic flux coupling the injector to the spheromak. New diagnostics include magnetic field measurements by a reflectometer operating in combined O- and X-modes and by a transient internal probe (TIP). (author)

  6. Evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, Sami; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to observe proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC accelerator. The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the selection and the conveyance of physics data, reducing the rate of stored events from the initial 40 MHz LHC frequency to several hundreds Hz. The TDAQ system is organised in a three-level selection scheme, including a hardware-based first-level trigger and second- and third-level triggers implemented as software systems distributed on commodity hardware nodes. The second-level trigger operates over limited regions of the detector, the so-called Regions-of-Interest (RoI). The last selection step deals instead with complete events. In the current design, the second and third trigger levels are separate systems. While this architecture was successfully operated well beyond the original design goals, the accumulated experience stimulated interest to explore possible evolutions. One attractive direction is to merge the second and third tri...

  7. Evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to observe proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC accelerator. The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the selection and the conveyance of physics data, reducing the rate of stored events from the initial $40\\MHz$ LHC frequency to several hundreds Hz. The TDAQ system is organized in a three-level selection scheme, including a hardware-based first-level trigger and second- and third-level triggers implemented as software systems distributed on commodity hardware nodes. The second-level trigger operates over limited regions of the detector, the so-called Regions-of-Interest (RoI). The last selection step deals instead with complete events. In the current design, the second and third trigger levels are separate systems. While this architecture was successfully operated well beyond the original design goals, the accumulated experience stimulated interest to explore possible evolutions. One attractive direction is to merge the second and third t...

  8. Operational experience with the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Artur

    2012-12-01

    The ALICE HLT is a dedicated real-time system for online event reconstruction and triggering. Its main goal is to reduce the raw data volume read from the detectors by an order of magnitude, to fit within the available data acquisition bandwidth. This is accomplished by a combination of data compression and triggering. When HLT is enabled, data is recorded only for events selected by HLT. The combination of both approaches allows for flexible data reduction strategies. Event reconstruction places a high computational load on HLT. Thus, a large dedicated computing cluster is required, comprising 248 machines, all interconnected with InfiniBand. Running a large system like HLT in production mode proves to be a challenge. During the 2010 pp and Pb-Pb data-taking period, many problems were experienced that led to a sub-optimal operational efficiency. Lessons were learned and certain crucial changes were made to the architecture and software in preparation for the 2011 Pb-Pb run, in which HLT had a vital role performing data compression for ALICE's largest detector, the TPC. An overview of the status of the HLT and experience from the 2010/2011 production runs are presented. Emphasis is given to the overall performance, showing an improved efficiency and stability in 2011 compared to 2010, attributed to the significant improvements made to the system. Further opportunities for improvement are identified and discussed.

  9. Operational experience with the ALICE High Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szostak, Artur

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE HLT is a dedicated real-time system for online event reconstruction and triggering. Its main goal is to reduce the raw data volume read from the detectors by an order of magnitude, to fit within the available data acquisition bandwidth. This is accomplished by a combination of data compression and triggering. When HLT is enabled, data is recorded only for events selected by HLT. The combination of both approaches allows for flexible data reduction strategies. Event reconstruction places a high computational load on HLT. Thus, a large dedicated computing cluster is required, comprising 248 machines, all interconnected with InfiniBand. Running a large system like HLT in production mode proves to be a challenge. During the 2010 pp and Pb-Pb data-taking period, many problems were experienced that led to a sub-optimal operational efficiency. Lessons were learned and certain crucial changes were made to the architecture and software in preparation for the 2011 Pb-Pb run, in which HLT had a vital role performing data compression for ALICE's largest detector, the TPC. An overview of the status of the HLT and experience from the 2010/2011 production runs are presented. Emphasis is given to the overall performance, showing an improved efficiency and stability in 2011 compared to 2010, attributed to the significant improvements made to the system. Further opportunities for improvement are identified and discussed.

  10. Readout and triggering of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The readout and triggering electronics for the Soudan 2 proton decay detector is presented. Pratically all the electronics is implemented in CMOS. The triggering scheme is highly flexible and software controllable

  11. A first level trigger approach for the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinle, Christian Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In view of the very heavy CBM experiment constraints on the first level trigger, no conventional trigger is obviously applicable. Hence a fast trigger algorithm with the goal of realization in reconfigurable hardware had to be developed to fulfil all requirements of the experiment. In this connection the general Hough transform, which is already utilized in several other experiments, is used as a basis. This approach constitutes further a global method for tracking, which transforms all particle interaction points with the detector stations by means of a defined formula into a parameter space corresponding to the momentum of the particle tracks. This formula is of course developed especially for the given environment of CBM and defines thus the core of the applied three dimensional Hough transform. As the main focus of attention is furthermore on the realization of the needed data throughput, the necessary complex formula calculations give reason to outsource predefined formula results in look-up tables. This circumstance offers then collaterally the possibility to utilize any other sufficiently precise method like Runge-Kutta of fourth order for example to compute these look-up tables, because this computation can be evidently done offline without any effect on the Hough transform's processing speed. For algorithm simulation purposes the CBMROOT framework provides the module 'track', which is written in the programming language C++. This module includes many analyses for the determination of algorithm parameters, which can be even executed automatically to some extent. In addition to this, there are of course also analyses for the measurement of the algorithm's quality as well as for the individual rating of each partial step of the algorithm. Consequently the milestone of a customizable level one tracking algorithm, which can be used without any specific knowledge, is now obtained. Besides this, the investigated concepts are explicitly considered in the

  12. A first level trigger approach for the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinle, Christian Alexander

    2012-07-01

    In view of the very heavy CBM experiment constraints on the first level trigger, no conventional trigger is obviously applicable. Hence a fast trigger algorithm with the goal of realization in reconfigurable hardware had to be developed to fulfil all requirements of the experiment. In this connection the general Hough transform, which is already utilized in several other experiments, is used as a basis. This approach constitutes further a global method for tracking, which transforms all particle interaction points with the detector stations by means of a defined formula into a parameter space corresponding to the momentum of the particle tracks. This formula is of course developed especially for the given environment of CBM and defines thus the core of the applied three dimensional Hough transform. As the main focus of attention is furthermore on the realization of the needed data throughput, the necessary complex formula calculations give reason to outsource predefined formula results in look-up tables. This circumstance offers then collaterally the possibility to utilize any other sufficiently precise method like Runge-Kutta of fourth order for example to compute these look-up tables, because this computation can be evidently done offline without any effect on the Hough transform's processing speed. For algorithm simulation purposes the CBMROOT framework provides the module 'track', which is written in the programming language C++. This module includes many analyses for the determination of algorithm parameters, which can be even executed automatically to some extent. In addition to this, there are of course also analyses for the measurement of the algorithm's quality as well as for the individual rating of each partial step of the algorithm. Consequently the milestone of a customizable level one tracking algorithm, which can be used without any specific knowledge, is now obtained. Besides this, the investigated concepts are explicitly considered in the

  13. A first level trigger approach for the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinle, Christian Alexander

    2012-07-01

    In view of the very heavy CBM experiment constraints on the first level trigger, no conventional trigger is obviously applicable. Hence a fast trigger algorithm with the goal of realization in reconfigurable hardware had to be developed to fulfil all requirements of the experiment. In this connection the general Hough transform, which is already utilized in several other experiments, is used as a basis. This approach constitutes further a global method for tracking, which transforms all particle interaction points with the detector stations by means of a defined formula into a parameter space corresponding to the momentum of the particle tracks. This formula is of course developed especially for the given environment of CBM and defines thus the core of the applied three dimensional Hough transform. As the main focus of attention is furthermore on the realization of the needed data throughput, the necessary complex formula calculations give reason to outsource predefined formula results in look-up tables. This circumstance offers then collaterally the possibility to utilize any other sufficiently precise method like Runge-Kutta of fourth order for example to compute these look-up tables, because this computation can be evidently done offline without any effect on the Hough transform's processing speed. For algorithm simulation purposes the CBMROOT framework provides the module 'track', which is written in the programming language C++. This module includes many analyses for the determination of algorithm parameters, which can be even executed automatically to some extent. In addition to this, there are of course also analyses for the measurement of the algorithm's quality as well as for the individual rating of each partial step of the algorithm. Consequently the milestone of a customizable level one tracking algorithm, which can be used without any specific knowledge, is now obtained. Besides this, the investigated concepts are explicitly

  14. Smart Trigger Pre-Processor Custom Electronics for the PHENIX Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, James L.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The document provides a final technical report on activities and accomplishments of the experimental relativistic heavy ion physics group at the University of Colorado at Boulder as supported by the Outstanding Junior Investigator Program, Division of Nuclear Physics at the Department of Energy. All of the goals of the grant proposal were achieved during this last year of the Outstanding Junior Investigator funding period. The development of a Smart Trigger Pre-Processor module for fast trigger primitive calculations in the PHENIX experiment has been completed. We finalized the board design, constructed and tested two prototype modules, and with additional funding from the PHENIX project, we fabricated a full set of 15 modules for the Muon Tracking system. During Run-4 at RHIC:, we have begun the process of integrating these modules into the PHENIX data acquisition system, Additionally, we put a large Effort into developing new trigger and fast-track analysis methods for J j J data filtering and reconstruction. These algorithms make use of the trigger primitivE∼s generated via the new electronics

  15. A Level 1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzobon, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine is planned to be upgraded in the next decade in order to deliver a luminosity about 5 to 10 times larger than the design one of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. In this scenario, a novel tracking system for the CMS experiment is required to be conceived and built. The main requirements on the CMS tracker are presented. Particular emphasis will be given to the challenging capability of the tracker to provide useful information for the Level 1 hardware trigger, complementary to the muon system and calorimeter ones. Different approaches based on pattern hit correlation within closely placed sensors are currently under evaluation, making use of either strips or macro-pixels. A proposal to optimize the data flow at the front-end ASIC and develop a tracking algorithm to provide tracks at Level 1 will be presented.

  16. GPUs for the realtime low-level trigger of the NA62 experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Biagioni, A; Chiozzi, S; Cotta Ramusino, A; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Graverini, E; Lamanna, G; Lonardo, A; Messina, A; Neri, I; Pantaleo, F; Paolucci, P S; Piandani, R; Pontisso, L; Simula, F; Sozzi, M; Vicini, P

    2015-01-01

    A pilot project for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) in online triggering ap- plications for high energy physics experiments (HEP) is presented. GPUs offer a highly parallel architecture and the fact that most of the chip resources are devoted to computa- tion. Moreover, they allow to achieve a large computing power using a limited amount of space and power. The application of online parallel computing on GPUs is shown for the synchronous low level trigger of NA62 experiment at CERN. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been exploited to reduce the data transmission latency and results on a first field test at CERN will be highlighted. This work is part of a wider project named GAP (GPU application project), intended to study the use of GPUs in real-time applications in both HEP and medical imagin

  17. Improving the ATLAS physics potential with the Fast Track Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Viviana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accept rate, 100 kHz, to provide high quality tracks as input to the High-Level Trigger. The event reconstruction is performed in hardware, thanks to the massive parallelism of associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. We present the advantages for the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment and the recent results on the design, technological advancements and testing of some of the core components used in the processor.

  18. Physical experience enhances science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-06-01

    Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrion, O., E-mail: olivier.bourrion@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-11

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  20. arXiv Level Zero Trigger Processor for the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00584493; Chiozzi, Stefano

    2018-05-02

    The NA62 experiment is designed to measure the ultra-rare decay K+ arrow π+ ν  branching ratio with a precision of ~ 10% at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The trigger system of NA62 consists in three different levels designed to select events of physics interest in a high beam rate environment. The L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) is the lowest level system of the trigger chain. It is hardware implemented using programmable logic. The architecture of the NA62 L0TP system is a new approach compared to existing systems used in high-energy physics experiments. It is fully digital, based on a standard gigabit Ethernet communication between detectors and the L0TP Board. The L0TP Board is a commercial development board, mounting a programmable logic device (FPGA). The primitives generated by sub-detectors are sent asynchronously using the UDP protocol to the L0TP during the entire beam spill period. The L0TP realigns in time the primitives coming from seven different sources and performs a data selectio...

  1. Tracking in the trigger from the CDF experience to CMS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, F

    2007-01-01

    Precise tracking information in the online selection of interesting physics events is extremely beneficial at hadron colliders. The CDF experiment at the Tevatron, has shown for the first time the impact of the tracking in triggers, allowing to achieve unprecedented precision in B-physics measurements. The CMS experiment at LHC will largely make use of tracking information at high level trigger, after the Level-1 acceptance. The increased luminosity of the Super-LHC collider will impose to CMS a drastic revision of the Level-1 trigger strategy, incorporating the tracker information at the first stage of the selection. After a review of the CDF and CMS approaches we will discuss several possible Level-1 tracker based concepts for the upgraded CMS detector at Super-LHC. One approach is based on associative memories, which has already been demonstrated in CDF. It makes use of binary readout in the front end electronics, followed by transfer of the full granularity data off detector using optical links to dedicat...

  2. The Level-1 Global Muon Trigger for the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakulin, H; Taurok, Anton

    2003-01-01

    The three independent Level-1 muon trigger systems in CMS deliver up to 16 muon candidates per bunch crossing, each described by transverse momentum, direction, charge and quality. The Global Muon Trigger combines these measurements in order to find the best four muon candidates in the entire detector and attaches bits from the calorimeter trigger to denote calorimetric isolation and confirmation. A single-board logic design is presented: via a special front panel and a custom back plane more...

  3. Conceptual investigations of a trigger extension for muons from pp collisions in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Large Hadron Collider can provide its experiments with five to ten times more luminosity than the current design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . This upgrade will allow for the measurement of physics processes with very small cross sections. However, at these high luminosities, due to the pileup interactions, the detector occupancy will be very high. This will cause, on the one hand, a systematic increase of the trigger rates for single muons. On the other hand, amplified by the limited momentum resolution of the muon system, mismeasurements of the transverse momenta of muons will be dominant in the high momentum regime. In this region, the trigger rate distribution will saturate and the rate limitation with a transverse momentum threshold will be difficult. Furthermore, the quality of the single muon trigger at Level 1 will be decreased due to coincident particle transitions causing ambiguities in the innermost muon chambers. In 2007, a concept called Muon Track fast Tag (MTT) was introduced to address these trigger challenges. The studies, performed in this thesis, are divided into three parts. Concerning the MTT proposal, the main part deals with conceptual investigations on the possible trigger extension for muons from proton proton collisions in the CMS experiment. Thereby, the focus lies on the fundamental question of the muon detection capability of a scintillator system with SiPM readout. Such a system is the Hadron Outer calorimeter of CMS which is used for studies to answer this question. In the second part, the integration of the MTT system in the geometry description of the CMS detector is outlined. Thereby, it is written as a technical recipe which allows the understanding of the implementation of a new detector system in the CMS detector description. The last part of this thesis focuses on the Geant 4 simulations of the first MTT prototype. In this part, together with the simulation setup, selected results are introduced.

  4. Prompt physics analysis from the trigger candidates at LHCb: strategy and new dedicated "TURBO" and PID calibration streams

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00038235

    2016-01-01

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014), the LHCb detector remained essentially unchanged, while the trigger system has been completely revised. Upgrades to the LHCb computing infrastructure have allowed for high quality decay information to be calculated by the software trigger, making separate offline event reconstruction unnecessary. The storage space of the triggered candidate is an order of magnitude smaller than the entire raw event that would otherwise need to be persisted. An application has been designed to process the information calculated by the trigger, with the resulting output used to directly perform physics measurements. Reaching the ultimate precision of the LHCb experiment in real time as the data arrive has the power to transform the experimental approach to processing large quantities of data.

  5. Experience of Percutaneous Trigger Finger Release under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trigger finger is a common disorder of upper extremity. Majority of the patients can be treated conservatively but some resistant cases eventually need surgery. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of percutaneous trigger finger release under local anesthesia. Subjects and Methods: This is a ...

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on triggering and data acquisition for experiments at the Supercollider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R. [ed.

    1989-04-01

    This meeting covered the following subjects: triggering requirements for SSC physics; CDF level 3 trigger; D0 trigger design; AMY trigger systems; Zeus calorimeter first level trigger; data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector; trigger and data acquisition aspects for SSC tracking; data acquisition systems for the SSC; validating triggers in CDF level 3; optical data transmission at SSC; time measurement system at SSC; SSC/BCD data acquisition system; microprocessors and other processors for triggering and filtering at the SSC; data acquisition, event building, and on-line processing; LAA real-time benchmarks; object-oriented system building at SSC; and software and project management. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Experiments in Fundamental Neutron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, J. S.; Snow, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments using slow neutrons address a growing range of scientific issues spanning nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The field of fundamental physics using neutrons has experienced a significant increase in activity over the last two decades. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in the field and outlines some of the prospects for future research.

  8. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems (CHEP2013: 20. international conference on computing in high energy and nuclear physics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, G; Lamanna, G; Piandani, R [INFN, Pisa (Italy); Ammendola, R [INFN, Rome " Tor Vergata" (Italy); Bauce, M; Giagu, S; Messina, A [University, Rome " Sapienza" (Italy); Biagioni, A; Lonardo, A; Paolucci, P S; Rescigno, M; Simula, F; Vicini, P [INFN, Rome " Sapienza" (Italy); Fantechi, R [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M [University and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Graverini, E; Pantaleo, F; Sozzi, M [University, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-06-11

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  9. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems (CHEP2013: 20. international conference on computing in high energy and nuclear physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, G; Lamanna, G; Piandani, R; Tor Vergata (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Tor Vergata (Italy))" >Ammendola, R; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (University, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Bauce, M; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (University, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Giagu, S; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (University, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Messina, A; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Biagioni, A; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Lonardo, A; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Paolucci, P S; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Rescigno, M; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Simula, F; Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (INFN, Rome Sapienza (Italy))" >Vicini, P; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, M; Graverini, E; Pantaleo, F; Sozzi, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  10. The Level 0 Pixel Trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinella, G Aglieri; Kluge, A; Krivda, M

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector contains 1200 readout chips. Fast-OR signals indicate the presence of at least one hit in the 8192 pixel matrix of each chip. The 1200 bits are transmitted every 100 ns on 120 data readout optical links using the G-Link protocol. The Pixel Trigger System extracts and processes them to deliver an input signal to the Level 0 trigger processor targeting a latency of 800 ns. The system is compact, modular and based on FPGA devices. The architecture allows the user to define and implement various trigger algorithms. The system uses advanced 12-channel parallel optical fiber modules operating at 1310 nm as optical receivers and 12 deserializer chips closely packed in small area receiver boards. Alternative solutions with multi-channel G-Link deserializers implemented directly in programmable hardware devices were investigated. The design of the system and the progress of the ALICE Pixel Trigger project are described in this paper

  11. Experience of Percutaneous Trigger Finger Release under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Delhi, India. ... This procedure is easy, quicker, less complications and economical with good results. ... Sahu and Gupta: Trigger finger release under local anesthesia .... the most cost-effective treatment is two trials of corticosteroid.

  12. Simulated experiments in modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirnini, Mahmud Hasan

    1981-01-01

    Author.In this thesis a number of the basic experiments of atomic and nuclear physics are simulated on a microcomputer interfaced to a chart recorder and CRT. These will induce the student to imagine that he is actually performing the experiments. He will collect data to be worked out. The thesis covers the relevant material to set up such experiments in the modern physics laboratory

  13. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems (ACAT2013: 15. international workshop on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R; Biagioni, A; Frezza, O; Cicero, F Lo; Lonardo, A; Messina, A; Paolucci, PS; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P [INFN Roma,P.le A.Moro,2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Deri, L; Sozzi, M; Pantaleo, F [Pisa University, Largo B.Pontecorvo,3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiorini, M [Ferrara University, Via Saragat,1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G [INFN Pisa, laro B.Pontecorvo,3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collaboration: GAP Collaboration

    2014-06-06

    We describe a pilot project (GAP – GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ({sup t}rigger-less{sup )}. The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  14. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems (ACAT2013: 15. international workshop on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R; Biagioni, A; Frezza, O; Cicero, F Lo; Lonardo, A; Messina, A; Paolucci, PS; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P; Deri, L; Sozzi, M; Pantaleo, F; Fiorini, M; Lamanna, G

    2014-01-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP – GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ( t rigger-less ) . The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications

  15. The CDF silicon vertex trigger for B-mesons physics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.; Donati, S.; Ristori, L.; Spinella, F.; Budagov, Yu.; Chlachidze, G.; Glagolev, V.; Semenov, A.; Sisakyan, A.; Punzi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The CDF scientific program includes particularly the study of some key topics of the Standard Model: 1) constraint of the CKM matrix: CP violation in B sector (B 0 → π + π - ) and B s mixing (B s 0 → D s - π + , B s 0 → D s - π + π - π + ); 2) t-quark physics (t → Wb); and processes beyond the Standard Model - e.g., Higgs searching (MSSM) in the H → b bar b mode. All the above processes have the common feature - the presence of b-quarks (B-mesons). B hadrons of sufficiently high transverse momentum are characterized by a large mean value of distribution of the impact parameter with respect to the beam axis. That means events containing this kind of particles can be recognized and separated from non-long-lived background simply by cutting on the track's impact parameter. The upgraded CDF is equipped by the so-called Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), a unique electronic device for real time track reconstruction using the data from two CDF track detectors: the silicon strip vertex detector and drift chamber. The SVT is a level-2 trigger which within 10 μs reconstructs the tracks and obtains the transverse momentum (p t ), azimuthal angle (φ) and impact parameter (d) with 30 μm precision. The simulation studies show the background reduction by factor 1000 for B 0 π + π - by demand d > 100 μm for at least two tracks. This trigger is the first one of this sort ever used for hadron collider experiments: it enables to trigger on the secondary vertex, which opens the unique new opportunities in the heavy quark physics study. The basic logic, architecture and perspectives of SVT application are briefly described

  16. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed online. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans. (orig.)

  17. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans

  18. The Level-0 Muon Trigger for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanides, E; Cogan, J; Duval, P Y; Le Gac, R; Leroy, O; Liotard, PL; Marin, F; Favard, S; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2006-01-01

    The Level-0 Muon Trigger looks for straight tracks crossing the five muon stations of the LHCb muon detector and measures their transverse momentum. The tracking uses a road algorithm relying on the projectivity of the muon detector. The architecture of the Level-0 muon trigger is pipeline and massively parallel. Receiving 130 GBytes/s of input data, it reconstructs muon candidates for each bunch crossing (25 ns) in less than 1.2 $\\mu$S. It relies on an intensive use of high speed multigigabit serial links where high speed serializers/deserializers are embedded in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs).

  19. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  20. Triggering, front-end electronics, and data acquisition for high-rate beauty experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Lankford, A.J.

    1988-04-01

    The working group explored the feasibility of building a trigger and an electronics data acquisition system for both collider and fixed target experiments. There appears to be no fundamental technical limitation arising from either the rate or the amount of data for a collider experiment. The fixed target experiments will likely require a much higher rate because of the smaller cross section. Rates up to one event per RF bucket (50 MHz) appear to be feasible. Higher rates depend on the details of the particular experiment and trigger. Several ideas were presented on multiplicity jump and impact parameter triggers for fixed target experiments. 14 refs., 3 figs

  1. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Configuration and Steering, Experience with the First 7 TeV Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz was expected. At ATLAS, events of potential physics interest for are selected by a three-level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in customized hardware, the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers. For the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event, the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independence of each signature test and an unbiased trigger decisions. Yet, to minimize data readout and execution time, cached detector data and once-calculated trigger objects are reused to form the decision. Some signature tests are performed only on a scaled-down fraction of candidate events, in order to reduce the...

  2. Physics performances with the new ATLAS Level-1 Topological trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414333; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system aims at reducing the 40 MHz proton-proton collision event rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, preserving events valuable for physics analysis. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system, with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is composed of the calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and central trigger processor. During the last upgrade, a new electronics element was introduced to Level-1: The Topological Processor System. It will make it possible to use detailed realtime information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, processed in individual state of the art FPGA processors to determine angles between jets and/or leptons and calculate kinematic variables based on lists of selected/sorted objects. More than one hundred VHDL algorithms are producing trigger outputs to be incorporated into the central trigger processor. This information will be essential to improve background reject...

  3. Particle physics experiments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Data taking for this experiment was completed in December 1983. The samples include approximately 19,000 (ν) and 11,000 (ν-bar) charged current events. These constitute the largest data set of interactions on free protons. Work published to date includes studies of inclusive structure functions and final state properties, exclusive final states, neutral current cross sections and production of strange and charmed particles. During the past year results have been published on the production of f 2 (1270) and ν 0 (770) mesons in ρp and ρ-barp charged current interactions. In the case of the f 2 this represents the first observation of such production. It is found that the multiplicities are 0.047±0.017 in ρp and 0.17±0.018 in ρ-barp. The f 2 mesons are mostly produced at large hadronic invariant mass W and in the forward hemisphere. The production of ν 0 mesons can be observed with high statistics in both ρp and ρ-barp interactions and the differential cross section studied. The observations are compared with LUND Monte Carlo predictions, which are generally found to be too high. However qualitative features of the data are reproduced. Work continues on a precise determination of the neutral current/charged current ratio, on the study of charged and neutral current structure functions and on the production of strange particles. (author)

  4. Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nicholas; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Moran, Robert; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    Trigger points are promoted as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain. There is no accepted reference standard for the diagnosis of trigger points, and data on the reliability of physical examination for trigger points are conflicting. To systematically review the literature on the reliability of physical examination for the diagnosis of trigger points. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other sources were searched for articles reporting the reliability of physical examination for trigger points. Included studies were evaluated for their quality and applicability, and reliability estimates were extracted and reported. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. None satisfied all quality and applicability criteria. No study specifically reported reliability for the identification of the location of active trigger points in the muscles of symptomatic participants. Reliability estimates varied widely for each diagnostic sign, for each muscle, and across each study. Reliability estimates were generally higher for subjective signs such as tenderness (kappa range, 0.22-1.0) and pain reproduction (kappa range, 0.57-1.00), and lower for objective signs such as the taut band (kappa range, -0.08-0.75) and local twitch response (kappa range, -0.05-0.57). No study to date has reported the reliability of trigger point diagnosis according to the currently proposed criteria. On the basis of the limited number of studies available, and significant problems with their design, reporting, statistical integrity, and clinical applicability, physical examination cannot currently be recommended as a reliable test for the diagnosis of trigger points. The reliability of trigger point diagnosis needs to be further investigated with studies of high quality that use current diagnostic criteria in clinically relevant patients.

  5. Nuclear physics experiment at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Kenzo.

    1981-02-01

    Present activities at the Institute for Nuclear Study (INS) are presented. Selected topics are from recent experiments by use of the INS cyclotron, experiments at the Bevalac facility under the INS-LBL collaboration program, and preparatory works for the Numatron project, a new project for the high-energy heavy-ion physics. (author)

  6. A Level 1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS Experiment at the LHC Phase 2 Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzobon, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The second decade of Large Hadron Collider operations, from about 2020 onwards, envisages a remarkable increase in collider instantaneous luminosity, one order of magnitude above the project one. This luminosity increase presents several challenges to the LHC experiments. The present tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment must be replaced with a system providing excellent tracking quality at higher luminosities, as well as Tracking Trigger inputs to the existing “Level 0” CMS trigger system at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate. The minimal requirements for a Tracking Trigger would be the capability to confirm the presence of high-pT tracks associated with Calorimeter and/or Muon Level 0 triggers. The ability to provide eective isolation criteria may also be required, and would in any case substantially improve the Trigger performance. Maintaining the data rates generated by Tracking Trigger inputs within a manageable bandwidth requires sensor modules able to locally sparsify the data. Measuring...

  7. Conceptual design of the first level trigger for the SDC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinkard, J.; Griffin, G.; Lankford, A.J.; Schmid, B.; Stoker, D.; Tarazi, J.; Lipniacka, A.; Brisson, J.C.; Hubbard, R.; Le Du, P.; Thooris, B.; Yashioka, H.; Hamatsu, R.; Nickerson, R.B.; Chapman, J.; Dunn, A.; Mann, J.; Miao, C.; Vejcik, S.; Dasu, S.; Gorski, T.; Lackey, J.; Smith, W.H.; Temple, W.; Coupal, D.

    1994-07-01

    We report on a conceptual design of the First Level Trigger for the SDC Experiment at the SSC. Level 1 algorithms employ barrel and intermediate trackers, and electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. Results of simulations of background rates and efficiencies are presented together with a discussion of the simulation method. Tracking and calorimetric triggers are discussed in detail. Some hardware implementation ideas for the trigger algorithms are mentioned. (authors). 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. D0 experiment: its trigger, data acquisition, and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.; Zeller, R.; Schamberger, D.; Van Berg, R.

    1984-05-01

    The new collider facility to be built at Fermilab's Tevatron-I D0 region is described. The data acquisition requirements are discussed, as well as the hardware and software triggers designed to meet these needs. An array of MicroVAX computers running VAXELN will filter in parallel (a complete event in each microcomputer) and transmit accepted events via Ethernet to a host. This system, together with its subsequent offline needs, is briefly presented

  9. On a possible second-level trigger for the experiment DISTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussa, M.P.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Grasso, A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kisel', I.V.; Konotopskaya, E.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1995-01-01

    A two-level trigger is to be applied for suppression of the background and for effective selection of events involving short-lived Λ-, Σ- and φ-particles in the experiment DISTO. The first-level trigger is applied for track recognition, in searching for a secondary vertex, and for identifying the detected particles. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  10. The second level trigger of the L3 experiment. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Y.; Blaising, J.J.; Bonnefon, H.; Chollet-Le Flour, F.; Degre, A.; Dromby, G.; Lecoq, J.; Morand, R.; Moynot, M.; Perrot, G.; Riccadonna, X.

    1993-07-01

    The second level trigger of the L3 experiment performs online background rejection and reduces the first level trigger rate to a value fitting with the third level trigger processing capability. Designed around a set of 3 bit-slice XOP microprocessors, it can process up to 500 first level triggers per second without significant dead time in the data acquisition. The system described here ensures the L3 data taking since the beginning of LEP in July 1989 and the online rejection since 1990. (authors). 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  11. B-Identifikation im Level 2 Trigger des ATLAS Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072780

    Zur Zeit wird am europäischen Forschungszentrum für Teilchenphysik CERN der neue Proton-Proton-Speicherring LHC und die zugehörigen vier Experimente gebaut. Ziele der Experimente sind unter anderem der Nachweis des Higgs-Bosons sowie detaillierte Studien des top-Quarks. Um möglichst reine Datensätze zu erhalten wäre es hilfreich, diese Ereignisse bereits während der Datennahme möglichst effizient zu selektieren. Dabei würde es helfen, wenn b-Quark-Jets auf Trigger-Niveau erkannt werden könnten. Ziel der Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines Algorithmus zur Identifikation von b-Quark-Jets, welcher die Anforderungen des Level 2 Triggers erfüllt. Das erste Kapitel der Arbeit gibt einen Einblick in die wesentlichen Bestandteile des Standardmodells der Teilchenphysik. In den folgenden zwei Kapiteln wird der Beschleuniger und der ATLAS Detektor sowie das ATLAS-Triggersystem beschrieben. Kapitel vier beschreibt die Möglichkeiten der B-Jet-Identifikation sowie einen Vertexalgorithmus auf Basis der Perigee-Pa...

  12. Development of a level-1 trigger and timing system for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of the mixing angle θ 13 is the goal of several running and planned experiments. The experiments are either accelerator based (super)beam experiments (e.g. MINOS, T2K, Nova) or reactor anti-neutrino disappearance experiments (e.g. Daya Bay, RENO or Double Chooz). In order to measure or constrain θ 13 with the Double Chooz experiment the overall systematic errors have to be controlled at the one-percent or sub-percent level. The limitation of the systematic errors is achieved through various means and techniques. E.g. the experiment consists of two identical detectors at different baselines, which allow to make a differential anti-neutrino flux measurement, where basically only relative normalisation errors remain. The requirements on the systematic errors put also strong constraints on the quality of all components and materials used for both detectors, most prominently on the stability and radiopurity of the scintillator, the photomultiplier tubes, the vessels containing the detector liquids and the shielding against ambient radioactivity. The readout electronics, trigger and data acquisition system have to operate reliably as an integrated and highly efficient whole over several years. The trigger is provided by the Level-1 Trigger and Timing System, which is the subject of this thesis. It has to provide a highly efficient trigger (at the 0.1% level) for neutrino-induced events as well as for several types of background events. Its decision is realized in hardware and based on energy depositions in the muon veto and the target region. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System furthermore provides a common System Clock and an absolute timestamp for each event. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System consists of two types of VME modules, several Trigger Boards and a Trigger Master Board, which have been custom-designed and developed in the electronics workshop of our institute for this experiment and purpose, starting in 2005. In this thesis all

  13. Development of a level-1 trigger and timing system for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold, Bernd

    2009-02-25

    The measurement of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} is the goal of several running and planned experiments. The experiments are either accelerator based (super)beam experiments (e.g. MINOS, T2K, Nova) or reactor anti-neutrino disappearance experiments (e.g. Daya Bay, RENO or Double Chooz). In order to measure or constrain {theta}{sub 13} with the Double Chooz experiment the overall systematic errors have to be controlled at the one-percent or sub-percent level. The limitation of the systematic errors is achieved through various means and techniques. E.g. the experiment consists of two identical detectors at different baselines, which allow to make a differential anti-neutrino flux measurement, where basically only relative normalisation errors remain. The requirements on the systematic errors put also strong constraints on the quality of all components and materials used for both detectors, most prominently on the stability and radiopurity of the scintillator, the photomultiplier tubes, the vessels containing the detector liquids and the shielding against ambient radioactivity. The readout electronics, trigger and data acquisition system have to operate reliably as an integrated and highly efficient whole over several years. The trigger is provided by the Level-1 Trigger and Timing System, which is the subject of this thesis. It has to provide a highly efficient trigger (at the 0.1% level) for neutrino-induced events as well as for several types of background events. Its decision is realized in hardware and based on energy depositions in the muon veto and the target region. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System furthermore provides a common System Clock and an absolute timestamp for each event. The Level-1 Trigger and Timing System consists of two types of VME modules, several Trigger Boards and a Trigger Master Board, which have been custom-designed and developed in the electronics workshop of our institute for this experiment and purpose, starting in 2005. In

  14. The design of a flexible Global Calorimeter Trigger system for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Cussans, D G [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Frazier, R J E [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Galagedera, S B [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Heath, G P [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Huckvale, B J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Nash, S J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Newbold, D M [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Shah, A A [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    We have developed a novel design of triggering system as part of the pipelined hardware Level-1 trigger logic for the CMS experiment at LHC. The Global Calorimeter Trigger is the last element in the processing of calorimeter data, and provides most of the input to the final Level-1 decision. We present the detailed functional requirements for this system. Our design meets the requirements using generic, configurable Trigger Processing Modules built from commercial programmable logic and high-speed serial data links. We describe the hardware, firmware and software components of this solution. CMS has chosen an alternative solution to build the final trigger system; we discuss the implications of our experiences for future development projects along similar lines.

  15. Study of a muon forward trigger in UA1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghesquiere, C.

    A μ trigger can be set up in the forward direction without any complete reshuffling of the actual detectors but the meaningful identification of new signal will rely heavily an other properties of the other parts of the apparatus: good momentum resolution i.e. good Δm on PSI mass; possible identification of K and p. It remains that this study is very restrictive and oriented on a single and peculiar decay mode. In many other cases, for instance the multi muon events observed in cosmics rays or other unexpected cases, the muon identification could prove very valuable and significant over the background limitations. For those reasons a rather efficient muon identification could be added in the actual set up with relatively small effort

  16. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit ampersand The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression ampersand Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ ampersand Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II ampersand SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies

  17. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  18. Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment is proposed for experimental studies of spheromak confinement issues in a controlled way: in steady state relative to the confinement timescale and at low collisionality. Experiments in a flux - conserver will provide data on transport in the presence of resistive modes in shear-stabilized systems and establish operating regimes which pave the way for true steady-state experiments with the equilibrium field supplied by external coils. The proposal is based on analysis of past experiments, including the achievement of T e = 400 eV in a decaying spheromak in CTX. Electrostatic helicity injection from a coaxial ''''gun'''' into a shaped flux conserver will form and sustain the plasma for several milliseconds. The flux conserver minimizes fluxline intersection with the walls and provides MHD stability. Improvements from previous experiments include modem wall conditioning (especially boronization), a divertor for density and impurity control, and a bias magnetic flux for configurational flexibility. The bias flux will provide innovative experimental opportunities, including testing helicity drive on the large-radius plasma boundary. Diagnostics include Thomson scattering for T e measurements and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry to measure density and magnetic field profiles and turbulence. We expect to operate at T e of several hundred eV, allowing improved understanding of energy and current transport due to resistive MHD turbulence during sustained operation. This will provide an exciting advance in spheromak physics and a firm basis for future experiments in the fusion regime

  19. Development of a highly selective muon trigger exploiting the high spatial resolution of monitored drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kortner, Oliver; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will provide the unique opportunity to explore the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC design instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons, selected due to the moderate momentum resolution of the current system. This first level trigger limitation can be overcome by including data from the precision muon drift tube (MDT) chambers. This requires the fast continuous transfer of the MDT hits to the off-detector trigger logic and a fast track reconstruction algorithm performed in the trigger logic. The feasibility of this approach was studied with LHC collision data and simulated data. Two main options for the hardware implementation will be studied with demonstrators: an FPGA based option with an embedded ARM microprocessor ...

  20. Development of a Highly Selective Muon Trigger Exploiting the High Spatial Resolution of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Experiment at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kortner, Oliver; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will provide the unique opportunity to explore the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC design instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons, selected due to the moderate momentum resolution of the current system. This first level trigger limitation can be overcome by including data from the precision muon drift tube (MDT) chambers. This requires the fast continuous transfer of the MDT hits to the off-detector trigger logic and a fast track reconstruction algorithm performed in the trigger logic. The feasibility of this approach was studied with LHC collision data and simulated data. Two main options for the hardware implementation are currently studied with demonstrators, an FPGA based option with an embedded ARM microproc...

  1. FPGA-based fast pipeline-parameterized-sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

  2. Data driven processor 'Vertex Trigger' for B experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartouni, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    Data Driven Processors (DDP's) are specialized computation engines configured to solve specific numerical problems, such as vertex reconstruction. The architecture of the DDP which is the subject of this talk was designed and implemented by W. Sippach and B.C. Knapp at Nevis Lab. in the early 1980's. This particular implementation allows multiple parallel streams of data to provide input to a heterogenous collection of simple operators whose interconnection form an algorithm. The local data flow control allows this device to execute algorithms extremely quickly provided that care is taken in the layout of the algorithm. I/O rates of several hundred megabytes/second are routinely achieved thus making DDP's attractive candidates for complex online calculations. The original question was open-quote can a DDP reconstruct tracks in a Silicon Vertex Detector, find events with a separated vertex and do it fast enough to be used as an online trigger?close-quote Restating this inquiry as three questions and describing the answers to the questions will be the subject of this talk. The three specific questions are: (1) Can an algorithm be found which reconstructs tracks in a planar geometry and no magnetic field; (2) Can separated vertices be recognized in some way; (3) Can the algorithm be implemented in the Nevis-UMass and DDP and execute in 10-20 μs?

  3. An experiment in diffractive physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to show one of the next future experiment in diffractive Physics which will be installed at the DO experiment at Tevatron/Fermilab for run II, and the importance for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) as the theory of the strong interactions. The apparatus that we have developed is the Forward Proton Detector (FPD) to be introduced on the beam line of the Tevatron at both sides of the DO detector. The FPD is composed by a set of Roman Pots as we will see in the text below

  4. The LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando Morata, Jose Angel

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on an efficient trigger to select a rate up to 2 kHz of events useful for physics analysis from an initial rate of 10 MHz of visible collisions. In this contribution, we describe the different LHCb trigger algorithms and present their expected performance.

  5. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC makes use of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics modules are able to identify muons with predefined transverse momentum values (pT) by executing a coincidence logic on signals coming from the various detector layers. On-detector trigger boards then transfer trigger data to the off-detector electronics. A complex trigger system processes the incoming data by combining trigger information from the barrel and the endcap regions, and providing the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). For almost a decade, the Level-1 Trigger system operated very well, despite the challenging requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, and the continuously increasing LHC luminosity. In order to cope with these constraints, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others have been designed to be installed in the next years. Most of the upgrades to the trigger system...

  6. Smart tourism destination triggers consumer experience: the case of Porto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Liberato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the increasing importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs in smart tourism destinations, in their integration in the activity of the tourism companies, and in their interaction with visitors/tourists. In summary, it is intended to evaluate in the city of Porto how the use of technology before, during and after the visit influences the tourist experience. Design/methodology/approach - The authors empirically investigate the importance of using ICTs during tourism experience, assess the access/availability of ICT at the destination and its importance in tourist’s decisions. It is analyzed if the applications and/or information available on the internet are important and positively influence the tourism experience in Porto, that is, the degree of tourist satisfaction. The empirical evidence is based on a quantitative analysis, using a data set involving 423 tourists in the city of Porto. Findings - The importance of the internet access at the destination, especially in places like airports and hotels, since most tourists are primarily using their mobile devices and computers during the trip, and the existing information technologies available in the destination (internet, smartphones or other mobile devices and applications are considered very important in explaining tourists’ experience. Originality/value - This study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the technological strategies, providing useful information for destination management, discussing innovation in tourism, and proposing a framework that empirically evaluates how technological components used in smart tourism destinations can improve tourists’ experiences.

  7. The trigger and DAQ systems of the NA59 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ünel, Gokhan; Ballestrero, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The NA59 experiment on the CERN SPS-H2 beam-line took data during the summers of 1999 and 2000 to perform intercalibration studies of polarization measurement and to test the use of an aligned crystal as a quarter-wave plate. The analysis revealed a proof of concept for the birefringence property of aligned crystals for photons in the 30-170 GeV energy range. The 90-m-long detector for this fixed target experiment had two independent readout schemes: one for more than 120 time-to-digital and analog-to-digital converter channels to obtain tracking and energy information; and another for the readout of the silicon strip detectors to improve vertex resolution. The readout electronics of the Na59 experiment was based on VMEbus and CAMAC systems. Novel data acquisition and online monitoring software were written to work on the commodity hardware (PCs) running mainly the Linux operating system. 21 Refs.

  8. RPCs as trigger detector for the ATLAS experiment performances, simulation and application to the level-1 di-muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, A; Di Ciaccio, A

    2005-01-01

    In the muon spectrometer different detectors are used to provide trigger functionality and precision momentum measurements. In the pseudorapidity range |eta|<1 the first level muon trigger is based on Resistive Plate Chambers, gas ionization detectors which are characterized by a fast response and an excellent time resolution (<1.5ns). The working principles of the Resistive Plate Chambers will be illustrated in chapter 3. Given the long time of operation expected for the ATLAS experiment (~10 years), ageing phenomena have been carefully studied, in order to ensure stable long-term operation of all the subdetectors. Concerning Resistive Plate Chambers, a very extensive ageing test has been performed at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility on three production chambers. The results of this test are presented in chapter 4. One of the most commonly used gases in RPCs operation is C2H2F4, which during the gas discharge can produce fluorine ions. Being F one of the most aggressive elements in nature, the presenc...

  9. The fastbus trigger modules for the SAT detector in the DELPHI experiment at LEP, CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.

    1992-09-01

    This thesis describes the functionality and performance of the fastbus trigger modules for the Small Angle Tagger (SAT) detector in the DELPHI experiment at the LEP machine at CERN. The main purpose of the modules is to provide a Bhabha trigger for the SAT calorimeter used for luminosity measurements. The author has bee responsible for the design, production, testing and installation of the trigger modules. All the test programs necessary to confirm that the modules function according to the specifications are included in this work. Is does not, however, aim to make detailed technical descriptions of the modules. 44 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Drift Tubes Trigger System of the CMS Experiment at LHC : Commissioning and Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Battilana, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the performances of the CMS Drift Tubes Local Trigger System of the CMS detector are studied. CMS is one of the general purpose experiments that will operate at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Results from data collected during the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT) commissioning exercise, a globally coordinated run period where the full experiment was involved and configured to detect cosmic rays crossing the CMS cavern, are presented. These include analyses on the precision and accuracy of the trigger reconstruction mechanism and measurement of the trigger efficiency. The description of a method to perform system synchronization is also reported, together with a comparison of the outcomes of trigger electronics and its software emulator code.

  11. The fast trigger scintillator for the JETSET experiment (PS202/LEAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefzick, T.

    1988-12-01

    In the present thesis the trigger detector of the JETSET experiment (PS202) at the LEAR/CERN consisting of scintillation counters is presented. After giving a start signal in a second stage of the trigger electronics the determination of the position of the traversed points of the reaction products is performed with the information of the scintillation detector. A third following trigger stage shall study the position informations given by the second stage under kinematical points of view. The present diploma thesis deals especially with the first two trigger stages. As basic conditions the components of a scintillation counter are treated and calibration and testing possibilities presented. For this belongs a fast light pulser with green or blue LED. Results of the studies which scintillator and light-guide materials are most suitable for the JETSET experiment are presented. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Physically Triggered Morphology Changes in a Novel Acremonium Isolate Cultivated in Precisely Engineered Microfabricated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are strongly affected by their physical environment. Microfabrication offers the possibility of creating new culture environments and ecosystems with defined characteristics. Here, we report the isolation of a novel member of the fungal genus Acremonium using a microengineered cultivation chip. This isolate was unusual in that it organizes into macroscopic structures when initially cultivated within microwells with a porous aluminum oxide (PAO base. These “templated mycelial bundles” (TMB were formed from masses of parallel hyphae with side branching suppressed. TMB were highly hydrated, facilitating the passive movement of solutes along the bundle. By using a range of culture chips, it was deduced that the critical factors in triggering the TMB were growth in microwells from 50 to 300 μm in diameter with a PAO base. Cultivation experiments, using spores and pigments as tracking agents, indicate that bulk growth of the TMB occurs at the base. TMB morphology is highly coherent and is maintained after growing out of the microwells. TMB can explore their environment by developing unbundled lateral hyphae; TMB only followed if nutrients were available. Because of the ease of fabricating numerous microstructures, we suggest this is a productive approach for exploring morphology and growth in multicellular microorganisms and microbial communities.

  13. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070813; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012.In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum mea...

  14. GPU Enhancement of the Trigger to Extend Physics Reach at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lujan, P.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; LeGresley, P.

    2014-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the trigger systems for the detectors must be able to process a very large amount of data in a very limited amount of time, so that the nominal collision rate of 40 MHz can be reduced to a data rate that can be stored and processed in a reasonable amount of time. This need for high performance places very stringent requirements on the complexity of the algorithms that can be used for identifying events of interest in the trigger system, which potentially limits the ability to trigger on signatures of various new physics models. In this paper, we present an alternative tracking algorithm, based on the Hough transform, which avoids many of the problems associated with the standard combinatorial track finding currently used. The Hough transform is also well-adapted for Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-based computing, and such GPU-based systems could be easily integrated into the existing High-Level Trigger (HLT). This algorithm offers the ability to trigger on topological signa...

  15. The new Level-1 Topological Trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00047907; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the CERN Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the ATLAS experiment records high-energy proton collision to investigate the properties of fundamental particles. These collisions take place at a 40 MHz, and the ATLAS trigger system selects the interesting ones, reducing the rate to 1 kHz, allowing for their storage and subsequent offline analysis. The ATLAS trigger system is organized in two levels, with increasing degree of details and of accuracy. The first level trigger reduces the event rate to 100 kHz with a decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is composed of the calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and central trigger processor. A new component of the first-level trigger was introduced in 2015: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). It allows to use detailed real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon systems, to compute advanced kinematic quantities using state of the art FPGA processors, and to select interesting events based on several com...

  16. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  17. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  18. Online / Offline reconstruction of trigger-less readout in the R3B experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresan, Dmytro; Al-Turany, Mohammad; Uhlig, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The R3B (Reactions with Rare Radioactive Beams) experiment is one of the planned experiments at the future FAIR facility at GSI Darmstadt. R3B will cover experimental reaction studies with exotic nuclei far off stability, thus enabling a broad physics program with rare-isotope beams with emphasis on nuclear structure and dynamics. Several different detection subsystems as well as sophisticated DAQ system and data-analysis software are being developed for this purpose. The data analysis software for R3B is based on FairRoot framework and called R3BRoot. R3BRoot is being used for simulation and detector design studies for the last few years. Recently, it was successfully used directly with the data acquisition and for the analysis of the R3B test beam-time in April 2014. For the future beam times the framework has to deal with the free streaming readout of the detectors. The implementation within R3BRoot to fulfil this trigger-less run mode will be discussed in this paper, as well as the set of tools developed for the online reconstruction and quality assurance of the data during the run. (paper)

  19. The ATLAS FTK system: how to improve the physics potential with a tracking trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After a very successful data taking run, the ATLAS experiment is being upgraded to cope with the higher luminosity and higher center of mass energy that the Large Hadron Collider will provide in the next years. The Fast Tracker (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to operate at the level-1 trigger output rate. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memories (AM). FTK provides global track reconstruction in the full inner silicon detector, with resolution comparable to the offline algorithms, in approximately 100 microseconds, allowing a fast and precise detection of the primary and secondary vertex information. The track and vertex information is then used by t...

  20. The ATLAS FTK system: how to improve the physics potential with a tracking trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After a very successful data taking run, the ATLAS experiment [1] is being upgraded to cope with the higher luminosity and higher center of mass energy that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide in the next years. The Fast Tracker (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). FTK provides global track reconstruction in the full inner silicon detector, with resolution comparable to the offline algorithms, in approximately 100 microseconds, allowing a fast and precise detection of the primary and secondary vertex information. The track and vertex information is then used by the high-level trigger (HLT) algorithms, allowing highly improved tr...

  1. Analysis and realization of a high resolution trigger for DM2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of a high resolution trigger has been carried out from its theoretical design to building. The term trigger is applied to an almost real-time system for track filtering in particle detection. Curved tracks are detected (with a magnetic field) and the detector is of a revolution symmetry type. The concept of a ''hybrid'' trigger with features in between those of the so-called ''CELLO R0'' and ''MARK II'' types is launched. It allows a positive versatility for the optimization of the different features. Besides a specific structure, some hardware and software implements have been designed for development and tests. The ''TRIGGER LENT'' is presently in operation in the DM2 experiment [fr

  2. Realization of a second level neural network trigger for the H1 experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehne, J.K.; Fent, J.; Froechtenicht, W.; Gaede, F.; Gruber, A.; Haberer, W.; Kiesling, C.; Kobler, T.; Moeck, J.; Wegner, A.; Goldner, D.; Kraemerkaemper, T.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1996 the H1 experiment is fully equipped with two independent fast pattern recognition systems operating as second level triggers (L2). The decision time is 20 μs. One of the two is the neural network trigger. It runs an array of presently ten VME-boards with CNAPS 1064 chips (20 MHz, 128 Mcps) by adaptive solutions. The input trigger data from the detector components arrive in various formats on a 8 x 16 bit wide 10 MHz bus. Before usable as 8-bit input values to the CNAPS they are preprocessed by several bit-manipulating algorithms and arithmetic functions implemented on XILINX 4008 field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The startup strategy for the new system is to concentrate on photoproduction channels or low multiplicity final states which so far could only be efficiently triggered with unacceptable high rates. (orig.)

  3. A demonstration of a Time Multiplexed Trigger for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, R; Newbold, D [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Fayer, S; Hall, G; Hunt, C; Iles, G; Rose, A [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel approach to first-level hardware triggering in the LHC experiments has been studied and a prototype system built. Calorimeter trigger primitive data ( {approx} 5 Tb/s) are re-organised and time-multiplexed so that a single processing node (FPGA) may access the data corresponding to the entire detector for a given bunch crossing. This provides maximal flexibility in the construction of new trigger algorithms, which will be an important factor in ensuring adequate trigger performance at the very high levels of background expected at the upgraded LHC. A test system that incorporates all the key technologies for a final system and demonstrates the time-multiplexing and algorithm performance is presented.

  4. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa (Italy); Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D., E-mail: donato.nicolo@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa (Italy); Ritt, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen AG (Switzerland); Venturini, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection. - Highlights: • A new, two-level trigger scheme for the phase-II of the MEG experiment is presented. • Improvements with respect to phase-I are underlined. • The role of detector upgrades and the use of a new generation of FPGA as well are emphasized.

  5. Results from a MA16-based neural trigger in an experiment looking for beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldanza, C.; Beichter, J.; Bisi, F.; Bruels, N.; Bruschini, C.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.; D'Antone, I.; Malferrari, L.; Mazzanti, P.; Musico, P.; Novelli, P.; Odorici, F.; Odorico, R.; Passaseo, M.; Zuffa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Results from a neural-network trigger based on the digital MA16 chip of Siemens are reported. The neural trigger has been applied to data from the WA92 experiment, looking for beauty particles, which have been collected during a run in which a neural trigger module based on Intel's analog neural chip ETANN operated, as already reported. The MA16 board hosting the chip has a 16-bit I/O precision and a 53-bit precision for internal calculations. It operated at 50 MHz, yielding a response time for a 16 input-variable net of 3 μs for a Fisher discriminant (1-layer net) and of 6 μs for a 2-layer net. Results are compared with those previously obtained with the ETANN trigger. (orig.)

  6. Results from a MA16-based neural trigger in an experiment looking for beauty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanza, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Beichter, J. [Siemens AG, ZFE T ME2, 81730 Munich (Germany); Bisi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Bruels, N. [Siemens AG, ZFE T ME2, 81730 Munich (Germany); Bruschini, C. [INFN/Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Cotta-Ramusino, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); D`Antone, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Malferrari, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Mazzanti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN/Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Novelli, P. [INFN/Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Odorici, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Odorico, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Passaseo, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Zuffa, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)

    1996-07-11

    Results from a neural-network trigger based on the digital MA16 chip of Siemens are reported. The neural trigger has been applied to data from the WA92 experiment, looking for beauty particles, which have been collected during a run in which a neural trigger module based on Intel`s analog neural chip ETANN operated, as already reported. The MA16 board hosting the chip has a 16-bit I/O precision and a 53-bit precision for internal calculations. It operated at 50 MHz, yielding a response time for a 16 input-variable net of 3 {mu}s for a Fisher discriminant (1-layer net) and of 6 {mu}s for a 2-layer net. Results are compared with those previously obtained with the ETANN trigger. (orig.).

  7. Implementation and synchronisation of the First Level Global Trigger for the CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurok, A.; Bergauer, H.; Padrta, M.

    2001-01-01

    The hardware implementation of the First Level Global Trigger for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is described. Special emphasis is given to the algorithm logic and the synchronisation procedure. Up to 128 different trigger algorithms are calculated in parallel by the Global Trigger (GT) for every beam crossing taking place at 25 ns intervals. Already, at the first trigger level the GT is able to select complex topological event configurations by performing fast calculations. The electronics is based on VME and relies completely on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) technology. The electronic circuits are optimised for speed by exploiting, to a great extent, the small look-up tables provided in the FPGA chips

  8. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Reisman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM, circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  9. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  10. An on-line non-leptonic neural trigger applied to an experiment looking for beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Baldanza, C; Cotta-Ramusino, A; D'Antone, I; Malferrari, L; Mazzanti, P; Odorici, F; Odorico, R; Zuffa, M; Bruschini, C; Musico, P; Novelli, P; Passaseo, M

    1994-01-01

    Results from a non-leptonic neural-network trigger hosted by experiment WA92, looking for beauty particle production from 350 GeV 1t- on a Cu target, are presented. The neural trigger has been used to send on a special data stream (the Fast Stream) events to be analyzed with high priority. The non-leptonic signature uses microvertex detector data and was devised so as to enrich the fraction of events containing C3 secondary vertices (i.e, vertices having three tracks whith sum of electric charges equal to +1 or -1). The neural trigger module consists of a VME crate hosting two ET ANN analog neural chips from Intel. The neural trigger operated for two continuous weeks during the WA92 1 993 run. For an acceptance of 15% for C3 events, the neural trigger yields a C3 enrichment factor of 6.6-7.l (depending on the event sample considered), which multiplied by that already provided by the standard non-leptonic trigger leads to a global C3 enrichment factor of -1 50. In the event sample selected by the neural trigge...

  11. The RPC LVL1 trigger system of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Alviggi, M G; Biglietti, M; Bocci, V; Brambilla, Elena; Camarri, P; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Chiodini, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Simone, A; Falciano, S; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Iengo, P; Liberti, B; Luminari, L; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Sekhniaidze, G; Spagnolo, S; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger System has been designed to reduce the LHC interaction rate of about 1 GHz to the foreseen storage rate of about 100 Hz. Three trigger levels are applied in order to fulfill such a requirement. A detailed simulation of the ATLAS experiment including the hardware components and the logic of the Level-1 Muon trigger in the barrel of the muon spectrometer has been performed. This simulation has been used not only to evaluate the performances of the system but also to optimize the trigger logic design. In the barrel of the muon spectrometer the trigger will be given by means of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) working in avalanche mode. Before being mounted on the experiment, accurate quality tests with cosmic rays are carried out on each RPC chamber using the test station facility of the INFN and University laboratory of Napoli. All working parameters are measured and the uniformity of the efficiency on the whole RPC surface is required. A summary of the Napoli cosmic rays tests, together with a...

  12. A fast filter processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon Gjerpe, I.

    1981-01-01

    A fast special purpose processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment is described. The decision to incorporate such a processor was taken because the trigger rate was estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the date taking capability of the on-line minicomputer, a NORD 10. The processor is capable of checking the coplanarity and the opening angle of the two outgoing tracks within about 100 μs. This is done with a spatial resolution of 1 mm by using two points each track given by 3 MWPCs. For comparison this is two orders of magnitude faster than the same algorithm coded in assembly language on a PDP 11/40. The main contribution to this increased speed is due to extensive use of pipelining and parallelism. When running with the processor in the trigger, 75% more elastic events per incoming beam particle were collected, and 3 times as many elastic events per trigger were recorded on to tape for further in-depth analysis, than previously. Due to major improvements in the primary trigger logic this was less than the gain initially anticipated. A first version of the processor was designed and constructed in the CERN DD division by J. Joosten, M. Letheren and B. Martin under the supervision of C. Verkerk. The author was involved in the final design, construction and testing, and subsequently was responsible for the intergration, programming and running of the processor in the experiment. (orig.)

  13. Modelling of local/global architectures for second level trigger at the LHC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, Z.; Iwanski, W.; Korecyl, K.; Strong, J.

    1994-01-01

    Different architectures of the second level triggering system for experiments on LHC have been simulated. The basic scheme was local/global system with distributed computing power. As a tool the authors have used the object-oriented MODSIM II language

  14. A T0/Trigger detector for the External Target Experiment at CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y.; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Zeng, H.; Zhao, X.; You, W.; Song, G.; Deng, P.; Lu, J.; Zhao, L.

    2017-06-01

    A new T0/Trigger detector based on multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) technology has been constructed and tested for the external target experiment (ETE) at HIRFL-CSR. It measures the multiplicity and timing information of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions at the target region, providing necessary event collision time (T0) and collision centrality with high precision. Monte-Carlo simulation shows a time resolution of several tens of picosecond can be achieved at central collisions. The experimental tests have been performed for this prototype detector at the CSR-ETE. The preliminary results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the T0/Trigger detector.

  15. Trigger system study of the dimuon spectrometer in the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, O.

    1999-12-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC with ALICE. The aim of this experiment is to search for a new phase of matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The dimuon forward spectrometer should measure one of the most promising probes of the QGP, the production of heavy quark vector mesons (J/ψ, γ, γ', γ'') through their muonic decays. The dimuon trigger selects the interesting events performing a cut on the transverse momentum of the tracks. The trigger decision is taken by a dedicated electronics using RPC (''Resistive Plate Chambers'') detector information. We have made our own R and D program on the RPC detector with various beam tests. We show the performances obtained during these tests of a low resistivity RPC operating in streamer mode. The ALICE requirements concerning the rate capability, the cluster size and the time resolution are fulfilled. We have optimised the trigger with simulations which include a complete description of the read-out planes and the trigger logic (algorithm). In particular, a technique of clustering is proposed and validated. A method called ''Ds reduction'' is introduced in order to limit the effects of combinatorial background on the trigger rates. The efficiencies and the trigger rates are calculated for Pb-Pb, Ca-Ca, p-p collisions at the LHC. Other more sophisticated cuts, on the invariant mass for example, using again the RPC information have been simulated but have not shown significant improvements of the trigger rates. (author)

  16. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1–2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region; secondary vertex detection with resolution ≈ 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons; a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  17. Trigger electronics of the new Fluorescence Detectors of the Telescope Array Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tameda, Yuichiro; Taketa, Akimichi; Smith, Jeremy D.; Tanaka, Manobu; Fukushima, Masaki; Jui, Charles C.H.; Kadota, Ken'ichi; Kakimoto, Fumio; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matthews, John N.; Ogio, Shoichi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Tatsunobu; Takeda, Masahiro; Thomas, Stanton B.; Tokuno, Hisao; Tsunesada, Yoshiki

    2009-01-01

    The Telescope Array Project is an experiment designed to observe Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays via a 'hybrid' detection technique utilizing both fluorescence light detectors (FDs) and scintillator surface particle detectors (SDs). We have installed three FD stations and 507 SDs in the Utah desert, and initiated observations from March 2008. The northern FD station reuses 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye, HiRes-I station. Each of the two southern FD stations contains 12 new telescopes utilizing new FADC electronics. Each telescope is instrumented with a camera composed of 256 PMTs. Since the detectors are composed of many PMTs and each PMT detects fluorescence photons together with the vast amount of night sky background, a sophisticated triggering system is required. In this paper, we describe the trigger electronics of these new FD stations. We also discuss performance of the FDs with this triggering system, in terms of efficiencies and apertures for various detector configurations.

  18. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, E.; Ducorps, A.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  19. Muon triggers in search for charm and beauty in hybrid emulsion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents calculations which are mainly based on the results obtained with the dump used in the experiment NA19 at CERN. The easiest way to trigger on muons (even on-line) is to place a dump behind the target. Background triggers are due to muons produced in the primary interaction (mainly Drell-Yan) or resulting from short lived particles (charm decays are a source of background in a search for beauty) or from long lived particle decays. Among the possible on-line and/or off-line triggers, those based on the presence of one or more muons seem particularly promising due to the sizeable branching ratio of the new flavors into leptons and to the good selection power against background. Charmed and beauty particles produce, on average, muons with much higher transverse momenta than background, and thus a trigger requiring a low number of muons (1 or 2) could be equally or even more selective than a multimuon trigger, while keeping a larger fraction of the signal

  20. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they appeared in boluses prepared in various

  1. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Agnès Peyron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. METHODS: Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. FINDINGS: Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1 in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2 by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3 median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4 except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5 physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. CONCLUSIONS: Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of

  2. Performance and robustness studies of the trigger for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068300; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is one of two general-purpose particle detectors that will soon begin taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is designed to explore a new energy frontier and answer fundamental questions about the nature of matter and the forces that shape the universe. The ATLAS trigger system is designed to select rare physics processes of interest from an extremely high rate of proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC. It is comprised of three levels. The first level is hardware-based. The second- and third-level triggers are software-based and are collectively known as the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The first part of this thesis is a study of the time overhead of the data navigation mechanism used by the HLT. The results of this study highlighted key areas for improvement within the design of the navigation mechanism. The second part of this thesis is a study of the impact of unresponsive electromagnetic calorimeter cells and Front-End Boards (FEBs) on electron trigger efficiencie...

  3. MRI Experiments for Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The introductory physics classroom has long educated students about the properties of the atom and the nucleus. But absent from these lessons has been an informed discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its parent science nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Physics teachers should not miss the opportunity to instruct upon this highly…

  4. MRI experiments for introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Sanaz; Lincoln, James

    2018-04-01

    The introductory physics classroom has long educated students about the properties of the atom and the nucleus. But absent from these lessons has been an informed discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its parent science nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Physics teachers should not miss the opportunity to instruct upon this highly relevant application of modern physics, especially with so many of our students planning to pursue a career in medicine. This article provides an overview of the physics of MRI and gives advice on how physics teachers can introduce this topic. Also included are some demonstration activities and a discussion of a desktop MRI apparatus that may be used by students in the lab or as a demo.

  5. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  6. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  7. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  8. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  9. Pattern Recognition in the TRT for the ATLAS B-Physics Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, J T M; Hinkelbein, C; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Müller, M; Sessler, M; Simmler, H; Singpiel, H; Smizanska, M

    1999-01-01

    The current B-physics trigger strategy in LVL2 starts with a scan of the full volume of the TRT to reconstruct all tracks with pT > 0.5 GeV. Since the detector volume to be analysed is 100 times larger than a typical RoI, and the pT range of the track search extends down to 0.5 GeV, an additional factor of 10 in processing power is required in comparison with the high-pT TRT feature extraction algorithm which has a 5 GeV threshold. At low luminosity, the full scan will be performed as part of the B-physics trigger with a frequency of 9 kHz. Taking into account all these factors, the full scan at low luminosity will require 100 times more computing power than the RoI-guided scan at design luminosity. It is the most challenging of all LVL2 algorithms in terms of computing power and bandwidth requirements. A very fast and therefore simple algorithm is thus essential, independent of the hardware realisation. This paper presents a TRT track reconstruction algorithm which is based on a Hough Transform using a look-...

  10. GPUs for fast triggering and pattern matching at the CERN experiment NA62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Sozzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In rare decays experiments an effective trigger is crucial to reduce both the quantity of data written on tape and the bandwidth requirements for the DAQ (Data Acquisition) system. A multilevel architecture is commonly used to achieve a higher reduction factor, exploiting dedicated custom hardware and flexible software in standard computers. In this paper we discuss the possibility to use commercial video card processors (GPU) to build a fast and effective trigger system, both at hardware and software level. The case of fast pattern matching in the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN aiming at measuring the Branching Ratio of the ultra rare decay K + →π + νν-bar is considered as use case although the versatility and the customizability of this approach easily allow exporting the concept to different contexts.

  11. Physics performances with the new ATLAS Level-1 Topological trigger in the LHC High-Luminosity Era

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414333; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system aim at reducing the 40 MHz protons collision event rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, preserving events with valuable physics meaning. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system, with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is composed of the calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and central trigger processor. During the last upgrade, a new electronics element was introduced to Level-1: L1Topo, the Topological Processor System. It will make it possible to use detailed realtime information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, processed in individual state of the art FPGA processors to determine angles between jets and/or leptons and calculate kinematic variables based on lists of selected/sorted objects. Over hundred VHDL algorithms are producing trigger outputs to be incorporated into the central trigger processor. Such information will be essential to improve background rejection and ...

  12. Electronic system of the RPC Muon Trigger in CMS experiment at LHC accelerator (Elektroniczny system trygera mionowego RPC w eksperymencie CMS akceleratora LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bialkowska, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents implementation of distributed, multichannel electronic measurement system for RPC - based Muon Trigger in the CMS experiment at LHC. The introduction shortly describes the research aims of LHC and shows the metrological requirements for CMS - good spatial and time resolution, and possibility to estimate multiple physical parameters from registered collisions of particles. Further the paper describes RPC Muon Trigger consisting of 200 000 independent channels for position measurement. The first part of the paper presents the functional structure of the system in the context of requirements put by the CMS experiment, like global triggering system and data acquisition. The second part describes the hardware solutions used in particular parts of the RPC detector measuremnt system and shows some test results. The paper has a digest and overview nature.

  13. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  14. Recent experience and future evolution of the CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stoeckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC uses a two-stage trigger system, with events flowing from the first level trigger at a rate of 100 kHz. These events are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), assembled in memory in a farm of computers, and finally fed into the high-level trigger (HLT) software running on the farm. The HLT software selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of a few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the 2010-2011 collider run is detailed, as well as the current architecture of the CMS HLT, and its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and CMS DAQ. The short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure is discussed, with future improvements aimed at supporting extensions of the HLT computing power, and addressing remaining performance and maintenance issues.

  15. The Lived Experience of Lupus Flares: Features, Triggers, and Management in an Australian Female Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marline L. Squance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living with lupus commonly experience daily backgrounds of symptoms managed to acceptable tolerance levels to prevent organ damage. Despite management, exacerbation periods (flares still occur. Varied clinical presentations and unpredictable symptom exacerbation patterns provide management and assessment challenges. Patient perceptions of symptoms vary with perceived impact, lifestyles, available support, and self-management capacity. Therefore, to increase our understanding of lupus’ health impacts and management, it was important to explore lupus flare characteristics from the patient viewpoint. Lupus flares in 101 Australian female patients were retrospectively explored with the use of a novel flare definition. Qualitative methods were used to explore patient-perceived flare symptoms, triggers, and management strategies adopted to alleviate symptom exacerbations. A mean of 29.9 flare days, with 6.8 discrete flares, was experienced. The study confirmed that patients perceive stress, infection, and UV light as flare triggers and identified new potential triggers of temperature and weather changes, work, and chemical exposure from home cleaning. The majority of flares were self-managed with patients making considered management choices without medical input. Barriers to seeking medical support included appointment timings and past negative experiences reflecting incongruence between clinician and patient views of symptom impact, assessment, and ultimately flare occurrence.

  16. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  17. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized

  18. Development of Advanced Gaseous Detectors for Muon Tracking and Triggering in Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhu, Junjie

    High luminosity and high energy collider experiments impose big challenges to conventional gaseous detectors used for muon tracking and triggering. Stringent requirements, in terms of time and spatial resolutions, rate capabilities etc. are expected. In the context of ATLAS muon upgrade project, we present extensive researches and developments of advanced gas detectors for precision muon tracking and triggering in high rate environments. Particularly, this dissertation focuses on the studies of Micro-mesh Gaseous structure (Micromegas), thin gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) and small strip Thin Gap multi-wire Chambers (sTGC). In this dissertation, we first present a novel method, based on thermally bonding micro-meshes to anodes, to construct Micromegas detectors. Without employing the traditional photo-lithography process, it is a convenient alternative to build Micromegas. Both experimental and simulation studies of basic performance parameters of thermo-bonded Micromegas will be reported. Development...

  19. Development of a monitoring tool to validate trigger level analysis in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Artur

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes my thirteen week summer student project at CERN from June 30th until September 26th of 2014. My task was to contribute to a monitoring tool for the ATLAS experiment, comparing jets reconstructed by the trigger to fully offline reconstructed and saved events by creating a set of insightful histograms to be used during run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider, planned to start in early 2015. The motivation behind this project is to validate the use of data taken solely from the high level trigger for analysis purposes. Once the code generating the plots was completed, it was tested on data collected during run 1 up to the year 2012 and Monte Carlo simulated events with center-of-mass energies ps = 8TeV and ps = 14TeV.

  20. Physics and experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be the site of a series of experiments seeking to discover the quark-gluon plasma and elucidate its properties. Several observables should exhibit characteristic behaviors if a quark-gluon plasma is indeed created in the laboratory. Four experiments are now under construction for RHIC to measure certain of these observables over kinematic ranges where effects due to quark-gluon plasma formation should be manifest

  1. The trigger for $K^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays of the NA48 experiment at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Giles David; Cundy, Donald C; Formenti, F; Gorini, B; Hallgren, Björn I; Iwanski, W; Kapusta, P; Laverrière, G C; Lenti, M; Mikulec, I; Velasco, M; Vossnack, O; Wahl, H; Ziolkowski, M; Porcu, M

    2001-01-01

    The trigger used for the collection of the samples of $K^{0}$ yields $\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays in the NA48 experiment at CERN uses a novel pipeline design in order to satisfy the demanding specifications of a high rate kaon beam. The trigger algorithms, architecture and performance are described.

  2. CT-TRX1, a triggered-reconnection compact toroid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    A new compact toroid experiment, CT-TRX1, based on the field reversed theta pinch is under construction. The unique feature of this experiment is the incorporation of several quasi-steady and pulsed magnets to carefully control the reconnection process. The motivation for this emphasis is to duplicate and extend the results reported by Kurtmullaev, et al., where delayed reconnection produced efficient axial shock heating and resulted in large diameter compact toroids which exhibited complete MHD stability for the 100 μsec decay time of their pulsed magnets. CT-TRX1 incorporates moderate E/sub theta/ radial shock heating, along with the triggered reconnection capability, to investigate the full range of conditions between the USSR experiments and the radial shock heated experiments at LASL, where m = 2 rotational instabilities occur. An additional feature of CT-TRX1 is the incorporation of a compound magnet which will provide long magnetic field decay times. The requirements for both high field quasi-steady outer magnets, and several high voltage, individually triggered pulsed inner magnets, present unique engineering design problems which are discussed

  3. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment is based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics identifies muons with specific values of transverse momentum (pT), by using coincidences between different layers of detectors. Trigger data is then transferred from on-detector to the off-detector trigger electronics boards. Data is processed by a complex system, which combines trigger data from the Barrel and the End-cap regions, and provides the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The system has been performing very well for almost a decade. However, in order to cope with continuously increasing LHC luminosity and more demanding requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others are foreseen in the next years. Most of the trigger upgrades are based on state-of-the-art technologies and allow designing more complex trigger menus, increasing processing power and da...

  4. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC makes use of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics modules are able to identify muons with predefined transverse momentum values (pT) by executing a coincidence logic on signals coming from the various detector layers. Then, on-detector trigger boards transfer trigger data to the off-detector electronics. A complex trigger system processes the incoming data by combining trigger information from the Barrel and the End-cap regions, and by providing the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). For almost a decade, the Level-1 Trigger system has been operating very well, despite the challenging requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, and the continuously increasing LHC luminosity. In order to cope with these constraints, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others have been designed to be installed in the next years. Most of the upgrades to the...

  5. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers

  6. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  7. A 40 MHz Trigger-free Readout Architecture for the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Guzik, Z

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is considering an upgrade towards a trigger-free 40 MHz complete event readout in which the event selection will only be performed on a processing farm by a high-level software trigger with access to all detector information. This would allow operating LHCb at ten times the current design luminosity and improving the trigger efficiencies in order to collect more than ten times the statistics foreseen in the first phase. In this paper we present the new architecture in consideration. In particular, we investigate new technologies and protocols for the distribution of timing and synchronous control commands, and rate control. This so called Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system will also perform a central destination control for the events and manage the load balancing of the readout network and the event filter farm. The TFC system will be centred on a single FPGA-based multimaster allowing concurrent stand-alone operation of any subset of sub-detectors. The TFC distribution network under in...

  8. Accelerator physics experiments at Aladdin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Cornacchia, M.; Jackson, A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    The Aladdin accelerator is a 1 GeV synchrotron light source located at the University of Wisconsin. The results of experimental studies of the Aladdin accelerator are described. The primary purpose of the experiments reported was to investigate reported anomalies in the behavior of the linear lattice, particularly in the vertical plane. A second goal was to estimate the ring broadband impedance. Experimental observations and interpretation of the linear properties of the Aladdin ring are described, including the beta function and dispersion measurements. Two experiments are described to measure the ring impedance, the first a measurement of the parasitic mode loss, and the second a measurement of the beam transfer function. Measurements of the longitudinal and transverse emittance at 100 and 200 MeV are described and compared with predictions. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Data Driven Trigger Design and Analysis for the NOvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbanov, Serdar [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This thesis primarily describes analysis related to studying the Moon shadow with cosmic rays, an analysis using upward-going muons trigger data, and other work done as part of MSc thesis work conducted at Fermi National Laboratory. While at Fermilab I made hardware and software contributions to two experiments - NOvA and Mu2e. NOvA is a neutrino experiment with the primary goal of measuring parameters related to neutrino oscillation. This is a running experiment, so it's possible to provide analysis of real beam and cosmic data. Most of this work was related to the Data-Driven Trigger (DDT) system of NOvA. The results of the Upward-Going muon analysis was presented at ICHEP in August 2016. The analysis demonstrates the proof of principle for a low-mass dark matter search. Mu2e is an experiment currently being built at Fermilab. Its primary goal is to detect the hypothetical neutrinoless conversion from a muon into an electron. I contributed to the production and tests of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) which are required for testing the Cosmic Ray Veto (CRV) system for the experiment. This contribution is described in the last chapter along with a short description of the technical work provided for the DDT system of the NOvA experiment. All of the work described in this thesis will be extended by the next generation of UVA graduate students and postdocs as new data is collected by the experiment. I hope my eorts of have helped lay the foundation for many years of beautiful results from Mu2e and NOvA.

  10. Exploding metallic fuse physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goforth, J.H.; Hackett, K.E.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Lopez, E.A.; McCullough, W.F.; Dona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The ultimate practicality of inductive pulse compression systems as drivers for energetic plasma implosions hinges on the development of a suitable opening switch capable of interrupting tons of megamp currents in time scales of a few hundred nanoseconds while withstanding L(dI/dt) voltages of a megavolt or more. 1. Exploding metallic foils (fuses) are a candidate for switching elements in the inductive store pulsed power systems used in the Los Alamos and Air Force Weapons Laboratory foil implosion X-ray source generation programs. To verify or modify new theoretical and computational predictions about the electrical and hydrodynamic behavior of exploding metallic foils used as fuses. The authors have initiated a new series of small scale capacitor bank driven fuse experiments. The experiments represent an extension of previous experiments, but in the new series a foil geometry more amenable to theoretical and computational analysis is used. The metallic foil (aluminum or copper) is laminated between two thin layers of insulating material (mylar or kaptan). Adjacent to one layer of insulation is a much heavier backing insulator (polyethylene) whereas air is adjacent to the other layer. Because of the differing masses on the two sides of the foil, the foil expansion and hydrodynamic motion is essentially one-sided and the layer of insulation on the expanding side becomes a readily-characterizable ''flyer'' which provides a controlled amount of hydrodynamic tamping. In addition to the usual voltage, current, and dI/dt electrical measurements, time-resolved spectrometer measurements are used to determine the temperature of the expanding metallic foil. Post-shot examination of the flyer and the insulation impacted by the flyer gives insight into the experimental behavior

  11. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  12. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated

  13. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  14. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    TPX is a national project involving a large number of US fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. The element of the TPX requirements that is a primary driver for the hardware design is the fact that TPX tokamak hardware is being designed to accommodate steady state operation if the external systems are upgraded from the 1,000 second initial operation. TPX not only incorporates new physics, but also pioneers new technologies to be used in ITER and other future reactors. TPX will be the first tokamak with fully superconducting magnetic field coils using advanced conductors, will have internal nuclear shielding, will use robotics for machine maintenance, and will remove the continuous, concentrated heat flow from the plasma with new dispersal techniques and with special materials that are actively cooled. The Conceptual Design for TPX was completed during Fiscal Year 1993. The Preliminary Design formally began at the beginning of Fiscal Year 1994. Industrial contracts have been awarded for the design, with options for fabrication, of the primary tokamak hardware. A large fraction of the design and R and D effort during FY94 was focused on the tokamak and in turn on the tokamak magnets. The reason for this emphasis is because the magnets require a large design and R and D effort, and are critical to the project schedule. The magnet development is focused on conductor development, quench protection, and manufacturing R and D. The Preliminary Design Review for the Magnets is planned for fall, 1995

  15. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  16. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  17. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Olin, A.; Klumov, I.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized

  18. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  19. Optimization studies on the calorimetric second level tau trigger of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Codina, Estel

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy regime of LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become an important and very powerful tool, allowing the discovery of physics beyond the Standard Model. Many models, light SM Higgs and various SUSY models among them, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The ATLAS collaboration has developed tools to efficiently identify tau at trigger level, based on the advanced calorimetry and tracking capabilities. The work presented in this Master Thesis is focused on the optimization of the first trigger level energy thresholds and the second trigger level calorimetric variables. A systematic optimization is designed, which allows us to study the robustness of the trigger selection. The improvements achieved by using a sampling energy calibration are discussed. Finally, an optimization on the size of the calorimeter region used to calculate the trigger variables is performed.

  20. Development of a novel scintillation-trigger detector for the MTV experiment using aluminum-metallized film tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S.; Ozaki, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Tanuma, R.; Yoshida, T.; Murata, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new type of a trigger-scintillation counter array designed for the MTV experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC has been developed, which uses aluminum-metallized film tape for wrapping to achieve the required assembling precision of ±0.5 mm. The MTV experiment uses a cylindrical drift chamber (CDC) as the main electron-tracking detector. The barrel-type trigger counter is placed inside the CDC to generate a trigger signal using 1 mm thick, 300 mm long thin plastic scintillation counters. Detection efficiency and light attenuation compared with conventional wrapping materials are studied.

  1. Development of a novel scintillation-trigger detector for the MTV experiment using aluminum-metallized film tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Ozaki, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Tanuma, R.; Yoshida, T.; Murata, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of a trigger-scintillation counter array designed for the MTV experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC has been developed, which uses aluminum-metallized film tape for wrapping to achieve the required assembling precision of ±0.5 mm. The MTV experiment uses a cylindrical drift chamber (CDC) as the main electron-tracking detector. The barrel-type trigger counter is placed inside the CDC to generate a trigger signal using 1 mm thick, 300 mm long thin plastic scintillation counters. Detection efficiency and light attenuation compared with conventional wrapping materials are studied

  2. Evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Negri, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN relies on a complex and highly distributed Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to gather and select particle collision data at unprecedented energy and rates. The TDAQ is composed of three levels which reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average event recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the operational performance of the DAQ system during 2011 and the first months of data taking in 2012. It describes how the flexibility inherent in the design of the system has be exploited to meet the changing needs of ATLAS data taking and in some cases push performance beyond the original design performance specification. The experience accumulated in the TDAQ system operation during these years stimulated also interest to explore possible evolutions, despite the success of the current design. One attractive direction is to merge three systems - the second trigger level (L2), ...

  3. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, T.D.; Hobden, C.; Reeler, A.; Dye, T.D.; Bogale, S.; Tilahun, Y.; Deressa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

  4. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  5. Level 3 trigger algorithm and hardware platform for the HADES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, Daniel Georg

    2007-01-01

    One focus of the HADES experiment is the investigation of the decay of light vector mesons inside a dense medium into lepton pairs. These decays provide a conceptually ideal tool to study the invariant mass of the vector meson in-medium, since the lepton pairs of these meson decays leave the reaction without further strong interaction. Thus, no final state interaction affects the measurement. Unfortunately, the branching ratios of vector mesons into lepton pairs are very small (∼ 10 -5 ). This calls for a high rate, high acceptance experiment. In addition, a sophisticated real time trigger system is used in HADES to enrich the interesting events in the recorded data. The focus of this thesis is the development of a next generation real time trigger method to improve the enrichment of lepton events in the HADES trigger. In addition, a flexible hardware platform (GE-MN) was developed to implement and test the trigger method. The GE-MN features two Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces for data transport, a VMEbus for slow control and configuration, and a TigerSHARC DSP for data processing. It provides the experience to discuss the challenges and benefits of using a commercial standard network technology based system in an experiment. The developed and tested trigger method correlates the ring information of the HADES RICH with the fired wires (cells) of the HADES MDC detector. This correlation method operates by calculating for each event the cells which should have seen the signal of a traversing lepton, and compares these calculated cells to all the cells that did see a signal. The cells which should have fired are calculated from the polar and azimuthal angle information of the RICH rings by assuming a straight line in space, which is starting at the target and extending into a direction given by the ring angles. The line extends through the inner MDC chambers and the traversed cells are those that should have been hit. To compensate different sources for inaccuracies not

  6. Level 3 trigger algorithm and hardware platform for the HADES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, Daniel Georg

    2007-10-26

    One focus of the HADES experiment is the investigation of the decay of light vector mesons inside a dense medium into lepton pairs. These decays provide a conceptually ideal tool to study the invariant mass of the vector meson in-medium, since the lepton pairs of these meson decays leave the reaction without further strong interaction. Thus, no final state interaction affects the measurement. Unfortunately, the branching ratios of vector mesons into lepton pairs are very small ({approx} 10{sup -5}). This calls for a high rate, high acceptance experiment. In addition, a sophisticated real time trigger system is used in HADES to enrich the interesting events in the recorded data. The focus of this thesis is the development of a next generation real time trigger method to improve the enrichment of lepton events in the HADES trigger. In addition, a flexible hardware platform (GE-MN) was developed to implement and test the trigger method. The GE-MN features two Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces for data transport, a VMEbus for slow control and configuration, and a TigerSHARC DSP for data processing. It provides the experience to discuss the challenges and benefits of using a commercial standard network technology based system in an experiment. The developed and tested trigger method correlates the ring information of the HADES RICH with the fired wires (cells) of the HADES MDC detector. This correlation method operates by calculating for each event the cells which should have seen the signal of a traversing lepton, and compares these calculated cells to all the cells that did see a signal. The cells which should have fired are calculated from the polar and azimuthal angle information of the RICH rings by assuming a straight line in space, which is starting at the target and extending into a direction given by the ring angles. The line extends through the inner MDC chambers and the traversed cells are those that should have been hit. To compensate different sources for

  7. Boosted object hardware trigger development and testing for the Phase I upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Giordon Holtsberg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Global Feature Extraction (gFEX) module is a Level 1 jet trigger system planned for installation in ATLAS during the Phase 1 upgrade in 2018. The gFEX selects large-radius jets for capturing Lorentz-boosted objects by means of wide-area jet algorithms refined by subjet information. The architecture of the gFEX permits event-by-event local pile-up suppression for these jets using the same subtraction techniques developed for offline analyses. The gFEX architecture is also suitable for other global event algorithms such as missing transverse energy (MET), centrality for heavy ion collisions, and "jets without jets". The gFEX will use 4 processor FPGAs to perform calculations on the incoming data and a Hybrid APU-FPGA for slow control of the module. The gFEX is unique in both design and implementation and substantially enhance the selectivity of the L1 trigger and increases sensitivity to key physics channels.

  8. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  9. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  10. Contribution to the design and implementation of the trigger and acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, X.

    1994-10-01

    The thesis is devoted to the trigger and data acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP. It is a large distributed system with multiple levels to trigger, collect and record events detected by the L3 detector. The three trigger levels are designed to reduce a possible first level trigger rate of 100 Hz to a few Hz. The readout and event building systems have intermediate buffering so that the only dead time is only introduced during digitization of the detector signals. The emphasis of this thesis is on the Hadron Calorimeter (one of the sub detectors) readout system, the L3 event building system and the upgraded level-3-trigger system. Both hardware and software are described. (author). 126 refs., 48 figs., 23 tabs

  11. Towards a Level-1 tracking trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, T A D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ability to apply fast processing that can take account of the properties of the tracks that are being reconstructed will enhance the rejection, while retaining high efficiency for events with desired signatures, such as high momentum leptons or multiple jets. Studies to understand the feasibility of such a system have begun, and proceed in two directions: a fast readout for high granularity silicon detectors, and a fast pattern recognition algorithm to be applied just after the Front-End readout for specific sub detectors. Both existing, and novel technologies can offer solutions. The aim of these studies is to determine the parameter space to which this system must be adapted. The status of ongoing tests on specific hardware components crucial for this system, both to increase the ATLAS physics potential and fully satisfy the trigger requirements at very high luminosities are discussed.

  12. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  13. On-line trigger processor in PETRA/DORIS experiments at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    ölschläger, R

    1981-01-01

    Data, presented at a poster session, on on-line trigger processing are given. Brief details of trigger processors at the detectors CELLO, TASSO and ARAUS are shown, including: general working method; IC technology; power consumption; logic elements for trigger decision; number of chambers; number of input wires; execution time; parameter variation; links to host computer; cost; test features. (0 refs).

  14. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation (R) measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating and ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spray tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses of laboratory experiments showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of -4 W m-2 or more, independent of the HV-system. Similar offsets were observed in field experiments under ambient environmental conditions, indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) targets following precipitation events. All pyranometers required substantial time to return to their initial signal states after the simulated precipitation events. Therefore, for BSRN-class measurements, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements during a natural precipitation event and 90 min after it in nighttime conditions. Further daytime experiments show pyranometer offsets of 50 W m-2 or more in comparison to the reference system. As they show a substantially faster recovery, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements within a natural precipitation event and 10 min after it in daytime conditions.

  15. Cometary nucleus release experiments and ice physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Some physical and chemical processes involved in the evaporation and sublimation of mixtures of frozen gases are discussed. Effects of zero gravity, vacuum and solar radiation are emphasized. Relevant experiments that can be carried out with the aid of the space shuttle are proposed. The ice surface and the space just above the surface, i.e., the physics and chemistry of ice sublimation are mainly considered

  16. Current Experiments in Particle Physics. 1996 Edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, Hrvoje

    2003-06-27

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  17. Contributions to noise in the data readout for Trigger Tracker in the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bieler, Ueli

    This thesis reports the analysis of contributions to noise in the data readout for Trigger Tracker in the LHCb experiment. Measurements have shown that some specific data channels have more noise than the others. This additional contributions to noise cannot be explained by basic electronic noise principles of the detector but by noise sources in the readout chain. The focus is on the channels near the header. Because of a crosstalk effect in the readout electronics the pseudo- digital header affects the close-by analog data channels. Therefore the correlation between the header and the data channels is studied precisely by self-made analysis tools in order to develop an algorithm that cancels the crosstalk contribution to noise. Thanks the algorithm the noise can be reduced efficiently.

  18. Test and performances of the RPC trigger chambers of the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Ammosov, A; Biglietti, M; Brambilla, Elena; Camarri, P; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Chiodini, G; Di Simone, A; Di Ciaccio, A; Della Volpe, D; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Grancagnolo, F; Gorini, E; Iengo, P; Liberti, B; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Santonico, R; Sehkniadze, G; Spagnolo, S; Sviridov, Yu; Zaetz, V G

    2004-01-01

    RPCs will be used as trigger detectors in the barrel region of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The total number of RPC units to be installed is 1088, covering a total surface of about 3500m**2. ATLAS RPCs work in avalanche mode with C//2H//2F //4/C//4H //1//0/SF//6 (94.7%/5%/0.3%) gas mixture. A cosmic ray test stand has been designed and built in Naples laboratories in order to carry out a complete test of the ATLAS RPC units. Since August 2002 about 300 units have been tested. A description of the test stand, test procedure and results are presented.

  19. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  20. DIRAC in Large Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Arrabito, L.; Sailer, A.; Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    The DIRAC project is developing interware to build and operate distributed computing systems. It provides a development framework and a rich set of services for both Workload and Data Management tasks of large scientific communities. A number of High Energy Physics and Astrophysics collaborations have adopted DIRAC as the base for their computing models. DIRAC was initially developed for the LHCb experiment at LHC, CERN. Later, the Belle II, BES III and CTA experiments as well as the linear collider detector collaborations started using DIRAC for their computing systems. Some of the experiments built their DIRAC-based systems from scratch, others migrated from previous solutions, ad-hoc or based on different middlewares. Adaptation of DIRAC for a particular experiment was enabled through the creation of extensions to meet their specific requirements. Each experiment has a heterogeneous set of computing and storage resources at their disposal that were aggregated through DIRAC into a coherent pool. Users from different experiments can interact with the system in different ways depending on their specific tasks, expertise level and previous experience using command line tools, python APIs or Web Portals. In this contribution we will summarize the experience of using DIRAC in particle physics collaborations. The problems of migration to DIRAC from previous systems and their solutions will be presented. An overview of specific DIRAC extensions will be given. We hope that this review will be useful for experiments considering an update, or for those designing their computing models.

  1. On the granular fingering instability: controlled triggering in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie; Tsang, Jonny; Arran, Matthew; Jin, Binbin; Johnsen, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    When a mixture of small, smooth particles and larger, coarse particles is released on a rough inclined plane, the initial uniform front may break up in distinct fingers which elongate over time. This fingering instability is sensitive to the unique arrangement of individual particles and is driven by granular segregation (Pouliquen et al., 1997). Variability in initial conditions create significant limitations for consistent experimental and numerical validation of newly developed theoretical models (Baker et al., 2016) for finger formation. We present an experimental study using a novel tool that sets the initial fingering width of the instability. By changing this trigger width between experiments, we explore the response of the avalanche breakup to perturbations of different widths. Discrete particle simulations (using MercuryDPM, Thornton et al., 2012) are conducted under a similar setting, reproducing the variable finger width, allowing validation between experiments and numerical simulations. A good agreement between simulations and experiments is obtained, and ongoing theoretical work is briefly introduced. NMV acknowledges the Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship.

  2. Physics Experiments at the UNEDLabs Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan pedro Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UNEDLabs is a web portal based on a free, modern, open source, and well-known learning management system: Moodle. This portal joins two theme networks of virtual and remote laboratories (one for Control Engineering and another one for Physics, named AutomatL@bs and FisL@bs, respectively together. AutomatL@bs has been operative for five years now. Following AutomatL@bs’ scheme, FisL@bs was created as a network of remote and virtual laboratories for physics university education via the Internet to offer students the possibility of performing hands-on experiences in different fields of physics in two ways: simulation and real remote operation. Now, both FisL@bs and AutomatL@bs join together (while maintaining their independency into an unique new web portal called UNEDLabs. This work focuses on this new web environment and gives a detailed account of a novel way in Physics to let distance learning students gain practical experience autonomously. This paper explains how the new portal works and the software tools used for creating it. In addition, it also describes the physics experiments which are already operative.

  3. Brahms Experiment at RHIC Day-1 Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    The BRAHMS experiment is designed to measure semi-inclusive spectra of charged hadron over a wide range of rapidity. It will yield information on particle production, both at central rapidity and in the baryon rich fragmentation region. The physics plans for measurements in the first year of running at RHIC are discussed

  4. Architecture of a Level 1 Track Trigger for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heintz, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The luminosity goal for the Super-LHC is 1035/cm2/s. At this luminosity the number of proton-proton interactions in each beam crossing will be in the hundreds. This will stress many components of the CMS detector. One system that has to be upgraded is the trigger system. To keep the rate at which the level 1 trigger fires manageable, information from the tracker has to be integrated into the level 1 trigger. Current design proposals foresee tracking detectors that perform on-detector filtering to reject hits from low-momentum particles. In order to build a trigger system, the filtered hit data from different layers and sectors of the tracker will have to be transmitted off the detector and brought together in a logic processor that generates trigger tracks within the time window allowed by the level 1 trigger latency. I will describe a possible architecture for the off-detector logic that accomplishes this goal.

  5. An Associative Memory Chip for the Trigger System of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380893; The ATLAS collaboration; Liberali, Valentino; Crescioli, Francesco; Beretta, Matteo; Frontini, Luca; Annovi, Alberto; Stabile, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The AM06 is the 6th version of a large associative memory chip designed in 65 nm CMOS tech- nology. The AM06 operates as a highly parallel ASIC processor for pattern recognition in the ATLAS experiment at CERN. It is the core of the Fast TracKer electronic system, which is tai- lored for on-line track finding in the trigger system of the ATLAS experiment. The Fast TracKer system is able to process events up to 100 MHz in real time. The AM06 is a complex chip, and it has been designed combining full-custom memory arrays, standard logic cells and IP blocks. It contains memory banks that store data organized in 18 bit words; a group of 8 words is called a pattern. The chip silicon area is 168 mm2; it contains 421 millions of transistors and it stores 217 patterns. Moreover, the associative memory is suitable also for other interdisciplinary appli- cations (i.e., general purpose image filtering and analysis). In the near future we plan to design a more powerful and flexible chip in 28 nm CMOS technology.

  6. Aesthetic Experience as an Essential Factor to Trigger Positive Environmental Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ching Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental attitude models are primarily composed of environmental knowledge, value, and intention. However, environmental aestheticians have maintained that aesthetic experience triggered by nature is the cornerstone of promoting environmental ethics. To verify this belief, this study proposes a new framework, which integrates the rational and emotional approaches, to describe the environmental attitudes of the public. Questionnaires are used to collect data from college students in Taiwan, and a total of 275 valid responses are received. The collected data are analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results support the proposed hypotheses. In addition to reconfirming the importance of environmental knowledge in the traditional models, this study confirms that aesthetic experience is also a determining dimension. The findings show that rational cognition and aesthetic perception complement and interact with each other and can strengthen environmental ethics, thereby enhancing the intention of pro-environmental behavior. The results of this study can serve as a reference for environmental protection or environmental education practice.

  7. A trigger card for event rejection in the RMC experiment at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.; Chan, R.; Daviel, S.; Ko, S.; Blecher, M.; Hasinoff, M.; Sample, D.; Wright, D.; Poutissou, R.

    1990-01-01

    A trigger card has been designed and constructed to improve the trigger efficiency of a large solid angle pair spectrometer to be used for the measurement of radiative muon capture at TRIUMF. A number of these trigger cards are connected to FASTBUS pipeline TDCs via the FASTBUS auxiliary connector, to provide coarse information on the tracks of charged particles in a drift chamber. The trigger cards produce a majority OR of groups of six signals from the chamber, allowing very fast on-line event rejection. The performance of the cards and other relevant technical issues will be discussed in this article

  8. The second level trigger of the L3 experiment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Blaising, J.J.; Chollet-Le Flour, F.; Degre, A.; Dromby, G.; Goy, C.; Lecoq, J.; Morand, R.; Moynot, M.; Perrot, G.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Forconi, G.

    1993-07-01

    The events recorded by the L3 Data Acquisition System are selected by three levels of trigger. The event filtering performed by software at the second trigger level is described. First coded offline in FORTRAN, the filtering software is microcoded for online execution in a farm of 3 XOP processors operating in a round robin mode. It identifies and rejects background events. Depending on running conditions and trigger type, rejection factors ranging from 45% to 80% are obtained on first level energy, muon and tec triggers. Selection efficiencies greater than 99.95% are achieved. (authors). 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  10. An FPGA-based trigger processor for a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopferer, Sebastian

    2013-12-16

    The COMPASS-II experiment at CERN is focusing on a measurement of the deeply virtual Compton scattering. Several upgrades of the experimental setup have been performed in 2012, namely the construction of a long liquid hydrogen target and a surrounding recoil proton detector called CAMERA. Based on a time-of-flight measurement between two barrels of scintillators, the CAMERA detector allows to detect protons with a kinetic energy down to 35 MeV, which leave the target under large polar angles. At the same time, protons can be distinguished from other particles resulting from background processes by means of an energy loss measurement in the scintillating material. In order to extend the existing COMPASS trigger scheme, a digital trigger system has been developed, which is detailed in the thesis at hand. The trigger system is able to select events with a recoil proton in the final state while suppressing background events, using the particle identification capabilities of the CAMERA detector. Challenging selection criteria based on both the time-of-flight and the energy loss measurement call for a powerful programmable logic board. At the same time, the integration into the existing COMPASS trigger system poses strict constraints on the latency of the trigger decision. For the implementation of the proton trigger system, a new FPGA-based trigger and DAQ hardware called TIGER has been built. The module is operated in two firmware configurations, serving two distinct purposes. Firstly, the trigger processor is responsible for the generation of a trigger signal based on recoil particles, which is included in the global first-level trigger decision. Secondly, a readout concentrator allows to multiplex the data streams of up to 18 readout modules into one link to the DAQ. The CAMERA detector and the corresponding readout and trigger electronics was commissioned during a test run in autumn 2012. This thesis contains details about the trigger concept, the development of the

  11. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Systems: Experience and Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS DAQ/HLT system reduces the Level 1 rate of 75 kHz to a few kHz event build rate after Level 2 and a few hundred Hz out output rate to disk. It has operated with an average data taking efficiency of about 94% during the recent years. The performance has far exceeded the initial requirements, with about 5 kHz event building rate and 500 Hz of output rate in 2012, driven mostly by physics requirements. Several improvements and upgrades are foreseen in the upcoming long shutdowns, both to simplify the existing architecture and improve the performance. On the network side new core switches will be deployed and possible use of 10GBit Ethernet links for critical areas is foreseen. An improved read-out system to replace the existing solution based on PCI is under development. A major evolution of the high level trigger system foresees a merging of the Level 2 and Event Filter functionality on a single node, including the event building. This will represent a big simplification of the existing system, while ...

  12. Simulations and Experiments in Astronomy and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, F. P.; Maurone, P. A.; Dewarf, L. E.

    1998-12-01

    There are new approaches to teaching astronomy and physics in the laboratory setting, involving the use of computers as tools to simulate events and concepts which can be illuminated in no other reasonable way. With the computer, it is possible to travel back in time to replicate the sky as Galileo saw it. Astronomical phenomena which reveal themselves only after centuries of real time may be compressed in the computer to a simulation of several minutes. Observations simulated on the computer do not suffer from the vagaries of weather, fixed time or geographic position, or non-repeatability. In physics, the computer allows us to secure data for experiments which, by their nature, may not be amenable to human interaction. These could include experiments with very fast or very slow timescales, large number of data samples, complex or tedious manipulation of the data which hides the fundamental nature of the experiment, or data sampling which would need a specialized probe, such as for acid rain. This innovation has become possible only recently, due to the availability and affordability of sophisticated computer hardware and software. We have developed a laboratory experience for non-scientists who need an introductory course in astronomy or physics. Our approach makes extensive use of computers in this laboratory. Using commercially available software, the students use the computer as a time machine and a space craft to explore and rediscover fundamental science. The physics experiments are classical in nature, and the computer acts as a data collector and presenter, freeing the student from the tedium of repetitive data gathering and replotting. In this way, the student is encouraged to explore, to try new things, to refine the measurements, and to discover the principles underlying the observed phenomena.

  13. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  14. Results from an on-line non-leptonic neural trigger implemented in an experiment looking for beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldanza, C.; Musico, P.; Novelli, P.; Passaseo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Results from a non-leptonic neural-network trigger hosted by experiment WA92, looking for beauty particle production from 350 GeV negative pions on a fixed Cu target, are presented. The neural trigger has been used to send events selected by means of a non-leptonic signature based on microvertex detector information to a special data stream, meant for early analysis. The non-leptonic signature, defined in a neural-network fashion, was devised so as to enrich the selected sample in the number of events containing C3 secondary vertices (i.e, vertices having three tracks with sum of electric charges equal to +1 or -1), which are sought for further analysis to identify charm and beauty non-leptonic decays. The neural trigger module consists of a VME crate hosting two MA16 digital neural chips from Siemens and two ETANN analog neural chips from Intel. During the experimental run, only the ETANN chips were operational. The neural trigger operated for two continuous weeks during the WA92 1993 run. For an acceptance of 15% for C3 events, the neural trigger yields a C3 enrichment factor of 6.6-7.1 (depending on the event sample considered), which multiplied by that already provided by the standard trigger leads to a global C3 enrichment factor of similar 150. In the event sample selected by the neural trigger, one every similar 7 events contains a C3 vertex. The response time of the neural trigger module is 5.8 μs. (orig.)

  15. Results from an on-line non-leptonic neural trigger implemented in an experiment looking for beauty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanza, C. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Bisi, F. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Cotta-Ramusino, A. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; D`Antone, I. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Malferrari, L. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Mazzanti, P. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Odorici, F. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Odorico, R. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Zuffa, M. [INFN, Bologna (Italy). ANNETTHE; Bruschini, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Musico, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Novelli, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Passaseo, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-07-15

    Results from a non-leptonic neural-network trigger hosted by experiment WA92, looking for beauty particle production from 350 GeV negative pions on a fixed Cu target, are presented. The neural trigger has been used to send events selected by means of a non-leptonic signature based on microvertex detector information to a special data stream, meant for early analysis. The non-leptonic signature, defined in a neural-network fashion, was devised so as to enrich the selected sample in the number of events containing C3 secondary vertices (i.e, vertices having three tracks with sum of electric charges equal to +1 or -1), which are sought for further analysis to identify charm and beauty non-leptonic decays. The neural trigger module consists of a VME crate hosting two MA16 digital neural chips from Siemens and two ETANN analog neural chips from Intel. During the experimental run, only the ETANN chips were operational. The neural trigger operated for two continuous weeks during the WA92 1993 run. For an acceptance of 15% for C3 events, the neural trigger yields a C3 enrichment factor of 6.6-7.1 (depending on the event sample considered), which multiplied by that already provided by the standard trigger leads to a global C3 enrichment factor of similar 150. In the event sample selected by the neural trigger, one every similar 7 events contains a C3 vertex. The response time of the neural trigger module is 5.8 {mu}s. (orig.).

  16. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  17. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  18. Neutrino physics with short baseline experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino physics with low- to medium-energy beams has progressed steadily over the last several years. Neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline (defined as 2 - -> 0.1eV 2 . One positive signal, from the LSND collaboration, exists and is being tested by the MiniBooNE experiment. Neutrino cross-section measurements are being made by MiniBooNE and K2K, which will be important for reducing systematic errors in present and future oscillation measurements. In the near future, dedicated cross- section experiments will begin operating at Fermilab. (author)

  19. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche

  20. Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo

    2009-03-01

    The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.

  1. Particle physics experiments at high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2011-01-01

    Written by one of the detector developers for the International Linear Collider, this is the first textbook for graduate students dedicated to the complexities and the simplicities of high energy collider detectors. It is intended as a specialized reference for a standard course in particle physics, and as a principal text for a special topics course focused on large collider experiments. Equally useful as a general guide for physicists designing big detectors. (orig.)

  2. Flavour Physics with High-Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    With the first dedicated B-factory experiments BaBar (USA) and BELLE (Japan) Flavour Physics has entered the phase of precision physics. LHCb (CERN) and the high luminosity extension of KEK-B together with the state of the art BELLE II detector will further push this precision frontier. Progress in this field always relied on close cooperation between experiment and theory, as extraction of fundamental parameters often is very indirect. To extract the full physics information from existing and future data, this cooperation must be further intensified. This MIAPP programme aims in particular to prepare for this task by joining experimentalists and theorists in the various relevant fields, with the goal to build the necessary tools in face of the challenge of new large data sets. The programme will begin with a focus on physics with non-leptonic final states, continued by semileptonic B meson decays and Tau decays, and on various aspects of CP symmetry violation closer to the end. In addition, in the final ...

  3. Track Finding for the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    James, Thomas Owen

    2017-01-01

    A new tracking system is under development for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), located at CERN. It includes a silicon tracker that will correlate clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, for the rejection of hits from low transverse momentum tracks. This will allow tracker data to be read out to the Level-1 trigger at 40\\,MHz. The Level-1 track-finder must be able to identify tracks with transverse momentum above 2--3\\,$\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ within latency constraints. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are identified using a Hough Transform, and then refined with a Kalman Filter. Both steps are fully implemented in FPGA firmware. A hardware system built from MP7 MicroTCA processing cards has been assembled, which demonstrates a realistic slice of the track finder in order to help gauge the performance and requirements for a final system.

  4. Event-building and PC farm based level-3 trigger at the CDF experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, K; Furic, I K; Holmgren, D; Korn, A J; Kravchenko, I V; Mulhearn, M; Ngan, P; Paus, C; Rakitine, A; Rechenmacher, R; Shah, T; Sphicas, Paris; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Tseng, J

    2000-01-01

    In the technical design report the event building process at Fermilab's CDF experiment is required to function at an event rate of 300 events/sec. The events are expected to have an average size of 150 kBytes (kB) and are assembled from fragments of 16 readout locations. The fragment size from the different locations varies between 12 kB and 16 kB. Once the events are assembled they are fed into the Level-3 trigger which is based on processors running programs to filter events using the full event information. Computing power on the order of a second on a Pentium II processor is required per event. The architecture design is driven by the cost and is therefore based on commodity components: VME processor modules running VxWorks for the readout, an ATM switch for the event building, and Pentium PCs running Linux as an operation system for the Level-3 event processing. Pentium PCs are also used to receive events from the ATM switch and further distribute them to the processing nodes over multiple 100 Mbps Ether...

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  6. KATANA – A charge-sensitive triggering system for the SπRIT experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Adamczyk, M.; Brzychczyk, J. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Hirnyk, P.; Łukasik, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Pawłowski, P., E-mail: piotr.pawlowski@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Kraków (Poland); Pelczar, K. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Snoch, A. [University of Wroclaw, Wrocław (Poland); Sochocka, A.; Sosin, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University,Kraków (Poland); Barney, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Cerizza, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Estee, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Jhang, G. [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kaneko, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-shirakawa, Kyoto (Japan); Kurata-Nishimura, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); and others

    2017-06-01

    KATANA - the Krakow Array for Triggering with Amplitude discrimiNAtion - has been built and used as a trigger and veto detector for the SπRIT TPC at RIKEN. Its construction allows operating in magnetic field and providing fast response for ionizing particles, giving an approximate forward multiplicity and charge information. Depending on this information, trigger and veto signals are generated. The article presents performance of the detector and details of its construction. A simple phenomenological parametrization of the number of emitted scintillation photons in plastic scintillator is proposed. The effect of the light output deterioration in the plastic scintillator due to the in-beam irradiation is discussed.

  7. Laser experiments for chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Compton, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are employed throughout science and technology, in fundamental research, the remote sensing of atmospheric gases or pollutants, communications, medical diagnostics and therapies, and the manufacturing of microelectronic devices. Understanding the principles of their operation, which underlie all of these areas, is essential for a modern scientific education. This text introduces the characteristics and operation of lasers through laboratory experiments designed for the undergraduate curricula in chemistry and physics. Introductory chapters describe the properties of light, the history of laser invention, the atomic, molecular, and optical principles behind how lasers work, and the kinds of lasers available today. Other chapters include the basic theory of spectroscopy and computational chemistry used to interpret laser experiments. Experiments range from simple in-class demonstrations to more elaborate configurations for advanced students. Each chapter has historical and theoretical background, as well...

  8. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  9. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  10. A submersible physics laboratory experiment. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1972, NOAA (OOE and MUSandT) and the University of Washington Physics Department, have been associated in the underwater detection and analysis of cosmic radiation flux. The purpose of experiments described in this paper has been to take advantage of the nuclear cosmic-ray related qualities of the ocean water mass by allowing the experimenter(s) to work in situ on the sea floor, rather than attempting to try an impractical alternative: lowering a prepared photoemulsion detector to the bottom from a surface vessel, a method that would yield an unacceptably surface-radiation-cluttered emulsion. This report describes briefly the four elements that motivated or comprised the subject experiment: basic physics which motivated the mission; applied physics, including particle detection, emulsion chemistry, calibration, and scanning; engineering, including design and fabrication of supporting apparatus, use of a submersible (JSL was modified slightly to permit lock-on to the bottom chamber), and a bottom lockout chamber; and operations, including submersible dives, ship support, emulsion preparation, deployment, recovery, and development

  11. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  12. Investigation of index finger triggering force using a cadaver experiment: Effects of trigger grip span, contact location, and internal tendon force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joonho; Freivalds, Andris; Sharkey, Neil A; Kong, Yong-Ku; Mike Kim, H; Sung, Kiseok; Kim, Dae-Min; Jung, Kihyo

    2017-11-01

    A cadaver study was conducted to investigate the effects of triggering conditions (trigger grip span, contact location, and internal tendon force) on index finger triggering force and the force efficiency of involved tendons. Eight right human cadaveric hands were employed, and a motion simulator was built to secure and control the specimens. Index finger triggering forces were investigated as a function of different internal tendon forces (flexor digitorum profundus + flexor digitorum superficialis = 40, 70, and 100 N), trigger grip spans (40, 50, and 60 mm), and contact locations between the index finger and a trigger. Triggering forces significantly increased when internal tendon forces increased from 40 to 100 N. Also, trigger grip spans and contact locations had significant effects on triggering forces; maximum triggering forces were found at a 50 mm span and the most proximal contact location. The results revealed that only 10-30% of internal tendon forces were converted to their external triggering forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nightlife, verbal and physical violence among young European holidaymakers: what are the triggers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, A; Bellis, M A; Fernández Del Rio, E; Juan, M; Hughes, K; Morleo, M; Becoña, E; Duch, M; Stamos, A; Mendes, F

    2013-10-01

    There is an established relationship between nightlife, substance use and violence. This study investigated this relationship when people are on holiday, and explored the differences in experiences between physical and verbal violence. A survey of young tourists at seven airport departure areas in Southern European resorts. Questionnaires from 6502 British and German tourists were analysed exploring demographics, violence (verbal and physical), substance use, and reasons for resort and venue selection. Over two-thirds of respondents reported being drunk on their holiday, 12.4% had been involved in arguments and 2.9% had been involved in fights. Logistic regression highlighted more violence amongst visitors to Mallorca [arguments: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.7; fights: AOR 2.0] compared with those visiting Portugal, males (arguments: AOR 1.3; fights: AOR 1.7), those who had used illicit drugs (arguments: AOR 1.5; fights: AOR 2.9), those who had been in fights at home in the last 12 months (arguments: AOR 2.2; fights AOR 2.9), and those who had frequently been drunk abroad (arguments: AOR 2.4; fights: AOR 2.5). Those aged 16-19 years, visiting Italy or Crete, who were drunk for fewer than half of the days of their stay, and who chose bars because they were frequented by drunk people were more likely to report having an argument. Fights were associated with cannabis use and were negatively associated with choosing bars with a friendly atmosphere. Economic status or frequency of visiting bars had no relationship with arguments or fights. Understanding and addressing the variables involved in violence when holidaying abroad is critical in targeting appropriate health promotion and harm reduction measures. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reactor physics experiment plan using TCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Shoichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-06-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is one of the next generation water-cooled reactors, which aims at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up, long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. For verification of the feasibility, negative void reactivity coefficient and conversion ratio more than 1.0 must be confirmed. This report is to plan critical experiments using TCA in JAERI. Critical Experiments performed so far in Europe and Japan are reviewed, and no useful data are available for RMWR development. Critical experiments using TCA (Tank Type Critical Assembly) in JAERI are planned. MOX fuel rods should be prepared for the experiments and some modifications of equipment are needed for use of MOX fuel rods. This report describes the preliminary plan of physics experiments. The number of MOX-fuel rods used in the experiments is obtained by calculations and modification of the equipment for the experiments are shown. New MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel rods are necessary for the RMWR critical experiments. Number of MOX fuel rods is 1000 for Plutonium fissile enrichment of 5 wt%, 1000 for 10 wt%, 1500 for 15 wt% and 500 for 20 wt%, respectively. Depleted UO{sub 2} fuel rods for blanket/buffer region are 4000. Driver fuel rods of 4.9 wt% UO{sub 2} are 3000. Modification of TCA facility is requested to treat the large amount of MOX fuels from safety point of view. Additional shielding device at the top of the tank for loading the MOX fuels and additional safety plates to ensure safety are requested. The core is divided into two regions by inserting an inner tank to avoid criticality in MOX region only. The test region is composed by MOX fuel rods in the inner tank. Criticality is established by UO{sub 2} driver fuel rods outside of the inner tank. (Tsuchihashi, K.)

  15. The basic physics of neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1999-01-01

    The basic physical principles behind the well-established but also developing practice of neutron scattering experiments are presented. A few examples are given either to illustrate the physical principles or to give an idea of the variety, importance or magnitude of various phenomena. The evolution of neutron scattering experimental techniques is investigated from a special aspect: the increasing capability of taking into account more and more important and sometimes decisive finer details by using more and more realistic mathematical models of the evolution of the neutrons from birth do death, eventually passing by the sample and being scattered more than one times. Working with such numerical 'virtual instruments' one will have to go far beyond notions like resolution function, convolution etc, and actually eliminate a large number of approximations currently in use. (K.A.)

  16. Experiences of Scientific Thinking in Physics Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fagundes Faria

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a contemporary demand on STEM education to support learning experiences in which students use scientific thinking to solve tasks. Scientific thinking involves domain-specific knowledge and general domain strategies of thinking. The object of interest in this research was the set of students’ experiences of scientific thinking in which they articulate domain-general strategies and domain-specific knowledge to solve physics tasks. Our goal was to characterize the experiences of scientific thinking of two groups of four students engaged in tasks about Newtonian Mechanics. The volunteers were 19 students, 15-17 years old, enrolled in electronics or computer science courses (11th grade of a Brazilian vocational high school at Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais. All class activities proposed to the students have been regularly used since 2010, therefore, we made no special intervention to conduct the study. Data collection occurred during the classes and involved audio and video recordings of students working in group; field notes; and photographs of students’ notebooks and of the posters they made to conduct oral presentations. The choice of the groups was based on how assiduous the members were. We have transcribed episodes in which we identified experiences of scientific thinking. These transcriptions, the field notes and the photographs were analyzed together, in interaction with each other. Data analysis is based upon John Dewey’s Theory of Experience. Our results show that the experiences of scientific thinking of the two groups were educative experiences, although qualitatively different. This difference was due to the way students interacted with the conditions given to solve the tasks. Additional information is given about the school circumstances in which the study was conducted to allow a better evaluation of results quality.

  17. Physics with Photons at the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reale, V.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of photons in the ATLAS experiment is crucial for the study of a number of physics channels, including the search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs, and measurements of direct production of single photons and photon pairs. The photon-photon and photon-jet channels are interesting in their own right, allowing the study of QCD at the new energy range of the LHC. The photon-identification strategy in ATLAS will be presented along with photon-jet cross section measurements and the potential ATLAS constrains on the gluon structure function

  18. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented

  19. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; hide

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard

  20. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  1. Physically based modeling of rainfall-triggered landslides: a case study in the Luquillo forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, C.; Arnone, E.; Noto, L. V.; Sivandran, G.; Bras, R. L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a rainfall-triggered landslide module within an existing physically based spatially distributed ecohydrologic model. The model, tRIBS-VEGGIE (Triangulated Irregular Networks-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator and Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution), is capable of a sophisticated description of many hydrological processes; in particular, the soil moisture dynamics are resolved at a temporal and spatial resolution required to examine the triggering mechanisms of rainfall-induced landslides. The validity of the tRIBS-VEGGIE model to a tropical environment is shown with an evaluation of its performance against direct observations made within the study area of Luquillo Forest. The newly developed landslide module builds upon the previous version of the tRIBS landslide component. This new module utilizes a numerical solution to the Richards' equation (present in tRIBS-VEGGIE but not in tRIBS), which better represents the time evolution of soil moisture transport through the soil column. Moreover, the new landslide module utilizes an extended formulation of the factor of safety (FS) to correctly quantify the role of matric suction in slope stability and to account for unsaturated conditions in the evaluation of FS. The new modeling framework couples the capabilities of the detailed hydrologic model to describe soil moisture dynamics with the infinite slope model, creating a powerful tool for the assessment of rainfall-triggered landslide risk.

  2. Therapeutic-Ultrasound-Triggered Shape Memory of a Melamine-Enhanced Poly(vinyl alcohol) Physical Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Yan, Qiang; Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue

    2015-06-10

    Therapeutic-ultrasound-triggered shape memory was demonstrated for the first time with a melamine-enhanced poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) physical hydrogel. The addition of a small amount of melamine (up to 1.5 wt %) in PVA results in a strong hydrogel due to the multiple H-bonding between the two constituents. A temporary shape of the hydrogel can be obtained by deformation of the hydrogel (∼65 wt % water) at room temperature, followed by fixation of the deformation by freezing/thawing the hydrogel under strain, which induces crystallization of PVA. We show that the ultrasound delivered by a commercially available device designed for the patient's pain relief could trigger the shape recovery process as a result of ultrasound-induced local heating in the hydrogel that melts the crystallized PVA cross-linking. This hydrogel is thus interesting for potential applications because it combines many desirable properties, being mechanically strong, biocompatible, and self-healable and displaying the shape memory capability triggered by a physiological stimulus.

  3. Physically based modeling of rainfall-triggered landslides: a case study in the Luquillo forest, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lepore

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a rainfall-triggered landslide module within an existing physically based spatially distributed ecohydrologic model. The model, tRIBS-VEGGIE (Triangulated Irregular Networks-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator and Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution, is capable of a sophisticated description of many hydrological processes; in particular, the soil moisture dynamics are resolved at a temporal and spatial resolution required to examine the triggering mechanisms of rainfall-induced landslides. The validity of the tRIBS-VEGGIE model to a tropical environment is shown with an evaluation of its performance against direct observations made within the study area of Luquillo Forest. The newly developed landslide module builds upon the previous version of the tRIBS landslide component. This new module utilizes a numerical solution to the Richards' equation (present in tRIBS-VEGGIE but not in tRIBS, which better represents the time evolution of soil moisture transport through the soil column. Moreover, the new landslide module utilizes an extended formulation of the factor of safety (FS to correctly quantify the role of matric suction in slope stability and to account for unsaturated conditions in the evaluation of FS. The new modeling framework couples the capabilities of the detailed hydrologic model to describe soil moisture dynamics with the infinite slope model, creating a powerful tool for the assessment of rainfall-triggered landslide risk.

  4. Physics capabilities of the SNO+ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanova, E.; Back, A. R.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SNO+ will soon enter its first phase of physics data-taking. The Canadian-based detector forms part of the SNOLAB underground facility, in a Sudbury nickel mine; its location providing more than two kilometres of rock overburden. We present an overview of the SNO+ experiment and its physics capabilities. Our primary goal is the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, where our expected sensitivity would place an upper limit of 1.9 × 1026 y, at 90% CL, on the half-life of neutrinoless double-beta decay in 130Te. We also intend to build on the success of SNO by studying the solar neutrino spectrum. In the unloaded scintillator phase SNO+ has the ability to make precision measurements of the fluxes of low-energy pep neutrinos and neutrinos from the CNO cycle. Other physics goals include: determining the spectrum of reactor antineutrinos, to further constrain Δ {m}122; detecting neutrinos produced by a galactic supernova and investigating certain modes of nucleon decay.

  5. Development of trigger software for the silicon and fibre trackers and a study of B meson lifetimes for the D0 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illingworth, Robert Arthur; Imperial Coll., London

    2002-01-01

    The D0 detector has recently undergone a major upgrade to maximize its potential to fully exploit Run II at the Tevatron 2 TeV proton-antiproton collider. The upgrade includes a completely new central tracking system with an outer scintillating fibre tracker and an inner silicon vertex detector. This thesis describes the development of the software to ''unpack'' the raw data from the central tracking detectors into a useful form, and the development of the Level 3 trigger algorithms to cluster the hit information from these detectors. One of the many areas of physics that is being studied by the D0 experiment is the physics of B mesons, particularly that involving CP violation. The second part of the thesis details a constrained mass fitting tool written to aid the reconstruction of B particles, and a Monte Carlo study into measuring the lifetime of B + and B 0 mesons. This thesis lays the foundations for the means by which physics is extracted from the vast amount of Tevatron data--the trigger--and illustrates how analyses will proceed through the key reconstruction of heavy quarks

  6. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  7. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  8. Towards a Level-1 tracking trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, T A D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    At the high luminosity HL-LHC, upwards of 160 individual proton-proton interactions (pileup) are expected per bunch-crossing at luminosities of around $5\\times10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. A proposal by the ATLAS collaboration to split the ATLAS first level trigger in to two stages is briefly detailed. The use of fast track finding in the new first level trigger is explored as a method to provide the discrimination required to reduce the event rate to acceptable levels for the read out system while maintaining high efficiency on the selection of the decay products of electroweak bosons at HL-LHC luminosities. It is shown that available bandwidth in the proposed new strip tracker is sufficiency for a region of interest based track trigger given certain optimisations, further methods for improving upon the proposal are discussed.

  9. A TRD Trigger for the tevatron collider experiment at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utes, M.; Johnson, M.; Martin, M.

    1991-11-01

    A VME-based module for use as an input to the D0 Detector Level 1.5 Trigger is described. Its main function will be the confirmation of electron candidates flagged by the First Level Calorimeter Trigger using digitized data from the Transition Radiation Detector. Features of the board include the use of fast FIFOs to store incoming track coordinates, dual ported SRAM lookup tables for addressing integrated charge data and forming scalars, multiplier/accumulators for speed of calculation, and a single synchronous finite state machine to control all board operations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. A TRD Trigger for the tevatron collider experiment at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utes, M.; Johnson, M.; Martin, M.

    1991-11-01

    A VME-based module for use as an input to the D0 Detector Level 1.5 Trigger is described. Its main function will be the confirmation of electron candidates flagged by the First Level Calorimeter Trigger using digitized data from the Transition Radiation Detector. Features of the board include the use of fast FIFOs to store incoming track coordinates, dual ported SRAM lookup tables for addressing integrated charge data and forming scalars, multiplier/accumulators for speed of calculation, and a single synchronous finite state machine to control all board operations. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. JACoW Configuring and automating an LHC experiment for faster and better physics output

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara; Alessio, Federico; Barbosa, Joao; Cardoso, Luis; Frank, Markus; Jost, Beat; Neufeld, Niko; Schwemmer, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel online detector alignment and calibration for LHC Run II. This strategy allows for better trigger efficiency, better data quality and direct physics analysis at the trigger output. This implies: running a first High Level Trigger (HLT) pass synchronously with data taking and buffering locally its output; use the data collected at the beginning of the fill, or on a run-by-run basis, to determine the new alignment and calibration constants; run a second HLT pass on the buffered data using the new constants. Operationally, it represented a challenge: it required running different activities concurrently in the farm, starting at different times and load balanced depending on the LHC state. However, these activities are now an integral part of LHCb's dataflow, seamlessly integrated in the Experiment Control System and completely automated under the supervision of LHCb's 'Big Brother'. In total, for all activities, there are usually around 60000 tasks running in the ~1600 nodes of the fa...

  12. Combining lived experience with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning: a 'trigger' for transformative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, G; Oxley, R; Aubeeluck, A

    2015-09-01

    What is known on the subject The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in the content of mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students' assimilate the principles of recovery into their practice due to the troublesome and challenging nature of learning at a transformational level, also known as threshold concept learning. Evaluation suggests that this combination of educational approaches positively influences students' prior understandings, beliefs and values in relation to the prospect for people with significant mental health problems to recover. The components of threshold concepts are useful as a deductive framework for the evaluation of educational initiatives which attempt to initiate transformative learning. While this forum clearly holds significant potential for student development, support and preparation is needed for both the student and the facilitator in order to enable the possibility of learning which influences attitudes, beliefs and practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential for combining lived experience of mental distress with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning (EBL) to act as a trigger for transformative learning in the context of promoting the understanding of mental health 'recovery' in nurse education.The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students assimilate into their practice. An open-ended was distributed to a cohort of pre-registration nursing students receiving the co-facilitated EBL (n = 112). Data demonstrated how the specific attributes of this educational approach were identified by students as impacting positively on ill-informed preconceptions, understanding of complex theory and their future practice. Results were

  13. Integrated circuits for particle physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Toifl, Thomas H; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    High energy particle physics experiments investigate the nature of matter through the identification of subatomic particles produced in collisions of protons, electrons, or heavy ions which have been accelerated to very high energies. Future experiments will have hundreds of millions of detector channels to observe the interaction region where collisions take place at a 40 MHz rate. This paper gives an overview of the electronics requirements for such experiments and explains how data reduction, timing distribution, and radiation tolerance in commercial CMOS circuits are achieved for these big systems. As a detailed example, the electronics for the innermost layers of the future tracking detector, the pixel vertex detector, is discussed with special attention to system aspects. A small-scale prototype (130 channels) implemented in standard 0.25 mu m CMOS remains fully functional after a 30 Mrad(SiO/sub 2/) irradiation. A full-scale pixel readout chip containing 8000 readout channels in a 14 by 16 mm/sup 2/ ar...

  14. The processor farm for online triggering and full event reconstruction of the HERA-B experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, A.; Dippel, R.; Gensch, U.; Kowallik, R.; Legrand, I.C.; Leich, H.; Sun, F.; Wegner, P.

    1996-01-01

    The main goal of the HERA-B experiment which start taking data in 1988 is to study CP violation in B decays. This article describes the concept and the planned implementation of a multi-processor system, called processor farm,as the last part of the data acquisition and trigger system of the HERA B experiment. The third level trigger task and a full online event reconstruction will be performed on this processor farm, consisting of more then 100 powerful RISC processors which are based on commercial hardware boards. The controlling will be done by a real-time operating system which provides a software development environment, including FORTRAN and C compilers. (author)

  15. The CMS experiment puts physics onto the menu

    CERN Document Server

    Leonidopoulos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    CMS has addressed the challenge of identifying in real time different kinds of 
physics at the LHC – from the "bread and butter" of Standard Model processes to 
signals of new particles – with triggers served up according to a carefully designed menu.

  16. Receiver ASIC for timing, trigger and control distribution in LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Marchioro, A.; Moreira, P.; Sancho, A.

    1996-01-01

    An ASIC receiver has been developed for the optical timing, trigger and control distribution system for LHC detectors. It is capable of recovering the LHC reference clock and the first-level trigger decisions and making them available to the front-end electronics properly deskewed in time. The timing receiver is also capable of recognizing individually addressed commands to provide some slow control capability. Its main functions include post-amplification of the signal received from a photodetector-preamplifier, automatic gain control, data/clock separation, demultiplexing of the trigger and data channels and programmable coarse/fine deskewing functions. The design has been mapped into a standard 1microm CMOS process with all the analogue and timing critical functions implemented in full custom. The jitter measured on the recovered clock is less than 100 ps for input optical powers down to -25 dBm. The time deskewing functions allow the commands and the first level trigger accept signal to be phase shifted up to a maximum of sixteen clock cycles in steps of 0.1 ns

  17. The Neuro-Z-Vertex Trigger of the Belle II Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skambraks Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents the foreseen neural network trigger setup and the preceding 2D track finder. Special focus is put on the proposal and evaluation of a possible 3D upgrade of the 2D track finder. Additionally, details are given on a dedicated setup for the upcoming cosmic ray test.

  18. Generation and propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in the Trigger experiment and its possible role in electron acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Kintner, P. M.; Kudeki, E.; Holmgren, G.; Bostrom, R.; Fahleson, U. V.

    1980-01-01

    Instruments onboard the Trigger payload detected a large-amplitude, low-frequency, electric field pulse which was observed with a time delay consistent only with an electromagnetic wave. A model for this perturbation is constructed, and the associated field-aligned current is calculated as a function of altitude. This experiment may simulate the acceleration mechanism which results in the formation of auroral arcs, and possibly even other events in cosmic plasmas.

  19. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-01-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation

  20. Timing calibration of the trigger system for the drift tube detector of the OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The OPERA experiment searches for ν μ → ν τ oscillations in an almost pure ν μ beam. The goal is to observe the oscillations in appearance mode by using a large-scale lead/emulsion target to resolve individual ν τ interactions. Magnetic spectrometers measure the charge and momentum of beam induced muons leaving the target sections. The Precision Tracker, a drift tube detector consisting of almost 10000 drift tubes, provides the tracking information inside the spectrometers. The coordinate measurement in the drift tubes is derived from a time measurement relative to an external trigger signal. In order to reach the required momentum resolution of less than 25 % for particle momenta up to 25 GeV, the uncertainty on the trigger timing must not exceed a value of 5 ns. In this thesis, a procedure for the timing calibration of the trigger system is presented. A step-by-step calibration of the corresponding signal paths is described. Applying all calibration results, a spatial resolution of 255 μm is achieved for the Precision Tracker, meeting the specified requirements. Furthermore, a method using the calibrated trigger system for performing time of flight measurements with atmospheric muons is developed. The average error on the measured flight times is ±4.5 ns.

  1. Optically isolated electronic trigger system for experiments on a subnanosecond time scale with a pulsed Van de Graaff electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthjens, L.H.; Vermeulen, M.J.W.; Hom, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    An optically isolated electronic trigger system for a pulsed Van de Graaff electron accelerator, producing an external pretrigger pulse 75 ns before arrival of the electron pulse at the target, is described. The total time jitter between trigger signal and electron pulse is 50 ps. The measurement of optical and electrical transients on a subnanosecond time scale with a sequential sampling oscilloscope is demonstrated. The contribution of various parts of the equipment to the total jitter is discussed. Those contributions to the jitter due to the electron transit time fluctuations in the accelerator assuming a constant acceleration voltage gradient and to the shot noise in the photomultiplier detector of the trigger system are calculated to be 5 ps and 12 to 21 ps respectively. Comparison with the experimental results leads to the conclusion that a considerable part of the total jitter may be attributed to acceleration voltage gradient fluctuations, to accelerator vibrations and possibly to density fluctuations in the insulation gas. Possible improvements of the trigger system are discussed. The apparatus is used for pulse radiolysis experiments with subnanosecond time resolution down to 100 ps in combination with subnanosecond time duration electron pulses

  2. Other physics experiments at the Homestake Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Davidson, I.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Marshall, E.; Steinberg, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    The Homestake Gold Mine presently houses the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment and a 300-ton water Cerenkov detector at a depth of 4200 meters water equivalent. The Cerenkov detector has been used to study nucleon decay, multiple muons, and neutrino bursts. An array of liquid scintillator, with surface area of 130 m 2 , is presently being constructed to measure magnetic monopoles, neutrino oscillations, underground muons, and neutrino bursts. At the same time, a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array is being built on the surface in order to measure the high energy cosmic ray composition with simultaneous surface and underground shower measurements. Future plans call for a 1406-ton liquid scintillator Tracking Spectrometer to measure nucleon decay, n-anti n transitions, and the low energy cosmic ray neutrino spectrum. We describe the present results and the possibilities for physics other than nucleon decay in the nucleon decay detectors

  3. Automatically processing physical data from LHD experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, M., E-mail: emoto.masahiko@nifs.ac.jp; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshida, M.; Akiyama, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.

    2014-05-15

    Physical data produced by large helical device (LHD) experiments is supplied by the Kaiseki server, and registers more than 200 types of diagnostic data. Dependencies exist amongst the data; i.e., in many cases, the calculation of one data requires other data. Therefore, to obtain unregistered data, one needs to calculate not only the diagnostic data itself but also the dependent data; however, because the data is registered by different scientists, each scientist must separately calculate and register their respective data. To simplify this complicated procedure, we have developed an automatic calculation system called AutoAna. The calculation programs of AutoAna are distributed on a network, and the number of such programs can be easily increased dynamically. Our system is therefore scalable and ready for substantial increases in the size of the target data.

  4. FPGA fault tolerance in particle physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebelein, Jano; Engel, Heiko; Kebschull, Udo [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The behavior of matter in physically extreme conditions is in focus of many high-energy-physics experiments. For this purpose, high energy charged particles (ions) are collided with each other and energy- or baryon densities are created similar to those at the beginning of the universe or to those which can be found in the center of neutron stars. In both cases a plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP) is present, which immediately decomposes to hadrons within a short period of time. At this process, particles are formed, which allow statements about the beginning of the universe when captured by large detectors, but which also lead to the massive occurance of hardware failures within the detector's electronic devices. This contribution is about methods to mitigate radiation susceptibility for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), enabling them to be used within particle detector systems to directly gain valid data in the readout chain or to be used as detector-control-system.

  5. Industry roles in the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is the first major fusion project opportunity in many years for US industry. Both the TPX management and the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy are committed to creating industry roles that are integrated throughout the project and that appropriately use the capabilities they offer. To address industry roles in TPX it is first appropriate to describe the collaborative national approach taken for this program. The Director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) was asked by DOE to set up this national team structure, and the current senior management positions and delegated responsibilities reflect that approach. While reporting lines and delegated roles are clear in the organization chart for TPX, one way to view, it, different from that of the individuals responsible upward through this management structure for various elements of the project, is through institutional responsibilities to the senior management team. In this view the management team relies on several national laboratories, each using industry contracts for major sub-systems and components, to execute the project. These responsibilities for design and for contracting are listed, showing that all major contracts will come through three national laboratories, forming teams for their responsible activities

  6. Chain Experiment competition inspires learning of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziob, Daniel; Górska, Urszula; Kołodziej, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    The Chain Experiment is an annual competition which originated in Slovenia in 2005 and later expanded to Poland in 2013. For the purpose of the event, each participating team designs and builds a contraption that transports a small steel ball from one end to the other. At the same time the constructed machine needs to use a number of interesting phenomena and physics laws. In the competition’s finale, all contraptions are connected to each other to form a long chain transporting steel balls. In brief, they are all evaluated for qualities such as: creativity and advance in theoretical background, as well as the reliability of the constructed machine to work without human help. In this article, we present the contraptions developed by students taking part in the competition in order to demonstrate the advance in theoretical basis together with creativity in design and outstanding engineering skills of its participants. Furthermore, we situate the Chain Experiment in the context of other group competitions, at the same time demonstrating that—besides activating numerous group work skills—it also improves the ability to think critically and present one’s knowledge to a broader audience. We discussed it in the context of problem based learning, gamification and collaborative testing.

  7. Physics evaluation of compact tokamak ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    At present, several approaches for compact, high-field tokamak ignition experiments are being considered. A comprehensive method for analyzing the potential physics operating regimes and plasma performance characteristics of such ignition experiments with O-D (analytic) and 1-1/2-D (WHIST) transport models is presented. The results from both calculations are in agreement and show that there are regimes in parameter space in which a class of small (R/sub o/ approx. 1-2 m), high-field (B/sub o/ approx. 8-13 T) tokamaks with aB/sub o/ 2 /q/sub */ approx. 25 +- 5 and kappa = b/a approx. 1.6-2.0 appears ignitable for a reasonable range of transport assumptions. Considering both the density and beta limits, an evaluation of the performance is presented for various forms of chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, including degradation at high power and sawtooth activity. The prospects of ohmic ignition are also examined. 16 refs., 13 figs

  8. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  9. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A. G.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O`Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Skulski, W.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yin, J.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2016-05-01

    LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be > 99 % efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since its full underground deployment in early 2013. This document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.

  10. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A. G.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D. -M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O׳Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Skulski, W.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yin, J.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2016-05-01

    LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be >99% efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since its full underground deployment in early 2013. This document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.

  11. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelqvist, G.; Bliselius, P. Aa.; Blomberg, P.E.; Jonsson, E.; Aakerhielm, F.

    1966-09-01

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is ± 0.5 dB in amplitude and ± 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  12. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Bliselius, P Aa; Blomberg, P E; Jonsson, E; Aakerhielm, F [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-09-15

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is {+-} 0.5 dB in amplitude and {+-} 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  13. Retrieval cues that trigger reconsolidation of associative fear memory are not necessarily an exact replica of the original learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Disrupting the process of memory reconsolidation may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However both in animal and human studies the retrieval cue typically involves a re-exposure to the original fear-conditioned stimulus (CS). A relevant question is whether abstract cues not directly associated with the threat event also trigger reconsolidation, given that anxiety disorders often result from vicarious or unobtrusive learning for which no explicit memory exists. Insofar as the fear memory involves a flexible representation of the original learning experience, we hypothesized that the process of memory reconsolidation may also be triggered by abstract cues. We addressed this hypothesis by using a differential human fear-conditioning procedure in two distinct fear-learning groups. We predicted that if fear learning involves discrimination on basis of perceptual cues within one semantic category (i.e., the perceptual-learning group, n = 15), the subsequent ambiguity of the abstract retrieval cue would not trigger memory reconsolidation. In contrast, if fear learning involves discriminating between two semantic categories (i.e., categorical-learning group, n = 15), an abstract retrieval cue would unequivocally reactivate the fear memory and might subsequently trigger memory reconsolidation. Here we show that memory reconsolidation may indeed be triggered by another cue than the one that was present during the original learning occasion, but this effect depends on the learning history. Evidence for fear memory reconsolidation was inferred from the fear-erasing effect of one pill of propranolol (40 mg) systemically administered upon exposure to the abstract retrieval cue. Our finding that reconsolidation of a specific fear association does not require exposure to the original retrieval cue supports the feasibility of reconsolidation-based interventions for emotional disorders.

  14. Retrieval cues that trigger reconsolidation of associative fear memory are not necessarily an exact replica of the original learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eSoeter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Disrupting the process of memory reconsolidation may point to a novel therapeutic strategy for the permanent reduction of fear in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However both in animal and human studies the retrieval cue typically involves a re-exposure to the original fear-conditioned stimulus. A relevant question is whether abstract cues not directly associated with the threat event also trigger reconsolidation, given that anxiety disorders often result from vicarious or unobtrusive learning for which no explicit memory exists. Insofar as the fear memory involves a flexible representation of the original learning experience, we hypothesized that the process of memory reconsolidation may also be triggered by abstract cues. We addressed this hypothesis by using a differential human fear-conditioning procedure in two distinct fear-learning groups. We predicted that if fear learning involves discrimination on basis of perceptual cues within one semantic category (i.e., the perceptual-learning group, n = 15, the subsequent ambiguity of the abstract retrieval cue would not trigger memory reconsolidation. In contrast, if fear learning involves discriminating between two semantic categories (i.e., categorical-learning group, n = 15, an abstract retrieval cue would unequivocally reactivate the fear memory and might subsequently trigger memory reconsolidation. Here we show that memory reconsolidation may indeed be triggered by another cue than the one that was present during the original learning occasion, but this effect depends on the learning history. Evidence for fear memory reconsolidation was inferred from the fear-erasing effect of one pill of propranolol (40 mg systemically administered upon exposure to the abstract retrieval cue. Our finding that reconsolidation of a specific fear association does not require exposure to the original retrieval cue supports the feasibility of reconsolidation-based interventions for emotional disorders.

  15. Divertor load footprint of ELMs in pellet triggering and pacing experiments at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigione, D., E-mail: domenico.frigione@frascati.enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Garzotti, L. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lennholm, M. [EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alper, B. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Artaserse, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bennett, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Giovannozzi, E. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Eich, T. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Kocsis, G. [WIGNER RCP RMI, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Maddaluno, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Mooney, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rack, M. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Sips, G. [EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tvalashvili, G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Viola, B. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Wilkes, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    An investigation of pellet pacing and triggering of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) was carried out in the frame of ELM mitigation studies aimed at reducing their damaging effects on the plasma-facing components (PFCs). The divertor power load footprint of triggered ELMs was compared with gas puffing controlled ELMs. Small pellets, corresponding to a few per cent of the target plasma particle inventory, were used to minimize the fueling effect and the total particle throughput. There is no evidence that pellets can reduce the divertor power load with respect to gas fueling when operating at the same ELM frequency. The line average density and the energy confinement time remained constant when the gas was progressively substituted by pellets. The launch from the Vertical High Field Side (VHFS) confirmed to be more efficient in ELM triggering than from the Low Field Side (LFS) while the power load footprint remained the same both in time evolution and in spatial distribution when changing the injection geometry.

  16. Um Processador Rápido de Corte em Momento Transverso para o Trigger da Experiência CP-LEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Emanuel Tito Mendes

    Neste trabalho pretendemos mostrar alguns aspectos importantes no desenho de instrumentação para sistemas de selecção de eventos (trigger), que se revelaram importantes no desenho do sistema de trigger de CP–LEAR. Para isso, fazemos um zoom progressivo sobre a experiência. Começamos por mostrar o que são sistemas de trigger, quais as suas propriedades e diversidade, e que tipos de sistemas são usados e em que circunstâncias. É também feito um apanhado do state of the art dos diversos componentes e soluções utilizadas para a resolução dos problemas típicos destes sistemas. A seguir, apresentamos CP–LEAR, descrevendo a física em que se apoia o seu método. Aqui introduzimos o conceito de simetrias, e em que circunstâncias podemos falar de violação de simetria. Seguidamente, introduzimos o sistema de kaões neutros, apresentamos o fenómeno de violação CP, e descrevemos o método de CP–LEAR utilizado para o seu estudo. Depois de apresentar o detector utilizado na experiência, começa...

  17. Development of a new scintillation-trigger detector for the MTV experiment using aluminum-metallized film tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Ozaki, Sachi; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    A new type of trigger-scintillation counter array designed for the MTV experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC has been developed, using aluminum-metallized film tape for wrapping. The MTV experiment aims to perform the finest precision test of time reversal symmetry in nuclear beta decay. In that purpose, we search non-zero T-Violating transverse polarization of electrons emitted from polarized Li-8 nuclei. It uses a cylindrical drift chamber (CDC) as the main electron-tracking detector. The trigger-scintillation counter consists of 12-segmented 1 mm thick 300 mm long thin plastic scintillation counters. This counter is placed inside the CDC to generate a trigger signal. The required assembling precision of +-0.5 mm was a tricky point when we tried to use conventional total reflection mode. Indeed, produce an air-layer surrounding the scintillating bar to keep good light transmission was the main issue. For this reason, we tried to use a new wrapping material made of metallized-aluminum tape, which has a good mirror-like reflecting surface on both sides of the tape. Through this report, we will compare detection efficiency and light attenuation between conventional and new wrapping materials.

  18. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  19. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments

  20. A Physically-based Model For Rainfall-triggered Landslides At A Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, V.; Capolongo, D.; Bras, R. L.

    Rainfall has long been recognized as a major cause of landslides. Historical records have shown that large rainfall can generate hundreds of landslides over hundreds of square kilometers. Although a great body of work has documented the morphology and mechanics of individual slope failure, few studies have considered the process at basin and regional scale. A landslide model is integrated in the landscape evolution model CHILD and simulates rainfall-triggered events based on a geotechnical index, the factor of safety, which takes into account the slope, the soil effective cohesion and weight, the friction angle, the regolith thickness and the saturated thickness. The stat- urated thickness is represented by the wetness index developed in the TOPMODEL. The topography is represented by a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN). The factor of safety is computed at each node of the TIN. If the factor of safety is lower than 1, a landslide is intiated at this node. The regolith is then moved downstream. We applied the model to the Fortore basin whose valley cuts the flysch terrain that constitute the framework of the so called "sub-Apennines" chain that is the most eastern part of the Southern Apennines (Italy). We will discuss its value according to its sensitivity to the used parameters and compare it to the actual data available for this basin.

  1. Physical modeling of the boiling crisis: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, Daniel; Chatain, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this presentation we describe a physical approach to the boiling crisis called also the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon. This approach is based on the hypothesis that the boiling crisis is triggered by spreading of individual vapor bubbles over the heater or equivalently by the growth of individual dry spots under the bubbles. The role of bubble coalescence is assumed to be secondary. The spreading is due to forces acting at the microscopic scale, in the neighborhood of the line of triple contact of liquid, vapor and heater where the local heat fluxes are the strongest. This picture is supposed to be independent on boiling conditions. It is confirmed by the pool boiling experiments carried out at extremely high pressures close to the gas-liquid critical point. Such unusual conditions are chosen to slow down the bubble growth sufficiently to be able to observe the dryout dynamics. In the above experiments it lasted during about a minute. To keep the usual bubble geometry, it is necessary to perform such experiments under reduced gravity. The numerical simulations are carried out for high pressures. They show two regimes of bubble growth. When the heat flux is smaller than a threshold value associated with the CHF, a vapor bubble grows and then leaves the heater by buoyancy. When the heat flux is larger than the CHF, the bubble spreads over the heater without leaving it in agreement with the experimental data. This occurs because the vapor recoil force causes both bubble spreading and strong adhesion to the heater. The CHF variation with system parameters predicted by simulations is briefly discussed. (authors) [fr

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  3. Nucleation Characteristics in Physical Experiments/explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale vapor explosion experiments have shown that intimate contact between hot and cold liquids, and a temperature upon contact that is greater than the spontaneous nucleation temperature of the system, are two necessary conditions for the onset of large scale vapor explosions. A model, based on spontaneous nucleation of the homogeneous type, has been proposed to describe the relevant processes and the resulting energetics for explosive boiling systems. The model considers that spontaneous nucleation cannot occur either during the relief time for constant volume heating or until the thermal boundary layer is sufficiently thick to support a vapor cavity of the critical size. After nucleation, bubble growth does not occur until an acoustic wave establishes a pressure gradient in the cold liquid. These considerations lead to the prediction that, for a given temperature, drops greater than a critical size will remain in film boiling due to coalescence of vapor nuclei and drops smaller than this value will wet and be captured by the hot liquid surface. These results are compared to small drop data for well-wetted systems and excellent agreement is obtained between the observed behavior and the model predictions. In conclusion: A model, based on spontaneous nucleation, has been proposed to describe vaporization potential and behavior upon contact in a liquid/liquid system. This behavior is determined by the size of the liquid mass, single-phase pressurization and acoustic relief, nucleation frequency due to random density fluctuations, the initiation of unstable growth and acoustic relief, and the development of the thermal boundary layer in the cold liquid. The proposed model predicts that the stability of a given size drop upon intimate contact with another liquid is extremely dependent upon the interface temperature. For low interface temperatures, large masses will be captured by the hot liquid and the resulting vaporization rates will be extremely low because

  4. Search for New Physics Processes with Heavy Quark Signatures in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388427

    A program involving searches for new physics with heavy quark final states using data from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is presented here. The signal and expected backgrounds for the decay $B_{s}→μ^{+} μ^{-} μ^{+} μ^{-}$, a rare decay whose branching ratio may be enhanced by the presence of certain Beyond the Standard Model processes, are studied, and the groundwork is laid for a future analysis. Possible mediators include horizontal gauge bosons, supersymmetry via sgoldstinos, and interactions with the hidden sector. To this end, a set of twelve triggers have been selected and studied, and their efficiency figures of merit have been calculated. A truth trigger efficiency study was performed in order to determine if new triggers should be installed for the analysis. The backgrounds have been studied, and a mass window technique was used to reduce their amplitude relative to the signal. A proposal to improve the efficiency of some of the ATLAS High-Level B-physics Triggers, based on refining the selec...

  5. Double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition for CT coronary angiography: Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Qin, J.; He, B.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, J.-J.; Hou, X.-L.; Yang, X.-B.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, Y.-D.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of double prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (double high-pitch mode) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA). Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients [40 women, 109 men; mean age 58.2 ± 9.2 years; sinus rhythm ≤70 beats/min (bpm) after pre-medication, body weight ≤100 kg] were enrolled for CTCA examinations using a dual-source CT system with 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm collimation, 0.28 s rotation time, and a pitch of 3.4. Double high-pitch mode was prospectively triggered first at 60% and later at 30% of the R–R interval within two cardiac cycles. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 4 = non-assessable). Results: From 2085 coronary artery segments, 86.4% (1802/2085) were rated as having a score of 1, 12.3% (257/2085) as score of 2, 1.2% (26/2085) as score of 3, and none were rated as “non-assessable”. The average image quality score was 1.15 ± 0.26 on a per-segment basis. The effective dose was calculated by multiplying the coefficient factor of 0.028 by the dose–length product (DLP); the mean effective dose was 3.5 ± 0.8 mSv (range 1.7–7.6 mSv). The total dosage of contrast medium was 78.7 ± 2.9 ml. Conclusion: Double prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode provides good image quality with an average effective dose of less than 5 mSv in patients with a heart rate ≤70 bpm

  6. Microstrip silicon detectors of the monitoring and triggering systems in the E-161 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubskij, M.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Moiseev, A.M.; Semenov, P.A.; Leflat, A.K.; Sekhniaidze, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring and triggering system based on microstrip silicon detectors (MSD) and fast-response low-noise electronics with the number of the readout channels equal to 896, is described. The PMS noise is ENC=25x10 3 e - with the signal integration time of 50 ns. The probability of registering a noise pulse by one channel during data readout cycle is not more than 2.5x10 -6 . The time resolution (FWHM) is (16±3) ns. 17 refs.; 7 figs

  7. Readout and trigger for the AFP detector at the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00097773; The ATLAS collaboration; Kocian, Martin; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Avoni, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton is a new detector system in ATLAS that allows study of events with protons scattered at very small angles. The final design assumes four stations at distances of 205 and 217 m from the ATLAS interaction point on both sides of the detector exploiting the Roman Pot technology. In 2016 two stations in one arm were installed; installation of the other two is planned for 2017. This article describes details of the installed hardware, firmware and software leading to the full integration with the ATLAS central trigger and data acquisition systems.

  8. Resource utilization by the ATLAS High Level Trigger during 2010 and 2011 LHC running

    CERN Document Server

    Ospanov, R

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the ATLAS experiment successfully recorded data from LHC collisions with high efficiency and excellent data quality. ATLAS employs a three-level trigger system to select events of interest for physics analyses and detector commissioning. The trigger system consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger at level-1 and software algorithms at the two higher levels. The trigger selection is defined by a trigger menu which consists of more than 300 individual trigger signatures, such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. An execution of a trigger signature incurs computing and data storage costs. Th composition of the deployed trigger menu depends on the instantaneous LHC luminosity, the experiment's goals for the recorded data, and the limits imposed by the available computing power, network bandwidth and storage space. This paper describes a trigger monitoring framework for assigning computing costs for individual trigger signatures and trigger menus as a whole. These costs can be extrapolat...

  9. The Terabit/s Super-Fragment Builder and Trigger Throttling System for the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Brett, Angela; Cano, Eric; Carboni, Andrea; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, Michele; Gutíerrez-Mlot, Esteban; Gutleber, Johannes; Jacobs, Claude; Kim, Jin Cheol; Klute, Markus; Lipeles, Elliot; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, Gaetano; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Murray, Steven; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Pollet, Lucien; Rácz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Sumorok, Konstanty; Suzuki, Ichiro; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider reads out event fragments of an average size of 2 kilobytes from around 650 detector front-ends at a rate of up to 100 kHz. The first stage of event-building is performed by the Super-Fragment Builder employing custom-built electronics and a Myrinet optical network. It reduces the number of fragments by one order of magnitude, thereby greatly decreasing the requirements for the subsequent event-assembly stage. By providing fast feedback from any of the front-ends to the trigger, the Trigger Throttling System prevents buffer overflows in the front-end electronics due to variations in the size and rate of events or due to back-pressure from the down-stream event-building and processing. This paper reports on new performance measurements and on the recent successful integration of a scaled-down setup of the described system with the trigger and with front-ends of all major sub-detectors. The on-going commissioning of...

  10. An FPGA-based trigger system for the search of μ+→e++γ decay in the MEG experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, L; Cei, F; Galeotti, S; Magazzù, C; Morsani, F; Nicolò, D; Signorelli, G; Grassi, M

    2013-01-01

    The MEG experiment at PSI aims at investigating the μ + → e + + γ decay with improved sensitivity on the branching ratio (BR) by two orders of magnitude with respect to the previous experimental limit (BR(μ + → e + + γ) ≈ 10 −13 ). The use of the most intense continuous muon beam world wide ( ≈ 10 8 μ/s) to search for such a rare event must be accompanied by an efficient trigger system, able to suppress the huge beam-related background to sustainable rates while preserving the efficiency on signal close to unity. In order to accomplish both objectives, a digital approach was exploited by means of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), working as a real-time processors of detector signals to perform an accurate event reconstruction within a 450 ns latency. This approach eventually turned out to be flexible enough to allow us to record calibration events in parallel with the main data acquisition and monitor the detector behavior throughout the data taking. We describe here the hardware implementation of the trigger and its main features as well: signal digitization, online waveform processing, reconstruction algorithms. A detailed description is given of the system architecture, the feature of the boards and their use. The trigger algorithms will be described in details in a dedicated article to be published afterwards.

  11. Beam-plasma coupling physics in support of active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, K.; Delzanno, G. L.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent development of compact relativistic accelerators might open up a new era of active experiments in space, driven by important scientific and national security applications. Examples include using electron beams to trace magnetic field lines and establish causality between physical processes occurring in the magnetosphere and those in the ionosphere. Another example is the use of electron beams to trigger waves in the near-Earth environment. Waves could induce pitch-angle scattering and precipitation of energetic electrons, acting as an effective radiation belt remediation scheme. In this work, we revisit the coupling between an electron beam and a magnetized plasma in the framework of linear cold-plasma theory. We show that coupling can occur through two different regimes. In the first, a non-relativistic beam radiates through whistler waves. This is well known, and was in fact the focus of many rockets and space-shuttle campaigns aimed at demonstrating whistler emissions in the eighties. In the second regime, the beam radiates through extraordinary (R-X) modes. Nonlinear simulations with a highly-accurate Vlasov code support the theoretical results qualitatively and demonstrate that the radiated power through R-X modes can be much larger than in the whistler regime. Test-particle simulations in the wave electromagnetic field will also be presented to assess the efficiency of these waves in inducing pitch-angle scattering via wave-particle interactions. Finally, the implications of these results for a rocket active experiment in the ionosphere and for a radiation belt remediation scheme will be discussed.

  12. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-micros risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001

  13. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  14. The development for the particle physics experiments platform in university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Futian; Yao Yuan; Wang Zhaoqi; Liu Yuzhe; Sang Ziru; Chen Lian; Wen Fei; Jin Ge; Liu Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear science and particle physics is an important subject in physics, and it is important to launch particle physics experiments in university to training students. We design an experiments platform based on particle physics experiments in university. By employing digitalization and reconfiguration techniques in our design, we achieve all kinds of device functions with only one device. With the customized software for particular experiments and a website for teaching assistance, the platform is easy to be employed in universities. Students can accomplish a classical particle physics experiment in a modern way with the help of the platform, and they can also try new ideals. The experiments platform is ready to be used, and some of the lab sessions in USTC have already begin to use our experiments platform. (authors)

  15. GPU-based low-level trigger system for the standalone reconstruction of the ring-shaped hit patterns in the RICH Cherenkov detector of NA62 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Frezza, O.; Cicero, F. Lo; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Chiozzi, S.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Neri, I.; Lorenzo, S. Di; Fantechi, R.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Lamanna, G.; Piccini, M.

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to exploit the parallel computing power of a commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to implement fast pattern matching in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for the level 0 (L0) trigger of the NA62 experiment. In this approach, the ring-fitting algorithm is seedless, being fed with raw RICH data, with no previous information on the ring position from other detectors. Moreover, since the L0 trigger is provided with a more elaborated information than a simple multiplicity number, it results in a higher selection power. Two methods have been studied in order to reduce the data transfer latency from the readout boards of the detector to the GPU, i.e., the use of a dedicated NIC device driver with very low latency and a direct data transfer protocol from a custom FPGA-based NIC to the GPU. The performance of the system, developed through the FPGA approach, for multi-ring Cherenkov online reconstruction obtained during the NA62 physics runs is presented.

  16. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  17. Physics design requirements for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.; Goldston, R.J.; Jardin, S.C.; Reiersen, W.T.; Porkolab, M.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-01-01

    The design of TPX is driven by physics requirements that follow from its mission. The tokamak and heating systems provide the performance and profile controls needed to study advanced steady state tokamak operating modes. The magnetic control systems provide substantial flexibility for the study of regimes with high beta and bootstrap current. The divertor is designed for high steady state power and particle exhaust

  18. Lecture note on circuit technology for high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hirokazu.

    1992-07-01

    This lecture gives basic ideas and practice of the circuit technology for high energy physics experiment. The program of this lecture gives access to the integrated circuit technology to be applied for a high luminosity hadron collider experiment. (author)

  19. Physical simulation and theoretical evolution for ground fissures triggered by underground coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hu; Yu, Xiang; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zeng-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Underground coal mining activities are prone to cause movement and breakage in geological strata and also lead to mining subsidence and even ground fissures. Along the direction working panel advancing, ground fissures may occur in roof in front and/or behind working panel. However, the investigations of previous similarity tests in lab only emphasize on the region behind working panel. By improving strata material property in construction and mounting artificial pressure devices, two physical simulation tests were conducted and successfully investigated the simulated results. Then, the mechanical model of "cantilever beam and elastic foundation beam" was proposed to calculate the stress distribution and the crack initiation angle in overlying strata and it well explains the mechanisms of ground fissures generation and propagation. Results show that, the maximum internal force in roof always occurred in front of working panel. However, because the void space in gob due to excavation is large enough to cause the bend and rotation of roof strata, compare to the triaxially compressed region in front of working panel, the roof always broke off at some positions above gob since the stress concentration resulting from such bend and rotation of strata could easily reach the limit strength of strata rocks. Also, the length of cantilever beam changed dynamically as respect to the panel advancing and the breakage intervals. Thus, the breakage position where the internal force first reached the limit tensile strength is not fixed and there will be two different kinds of relative positions between the crack initiation point and the working panel. The crack initiation direction is always perpendicular to the internal force, and the crack propagation direction is affected by the initiation angle, overburden-separation degree and the position of the hydraulic shields. If there is no overburden-separation or less, the roofs will break off as a composite beam and the propagation

  20. Physical simulation and theoretical evolution for ground fissures triggered by underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zeng-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Underground coal mining activities are prone to cause movement and breakage in geological strata and also lead to mining subsidence and even ground fissures. Along the direction working panel advancing, ground fissures may occur in roof in front and/or behind working panel. However, the investigations of previous similarity tests in lab only emphasize on the region behind working panel. By improving strata material property in construction and mounting artificial pressure devices, two physical simulation tests were conducted and successfully investigated the simulated results. Then, the mechanical model of “cantilever beam and elastic foundation beam” was proposed to calculate the stress distribution and the crack initiation angle in overlying strata and it well explains the mechanisms of ground fissures generation and propagation. Results show that, the maximum internal force in roof always occurred in front of working panel. However, because the void space in gob due to excavation is large enough to cause the bend and rotation of roof strata, compare to the triaxially compressed region in front of working panel, the roof always broke off at some positions above gob since the stress concentration resulting from such bend and rotation of strata could easily reach the limit strength of strata rocks. Also, the length of cantilever beam changed dynamically as respect to the panel advancing and the breakage intervals. Thus, the breakage position where the internal force first reached the limit tensile strength is not fixed and there will be two different kinds of relative positions between the crack initiation point and the working panel. The crack initiation direction is always perpendicular to the internal force, and the crack propagation direction is affected by the initiation angle, overburden-separation degree and the position of the hydraulic shields. If there is no overburden-separation or less, the roofs will break off as a composite beam and the

  1. Offering Remotely Triggered, Real-Time Experiments in Electrochemistry for Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sachin; Satsangee, Soami P.

    2014-01-01

    Remote access to real experiments is crucial for distance learners to experience the sciences. The exploitation of technology for this purpose is advantageous in global teaching and in exchange of ideas on a single front irrespective of distance barriers. Implementation of the distance method leads to cost-effective integrated-e-learning where…

  2. Accelerator based atomic physics experiments: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic Physics research with beams from accelerators has continued to expand and the number of papers and articles at meetings and in journals reflects a steadily increasing interest and an increasing support from various funding agencies. An attempt will be made to point out where interdisciplinary benefits have occurred, and where applications of the new results to engineering problems are expected. Drawing from material which will be discussed in the conference, a list of the most active areas of research is presented. Accelerator based atomic physics brings together techniques from many areas, including chemistry, astronomy and astrophysics, nuclear physics, solid state physics and engineering. An example is the use of crystal channeling to sort some of the phenomena of ordinary heavy ion stopping powers. This tool has helped us to reach a better understanding of stopping mechanisms with the result that now we have established a better base for predicting energy losses of heavy ions in various materials

  3. Physics experiments with Nintendo Wii controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from a spring undergoing simple harmonic motion, a pair of controllers mounted on colliding gliders on a linear air track, and a person jumping from a balance board.

  4. The design and performance of the ATLAS jet trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shima

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS jet trigger is an important element of the event selection process, providing data samples for studies of Standard Model physics and searches for new physics at the LHC. The ATLAS jet trigger system has undergone substantial modifications over the past few years of LHC operations, as experience developed with triggering in a high luminosity and high event pileup environment. In particular, the region-of-interest based strategy has been replaced by a full scan of the calorimeter data at the third trigger level, and by a full scan of the level-1 trigger input at level-2 for some specific trigger chains. Hadronic calibration and cleaning techniques are applied in order to provide improved performance and increased stability in high luminosity data taking conditions. In this note we discuss the implementation and operational aspects of the ATLAS jet trigger during 2011 and 2012 data taking periods at the LHC.

  5. Laboratory triggering of stick-slip events by oscillatory loading in the presence of pore fluid with implications for physics of tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, Noel M.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2012-01-01

    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up portions of tectonic (also called non-volcanic) tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, tectonic tremor and LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not. Anomalous seismic wave speeds, interpreted as high pore fluid pressure, have been observed in regions that generate tremor. Here we build upon previous laboratory studies that investigated the response of stick-slip on artificial faults to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments were carried out using room-dry samples of Westerly granite, at one effective stress. Here we augment these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress using pore fluid at two pressures. We find that raising pore pressure, thereby lowering effective stress can significantly increase the degree of correlation of stick-slip to oscillatory loading. We also find other pore fluid effects that become important at higher frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time of pore fluid into the fault. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs, providing confirmation of the effective pressure law for triggering and insights into why tremor is tidally modulated while earthquakes are at best only weakly modulated.

  6. An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

  7. First order error corrections in common introductory physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckey, Jacob; Baker, Andrew; Aravind, Vasudeva; Clarion Team

    As a part of introductory physics courses, students perform different standard lab experiments. Almost all of these experiments are prone to errors owing to factors like friction, misalignment of equipment, air drag, etc. Usually these types of errors are ignored by students and not much thought is paid to the source of these errors. However, paying attention to these factors that give rise to errors help students make better physics models and understand physical phenomena behind experiments in more detail. In this work, we explore common causes of errors in introductory physics experiment and suggest changes that will mitigate the errors, or suggest models that take the sources of these errors into consideration. This work helps students build better and refined physical models and understand physics concepts in greater detail. We thank Clarion University undergraduate student grant for financial support involving this project.

  8. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Carel; Wensing, Michel; Franssen, Jo Lm; Oostendorp, Rob Ab

    2007-11-05

    Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation) are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis), but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle). It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders.The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 - September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects have unilateral shoulder pain for at least six months

  9. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Deri, L; Fiorini, M; Frezza, O; Lamanna, G; Lo Cicero, F; Lonardo, A; Messina, A; Sozzi, M; Pantaleo, F; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identied in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system (\\trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several elds of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specic strengths of such devices as accelerators in oine computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the incre...

  10. CMS experiment at the LHC Commissioning and early physics

    CERN Document Server

    Safonov, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS collaboration used the past year to greatly improve the level of detector readiness for the first collisions data. The acquired operational experience over this year, large gains in understanding the detector and improved preparedness for early physics will be instrumental in minimizing the time from the first collisions to first LHC physics. The following describes the status of the CMS experiment and outlines early physics plans with the first LHC data.

  11. The CBM Experiment at FAIR-New challenges for Front-End Electronics, Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Walter F J

    2006-01-01

    The 'Compressed Baryonic Matter' (CBM) experiment at the new 'Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research' (FAIR) in Darmstadt is designed to study the properties of highly compressed baryonic matter produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the 10 to 45 A GeV energy range. One of the key observables is hidden (J/ψ) and open (D 0 , D ± ) charm production. To achieve an adequate sensitivity extremely high interaction rates of up to 10 7 events/second are required, resulting in major technological challenges for the detectors, front-end electronics and data processing. The front-end electronics will be self-triggered, autonomously detect particle hits, and output hit parameter together with a precise absolute time-stamp. Several layers of feature extraction and event selection will reduce the primary data flow of about 1 TByte/sec to a level of 1 GByte/sec. This new architecture avoids many limitations of conventional DAQ/Trigger systems and is for example essential for open charm detection, which requires the reconstruction of displaced vertices, in a high-rate heavy ion environment

  12. NTES laser facility for physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, D.J.; Foley, R.J.; Frank, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on the NTES laser facility: Mission Statement and Project Description; Experiment Area; High-Energy, Double-Pass Laser; Facilities; Laser Control and Data Acquisition; and Auxiliary Lasers

  13. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  14. A high-resolution TDC-based board for a fully digital trigger and data acquisition system in the NA62 experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pedreschi, Elena; Angelucci, Bruno; Avanzini, Carlo; Galeotti, Stefano; Lamanna, Gianluca; Magazzù, Guido; Pinzino, Jacopo; Piandani, Roberto; Sozzi, Marco; Spinella, Franco; Venditti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    A Time to Digital Converter (TDC) based system, to be used for most sub-detectors in the high-flux rare-decay experiment NA62 at CERN SPS, was built as part of the NA62 fully digital Trigger and Data AcQuisition system (TDAQ), in which the TDC Board (TDCB) and a general-purpose motherboard (TEL62) will play a fundamental role. While TDCBs, housing four High Performance Time to Digital Converters (HPTDC), measure hit times from sub-detectors, the motherboard processes and stores them in a buffer, produces trigger primitives from different detectors and extracts only data related to the lowest trigger level decision, once this is taken on the basis of the trigger primitives themselves. The features of the TDCB board developed by the Pisa NA62 group are extensively discussed and performance data is presented in order to show its compliance with the experiment requirements.

  15. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  16. Dod physical security equipment application experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the Department of Defense, the subject of physical security is very broad in scope. Its application ranges from countering the shoplifters in the post exchange facilities to the sophisticated terrorist who may attempt to obtain access to one of our nuclear weapons. This paper focuses on the area of specific interest to the members of INMM which is the protection of nuclear devices and the classified information associated with them

  17. Application of radix sorting in high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuan; Gu Minhao; Zhu Kejun

    2012-01-01

    In the high energy physics experiments, there are always requirements to sort the large scale of experiment data. To meet the demand, this paper introduces one radix sorting algorithms, whose sub-sort is counting sorting and time complex is O (n), based on the characteristic of high energy physics experiment data that is marked by time stamp. This paper gives the description, analysis, implementation and experimental result of the sorting algorithms. (authors)

  18. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Oswald; H. Pietsch; D. J. Baumgartner; P. Weihs; H. E. Rieder

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spr...

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Timing Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to reduce the data rate, a three-level trigger system selects potentially interesting physics. The first trigger level is implemented in electronics and firmware. It aims at reducing the output rate to less than 100 kHz. The Central Trigger Processor combines information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1-Accept decision. It is a central element in the timing setup of the experiment. Three aspects are considered in this article: the timing setup with respect to the Level-1 trigger, with respect to the expriment, and with respect to the world.

  20. Safeguards and physical protection - The Belarus experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsun, E.

    1999-01-01

    Taking into account the new initiatives of the IAEA Belarus indented to continue activity on improving the Material Protection, Control and Accounting system in various directions. The significant ones are: electronic transmission of information to the IAEA, measurement standards of nuclear materials, upgraded Wiegard cards with photographs of their holders, preventive measures (threat, evaluation of safety for objects, sabotage from the staff etc.). The Belarus experience testifies that there is a unique way for increasing nuclear and radiation safety: cooperation and exchange of experience on a global scale

  1. Experience during development triggers between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Nagy, Gergely; Hettyey, Attila; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2018-05-12

    1.Behavioural consistency within and across behaviours (animal personality and behavioural syndrome, respectively) have been vigorously studied in the last decade, leading to the emergence of 'animal personality' research. It has been proposed recently that not only mean behaviour (behavioural type), but the environmentally induced behavioural change (behavioural plasticity) might also differ between individuals within populations. 2.While case studies presenting between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity have started to accumulate, the mechanisms behind its emergence are virtually unknown. We have recently demonstrated that ecologically relevant environmental stimuli during ontogeny are necessary for the development of animal personality and behavioural syndromes. However, it is unknown whether between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity is hard-wired or induced. 3.Here, we tested whether experience with predation during development affected predator-induced behavioural plasticity in Rana dalmatina tadpoles. We ran a common garden experiment with two ontogenetic predation treatments: tadpoles developed from hatching in either the presence or absence of olfactory predator stimuli. Then, we assayed all tadpoles repeatedly for activity and risk-taking both in the absence and presence of olfactory predator stimuli. 4. We found that (i) between-individual variation in predator-induced behavioural plasticity was present only in the group that developed in the presence of olfactory stimuli from predators and (ii) previous experience with predatory stimuli resulted in lower plastic response at the group-level. The latter pattern resulted from increased between-individual variation and not from universally lower individual responses. We also found that experience with predation during development increased the predictability (i.e. decreased the within-individual variation unrelated to environmental change) of activity, but not risk-taking. In line

  2. Optical trigger: a Cherenkov effect discriminator for high energy physics. Realisation and characterisation of thin films whose refractive index allow discrimination over a wide spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbart, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this thesis sets the physical principles, and properties of actual Optical Triggers. For each of them, the cupel is sapphire made, and the external medium is liquid because of refractive index. The theory of Cherenkov emitted light cone explain how sapphire birefringence affects discrimination conditions.The second parts of the thesis (the main one) is focussed on study and realization of thin films for Optical Trigger. A layer characterization method has been developed by spectrophotometry, based on Perkin-Elmer laboratory device. Computerized simulation helped us to determine characteristics and limits of the studied device. (D.L.)

  3. Physical Adsorption: Experiment, Theory and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Nielsen, Peter A.

    .ADSORPTION/DESORPTION IN BUILDING MATERIALS: Short description of our research project which deals with lab size and full scale experiments, mathematical modelling and development of a standard test method for characterization of the sorption properties of indoor materials.STUDIES OF ADSORPTION/DESORPTION IN DUST...

  4. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  5. Cosmic ray nuclear interactions and EAS-triggered families observed by the Chacaltaya hybrid experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Kawasumi, N.; Martinic, N.; Ochi, N.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the families detected by emulsion chambers in the hybrid experiment with AS-array at Mt. Chacaltaya are studied in detail. Although many groups discuss about an increase of the heavy component in primary cosmic-rays beyond the knee region, it is shown that the observed characteristics of the families accompanied by large shower size, Ne>10 6 , can not be explained by an increase of heavy primaries alone. It is necessary to assume some changes of nuclear interaction in order to explain the observed characteristics of the air-showers accompanied by families

  6. Shifting standards experiments in particle physics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-01-01

    In Shifting Standards, Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.From Millikan’s tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and...

  7. Physics with photons at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Réale, V

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose detector due to start operation next year at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide pairs of protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, and luminosities up to L = 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. The identification of photons is crucial for the study of a number of physics channels, including the search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs, and measurements of direct production of single photons and photon pairs. Events containing true high-p_T photons must be selected with high efficiency, while rejecting the bulk of high-p_T jet events produced with enormously larger rate through QCD processes. The photon--photon and photon--jet channels are interesting in their own right, allowing the study of QCD at high energy. It is also essential to understand these proceses as the dominant background in the search for certain new physics processes, notably the production and decay of Higgs bosons to photon pairs. There are large uncertaintin...

  8. Negative Experiences as Learning Trigger: A Play Experience Empirical Research on a Game for Social Change Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Ilaria; Gandolfi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This study shows the results gathered from 141 subjects playing the persuasive urban game "A Hostile World" via a post-game-experience quantitative questionnaire. The aim is to problematize and deepen the role of negative emotions (e.g., frustration, rage)--explicitly fostered by "A Hostile World" to increase empathy toward…

  9. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  10. Smashing physics inside the world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working...

  11. Physics experiments with the operating reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullington, G R; King, D C

    1973-09-27

    Experimental techniques have been developed and used on Dragon to give consistent information on excess reactivity and shut down margin. The reactivity measurements have been correlated with the theoretical calculations and have led to improvements in the calculations. The methods used and the results obtained are accepted by the Safety Committee as sufficient evidence for compliance with the fuel loading safety rules. Although the reactor was not designed as an experimental facility, flux and dose measurements experiments have been successfully carried out. Mass flow and negative reactivity transient measurements have been carried out. These are valuable for demonstration of the flexibility of the reactor system and for giving confidence in theoretical calculations.

  12. Hadron physics at the COMPASS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krinner Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The Compass experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new JPC = 1++ state, the a1(1420, is observed with a mass and width in the ranges m = 1412 − 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 − 150MeV/c2.

  13. Physics Analysis of the FIRE Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Meade, D.; Breslau, J.; Fu, G.; Gorelenkov, N.; Manickam, J.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.

    2002-01-01

    An integrated model of a complete discharge in the FIRE experiment has been developed based on the TSC simulation code. The complete simulation model includes a choice of several models for core transport, combined with an edge pedestal model and the Porcelli sawtooth model. Burn control is provided by feedback on the auxiliary heating power. We find that with the GLF23 and MMM95 transport models, Q >10 operation should be possible for H-mode pedestal temperatures in the range of 4-5 keV

  14. Physics experiment on the Dragon reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.

    1974-10-15

    The paper describes a set of DRAGON experiments planned to measure burn-up effects in DRAGON irradiated fuel. Irradiated fuel elements from DRAGON are to be subjected to reactivity measurements in the HECTOR experimental reactor to infer the residual U235 content followed by isotopic analyses at CEA laboratories in 1975. Fast neutron damage to DRAGON graphite is compared to fast neutron dose measurements using Ni58 (n,p) Co58 activation wires in both DRAGON and the DIDO MTR. Gamma scanning of irradiated fuel elements are used to compare axial power profiles to those derived from two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations of the DRAGON reactor.

  15. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  16. Women’s Views and Experiences of the Triggers for Onset of Bacterial Vaginosis and Exacerbating Factors Associated with Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade; Walker, Sandra; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Temple-Smith, Meredith; McNair, Ruth; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher; Chen, Marcus; Bradshaw, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection affecting women of childbearing age. While the aetiology and transmissibility of BV remain unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest an association between BV and sexual activity. This study explored women’s views and experiences of the triggers for BV onset and factors associated with recurrence. Methods A descriptive, social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women of varying sexual orientation who had experienced recurrent BV in the past five years took part in semi-structured interviews. Results The majority of women predominantly reported sexual contact triggered the onset of BV and sexual and non-sexual factors precipitated recurrence. Recurrence was most commonly referred to in terms of a ‘flare-up’ of symptoms. The majority of women did not think BV was a sexually transmitted infection however many reported being informed this by their clinician. Single women who attributed BV onset to sex with casual partners were most likely to display self-blame tendencies and to consider changing their future sexual behaviour. Women who have sex with women (WSW) were more inclined to believe their partner was responsible for the transmission of or reinfection with BV and seek partner treatment or change their sexual practices. Conclusion Findings from this study strongly suggest women believe that BV onset is associated with sexual activity, concurring with epidemiological data which increasingly suggest BV may be sexually transmitted. Exacerbating factors associated with recurrence were largely heterogeneous and may reflect the fact it is difficult to determine whether recurrence is due to persistent BV or a new infection in women. There was however evidence to suggest possible transmission and reinfection among WSW, reinforcing the need for new approaches to treatment and management strategies including male and female partner treatment trials

  17. Divertor design for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Braams, B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the present divertor design for the planned TPX tokamak, which will explore the physics and technology of steady-state (1000s pulses) heat and particle removal in high confinement (2--4x L-mode), high beta (β N ≥ 3) divertor plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive. The TPX device will operate in the double-null divertor configuration, with actively cooled graphite targets forming a deep (0.5 m) slot at the outer strike point. The peak heat flux on, the highly tilted (74 degrees from normal) re-entrant (to recycle ions back toward the separatrix) will be in the range of 4--6 MW/m 2 with 18 MW of neutral beams and RF heating power. The combination of active pumping and gas puffing (deuterium plus impurities), along with higher heating power (45 MW maximum) will allow testing of radiative divertor concepts at ITER-like power densities

  18. The PANDA experiment: Antiproton physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, P.

    2011-01-01

    The new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), under construction at the GSI laboratory at Darmstadt, in a few years will make available, among different types of beams, even antiproton beams with unique features. Through a High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) for antiprotons, an antiproton beam will be available in a momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c, which will interact on a hydrogen target. The products of the interaction, including hadronic systems with strangeness and/or charm, will be detected with the PANDA magnetic spectrometer (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt), and the spectroscopic analysis will allow a detailed investigation on a number of open problems of the hadronic physics, as the quark confinement, the existence of non-conventional meson states (so-called glueballs and hybrids), the structure of hadrons and of the strong interaction, with particular attention to charmonium spectroscopy. An overview of the scientific program of PANDA and the current status of the project will be presented.

  19. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  20. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  1. Creative Turbulence: Experiments in Art and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Enrico; Dubois, R. Luke; Camnasio, Sara; Porfiri, Maurizio; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Serrano, Daniel; Ranjan, Devesh

    2016-11-01

    Effective communication of basic research to non-experts is necessary to inspire the public and to justify support for science by the taxpayers. The creative power of art is particularly important to engage an adult audience, who otherwise might not be receptive to standard didactic material. Interdisciplinarity defines new trends in research, and works at the intersection of art and science are growing in popularity, even though they are often isolated experiments. We present a public-facing collaboration between physicists/engineers performing research in fluid dynamics, and audiovisual artists working in cutting-edge media installation and performance. The result of this collaboration is a curated exhibition, with supporting public programming. We present the artworks, the lesson learned from the interactions between artists and scientists, the potential outreach impact and future developments. This project is supported by the APS Public Outreach Mini Grant.

  2. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, C. M.

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  3. Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.

  4. The impact of war experiences and physical abuse on formerly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-25

    Apr 25, 2006 ... Many studies have reported that physical, behavioural, cognitive, and emotional sequelae ... 1Department of Psychology, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda. 2Division of ...... Goldstein RD, Wampler NS, Wise PH. War experiences ...

  5. Simple Experiments on the Physics of Vision: The Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2005-01-01

    Many simple experiments can be performed in the classroom to explore the physics of vision. Students can learn of the two types of receptive cells (rods and cones), their distribution on the retina and the existence of the blind spot.

  6. Installation, commissioning and performance of the trigger system of the Double Chooz experiment and the analysis of hydrogen capture neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Sebastian

    2013-11-18

    The Double Chooz experiment is a reactor antineutrino experiment located at Chooz, a small town in the Ardennes region in the north of France close to the Belgium border. The aim of the experiment is to measure the leptonic mixing angle θ{sub 13}. The antineutrino flux is measured by two identical detectors at different distances from the reactor cores used as neutrino source, in a so called ''disappearance'' experiment. Double Chooz is a precision experiment because previous experiments indicated a small value of θ{sub 13}. Therefore, the systematic uncertainties introduced by background events and detector related components have to be as small as possible. The detector and all electronic components have been designed accordingly. The first part of this thesis describes the trigger and timing system of the Double Chooz experiment. This system triggers the data acquisition of the detector. It continuously monitors the signals of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the detector. These signals are summed for groups of PMTs (group signal) and for all PMTs (sum signal). The group signals are the input signals to the trigger system. They are discriminated by one threshold resulting in a multiplicity condition on the number of active group signal discriminators. The sum signal is discriminated by four thresholds. The default trigger configuration for the Double Chooz experiment is based on a combination on the sum signal discriminators and the multiplicity condition. In addition, the trigger system provides a common clock signal for all data acquisition components and an online event classification to allow an online data reduction. The trigger system was installed and commissioned in 2011. In this thesis the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance is presented. Furthermore the development and tests of possible improvements for the trigger system are presented and discussed. The second part of this thesis introduces a complementary

  7. Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy With Comprehensive Development of the Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This book presents experiments which will teach physics relevant to astronomy. The astronomer, as instructor, frequently faces this need when his college or university has no astronomy department and any astronomy course is taught in the physics department. The physicist, as instructor, will find this intellectually appealing when faced with teaching an introductory astronomy course. From these experiments, the student will acquire important analytical tools, learn physics appropriate to astronomy, and experience instrument calibration and the direct gathering and analysis of data. Experiments that can be performed in one laboratory session as well as semester-long observation projects are included. This textbook is aimed at undergraduate astronomy students.

  8. Unfolding methods in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blobel, V.

    1985-01-01

    Distributions measured in high-energy physics experiments are often distorted or transformed by limited acceptance and finite resolution of the detectors. The unfolding of measured distributions is an important, but due to inherent instabilities a very difficult problem. Methods for unfolding, applicable for the analysis of high-energy physics experiments, and their properties are discussed. An introduction is given to the method of regularization. (orig.)

  9. Unfolding methods in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blobel, V.

    1984-12-01

    Distributions measured in high-energy physics experiments are often distorted or transformed by limited acceptance and finite resolution of the detectors. The unfolding of measured distributions is an important, but due to inherent instabilities a very difficult problem. Methods for unfolding, applicable for the analysis of high-energy physics experiments, and their properties are discussed. An introduction is given to the method of regularization. (orig.)

  10. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares Delgado, Ademar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units Type: Talk Abstract: We present the ATLAS Trigger algorithms developed to exploit General­ Purpose Graphics Processor Units. ATLAS is a particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system has two levels, hardware-­based Level 1 and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. Performing the trigger event selection within the available farm resources presents a significant challenge that will increase future LHC upgrades. are being evaluated as a potential solution for trigger algorithms acceleration. Key factors determining the potential benefit of this new technology are the relative execution speedup, the number of GPUs required and the relative financial cost of the selected GPU. We have developed a trigger demonstrator which includes algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Cal...

  11. Physical exercise and return to work: cancer survivors' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore cancer survivors' experiences with (1) return to work (RtW) and work performance, (2) a physical exercise program after treatment, and (3) the perceived link between physical exercise and work. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with ten

  12. Analysis of pre-service physics teacher skills designing simple physics experiments based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilawati; Huda, C.; Kurniawan, W.; Masturi; Khoiri, N.

    2018-03-01

    Pre-service physics teacher skill in designing simple experiment set is very important in adding understanding of student concept and practicing scientific skill in laboratory. This study describes the skills of physics students in designing simple experiments based technologicall. The experimental design stages include simple tool design and sensor modification. The research method used is descriptive method with the number of research samples 25 students and 5 variations of simple physics experimental design. Based on the results of interviews and observations obtained the results of pre-service physics teacher skill analysis in designing simple experimental physics charged technology is good. Based on observation result, pre-service physics teacher skill in designing simple experiment is good while modification and sensor application are still not good. This suggests that pre-service physics teacher still need a lot of practice and do experiments in designing physics experiments using sensor modifications. Based on the interview result, it is found that students have high enough motivation to perform laboratory activities actively and students have high curiosity to be skilled at making simple practicum tool for physics experiment.

  13. Programmable combinational logic trigger system for high energy particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    A fast logic system designed to select predetermined combinations of three hits in three detectors is described. Central to this system is a random access memory IC that was especially designed for this application

  14. Need Satisfaction Moderates the Association Between Physical Activity and Affective States in Adults Aged 50+: an Activity-Triggered Ambulatory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Hansen, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Substantial evidence shows that physical activities of daily living are positively correlated with affective states in middle-aged and older adults. However, people's physical activity decreases when they grow older, and conditions that enhance older individuals' physical activities of daily living are not well understood. This study investigated need satisfaction (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and its moderating effect on the within-subject relation between physical activities of daily living and three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, and calmness) based on an ambulatory assessment that used activity-triggered e-diaries. The physical activities of daily living of 68 adults aged 50+ (mean age = 60.1 ± 7.1) were measured objectively for three consecutive days, and need satisfaction and affective states were assessed as a function of the amount of physical activity during the preceding 10 min before the affect measurement (in activity-triggered e-diaries). Hierarchical multilevel analyses were performed. Need satisfaction was significantly and positively correlated with the three dimensions of affective states. Further, physical activities of daily living were significantly associated with energetic arousal and calmness, but not valence. However, when physical activities of daily living were more autonomously regulated, the association of physical activities of daily living and valence became significant and positive. The findings regarding the significant moderating effects of need satisfaction are crucial for interventions aiming to improve the health-enhancing effects of physical activity in adults aged 50+. Positive feelings owing to physical activities in daily living depend on the extent that psychological needs are satisfied.

  15. Data acquisition systems for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Olmos, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Data Acquisition Systems most frequently used in High Energy Physics experiments is described. This report begins with a brief description of the main elements of a typical signal processing chain, following with a detailed exposition of the four most popular instrumentation standards used in this kind of experiments: NIM, CAMAC, and VMI. (author). 20 figs., 9 ref

  16. Perceptions of Overweight Students Concerning Their Experiences in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; Graber, Kim C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students' perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher…

  17. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  18. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  19. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-Wei; Su, Hong; Qian, Yi; Kong, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.

  20. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongwei; Su Hong; Qian Yi; Kong Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements. (authors)

  1. Experiments in atomic and applied physics using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A diverse program in atomic and applied physics using x rays produced at the X-26 beam line at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source is in progress. The atomic physics program studies the properties of multiply-ionized atoms using the x rays for photo-excitation and ionization of neutral atoms and ion beams. The applied physics program builds on the techniques and results of the atomic physics work to develop new analytical techniques for elemental and chemical characterization of materials. The results are then used for a general experimental program in biomedical sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, and materials sciences. The present status of the program is illustrated by describing selected experiments. Prospects for development of new experimental capabilities are discussed in terms of a heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics experiments and the feasibility of photoelectron microscopy for high spatial resolution analytical work. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. The engineering design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A mission and supporting physics objectives have been developed, which establishes an important role for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) in developing the physic basis for a future fusion reactor. The design of TPX include advanced physics features, such as shaping and profile control, along with the capability of operating for very long pulses. The development of the superconducting magnets, actively cooled internal hardware, and remote maintenance will be an important technology contribution to future fusion projects, such as ITER. The Conceptual Design and Management Systems for TPX have been developed and reviewed, and the project is beginning Preliminary Design. If adequately funded the construction project should be completed in the year 2000

  3. Current status and improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guopu; Guo Lanying

    1999-01-01

    The author reviews the current status of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology in higher education and expresses author's views on the future improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course

  4. Detecting physics beyond the Standard Model with the REDTOP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, D.; León, D.; Fabela, B.; Pedraza, M. I.

    2017-10-01

    REDTOP is an experiment at its proposal stage. It belongs to the High Intensity class of experiments. REDTOP will use a 1.8 GeV continuous proton beam impinging on a fixed target. It is expected to produce about 1013 η mesons per year. The main goal of REDTOP is to look for physics beyond the Standard Model by detecting rare η decays. The detector is designed with innovative technologies based on the detection of prompt Cherenkov light, such that interesting events can be observed and the background events are efficiently rejected. The experimental design, the physics program and the running plan of the experiment is presented.

  5. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  6. An FPGA-based track finder for the L1 trigger of the CMS experiment at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cieri, Davide; Harder, Kristian; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Brooke, Jim; Clement, Emyr; Newbold, Dave; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Hobson, Peter; Morton, Alexander Davide; Reid, Ivan; Hall, Geoff; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas Owen; Matsushita, Takashi; Pesaresi, Mark; Rose, Andrew William; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alex; Uchida, Kirika; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Ardila-Perez, Luis; Balzer, Matthias; Caselle, Michele; Sander, Oliver; Schuh, Thomas; Weber, Marc

    2017-01-01

    A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A crucial component of this upgrade will be the ability to reconstruct within a few microseconds all charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 3 GeV, so they can be used in the Level-1 trigger decision. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are reconstructed using a projective binning algorithm based on the Hough Transform followed by a track fitting based on the linear regression technique. A hardware demonstrator using MP7 processing boards has been assembled to prove the entire system, from the output of the tracker readout boards to the reconstruction of tracks with fitted helix parameters. It successfully operates on one eighth of the tracker solid angle at a time, processing events taken at 40 MHz, each with up to 200 superimposed proton-proton interactions, whilst satisfying latency constraints. T...

  7. An FPGA based track finder for the L1 trigger of the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tomalin, Ian; Ball, Fionn Amhairghen; Balzer, Matthias Norbert; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brooke, James John; Caselle, Michele; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Clement, Emyr John; Dutta, Suchandra; Hall, Geoffrey; Harder, Kristian; Hobson, Peter; Iles, Gregory Michiel; James, Thomas Owen; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Matsushita, Takashi; Morton, Alexander; Newbold, David; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Pozzobon, Nicola; Reid, Ivan; Rose, A. W; Sander, Oliver; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Schuh, Thomas; Skinnari, Louise; Summers, Sioni Paris; Tapper, Alexander; Thea, Alessandro; Uchida, Kirika; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Viret, Sebastien; Weber, M; Aggleton, Robin Cameron

    2017-12-14

    A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct all charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 2-3 GeV within 4$\\mu$s so they can be used in the Level-1 trigger decision. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are reconstructed using a projective binning algorithm based on the Hough Transform, followed by a combinatorial Kalman Filter. A hardware demonstrator using MP7 processing boards has been assembled to prove the entire system functionality, from the output of the tracker readout boards to the reconstruction of tracks with fitted helix parameters. It successfully operates on one eighth of the tracker solid angle acceptance at a time, processing events taken at 40 MHz, each with up to 200 superimposed proton-proton interactions, whilst satisfying the latency requirement. ...

  8. Detector tests in a high magnetic field and muon spectrometer triggering studies on a small prototype for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bergsma, F; Castro, H; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; De Pasquale, S; Gálvez, J; Gentile, S; Giusti, P; Laurent, G; Levi, G; Lin, Q; Maccarrone, G D; Mattern, D; Nania, R; Rivera, F; Schioppa, M; Sharma, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    The "Large Area Devices" group of the LAA project is working on R&D for muon detection at a future super-collider. New detectors are under development and the design of a muon spectrometer for an LHC experiment is under study. Our present choice is for a compact, high field, air-core toroidal muon spectrometer. Good momentum resolution is achievable in this compact solution, with at least one plane of detection elements inside the high field region. A new detector, the Blade Chamber, making use of blades instead of wires, has been developed for the forward and backward regions of the spectrometer, where polar coordinate readings are desirable.The assembling of a CERN high energy beam line, equipped with high resolution drift chambers and a strong field magnet could give us the opportunity to test our chambers in a high magnetic field and to study the muon trigger capabilities of a spectrometer, like the one proposed, on a small prototype.

  9. Gender, experience, and self-efficacy in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson M. Nissen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men’s and women’s physics self-efficacy, which comprises students’ thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women’s self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM. We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students’ feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i an introductory IE physics course, (ii students’ other introductory STEM courses, (iii their non-STEM courses, and (iv their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women’s self-efficacy was not reliably different from men’s. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women’s self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  11. Error detection, handling and recovery at the High Level Trigger of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223972; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) requires a robust system for error detection and handling during online data-taking; it also requires an offline system for the recovery of events where no trigger decision could be made online. The error detection and handling ensure smooth operation of the trigger system and provide debugging information necessary for offline analysis and diagnosis. In this presentation, we give an overview of the error detection, handling and recovery of problematic events at the HLT of ATLAS.

  12. Becoming physics people: Development of integrated physics identity through the Learning Assistant experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of community of practice and physics identity, and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation. Regression models from physics identity studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics. The goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger "physics student" identity and stronger "physics instructor" identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. Increased comfort in interactions with peers, near peers, and faculty seems to be an important component of this identity development and reconciliation, suggesting that a focus on supporting community membership is useful for effective program design.

  13. Big Data Challenges in High Energy Physics Experiments: The ATLAS (CERN) Fast TracKer Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We live in the era of “Big Data” problems. Massive amounts of data are produced and captured, data that require significant amounts of filtering to be processed in a realistically useful form. An excellent example of a “Big Data” problem is the data processing flow in High Energy Physics experiments, in our case the ATLAS detector in CERN. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 40 million collisions of bunches of protons take place every second, which is about 15 trillion collisions per year. For the ATLAS detector alone 1 Mbyte of data is produced for every collision or 2000 Tbytes of data per year. Therefore what is needed is a very efficient real-time trigger system to filter the collisions (events) and identify the ones that contain “interesting” physics for processing. One of the upgrades of the ATLAS Trigger system is the Fast TracKer system. The Fast TracKer is a real-time pattern matching machine able to reconstruct the tracks of the particles in the inner silicon detector of the ATLAS experim...

  14. Becoming Physics People: Development of Integrated Physics Identity through the Learning Assistant Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of "community of practice" and "physics identity," and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation.…

  15. Searches for standard model Higgs boson and supersymmetry - Trigger studies and software tools development for new phenomena in the DO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperrin, A.

    2007-04-01

    This document presents a summary of my research work during the past 7 years for the preparation of the D0 experiment at Fermilab and the analysis of the data collected at the Tevatron hadron collider. It mainly focuses on 2 topics: trigger and direct search for new phenomena, particularly on supersymmetry and standard model Higgs boson searches. This document is divided into 5 chapters: 1) the phenomenology of the standard model and beyond, 2) the phenomenology of pp-bar events, 3) the Tevatron and D0 detector, 4) the trigger system and data acquisition, and 5) data analysis: search for supersymmetry and Higgs boson

  16. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  17. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  18. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  19. Experience acquired in health physics at Saclay Nuclear Research Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, L.; Joffre, H.

    1963-06-15

    Description is given of the general organization and functions of the Health Physics Department of Saclay Nuclear Research Establishment. The means employed for the various installations covered and the general rules adopted for health physics are presented. From an overall survey of the results obtained in 1962, conclusions were drawn from past experience and to foresee improvements for the future are foreseen. (P.C.H.)

  20. Physics in your pocket: experimenting and learning with your smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    González, Manuel Á.; González Rebollo, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Along the last years the use of mobile devices in education has increased hugely. This increase includes not only the use of ICTs as learning facilitators. Mobile devices have also become useful tools in experimental physics thanks to their rich sets of built-in sensors. The use of smartphones as measurement devices in physics experiments requires careful attention to ensure good learning outcomes. Some aspects that must be considered are the reliability and accuracy of the smartphone sensors...

  1. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  2. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  3. Basic experiments of reactor physics using the critical assembly TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru; Igashira, Masayuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Ken; Suzaki, Takenori.

    1994-02-01

    This report is based on lectures given to graduate students of Tokyo Institute of Technology. It covers educational experiments conducted with the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in July, 1993. During this period, the following basic experiments on reactor physics were performed: (1) Critical approach experiment, (2) Measurement of neutron flux distribution, (3) Measurement of power distribution, (4) Measurement of fuel rod worth distribution, (5) Measurement of safety sheet worth by the rod drop method. The principle of experiments, experimental procedure, and analysis of results are described in this report. (author)

  4. Advanced detection techniques for educational experiments in cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiola, Salvatore; La-Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Simone

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we describe several detection techniques that can be employed to study cosmic ray properties and carry out training activities at high school and undergraduate level. Some of the proposed devices and instrumentation are inherited from professional research experiments, while others were especially developed and marketed for educational cosmic ray experiments. The educational impact of experiments in cosmic ray physics in high-school or undergraduate curricula will be exploited through various examples, going from simple experiments carried out with small Geiger counters or scintillation devices to more advanced detection instrumentation which can offer starting points for not trivial research work. (authors)

  5. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  6. Results from a complete simulation study of the RPC based muon trigger system for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G. E-mail: giacomo.bruno@pv.infn.it; Guida, R.; Merlo, M.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F

    2001-04-01

    The performance of the Resistive Plate Chambers-based muon trigger of the CMS detector has been studied by means of a full simulation of the system under realistic operating conditions. Requirements on the performance of the chambers are deduced.

  7. A Study on school experiences of physics department students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerit, N.

    2005-01-01

    Bringing up the young people who are seen as the guaranty of the future depends on a better education. One of the best ways of forming a high in quality education is connected to developing the quality in teacher training. Most of the developed countries have been carrying on studies in order to develop teacher training. School experience classes are the ones which are planned for the candidate teachers to observe the school in learning and teaching period and to practice in classrooms. Beginning from candidate teachers first years at school, this class should be thought to be beneficial for identifying their future school atmosphere, and it should be run effectively. For this purpose, it has been identified what difficulties the physics undergraduate and physics (with no thesis) master students, who took part in School Experience classes at the practice schools of Konya at which faculty-school cooperation is applied, had during activities, and their success at overcoming these difficulties, and their ideas about the practice school and its teachers. The research was done by making a survey to the physics undergraduate and physics(with no thesis) master students in 2003 Spring semester. The results of the research were analyzed for both girls and boys separately. After analyzed, the results showed that the most striking activity which both the undergraduate physics and physics(with no thesis) master students had difficulty was group activities. Moreover, it showed that 90 percent of the two groups had the idea that school experience activities would be beneficial for being a good physics teacher. It has been also recognized that the physics undergraduate students had a more positive view than physics(with no thesis) master students on the matter of meeting lack of interest from practice teachers, and taking the same course from the same teacher

  8. A programmatic framework for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.; Goldston, R.J.; Neilson, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the confinement of reactor-grade plasmas, so that the authors are now preparing for experiments at the open-quotes power breakevenclose quotes level in the JET and TFTR experiments. In ITER the authors will extend the performance of tokamaks into the burning plasma regime, develop the technology of fusion reactors, and produce over a gigawatt of fusion power. Besides taking these crucial steps toward the technical feasibility of fusion, the authors must also take steps to ensure its economic acceptability. The broad requirements for economically attractive tokamak reactors based on physics advancements have been set forth in a number of studies. An advanced physics data base is emerging from a physics program of concept improvement using existing tokamaks around the world. This concept improvements program is emerging as the primary focus of the US domestic tokamak program, and a key element of that program is the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). With TPX the authors can develop the scientific data base for compact, continuously-operating fusion reactors, using advanced steady-state control techniques to improve plasma performance. The authors can develop operating techniques needed to ensure the success of ITER and provide first-time experience with several key fusion reactor technologies. This paper explains the relationships of TPX to the current US fusion physics program, to the ITER program, and to the development of an attractive tokamak demonstration plant for this next stage in the fusion program

  9. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  10. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  11. Great experiments in physics firsthand accounts from Galileo to Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    1959-01-01

    From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-20th century. Brought together for the first time in one volume are important source readings on 25 epochal discoveries that changed man's understanding of the physical world. The accounts, written by the physicists who made them, include:Issac Newton: The Laws of MotionHenry Cavendish: The Law of GravitationAugustin Fresnel: The Diffraction of LightHans Christian Oersted: ElecromagnetismH

  12. Future high precision experiments and new physics beyond Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Mingxing.

    1993-01-01

    High precision (< 1%) electroweak experiments that have been done or are likely to be done in this decade are examined on the basis of Standard Model (SM) predictions of fourteen weak neutral current observables and fifteen W and Z properties to the one-loop level, the implications of the corresponding experimental measurements to various types of possible new physics that enter at the tree or loop level were investigated. Certain experiments appear to have special promise as probes of the new physics considered here

  13. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976

  14. The physics analysis tools project for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is expected to start colliding proton beams in 2009. The enormous amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment (≅1 PB per year) will be used in searches for the Higgs boson and Physics beyond the standard model. In order to meet this challenge, a suite of common Physics Analysis Tools has been developed as part of the Physics Analysis software project. These tools run within the ATLAS software framework, ATHENA, covering a wide range of applications. There are tools responsible for event selection based on analysed data and detector quality information, tools responsible for specific physics analysis operations including data quality monitoring and physics validation, and complete analysis tool-kits (frameworks) with the goal to aid the physicist to perform his analysis hiding the details of the ATHENA framework. (authors)

  15. Disruption of a Quorum Sensing mechanism triggers tumorigenesis: a simple discrete model corroborated by experiments in mammary cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirnasovsky Oleg U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is expected to be tightly controlled in order to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout life, also in the face of environmental hazards. Theory, predicting that homeostasis is maintained by a negative feedback on stem cell proliferation, implies a Quorum Sensing mechanism in higher vertebrates. Results Application of this theory to a cellular automata model of stem cell development in disrupted environments shows a sharply dichotomous growth dynamics: maturation within 50-400 cell cycles, or immortalization. This dichotomy is mainly driven by intercellular communication, low intensity of which causes perpetual proliferation. Another driving force is the cells' kinetic parameters. Reduced tissue life span of differentiated cells results in uncontrolled proliferation. Model's analysis, showing that under the Quorum Sensing control, stem cell fraction within a steady state population is fixed, is corroborated by experiments in breast carcinoma cells. Experimental results show that the plating densities of CD44+ cells and of CD44+/24lo/ESA+ cells do not affect stem cell fraction near confluence. Conclusions This study suggests that stem cell immortalization may be triggered by reduced intercellular communication, rather than exclusively result from somatic evolution, and implies that stem cell proliferation can be attenuated by signal manipulation, or enhanced by cytotoxics targeted to differentiated cells. In vivo verification and identification of the Quorum Sensing mediating molecules will pave the way to a higher level control of stem cell proliferation in cancer and in tissue engineering. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Glenn Webb and Marek Kimmel.

  16. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  17. When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

  18. Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Elvira, V.

    2017-06-01

    Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.

  19. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of an advanced laboratory course in experimental nuclear and particle physics the author gave to physics majors at the University of Geneva during the years 1978- 1983. The course was offered to third and fourth year students, the latter of which had, at this point in their studies, chosen to specialize in experimental nuclear or particle physics. This implied that they would go on to do a 'diplome' thesis with one of the high- or intermediate-energy research groups in the physics department. The format of the course was such that the students were required to concentrate on only one experiment during the trimester, rather than perform a series of experiments as is more typical of a traditional course of this type. Their tasks thus included planning the experiment, learning the relevant techniques, setting up and troubleshooting the measuring apparatus, calibration, data-taking and analysis, as well as responsibility for maintaining their equipment, i.e., tasks resembling those in a real experiment. This more intensive involvement provided the students with a better understanding of the experimental problems encountered in a professional experiment and helped instill a certain independence and confidence which would prepare them for entry into a research group in the department. Teaching assistants were presented to help the students during the trimester and a series of weekly lectures was also given on various topics in experimental nuclear and particle physics. This included general information on detectors, nuclear electronics, statistics, the interaction of radiation in matter, etc., and a good deal of practical information for actually doing experiments. (orig.) With 254 figs

  20. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  1. Simulation and Validation of the ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recently commissioned a new component of its first-level trigger: the L1 topological trigger. This system, using state-of-the-art FPGA processors, makes it possible to reject events by applying topological requirements, such as kinematic criteria involving clusters, jets, muons, and total transverse energy. The data recorded using the L1Topological trigger demonstrates that this innovative trigger strategy allows for an improved rejection rate without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several relevant physics processes leading to low-$p_T$ leptons, including $H\\to{}\\tau{}\\tau{}$ and $J/\\Psi\\to{}\\mu{}\\mu{}$. In addition, an accurate simulation of the L1Topological trigger is used to validate and optimize the performance of this trigger. To reach such an accuracy, this simulation must take into account the fact that the firmware algorithms are executed on a FPGA architecture, while the simulation is executed on a floating point architecture.

  2. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  3. ASIC design used in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongyu; Lin Tao; Wu Ling; Zhao jingwei; Gu Shudi

    1997-01-01

    The author introduces an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) design environment based on PC. Some design tools used in such environment are also introduced. A kind of ASIC chip used in high energy physics experiment, weighting mean timer, is being developed now

  4. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

  5. Lessons from feedback of safety operating experience for reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.; Rapavy, S.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of events in WWER operations as a part of safety experience feedback provide a valuable source of lessons for reactor physics. Examples of events from Bohunice operation will be shown such as events with inadequate approach to criticality, positive reactivity insertions, expulsion of a control rod from shut-down reactor, problems with reactor protection system and control rods. (Authors)

  6. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao

    1993-01-01

    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  7. The physics analysis environment of the ZEUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Derugin, O.; Gilkinson, D.; Kasemann, M.; Manczak, O.

    1995-12-01

    The ZEUS Experiment has over the last three years developed its own model of the central computing environment for physics analysis. This model has been designed to provide ZEUS physicists with powerful and user friendly tools for data analysis as well as to be truly scalable and open. (orig.)

  8. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  9. Data acquisition systems for high energy Physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Olmos, P.

    1986-01-01

    We describe here the Data Acquisition Systems most frequently used in High Energy Physics experiments. This report begins with a brief description of the main elements of a typical signal processing chain, following with a detailed exposition of the four most popular instrumentation standards used in this kind of experimental: NIM, CAMAC, FASTBUS and VME. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  11. The AMS experiment: first results and physics prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialle, J.P.

    2000-04-01

    The main physics goal of the AMS experiment is the search for primordial antimatter, non-baryonic dark matter, and the measurement with high statistics and high accuracy of the electrically charged cosmic ray particles and light nuclei in the extraterrestrial space beyond the atmosphere. AMS is the first magnetic spectrometer which will be flown in space. It will be installed for 3 years on the international space station (ISS) in 2003. A precursor flight with the space shuttle DISCOVERY took place in June 1998. 100 millions particles were recorded during the test flight and unexpected physics results were observed on fluxes of protons, electrons, positrons, and helium nuclei. These results are described below, and the physics prospects for the second phase of the experiment on the space station as well. (author)

  12. B-physics prospects with the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnew, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the B-physics prospects of the LHCb experiment. Firstly, a brief introduction to the CKM matrix and the mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model is given. The advantages of the LHCb experiment for B-physics exploitation will then be described, together with a short description of the detector components. Finally, the LHCb physics aims and prospects will be summarized, focusing on the measurements of sin(2β) in tree and gluonic penguin diagrams, sin(2α) in B d 0 → π + π - and π + π - π 0 , neutral B-meson oscillations and the B s 0 mixing phase, and the measurement of γ using a variety of complementary methods

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  14. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  15. An Upgraded ATLAS Central Trigger for 2015 Luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettgen, Ruth; Gutenberg, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) is a core unit of the first of three levels that constitute the ATLAS trigger system. Based on information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors as well as from some additional systems it produces the level-1 trigger decision and prompts the read-out of the sub-detectors. The increase in luminosity at the LHC has pushed the CTP operation to its design limits. In order to still satisfy the physics goals of the experiment after the shutdown of the LHC of 2013/2014 the CTP will be upgraded during this period. This article discusses the current Central Trigger Processor, the motivation for the upgrade, and the changes foreseen to meet the requirements of the post-2014 physics runs at the LHC. (authors)

  16. ESTHER 1.3: integrating in-situ prompts to trigger self-reflection of physical activity in knowledge workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan; Romero, Natalia A.; Keyson, David; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2013-01-01

    There are little initiatives supporting knowledge workers in implementing physical activity as part of their work routines. Due to the sedentary nature of their work, knowledge workers have little opportunities to engage in physical activities during the working hours. In addition, physical activity

  17. Observation, experiment and hypothesis in modern physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaway, Owen

    1985-01-01

    These original contributions by philosophers and historians of science discuss a range of issues pertaining to the testing of hypotheses in modern physics by observation and experiment. Chapters by Lawrence Sklar, Dudley Shapere, Richard Boyd, R. C. Jeffrey, Peter Achinstein, and Ronald Laymon explore general philosophical themes with applications to modern physics and astrophysics. The themes include the nature of the hypothetico-deductive method, the concept of observation and the validity of the theoretical-observation distinction, the probabilistic basis of confirmation, and the testing of idealizations and approximations.The remaining four chapters focus on the history of particular twentieth-century experiments, the instruments and techniques utilized, and the hypotheses they were designed to test. Peter Galison reviews the development of the bubble chamber; Roger Stuewer recounts a sharp dispute between physicists in Cambridge and Vienna over the interpretation of artificial disintegration experiments;...

  18. Industrial metrology as applied to large physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veal, D.

    1993-05-01

    A physics experiment is a large complex 3-D object (typ. 1200 m 3 , 35000 tonnes), with sub-millimetric alignment requirements. Two generic survey alignment tasks can be identified; first, an iterative positioning of the apparatus subsystems in space and, second, a quantification of as-built parameters. The most convenient measurement technique is industrial triangulation but the complexity of the measured object and measurement environment constraints frequently requires a more sophisticated approach. To enlarge the ''survey alignment toolbox'' measurement techniques commonly associated with other disciplines such as geodesy, applied geodesy for accelerator alignment, and mechanical engineering are also used. Disparate observables require a heavy reliance on least squares programs for campaign pre-analysis and calculation. This paper will offer an introduction to the alignment of physics experiments and will identify trends for the next generation of SSC experiments

  19. Geneva University: Experiments in Physics: Hands-on Creative Processes

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Lundi 3 octobre 2011, 17h00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg «Experiments in Physics : Hands-on Creative Processes» Prof. Manfred Euler Leibniz-Institute for Mathematics and Science Education (IPN) University of Kiel, Deutschland Experiments play a variety of different roles in knowledge generation. The lecture will focus on the function of experiments as engines of intuition that foster insights into complex processes. The experimental presentations consider self-organization phenomena in various domains that range from the nanomechanics of biomolecules to perception and cognition. The inherent universality contributes to elucidating the enigmatic phenomenon of creativity. Une verrée en compagnie du conférencier sera offerte après le colloque.       &...

  20. Industrial metrology as applied to large physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, D.

    1993-05-01

    A physics experiment is a large complex 3-D object (typ. 1200 m{sup 3}, 35000 tonnes), with sub-millimetric alignment requirements. Two generic survey alignment tasks can be identified; first, an iterative positioning of the apparatus subsystems in space and, second, a quantification of as-built parameters. The most convenient measurement technique is industrial triangulation but the complexity of the measured object and measurement environment constraints frequently requires a more sophisticated approach. To enlarge the ``survey alignment toolbox`` measurement techniques commonly associated with other disciplines such as geodesy, applied geodesy for accelerator alignment, and mechanical engineering are also used. Disparate observables require a heavy reliance on least squares programs for campaign pre-analysis and calculation. This paper will offer an introduction to the alignment of physics experiments and will identify trends for the next generation of SSC experiments.

  1. CMS Triggers for the LHC Startup

    CERN Document Server

    Nhan Nguyen, Chi

    2009-01-01

    The LHC will collide proton beams at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ each crossing results in an average of about 20 inelastic pp events. The CMS trigger system is designed to reduce the input rate to about 100 Hz. This task is carried out in two steps, namely the Level-1 (L1) and the High-Level trigger (HLT). The L1 trigger is built of customized fast electronics and is designed to reduce the rate to 100 kHz. The HLT is implemented in a filter farm running on hundreds of CPUs and is designed to reduce the rate by another factor of ~1000. It combines the traditional L2 and L3 trigger components in a novel way and allows the coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels. We will discuss the strategies for optimizing triggers covering the experiment`s early physics program.

  2. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  3. Estimation of the systematic uncertainties of the measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} related to the trigger system of the Double Chooz experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stueken, David Anselm

    2013-10-14

    The Double Chooz experiment, located in the Ardennes region next to the CHOOZ-B nuclear power plant, is a reactor antineutrino experiment to measure neutrino oscillations. It has been designed as precision experiment to measure the neutrino mixing angel θ{sub 13} with highest possible accuracy due to its small value close to zero. The electron antineutrino flux emitted by the reactor cores is measured by two identical neutrino detectors located at different distances from the reactor cores. Each detector consist of a 10.3 m{sup 3} target volume filled with liquid scintillator and surrounded by 390 photomultiplier tubes. The far detector is located 1.05 km away from the reactor cores to be most sensitive to oscillation effects. The unoscillated neutrino flux is measured by the near detector located 400 m away from the reactor cores. In order to reduce background events and other sources resulting in systematic uncertainties, special requirements have been demanded for all detector components and electronic systems. In this context, a most efficiently operating data acquisition system is essential. The subsystem responsible to start data storage for events of interest is the so called ''trigger system''. The design concept of the Double Chooz trigger system introduces two redundancy concepts in order to trigger the data acquisition in the most robust and efficient way: The trigger decision is based on a combination of an energy threshold and the number of active photomultiplier tubes (multiplicity condition). Secondly, the system is divided into two identical but independently operating subsystems for most robust operations of the full system. Additionally, the two subsystem provide the possibility to measure the efficiency of the system. Apart from generating the trigger signal for the data acquisition, the system provides an online event classification in order to adjust the amount of stored data for each event type. After one and a half year

  4. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  5. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  6. Evaluation of shallow landslide-triggering scenarios through a physically based approach: an example of application in the southern Messina area (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, L.; Esposito, C.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are a widespread phenomenon that frequently causes substantial damage to property, as well as numerous casualties. In recent~years a wide range of physically based models have been developed to analyze the triggering process of these events. Specifically, in this paper we propose an approach for the evaluation of different shallow landslide-triggering scenarios by means of the TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based slope stability) numerical model. For the validation of the model, a back analysis of the landslide event that occurred in the study area (located SW of Messina, northeastern Sicily, Italy) on 1 October 2009 was performed, by using different methods and techniques for the definition of the input parameters. After evaluating the reliability of the model through comparison with the 2009 landslide inventory, different triggering scenarios were defined using rainfall values derived from the rainfall probability curves, reconstructed on the basis of daily and hourly historical rainfall data. The results emphasize how these phenomena are likely to occur in the area, given that even short-duration (1-3 h) rainfall events with a relatively low return period (e.g., 10-20~years) can trigger numerous slope failures. Furthermore, for the same rainfall amount, the daily simulations underestimate the instability conditions. The high susceptibility of this area to shallow landslides is testified by the high number of landslide/flood events that have occurred in the past and are summarized in this paper by means of archival research. Considering the main features of the proposed approach, the authors suggest that this methodology could be applied to different areas, even for the development of landslide early warning systems.

  7. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  8. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan, E-mail: lidan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yang, Fei, E-mail: fyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Computer Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  9. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Xiao, B.J.; Xia, J.Y.; Yang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  10. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Harvey, Richard H; Wise, David; Nevin Smith, J; Nathanson, Brian H; Sawyer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This study documents the voluntary reduction in medication use in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome utilizing a protocol of pelvic floor myofascial trigger point release with an FDA approved internal trigger point wand and paradoxical relaxation therapy. Self-referred patients were enrolled in a 6-day training clinic from October, 2008 to May, 2011 and followed the protocol for 6 months. Medication usage and symptom scores on a 1-10 scale (10 = most severe) were collected at baseline, and 1 and 6 months. All changes in medication use were at the patient's discretion. Changes in medication use were assessed by McNemar's test in both complete case and modified intention to treat (mITT) analyses. 374 out of 396 patients met inclusion criteria; 79.7 % were male, median age of 43 years and median symptom duration of 5 years. In the complete case analysis, the percent of patients using medications at baseline was 63.6 %. After 6 months of treatment the percentage was 40.1 %, a 36.9 % reduction (p < 0.001). In the mITT analysis, there was a 22.7 % overall reduction from baseline (p < 0.001). Medication cessation at 6 months was significantly associated with a reduction in total symptoms (p = 0.03).

  11. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  12. LHCf experiment: forward physics at LHC for cosmic rays study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prete M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment, optimized for the study of forward physics at LHC, completes its main physics program in this year 2015, with the proton-proton collisions at the energy of 13 TeV. LHCf gives important results on the study of neutral particles at extreme pseudo-rapidity, both for proton-proton and for proton-ion interactions. These results are an important reference for tuning the models of the hadronic interaction currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. The results of this analysis and the future perspective are presented in this paper.

  13. A system for designing and simulating particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, R.; Strzalkowski, P.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the rapid development of experimental facilities and their costs, the systematic design and preparation of particle physics experiments have become crucial. A software system is proposed as an aid for the experimental designer, mainly for experimental geometry analysis and experimental simulation. The following model is adopted: the description of an experiment is formulated in a language (here called XL) and put by its processor in a data base. The language is based on the entity-relationship-attribute approach. The information contained in the data base can be reported and analysed by an analyser (called XA) and modifications can be made at any time. In particular, the Monte Carlo methods can be used in experiment simulation for both physical phenomena in experimental set-up and detection analysis. The general idea of the system is based on the design concept of ISDOS project information systems. The characteristics of the simulation module are similar to those of the CERN Geant system, but some extensions are proposed. The system could be treated as a component of greater, integrated software environment for the design of particle physics experiments, their monitoring and data processing. (orig.)

  14. Where do we stand after twenty years of dynamic triggering studies? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, S. G.; Hill, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, remote dynamic triggering of earthquakes by other earthquakes has been explored in a variety of physical environments with a wide array of observation and modeling techniques. These studies have significantly refined our understanding of the state of the crust and the physical conditions controlling earthquake nucleation. Despite an ever growing database of dynamic triggering observations, significant uncertainties remain and vigorous debate in almost all aspects of the science continues. For example, although dynamic earthquake triggering can occur with peak dynamic stresses as small as 1 kPa, triggering thresholds and their dependence on local stress state, hydrological environment, and frictional properties of faults are not well understood. Some studies find a simple threshold based on the peak amplitude of shaking while others find dependencies on frequency, recharge time, and other parameters. Considerable debate remains over the range of physical processes responsible for dynamic triggering, and the wide variation in dynamic triggering responses and time scales suggests triggering by multiple physical processes. Although Coulomb shear failure with various friction laws can often explain dynamic triggering, particularly instantaneous triggering, delayed dynamic triggering may be dependent on fluid transport and other slowly evolving aseismic processes. Although our understanding of the global distribution of dynamic triggering has improved, it is far from complete due to spatially uneven monitoring. A major challenge involves establishing statistical significance of potentially triggered earthquakes, particularly if they are isolated events or time-delayed with respect to triggering stresses. Here we highlight these challenges and opportunities with existing data. We focus on environmental dependence of dynamic triggering by large remote earthquakes particularly in volcanic and geothermal systems, as these systems often have high

  15. Biobehavioral Triggers of Cardiac Arrhythmia during Daily Life: The Role of Emotion, Physical Activity, and Heart Rate Variability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCeney, Melissa K

    2004-01-01

    Biobehavioral factors, such as physical activity and emotions, have been associated with adverse cardiac outcomes, including myocardial ischemia and infarction, in individuals with coronary artery disease...

  16. Results from a complete simulation study of the RPC based muon trigger system for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the Resistive Plate Chambers-based muon trigger of the CMS detector has been studied by means of a full simulation of the system under realistic operating conditions. Requirements on the performance of the chambers are deduced. (6 refs).

  17. Luminosity, beam monitoring and triggering for the CMS experiment and measurement of the total inelastic cross-section at √s = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Alan James

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, situated on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring is a multi-purpose detector designed to search for new physics phenomena, make precise measurements of known processes at previously untapped energies and look for hints of physics beyond the Standard Model. During the initial low luminosity stages, the Beam Scintillation Counter (BSC) sub-detector was vital in providing accurate and efficient ( 98%) triggering of beam halo and minimum bias events and helped in the commissioning of the CMS detector. This thesis is given in three parts. The first section describes the design and implementation of the BSC and the commissioning of the system before and during the early operation of the LHC. Analysis of the technical triggers it provided, using early low pile-up data in shown to demonstrate that the goal of providing an efficient trigger for low luminosities was achieved. Demonstrations of its use beyond its intended design are also shown, which helped drive the need for an...

  18. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  19. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  20. Archival of the ZPPR-15B physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.; McKnight, R.

    2012-01-01

    This I-NERI collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) began mid-year (April, 2010). This report summarizes the progress for year two of the proposed three-year collaboration to generate a physics validation database of integral experiments for metallic fueled fast reactor systems. The objective of the proposed project is to archive and evaluate the integral experiment data, analyze the experiments, and prepare detailed computational models to be used for validating the modern suites of fast reactor design analysis tools which are under development at ANL and KAERI. A series of mockup experiments for a 330 MWe Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) at ANL under the ZPPR-15 Program, also known as the IFR Benchmark Physics Test Program will be retrieved and analyzed in this project. The ZPPR-15 program was conducted in four phases. Each phase was marked by a particular composition of the reference assembly. In the first phase (15A), only plutonium, depleted uranium, stainless steel and sodium were included in this very clean physics assembly. This allowed examination of the effect of removing oxygen from the typical oxide-fueled sodium fast reactor. Zirconium was added in the second phase (15B). Additionally, 13 control rods and channels were added after the first phase. In the third phase (15C), roughly half of the core volume was fueled by enriched uranium to simulate a fast reactor transition composition. In the final phase (15D), the enriched uranium component was increased to 90%, simulating a near-beginning-of-life composition. In addition to criticality, control rod worths, reaction rate distribution, reactivity coefficients, gamma heating, neutron spectrum and kinetics, there were a number of measurements aimed at addressing special issues of safety, economics and metal fuel composition. The BFS-73-1 and BFS-75-1 experiments of KAERI carried out as the mockup experiment of KALIMER-150 at the Russian BFS-1