Mathematical problems in non-linear Physics: some results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
The basic results presented in this report are the following: 1) Characterization of the range and Kernel of the variational derivative. 2) Determination of general conservation laws in linear evolution equations, as well as bounds for the number of polynomial conserved densities in non-linear evolution equations in two independent variables of even order. 3) Construction of the most general evolution equation which has a given family of conserved densities. 4) Regularity conditions for the validity of the Lie invariance method. 5) A simple class of perturbations in non-linear wave equations. 6) Soliton solutions in generalized KdV equations. (author)
Some contributions to non-linear physic: Mathematical problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-01-01
The main results contained in this report are the following: i ) Lagrangian universality holds in a precisely defined weak sense. II ) Isolation of 5th order polynomial evolution equations having high order conservation laws. III ) Hamiltonian formulation of a wide class of non-linear evolution equations. IV) Some properties of the symmetries of Gardner-like systems. v) Characterization of the range and Kernel of ζ/ζ u α , |α | - 1. vi) A generalized variational approach and application to the anharmonic oscillator. v II ) Relativistic correction and quasi-classical approximation to the anechoic oscillator. VII ) Properties of a special class of 6th-order anharmonic oscillators. ix) A new method for constructing conserved densities In PDE. (Author) 97 refs
Post Critical Behaviour of a Simple Non-Linear System in a Cross Wind
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Náprstek, Jiří; Pospíšil, Stanislav
2011-01-01
Roč. 18, 3/4 (2011), s. 193-201 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710902; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : limit cycles * dynamic stability * post-critical effects * non-linear dynamics Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering
Non-Linear Multi-Physics Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization in Electroheating Applications
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
di Barba, P.; Doležel, Ivo; Mognaschi, M. E.; Savini, A.; Karban, P.
2014-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2014), s. 7016604-7016604 ISSN 0018-9464 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : coupled multi-physics problems * finite element method * non-linear equations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014
Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamani, Farzaneh [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ribeiro, Pedro [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya Street 100 A, Skolkovo, Moscow Area, 143025 (Russian Federation); Kirchner, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kirchner@correlated-matter.com [Center for Correlated Matter, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)
2016-02-15
Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points. - Highlights: • Critical Kondo destruction explains the unusual properties of quantum critical heavy fermion compounds. • We review the concept of effective temperatures in models of critical Kondo destruction. • We compare effective temperatures found near non-interacting and fully interacting fixed points. • A comparison with non-interacting quantum impurity models is presented.
Non-linear characterisation of the physical model of an ancient masonry bridge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fragonara, L Zanotti; Ceravolo, R; Matta, E; Quattrone, A; De Stefano, A; Pecorelli, M
2012-01-01
This paper presents the non-linear investigations carried out on a scaled model of a two-span masonry arch bridge. The model has been built in order to study the effect of the central pile settlement due to riverbank erosion. Progressive damage was induced in several steps by applying increasing settlements at the central pier. For each settlement step, harmonic shaker tests were conducted under different excitation levels, this allowing for the non-linear identification of the progressively damaged system. The shaker tests have been performed at resonance with the modal frequency of the structure, which were determined from a previous linear identification. Estimated non-linearity parameters, which result from the systematic application of restoring force based identification algorithms, can corroborate models to be used in the reassessment of existing structures. The method used for non-linear identification allows monitoring the evolution of non-linear parameters or indicators which can be used in damage and safety assessment.
Non-linear Structures in the Non-critical NSR String
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamada, K.; Ishikawa, H.
1996-01-01
We investigate the Ward identities of the W ∞ symmetry in the super-Liouville theory coupled to the super-conformal matter of central charge c M =1-2(p-q) 2 /pq. The theory is classified into two chiralities. For the positive chirality, all gravitationally dressed scaling operators are generated from the q-1 repeatedly. After fixing the normalizations of the dressed scaling operators, we find that the Ward identities are expressed in the form of the usual W q algebra constraints as in the bosonic case: W n (k+1) τ=0, (k=1,..,q-1; nεZ≥1- k), where the equations for even and odd n come from the currents in the NS- and the R-sector respectively. The non-linear terms come from the anomalous contributions at the boundaries of moduli space. The negative chirality is defined by interchanging the roles of p and q. Then we get the W p algebra constraints. (orig.)
Critical behaviour of SU(n) quantum chains and topological non-linear σ-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Affleck, I.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver
1988-01-01
The critical behaviour of SU(n) quantum ''spin'' chains, Wess-Zumino-Witten σ-models and grassmanian σ-models at topological angle θ = π (of possible relevance to the quantum Hall effect) is reexamined. It is argued that an additional Z n symmetry is generally necessary to stabilize the massless phase. This symmetry is not present for the σ-models for n>2 and is only present for certain representations of ''spin'' chains. (orig.)
Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Pranaitis, M.; Sahraoui, B.; Khammar, F.; Garab, G.; Sparrow, R.; Maaza, M.
2012-01-01
The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H 4 TPPS 4 ] 2- and [SnTPyP] 2+ mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: ► We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. ► TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. ► UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. ► The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.
Linear versus non-linear: a perspective from health physics and radiobiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gentner, N.E.; Osborne, R.V.
1998-01-01
There is a vigorous debate about whether or not there may be a 'threshold' for radiation-induced adverse health effects. A linear-no threshold (LNT) model allows radiation protection practitioners to manage putative risk consistently, because different types of exposure, exposures at different times, and exposures to different organs may be summed. If we are to argue to regulators and the public that low doses are less dangerous than we presently assume, it is incumbent on us to prove this. The question is, therefore, whether any consonant body of evidence exists that the risk of low doses has been over-estimated. From the perspectives of both health physics and radiobiology, we conclude that the evidence for linearity at high doses (and arguably of fairly small total doses if delivered at high dose rate) is strong. For low doses (or in fact, even for fairly high doses) delivered at low dose rate, the evidence is much less compelling. Since statistical limitations at low doses are almost always going to prevent a definitive answer, one way or the other, from human data, we need a way out of this epistemological dilemma of 'LNT or not LNT, that is the question'. To our minds, the path forward is to exploit (1) radiobiological studies which address directly the question of what the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor is in actual human bodies exposed to low-level radiation, in concert with (2) epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to fairly high doses (to obtain statistical power) but where exposure was protracted over some years. (author)
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-07-01
The main results contained in this report are the following: i ) Lagrangian universality holds in a precisely defined weak sense. II ) Isolation of 5th order polynomial evolution equations having high order conservation laws. III ) Hamiltonian formulation of a wide class of non-linear evolution equations. IV) Some properties of the symmetries of Gardner-like systems. v) Characterization of the range and Kernel of {zeta}/{zeta} u{sub {alpha}}, |{alpha} | - 1. vi) A generalized variational approach and application to the anharmonic oscillator. v II ) Relativistic correction and quasi-classical approximation to the anechoic oscillator. VII ) Properties of a special class of 6th-order anharmonic oscillators. ix) A new method for constructing conserved densities In PDE. (Author) 97 refs.
Diamond, Jared M.
1966-01-01
1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1987-01-01
Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Good
2016-11-01
Full Text Available nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional and global climate responses. The experiments have two main applications: (1 to focus understanding of responses to CO2 forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions (e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or from past cold climates to the present day, or (2 to understand the state dependence (non-linearity of climate change – i.e. why doubling the forcing may not double the response. State dependence (non-linearity of responses can be large at regional scales, with important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general circulation model (GCM emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models and pattern-scaling methods. However, these processes are hard to explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms. There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above, and, more broadly, to focus work on understanding the response to CO2 on climate states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1. nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO2-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio – while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO2 change experiments, with a ramp-up–ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO2 concentrations rather than CO2 emissions as the input. The
Good, Peter; Andrews, Timothy; Chadwick, Robin; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Lowe, Jason A.; Schaller, Nathalie; Shiogama, Hideo
2016-11-01
nonlinMIP provides experiments that account for state-dependent regional and global climate responses. The experiments have two main applications: (1) to focus understanding of responses to CO2 forcing on states relevant to specific policy or scientific questions (e.g. change under low-forcing scenarios, the benefits of mitigation, or from past cold climates to the present day), or (2) to understand the state dependence (non-linearity) of climate change - i.e. why doubling the forcing may not double the response. State dependence (non-linearity) of responses can be large at regional scales, with important implications for understanding mechanisms and for general circulation model (GCM) emulation techniques (e.g. energy balance models and pattern-scaling methods). However, these processes are hard to explore using traditional experiments, which explains why they have had so little attention in previous studies. Some single model studies have established novel analysis principles and some physical mechanisms. There is now a need to explore robustness and uncertainty in such mechanisms across a range of models (point 2 above), and, more broadly, to focus work on understanding the response to CO2 on climate states relevant to specific policy/science questions (point 1). nonlinMIP addresses this using a simple, small set of CO2-forced experiments that are able to separate linear and non-linear mechanisms cleanly, with a good signal-to-noise ratio - while being demonstrably traceable to realistic transient scenarios. The design builds on the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and CMIP6 DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) protocols, and is centred around a suite of instantaneous atmospheric CO2 change experiments, with a ramp-up-ramp-down experiment to test traceability to gradual forcing scenarios. In all cases the models are intended to be used with CO2 concentrations rather than CO2 emissions as the input. The understanding
Saravanan, R
2018-01-01
Non-linear optical materials have widespread and promising applications, but the efforts to understand the local structure, electron density distribution and bonding is still lacking. The present work explores the structural details, the electron density distribution and the local bond length distribution of some non-linear optical materials. It also gives estimation of the optical band gap, the particle size, crystallite size, and the elemental composition from UV-Visible analysis, SEM, XRD and EDS of some non-linear optical materials respectively.
Non-linear wave equations:Mathematical techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
An account of certain well-established mathematical methods, which prove useful to deal with non-linear partial differential equations is presented. Within the strict framework of Functional Analysis, it describes Semigroup Techniques in Banach Spaces as well as variational approaches towards critical points. Detailed proofs are given of the existence of local and global solutions of the Cauchy problem and of the stability of stationary solutions. The formal approach based upon invariance under Lie transformations deserves attention due to its wide range of applicability, even if the explicit solutions thus obtained do not allow for a deep analysis of the equations. A compre ensive introduction to the inverse scattering approach and to the solution concept for certain non-linear equations of physical interest are also presented. A detailed discussion is made about certain convergence and stability problems which arise in importance need not be emphasized. (author) [es
Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions
Khanna, Faqir
2006-01-01
The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Jennifer
2012-10-15
This scientific meeting focused on the legacy of Cathleen S. Morawetz and the impact that her scientific work on transonic flow and the non-linear wave equation has had in recent progress on different aspects of analysis for non-linear wave, kinetic and quantum transport problems associated to mathematical physics. These are areas where the elements of continuum, statistical and stochastic mechanics, and their interplay, have counterparts in the theory of existence, uniqueness and stability of the associated systems of equations and geometric constraints. It was a central event for the applied and computational analysis community focusing on Partial Differential Equations. The goal of the proposal was to honor Cathleen Morawetz, a highly successful woman in mathematics, while encouraging beginning researchers. The conference was successful in show casing the work of successful women, enhancing the visibility of women in the profession and providing role models for those just beginning their careers. The two-day conference included seven 45-minute lectures and one day of six 45-minute lectures, and a poster session for junior participants. The conference program included 19 distinguished speakers, 10 poster presentations, about 70 junior and senior participants and, of course, the participation of Cathleen Synge Morawetz. The conference celebrated Morawetz's paramount contributions to the theory of non-linear equations in gas dynamics and their impact in the current trends of nonlinear phenomena in mathematical physics, but also served as an awareness session of current women's contribution to mathematics.
Modelling Loudspeaker Non-Linearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerkvist, Finn T.
2007-01-01
This paper investigates different techniques for modelling the non-linear parameters of the electrodynamic loudspeaker. The methods are tested not only for their accuracy within the range of original data, but also for the ability to work reasonable outside that range, and it is demonstrated...... that polynomial expansions are rather poor at this, whereas an inverse polynomial expansion or localized fitting functions such as the gaussian are better suited for modelling the Bl-factor and compliance. For the inductance the sigmoid function is shown to give very good results. Finally the time varying...
The importance of non-linearities in modern proton synchrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, E.J.N.
1977-01-01
The paper outlines the physics and mathematics of non-linear field errors in the quide fields of accelerators, with particular reference to large accelerators such as the SPS. These non-linearities give rise to closed orbital distortions and non-linear resonances or stopbands. Both of these effects are briefly discussed and the use of resonances for slow beam extraction is also described. Another problem considered is that of chromaticity of the particle beam. The use of sextupoles to correct chromaticity and the Landau damping of beam instabilities using octupoles are also discussed. In the final section the application of Hamiltonian mechanics to non-linearities is demonstrated. The author concludes that the effect of non-linearities on particle dynamics may place a more severe limit on intensity and storage time in large rings than any other effect in transverse phase space. (B.D.)
Alternative theories of the non-linear negative mass instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Channell, P.J.
1974-01-01
A theory non-linear negative mass instability is extended to include resistance. The basic assumption is explained physically and an alternative theory is offered. The two theories are compared computationally. 7 refs., 8 figs
Critical thinking in physics education
Sadidi, Farahnaz
2016-07-01
We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.
Critical Thinking in Physical Education
Humphries, Charlotte
2014-01-01
Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…
Non Linear Beam Dynamics Studies at SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terebilo, A.; Pellegrini, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Corbett, J.; Martin, D.
2011-01-01
The frequency map analysis of a Hamiltonian system recently introduced to accelerators physics in combination with turn-by-turn phase space measurements opens new experimental opportunities for studying non linear dynamic in storage rings. In this paper we report on the experimental program at SPEAR having the goal of measuring the frequency map of the machine. In this paper we discuss the accuracy of the instantaneous tune extraction from experimental data and demonstrate the possibility of the frequency map measurement. The instantaneous tune extraction technique can be applied to experimental tracking data with reasonable accuracy. Frequency map can be experimentally determined using the existing turn-by-turn phase space measurement techniques and NAFF instantaneous tune extraction.
A non-linear state space approach to model groundwater fluctuations
Berendrecht, W.L.; Heemink, A.W.; Geer, F.C. van; Gehrels, J.C.
2006-01-01
A non-linear state space model is developed for describing groundwater fluctuations. Non-linearity is introduced by modeling the (unobserved) degree of water saturation of the root zone. The non-linear relations are based on physical concepts describing the dependence of both the actual
A non-linear dissipative model of magnetism
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana
2010-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 6 (2010), s. 67004 ISSN 1286-4854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : non-linear dissipative model of magnetism * thermodynamics * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://epljournal.edpsciences.org/
Non-linear finite element modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...
Non-linear realizations and bosonic branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, P.
2001-01-01
In this very short note, following hep-th/0001216, we express the well known bosonic brane as a non-linear realization. The reader may also consult hep-th/9912226, 0001216 and 0005270 where the branes of M theory are constructed as a non-linear realisation. The automorphisms of the supersymmetry algebra play an essential role. (author)
Neural Networks for Non-linear Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, O.
1994-01-01
This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....
Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update
Litvinenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.
Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update
Litvinenko, Alexander
2016-06-23
We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.
Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion
Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.
Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.
Noise and non-linearities in high-throughput data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Lió, Pietro; Koukolíková-Nicola, Zdena; Bagnoli, Franco
2009-01-01
High-throughput data analyses are becoming common in biology, communications, economics and sociology. The vast amounts of data are usually represented in the form of matrices and can be considered as knowledge networks. Spectra-based approaches have proved useful in extracting hidden information within such networks and for estimating missing data, but these methods are based essentially on linear assumptions. The physical models of matching, when applicable, often suggest non-linear mechanisms, that may sometimes be identified as noise. The use of non-linear models in data analysis, however, may require the introduction of many parameters, which lowers the statistical weight of the model. According to the quality of data, a simpler linear analysis may be more convenient than more complex approaches. In this paper, we show how a simple non-parametric Bayesian model may be used to explore the role of non-linearities and noise in synthetic and experimental data sets
Size effects in non-linear heat conduction with flux-limited behaviors
Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang
2017-11-01
Size effects are discussed for several non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors, including the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier, hierarchy moment, nonlinear phonon hydrodynamic, tempered diffusion, thermon gas and generalized nonlinear models. For the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier and tempered diffusion models, heat flux will not exist in problems with sufficiently small scale. The existence of heat flux needs the sizes of heat conduction larger than their corresponding critical sizes, which are determined by the physical properties and boundary temperatures. The critical sizes can be regarded as the theoretical limits of the applicable ranges for these non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors. For sufficiently small scale heat conduction, the phonon hydrodynamic and Lagrange multiplier models can also predict the theoretical possibility of violating the second law and multiplicity. Comparisons are also made between these non-Fourier models and non-linear Fourier heat conduction in the type of fast diffusion, which can also predict flux-limited behaviors.
Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.
2005-01-01
Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)
A non-linear kinematic hardening function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottosen, N.S.
1977-05-01
Based on the classical theory of plasticity, and accepting the von Mises criterion as the initial yield criterion, a non-linear kinematic hardening function applicable both to Melan-Prager's and to Ziegler's hardening rule is proposed. This non-linear hardening function is determined by means of the uniaxial stress-strain curve, and any such curve is applicable. The proposed hardening function considers the problem of general reversed loading, and a smooth change in the behaviour from one plastic state to another nearlying plastic state is obtained. A review of both the kinematic hardening theory and the corresponding non-linear hardening assumptions is given, and it is shown that material behaviour is identical whether Melan-Prager's or Ziegler's hardening rule is applied, provided that the von Mises yield criterion is adopted. (author)
Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
2014-01-01
the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antônio Pakenas
2007-10-01
, biochemists, psychologists and even professionals involved with physical exercise have been recently increasing their interests for the non-linear dynamics, a scientific theory developed mainly by mathematicians, which is generically known as the Complexity Theory. Although few investigations on Physical Education and Sports make use of this paradigm to solve their problems, a growing interest for this very approach has been noticed, mainly concerning the effects of physical exercise on changes in the variability and complexity of physiological temporal series. Usually, such changes appear as the decrease in its temporal behavior, denoting in decrease in the body complexity or in the components specifically involved in its regulation. According to the Complexity Theory, since non-linear interactions existing in biological systems are emphasized, it is observed that not only the increase (overcompensation of the body components with the practice of physical exercises but also those which cause atrophy (decompensation in parallel, once they can compromise the functionality of these systems. Thus, contrary to the emphasis that is given in the physical training to the monotonous repetition of intense physical activity and with emphasis on positive specific effects, that invariably promote the simplification of the body, larger qualitative and quantitative variation is recommended in the exercise practice. The objective is to preserve its natural complexity or neutralize its rapid decrease with aging. The present review has the objective, besides describing the possible complexity loss with physical training, to discuss some concepts of the Complexity Theory in an introductory way, with particular emphasis on issues involving health and physical training.
Non linear system become linear system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petre Bucur
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.
Non-linear Capital Taxation Without Commitment
Emmanuel Farhi; Christopher Sleet; Iván Werning; Sevin Yeltekin
2012-01-01
We study efficient non-linear taxation of labour and capital in a dynamic Mirrleesian model incorporating political economy constraints. Policies are chosen sequentially over time, without commitment. Our main result is that the marginal tax on capital income is progressive, in the sense that richer agents face higher marginal tax rates. Copyright , Oxford University Press.
N=4 superconformal mechanics as a non linear realization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anabalon, Andres; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Zanelli, Jorge
2006-01-01
An action for a superconformal particle is constructed using the non linear realization method for the group PSU(1,1/2), without introducing superfields. The connection between PSU(1,1/2) and black hole physics is discussed. The lagrangian contains six arbitrary constants and describes a non-BPS superconformal particle. The BPS case is obtained if a precise relation between the constants in the lagrangian is verified, which implies that the action becomes kappa-symmetric
2013-01-01
This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.
Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.
1994-01-01
The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Q i can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time t i through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂t i =[A,Q i ]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy
Non-linear soil-structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, J.P.
1984-01-01
The basic equation of motion to analyse the interaction of a non-linear structure and an irregular soil with the linear unbounded soil is formulated in the time domain. The contribution of the unbounded soil involves convolution integrals of the dynamic-stiffness coefficients in the time domain and the corresponding motions. As another possibility, a flexibility formulation fot the contribution of the unbounded soil using the dynamic-flexibility coefficients in the time domain, together with the direct-stiffness method for the structure and the irregular soil can be applied. As an example of a non-linear soil-structure-interaction analysis, the partial uplift of the basemat of a structure is examined. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roche, J.M.; Padet, C.; Padet, J.P. [Faculte des Sciences de Reims, 51 (France). Laboratoire de Thermomecanique
1996-12-31
This workshop day was jointly organized by the French society of thermal engineers (SFT) and the university group of thermal engineers (GUT). This compilation of proceedings comprises 8 papers dealing with: tendencies and ultimate tendencies of a non-linear phenomenon - scale of observation; quantification of the chaotic regime using the estimation of the information dimension; chaotic mixing and heat transfer between concentric confocal ellipses: experimental and numerical results; development of thermal instabilities in a mixed convection horizontal flow: the Lagrangian point of view; non-linear dynamics of surface instabilities: droplets and liquid columns; on the validity of global criterion when characterizing chaotic behaviour in two-dimensional flows; study of the hydrodynamical instabilities of natural convection flows in cavities partially filled with a porous medium; analytical study of induced instabilities at the nucleated ebullition - film ebullition transition. (J.S.)
Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2008-01-01
Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of thr...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....
Useful tools for non-linear systems: Several non-linear integral inequalities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Vaezpour, M. S.
2013-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-80 ISSN 0950-7051 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monotone measure * Comonotone functions * Integral inequalities * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-useful tools for non-linear systems several non-linear integral inequalities.pdf
Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UniversityC.L.A.,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kallosh, Renata [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wrase, Timm [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2016-04-12
We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.
Linear versus non-linear supersymmetry, in general
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van; Wrase, Timm
2016-01-01
We study superconformal and supergravity models with constrained superfields. The underlying version of such models with all unconstrained superfields and linearly realized supersymmetry is presented here, in addition to the physical multiplets there are Lagrange multiplier (LM) superfields. Once the equations of motion for the LM superfields are solved, some of the physical superfields become constrained. The linear supersymmetry of the original models becomes non-linearly realized, its exact form can be deduced from the original linear supersymmetry. Known examples of constrained superfields are shown to require the following LM’s: chiral superfields, linear superfields, general complex superfields, some of them are multiplets with a spin.
Common-User Land Transportation Management in the Layered, Non-Linear, Non-Contiguous Battlefield
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Strobel, Lawrence E
2005-01-01
.... Current multinational counterinsurgency warfare occurs in a layered, non-linear, non-contiguous battle space, making management of ground transportation assets even more critical than in conventional warfare...
Non-linear Q-clouds around Kerr black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi
2014-01-01
Q-balls are regular extended ‘objects’ that exist for some non-gravitating, self-interacting, scalar field theories with a global, continuous, internal symmetry, on Minkowski spacetime. Here, analogous objects are also shown to exist around rotating (Kerr) black holes, as non-linear bound states of a test scalar field. We dub such configurations Q-clouds. We focus on a complex massive scalar field with quartic plus hexic self-interactions. Without the self-interactions, linear clouds have been shown to exist, in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon, along 1-dimensional subspaces – existence lines – of the Kerr 2-dimensional parameter space. They are zero modes of the superradiant instability. Non-linear Q-clouds, on the other hand, are also in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon; but they exist on a 2-dimensional subspace, delimited by a minimal horizon angular velocity and by an appropriate existence line, wherein the non-linear terms become irrelevant and the Q-cloud reduces to a linear cloud. Thus, Q-clouds provide an example of scalar bound states around Kerr black holes which, generically, are not zero modes of the superradiant instability. We describe some physical properties of Q-clouds, whose backreaction leads to a new family of hairy black holes, continuously connected to the Kerr family
Non-linear dynamics in Parkinsonism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier eDarbin
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis". In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively.More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e. parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control and are responsive to treatments (i.e. L-DOPA,DBS. A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG, muscular activities (EMG or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia.
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
Esposito, L. W.
2016-12-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. Stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, that push the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like `straw' that can explain the halo morphology and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; this requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping explains both small and large particles at resonances. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating it as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries
Development of non-linear TWB parts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Lim, J.D. [Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors Corp. (Korea). Advanced Technology Center; Park, H.C. [Hyundai Hysco (Korea). Technical Research Lab.
2005-07-01
New manufacturing methods have applied for automotive parts to reduce total weight of car, resulting in improvement of fuel efficiency. TWB technique is applied to auto body parts, especially door inner, side inner and outer panel, and center floor panel to accomplish this goal. We applied non-linear (circular welded) TWB to shock absorber housing (to reduce total weight of shock absorber housing assembly). Welding line and shape of blank were determined by FEM analysis. High formability steel sheet and 440MPa grade high strength steel sheet were laser welded and press formed to final shock absorber housing (S/ABS HSG) panel and assembled with other sub parts. As a result, more than 10% of total weight of shock absorber housing assembly could be reduced compared with the mass of same part manufactured by conventional method. Also circular welding technique made it possible to design optimum welding line of TWB part. This paper is about result of FEM analysis and development procedure of non-linear TWB part (shock absorber housing assembly). (orig.)
Non linear effects in piezoelectric materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonnard, P.
2002-02-01
Full Text Available The static and dynamic non-linear behaviours of a soft and a hard zirconate titanate composition are investigated in this paper as a function of electrical and mechanical fields. The calculated Rayleigh coefficients show that they are similar for the permittivity ε ^{T}_{33} and the piezoelectric constant and nul for the voltage constant d_{33} and the compliance at zero D (D = dielectric displacement. A non-linear electromechanical equivalent circuit is built up with components proportional to D. Finally an extended model to non-Rayleigh type behaviours is proposed.
Los comportamientos no lineales estáticos y dinámicos de composiciones blandas y duras de titanato circonato de plomo se investigan en este trabajo en función de campos eléctricos y mecánicos. Los coeficientes de Rayleigh calculados son similares para la permitividad ε^{T}_{33} y la constantes piezoléctrica d_{33} y nulos para la constante g_{33} y la complianza a D cero (D=desplazamiento dieléctrico. Se construye un circuito electromecánico no lineal equivalente con componentes proporcionales a D. Finalmente se propone un modelo extendido a comportamientos de tipo no-Rayleigh.
Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients
Litvinenko, Alexander
2014-01-06
Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).
Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients
Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Pojonk, Oliver; Rosic, Bojana V.; Zander, Elmar
2014-01-01
Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).
Exact non-linear equations for cosmological perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, David Chan Lon; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: hr@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: clwu@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)
2017-10-01
We present a complete set of exact and fully non-linear equations describing all three types of cosmological perturbations—scalar, vector and tensor perturbations. We derive the equations in a thoroughly gauge-ready manner, so that any spatial and temporal gauge conditions can be employed. The equations are completely general without any physical restriction except that we assume a flat homogeneous and isotropic universe as a background. We also comment briefly on the application of our formulation to the non-expanding Minkowski background.
Non-linear calculation of PCRV using dynamic relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnellenbach, G.
1979-01-01
A brief review is presented of a numerical method called the dynamic relaxation method for stress analysis of the concrete in prestressed concrete pressure vessels. By this method the three-dimensional elliptic differential equations of the continuum are changed into the four-dimensional hyperbolic differential equations known as wave equations. The boundary value problem of the static system is changed into an initial and boundary value problem for which a solution exists if the physical system is defined at time t=0. The effect of non-linear stress-strain behaviour of the material as well as creep and cracking are considered
Image denoising using non linear diffusion tensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzarti, F.; Amiri, H.
2011-01-01
Image denoising is an important pre-processing step for many image analysis and computer vision system. It refers to the task of recovering a good estimate of the true image from a degraded observation without altering and changing useful structure in the image such as discontinuities and edges. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image denoising based on the combination of two non linear diffusion tensors. One allows diffusion along the orientation of greatest coherences, while the other allows diffusion along orthogonal directions. The idea is to track perfectly the local geometry of the degraded image and applying anisotropic diffusion mainly along the preferred structure direction. To illustrate the effective performance of our model, we present some experimental results on a test and real photographic color images.
Optimal non-linear health insurance.
Blomqvist, A
1997-06-01
Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.
Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1987-01-01
The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible
Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.
Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward
2015-11-12
Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.
Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production
Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward
2015-11-01
Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive review of the inverse scattering solution of certain non-linear evolution equations of physical interest in one space dimension is presented. We explain in some detail the interrelated techniques which allow to linearize exactly the following equations: (1) the Korteweg and de Vries equation; (2) the non-linear Schrodinger equation; (3) the modified Korteweg and de Vries equation; (4) the Sine-Gordon equation. We concentrate in discussing the pairs of linear operators which accomplish such an exact linearization and the solution of the associated initial value problem. The application of the method to other non-linear evolution equations is reviewed very briefly
Convergence of hybrid methods for solving non-linear partial ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper is concerned with the numerical solution and convergence analysis of non-linear partial differential equations using a hybrid method. The solution technique involves discretizing the non-linear system of PDE to obtain a corresponding non-linear system of algebraic difference equations to be solved at each time ...
Non-linear effects in the Boltzmann equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrachina, R.O.
1985-01-01
The Boltzmann equation is studied by defining an integral transformation of the energy distribution function for an isotropic and homogeneous gas. This transformation may be interpreted as a linear superposition of equilibrium states with variable temperatures. It is shown that the temporal evolution features of the distribution function are determined by the singularities of said transformation. This method is applied to Maxwell and Very Hard Particle interaction models. For the latter, the solution of the Boltzmann equation with the solution of its linearized version is compared, finding out many basic discrepancies and non-linear effects. This gives a hint to propose a new rational approximation method with a clear physical meaning. Applying this technique, the relaxation features of the BKW (Bobylev, Krook anf Wu) mode is analyzed, finding a conclusive counter-example for the Krook and Wu conjecture. The anisotropic Boltzmann equation for Maxwell models is solved as an expansion in terms of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding linearized collision operator, finding interesting transient overpopulation and underpopulation effects at thermal energies as well as a new preferential spreading effect. By analyzing the initial collision, a criterion is established to deduce the general features of the final approach to equilibrium. Finally, it is shown how to improve the convergence of the eigenfunction expansion for high energy underpopulated distribution functions. As an application of this theory, the linear cascade model for sputtering is analyzed, thus finding out that many differences experimentally observed are due to non-linear effects. (M.E.L.) [es
Large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of non-linear Sobolev-type equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaikina, Elena I; Naumkin, Pavel I; Shishmarev, Il'ya A
2009-01-01
The large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the Cauchy problem is investigated for a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with dissipation. For small initial data the approach taken is based on a detailed analysis of the Green's function of the linear problem and the use of the contraction mapping method. The case of large initial data is also closely considered. In the supercritical case the asymptotic formulae are quasi-linear. The asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with a critical non-linearity of the non-convective kind differs by a logarithmic correction term from the behaviour of solutions of the corresponding linear equation. For a critical convective non-linearity, as well as for a subcritical non-convective non-linearity it is proved that the leading term of the asymptotic expression for large times is a self-similar solution. For Sobolev equations with convective non-linearity the asymptotic behaviour of solutions in the subcritical case is the product of a rarefaction wave and a shock wave. Bibliography: 84 titles.
Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druge, J; Jean, C; Laurent, O; Méasson, M-A; Favero, I
2014-01-01
We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics. (paper)
Non linear structures seismic analysis by modal synthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aita, S.; Brochard, D.; Guilbaud, D.; Gibert, R.J.
1987-01-01
The structures submitted to a seismic excitation, may present a great amplitude response which induces a non linear behaviour. These non linearities have an important influence on the response of the structure. Even in this case (local shocks) the modal synthesis method remains attractive. In this paper we will present the way of taking into account, a local non linearity (shock between structures) in the seismic response of structures, by using the modal synthesis method [fr
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING FOR NON - LINEAR TREND IN MILK YIELD DATA
Tanuj Kumar Pandey; Vinod Kumar
2014-01-01
The present paper utilizes systematic sampling procedures for milk yield data exhibiting some non-linear trends. The best fitted mathematical forms of non-linear trend present in the milk yield data are obtained and the expressions of average variances of the estimators of population mean under simple random, usual systematic and modified systematic sampling procedures have been derived for populations showing non-linear trend. A comparative study is made among the three sampli...
Hamiltonian structures of some non-linear evolution equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu, G.Z.
1983-06-01
The Hamiltonian structure of the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model, generalized AKNS equations, are discussed. By reducing the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model to its Hamiltonian form some new conservation laws are derived. A new hierarchy of non-linear evolution equations is proposed and shown to be generalized Hamiltonian equations with an infinite number of conservation laws. (author)
Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics
Rust, Wilhelm
2015-01-01
This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.
Non-linear diffusion and pattern formation in vortex matter
Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Einfeld, J.; Woerdenweber, R.
2000-03-01
Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa_2Cu_3O7 superconducting thin films and crystals in externally applied magnetic fields is visualized with a magneto-optical technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex behavior is observed: 1. Roughening of the flux front^1 with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper^2. Two regimes are found where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. 2. Roughening of the flux profile similar to the Oslo model for rice-piles. 3. Fractal penetration of flux^3 with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. 4. Penetration as 'flux-rivers'. 5. The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori^4. By comparison with numerical simulations, it is shown that most of the observed behavior can be explained in terms of non-linear diffusion of vortices. ^1R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J.M. Huijbregtse, J.H. Rector, B. Dam and R. Griessen, Phys.Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 2054 ^2J. Maunuksela, M. Myllys, O.-P. Kähkönen, J. Timonen, N. Provatas, M.J. Alava, T. Ala-Nissila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1515 (1997) ^3R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, B. Dam, J. Rector, R. Griessen, C. Rossel, Z.F. Ren and J.H. Wang, Phys Rev B 58 (1998) 12467 ^4C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534 (1998)
Non-linear collective phenomena in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V N; Morfill, G E
2004-01-01
Dusty plasmas are unusual states of matter where the interactions between the dust grains can be collective and are not a sum of all pair particle interactions. This state of matter is appropriate to form non-linear dissipative collective self-organized structures. It is found that the potential around the grains can be over-screened leading to a new phenomenon-collective attraction of pairs of large charge grains of equal sign. The grain clouds can self-contract and their collapse is terminated at distances where the interaction becomes repulsive. The homogeneous dusty plasma distribution is universally unstable to form structures. The potential of the collective attraction is proportional to the square of the dimensionless parameter P = n d Z d /n i , where n d and n i are the average dust and ion densities, respectively, and Z d is the dust charge in units of electron charge. The collective attraction is determined by finite grain size and by the presence of absorption of plasma flux on grains. The physics of attraction is related to the space charge accumulation caused by collective flux disturbances. The collective attraction operates for systems with size larger than the mean free path for ion-dust absorption, the condition met in many existing low temperature dusty plasma experiments, in edge plasmas of fusion devices and in space dusty plasmas. The collective attraction exceeds the previously known non-collective attraction such as shadow attraction or wake attraction. The collective attraction can be responsible for pairing of dust grains (this process is completely classical in contrast to the known pairing in superconductivity) and can serve as the main process for the formation of more complicated dust complexes up to dust-plasma crystals. The equilibrium structures formed by collective attraction have universal properties and can exist in a limited domain of parameters (similar to the equilibrium balance known for stars). The balance conditions for
Mathematical and Numerical Methods for Non-linear Beam Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herr, W
2014-01-01
Non-linear effects in accelerator physics are important for both successful operation of accelerators and during the design stage. Since both of these aspects are closely related, they will be treated together in this overview. Some of the most important aspects are well described by methods established in other areas of physics and mathematics. The treatment will be focused on the problems in accelerators used for particle physics experiments. Although the main emphasis will be on accelerator physics issues, some of the aspects of more general interest will be discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that in recent years a framework has been built to handle the complex problems in a consistent form, technically superior and conceptually simpler than the traditional techniques. The need to understand the stability of particle beams has substantially contributed to the development of new techniques and is an important source of examples which can be verified experimentally. Unfortunately, the documentation of these developments is often poor or even unpublished, in many cases only available as lectures or conference proceedings
Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated
Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In recent years, the non-linear quantum dynamics of these states have revealed some striking features. It was found that under the action of a Hamil- tonian which is a non-linear function of the photon operator(s) only, an initial coherent state loses its coherent structure quickly due to quantum dephasing induced by the non-.
Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.
Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....
Non-linearity aspects in the design of submarine pipelines
Fernández, M.L.
1981-01-01
An arbitrary attempt has been made to classify and discuss some non-linearity aspects related to design, construction and operation of submarine pipelines. Non-linearities usually interrelate and take part of a comprehensive design, making difficult to quantify their individual influence or
Non-linear dynamics of wind turbine wings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2006-01-01
The paper deals with the formulation of non-linear vibrations of a wind turbine wing described in a wing fixed moving coordinate system. The considered structural model is a Bernoulli-Euler beam with due consideration to axial twist. The theory includes geometrical non-linearities induced...
Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials
2016-06-28
Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions
Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.
1995-01-01
Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....
Modeling of Volatility with Non-linear Time Series Model
Kim Song Yon; Kim Mun Chol
2013-01-01
In this paper, non-linear time series models are used to describe volatility in financial time series data. To describe volatility, two of the non-linear time series are combined into form TAR (Threshold Auto-Regressive Model) with AARCH (Asymmetric Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) error term and its parameter estimation is studied.
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...
Algorithms for non-linear M-estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Edlund, O; Ekblom, H
1997-01-01
In non-linear regression, the least squares method is most often used. Since this estimator is highly sensitive to outliers in the data, alternatives have became increasingly popular during the last decades. We present algorithms for non-linear M-estimation. A trust region approach is used, where...
Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2004-01-01
The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.
2008-01-01
This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiati...... that a description of the non-linear heat transfer is essential. The resulting model is a non-linear first order stochastic differential equation for the heat transfer of the PV component....... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...
Non-linear seismic analysis of structures coupled with fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Descleve, P.; Derom, P.; Dubois, J.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a method to calculate non-linear structure behaviour under horizontal and vertical seismic excitation, making possible the full non-linear seismic analysis of a reactor vessel. A pseudo forces method is used to introduce non linear effects and the problem is solved by superposition. Two steps are used in the method: - Linear calculation of the complete model. - Non linear analysis of thin shell elements and calculation of seismic induced pressure originating from linear and non linear effects, including permanent loads and thermal stresses. Basic aspects of the mathematical formulation are developed. It has been applied to axi-symmetric shell element using a Fourier series solution. For the fluid interaction effect, a comparison is made with a dynamic test. In an example of application, the displacement and pressure time history are given. (orig./GL)
Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treo, E F; Felice, C J
2007-01-01
Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response
Numerical modelling in non linear fracture mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viggo Tvergaard
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Some numerical studies of crack propagation are based on using constitutive models that accountfor damage evolution in the material. When a critical damage value has been reached in a materialpoint, it is natural to assume that this point has no more carrying capacity, as is done numerically in the elementvanish technique. In the present review this procedure is illustrated for micromechanically based materialmodels, such as a ductile failure model that accounts for the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence, and a model for intergranular creep failure with diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities leading to micro-crack formation. The procedure is also illustrated for low cycle fatigue, based on continuum damage mechanics. In addition, the possibility of crack growth predictions for elastic-plastic solids using cohesive zone models to represent the fracture process is discussed.
Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector -Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth conditions on ...
Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector p-Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.
1983-11-01
The reduced system of the non linear resistive MHD equations is used in the 2-D one helicity approximation in the numerical computations of stationary tearing modes. The critical magnetic Raynolds number S (S=tausub(r)/tausub(H) where tausub(R) and tausub(H) are respectively the characteristic resistive and hydro magnetic times) and the corresponding linear solution are computed as a starting approximation for the full non linear equations. These equations are then treated numerically by an iterative procedure which is shown to be rapidly convergent. A numerical application is given in the last part of this paper
The non-linear growth of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Carlyle, Jack; Hillier, Andrew
2017-09-01
This work examines the effect of the embedded magnetic field strength on the non-linear development of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) (with a field-aligned interface) in an ideal gas close to the incompressible limit in three dimensions. Numerical experiments are conducted in a domain sufficiently large so as to allow the predicted critical modes to develop in a physically realistic manner. The ratio between gravity, which drives the instability in this case (as well as in several of the corresponding observations), and magnetic field strength is taken up to a ratio which accurately reflects that of observed astrophysical plasma, in order to allow comparison between the results of the simulations and the observational data which served as inspiration for this work. This study finds reduced non-linear growth of the rising bubbles of the RTI for stronger magnetic fields, and that this is directly due to the change in magnetic field strength, rather than the indirect effect of altering characteristic length scales with respect to domain size. By examining the growth of the falling spikes, the growth rate appears to be enhanced for the strongest magnetic field strengths, suggesting that rather than affecting the development of the system as a whole, increased magnetic field strengths in fact introduce an asymmetry to the system. Further investigation of this effect also revealed that the greater this asymmetry, the less efficiently the gravitational energy is released. By better understanding the under-studied regime of such a major phenomenon in astrophysics, deeper explanations for observations may be sought, and this work illustrates that the strength of magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas influences observed RTI in subtle and complex ways.
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-09-25
Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok
2012-01-01
Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.
Heterotic non-linear sigma models with anti-de Sitter target spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Gubser, Steven S.
2006-01-01
We calculate the beta function of non-linear sigma models with S D+1 and AdS D+1 target spaces in a 1/D expansion up to order 1/D 2 and to all orders in α ' . This beta function encodes partial information about the spacetime effective action for the heterotic string to all orders in α ' . We argue that a zero of the beta function, corresponding to a worldsheet CFT with AdS D+1 target space, arises from competition between the one-loop and higher-loop terms, similarly to the bosonic and supersymmetric cases studied previously in [J.J. Friess, S.S. Gubser, Non-linear sigma models with anti-de Sitter target spaces, Nucl. Phys. B 750 (2006) 111-141]. Various critical exponents of the non-linear sigma model are calculated, and checks of the calculation are presented
Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer
Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay
2013-04-01
The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components
Fourier imaging of non-linear structure formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen
2017-01-01
We perform a Fourier space decomposition of the dynamics of non-linear cosmological structure formation in ΛCDM models. From N -body simulations involving only cold dark matter we calculate 3-dimensional non-linear density, velocity divergence and vorticity Fourier realizations, and use these to calculate the fully non-linear mode coupling integrals in the corresponding fluid equations. Our approach allows for a reconstruction of the amount of mode coupling between any two wavenumbers as a function of redshift. With our Fourier decomposition method we identify the transfer of power from larger to smaller scales, the stable clustering regime, the scale where vorticity becomes important, and the suppression of the non-linear divergence power spectrum as compared to linear theory. Our results can be used to improve and calibrate semi-analytical structure formation models.
Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLean, T.P.
1977-01-01
Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)
Fourier imaging of non-linear structure formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2017-04-01
We perform a Fourier space decomposition of the dynamics of non-linear cosmological structure formation in ΛCDM models. From N -body simulations involving only cold dark matter we calculate 3-dimensional non-linear density, velocity divergence and vorticity Fourier realizations, and use these to calculate the fully non-linear mode coupling integrals in the corresponding fluid equations. Our approach allows for a reconstruction of the amount of mode coupling between any two wavenumbers as a function of redshift. With our Fourier decomposition method we identify the transfer of power from larger to smaller scales, the stable clustering regime, the scale where vorticity becomes important, and the suppression of the non-linear divergence power spectrum as compared to linear theory. Our results can be used to improve and calibrate semi-analytical structure formation models.
Sphaleron in a non-linear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.
1989-08-01
We present an exact classical saddle point solution in a non-linear sigma model. It has a topological charge 1/2 and mediates the vacuum transition. The quantum fluctuations and the transition rate are also examined. (author)
On a non-linear pseudodifferential boundary value problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Minh Chuong.
1989-12-01
A pseudodifferential boundary value problem for operators with symbols taking values in Sobolev spaces and with non-linear right-hand side was studied. Existence and uniqueness theorems were proved. (author). 11 refs
Heterotic sigma models and non-linear strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1986-01-01
The two-dimensional supersymmetric non-linear sigma models are examined with respect to the heterotic string. The paper was presented at the workshop on :Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. The non-linear sigma model with Wess-Zumino-type term, the coupling of the fermionic superfields to the sigma model, super-conformal invariance, and the supersymmetric string, are all discussed. (U.K.)
Non-linear realization of α0 -extended supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Hitoshi
2000-01-01
As generalizations of the original Volkov-Akulov action in four-dimensions, actions are found for all space-time dimensions D invariant under N non-linear realized global supersymmetries. We also give other such actions invariant under the global non-linear supersymmetry. As an interesting consequence, we find a non-linear supersymmetric Born-Infeld action for a non-Abelian gauge group for arbitrary D and N , which coincides with the linearly supersymmetric Born-Infeld action in D=10 at the lowest order. For the gauge group U(N) for M(atrix)-theory, this model has N 2 -extended non-linear supersymmetries, so that its large N limit corresponds to the infinitely many (α 0 ) supersymmetries. We also perform a duality transformation from F μν into its Hodge dual N μ 1 ctdot μD-2 . We next point out that any Chern-Simons action for any (super)groups has the non-linear supersymmetry as a hidden symmetry. Subsequently, we present a superspace formulation for the component results. We further find that as long as superspace supergravity is consistent, this generalized Volkov-Akulov action can further accommodate such curved superspace backgrounds with local supersymmetry, as a super p -brane action with fermionic kappa-symmetry. We further elaborate these results to what we call 'simplified' (Supersymmetry) 2 -models, with both linear and non-linear representations of supersymmetries in superspace at the same time. Our result gives a proof that there is no restriction on D or N for global non-linear supersymmetry. We also see that the non-linear realization of supersymmetry in 'curved' space-time can be interpreted as 'non-perturbative' effect starting with the 'flat' space-time
Non-linear programming method in optimization of fast reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavelesku, M.; Dumitresku, Kh.; Adam, S.
1975-01-01
Application of the non-linear programming methods on optimization of nuclear materials distribution in fast reactor is discussed. The programming task composition is made on the basis of the reactor calculation dependent on the fuel distribution strategy. As an illustration of this method application the solution of simple example is given. Solution of the non-linear program is done on the basis of the numerical method SUMT. (I.T.)
Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.
Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice
2014-07-01
Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few
Non Linear Modelling and Control of Hydraulic Actuators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Šulc
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with non-linear modelling and control of a differential hydraulic actuator. The nonlinear state space equations are derived from basic physical laws. They are more powerful than the transfer function in the case of linear models, and they allow the application of an object oriented approach in simulation programs. The effects of all friction forces (static, Coulomb and viscous have been modelled, and many phenomena that are usually neglected are taken into account, e.g., the static term of friction, the leakage between the two chambers and external space. Proportional Differential (PD and Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC have been applied in order to make a comparison by means of simulation. Simulation is performed using Matlab/Simulink, and some of the results are compared graphically. FLC is tuned in a such way that it produces a constant control signal close to its maximum (or minimum, where possible. In the case of PD control the occurrence of peaks cannot be avoided. These peaks produce a very high velocity that oversteps the allowed values.
Some mathematical problems in non-linear Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
The main results contained in this report are the following: I) A general analysis of non-autonomous conserved densities for simple linear evolution systems. II) Partial differential systems within a wide class are converted into Lagrange an form. III) Rigorous criteria for existence of integrating factor matrices. IV) Isolation of all third-order evolution equations with high order symmetries and conservation laws. (Author) 3 refs
Some non-linear physics in crystallographic structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubry, S.
1977-10-01
A summary of studies on simple but strongly nonlinear crystallographic models that make use of some methods in stochasticity is presented. Two one-dimensional models are described; one has been studied to understand some aspects of the nonlinear dynamics in crystals when close to the transition temperature, the other is for commensurability and incommensurability problems. Periodic orbits and the dynamics of a one-dimensional coupled double-well chain are considered, along with lattice locking and stochasticity
The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue
2015-01-01
The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula
Internal transport barriers: critical physics issues?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litaudon, X [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM, Departement de Recherches sur La Fusion Controlee, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)
2006-05-15
Plasmas regimes with improved core energy confinement properties, i.e. with internal transport barriers (ITB), provide a possible route towards simultaneous high fusion performance and continuous tokamak reactor operation in a non-inductive current drive state. High core confinement regimes should be made compatible with a dominant fraction of the plasma current self-generated (pressure-driven) by the bootstrap effect while operating at high normalized pressure and moderate current. Furthermore, ITB regimes with 'non-stiff' plasma core pressure break the link observed in standard inductive operation between fusion performances and plasma pressure at the edge, thus offering a new degree of freedom in the tokamak operational space. Prospects and critical issues for using plasmas with enhanced thermal core insulation as a basis for steady tokamak reactor operation are reviewed in the light of the encouraging experimental and modelling results obtained recently (typically in the last two years). An extensive set of data from experiments carried out worldwide has been gathered on ITB regimes covering a wide range of parameters (q-profile, T{sub i}/T{sub e}, gradient length, shaping, normalized toroidal Larmor radius, collisionality, Mach number, etc). In the light of the progress made recently, the following critical physics issues relevant to the extrapolation of ITB regimes to next-step experiments, such as ITER, are addressed: 1. conditions for ITB formation and existence of a power threshold,; 2. ITB sustainment at T{sub i} {approx} T{sub e}, with low toroidal torque injection, low central particle fuelling but at high density and low impurity concentration,; 3. control of confinement for sustaining wide ITBs that encompass a large volume at high {beta}{sub N},; 4. real time profile control (q and pressure) with high bootstrap current and large fraction of alpha-heating and; 5. compatibility of core with edge transport barriers or with external core
Frequency-domain full-waveform inversion with non-linear descent directions
Geng, Yu; Pan, Wenyong; Innanen, Kristopher A.
2018-05-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly non-linear inverse problem, normally solved iteratively, with each iteration involving an update constructed through linear operations on the residuals. Incorporating a flexible degree of non-linearity within each update may have important consequences for convergence rates, determination of low model wavenumbers and discrimination of parameters. We examine one approach for doing so, wherein higher order scattering terms are included within the sensitivity kernel during the construction of the descent direction, adjusting it away from that of the standard Gauss-Newton approach. These scattering terms are naturally admitted when we construct the sensitivity kernel by varying not the current but the to-be-updated model at each iteration. Linear and/or non-linear inverse scattering methodologies allow these additional sensitivity contributions to be computed from the current data residuals within any given update. We show that in the presence of pre-critical reflection data, the error in a second-order non-linear update to a background of s0 is, in our scheme, proportional to at most (Δs/s0)3 in the actual parameter jump Δs causing the reflection. In contrast, the error in a standard Gauss-Newton FWI update is proportional to (Δs/s0)2. For numerical implementation of more complex cases, we introduce a non-linear frequency-domain scheme, with an inner and an outer loop. A perturbation is determined from the data residuals within the inner loop, and a descent direction based on the resulting non-linear sensitivity kernel is computed in the outer loop. We examine the response of this non-linear FWI using acoustic single-parameter synthetics derived from the Marmousi model. The inverted results vary depending on data frequency ranges and initial models, but we conclude that the non-linear FWI has the capability to generate high-resolution model estimates in both shallow and deep regions, and to converge rapidly, relative to a
Analytical exact solution of the non-linear Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, Alisson Xavier; Rocha Filho, Tarcisio Marciano da
2011-01-01
Full text: In this work we present how to classify and obtain analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with a generic non-linearity in 1+1 dimensions. Our approach is based on the determination of Lie symmetry transformation mapping solutions into solutions, and non-classical symmetry transformations, mapping a given solution into itself. From these symmetries it is then possible to reduce the equation to a system of ordinary differential equations which can then be solved using standard methods. The generic non-linearity is handled by considering it as an additional unknown in the determining equations for the symmetry transformations. This results in an over-determined system of non-linear partial differential equations. Its solution can then be determined in some cases by reducing it to the so called involutive (triangular) form, and then solved. This reduction is very tedious and can only performed using a computer algebra system. Once the determining system is solved, we obtain the explicit form for the non-linearity admitting a Lie or non-classical symmetry. The analytical solutions are then derived by solving the reduced ordinary differential equations. The non-linear determining system for the non-classical symmetry transformations and Lie symmetry generators are obtaining using the computer algebra package SADE (symmetry analysis of differential equations), developed at our group. (author)
The Importance of Non-Linearity on Turbulent Fluxes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rokni, Masoud
2007-01-01
Two new non-linear models for the turbulent heat fluxes are derived and developed from the transport equation of the scalar passive flux. These models are called as non-linear eddy diffusivity and non-linear scalar flux. The structure of these models is compared with the exact solution which...... is derived from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and contains a three term-basis plus a non-linear term due to scalar fluxes. In order to study the performance of the model itself, all other turbulent quantities are taken from a DNS channel flow data-base and thus the error source has been minimized. The results...... are compared with the DNS channel flow and good agreement is achieved. It has been shown that the non-linearity parts of the models are important to capture the true path of the streamwise scalar fluxes. It has also been shown that one of model constant should have negative sign rather than positive, which had...
Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.
Salmon, Phil
2014-01-01
The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent
Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS
Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam
2013-01-01
Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included. PMID:23882134
Non linear identification applied to PWR steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poncet, B.
1982-11-01
For the precise industrial purpose of PWR nuclear power plant steam generator water level control, a natural method is developed where classical techniques seem not to be efficient enough. From this essentially non-linear practical problem, an input-output identification of dynamic systems is proposed. Through Homodynamic Systems, characterized by a regularity property which can be found in most industrial processes with balance set, state form realizations are built, which resolve the exact joining of local dynamic behaviors, in both discrete and continuous time cases, avoiding any load parameter. Specifically non-linear modelling analytical means, which have no influence on local joined behaviors, are also pointed out. Non-linear autoregressive realizations allow us to perform indirect adaptive control under constraint of an admissible given dynamic family [fr
Structure Learning in Stochastic Non-linear Dynamical Systems
Morris, R. D.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Luchinsky, D. G.
2005-12-01
A great many systems can be modeled in the non-linear dynamical systems framework, as x˙ = f(x) + ξ(t), where f(x) is the potential function for the system, and ξ(t) is the driving noise. Modeling the potential using a set of basis functions, we derive the posterior for the basis coefficients. A more challenging problem is to determine the set of basis functions that are required to model a particular system. We show that using the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to rank models, and the beam search technique, that we can accurately determine the structure of simple non-linear dynamical system models, and the structure of the coupling between non-linear dynamical systems where the individual systems are known. This last case has important ecological applications, for example in predator-prey systems, where the very structure of the coupling between predator-prey pairs can have great ecological significance.
Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids
Siginer, Dennis A
2014-01-01
Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.
Non-linearity in radiocaesium soil to plant transfer: fact or fiction?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beresford, N.A.; Scott, W.A.; Wright, S.M.
2004-01-01
The basis premise of many radiological assessments is the assumption that the transfer of many radionuclides from soil to herbage and hence animal derived food products is a positive linear relationship for a given set of ecological conditions. However, a number of authors have published results which they conclude demonstrate non-linear transfer of radiocaesium to plants and animals with transfer being highest when soil concentrations are lowest. Whilst we may expect non-linear transfer of radionuclides under homeostatic control or present in comparatively large chemical quantities there appears no credible hypothesis to support such an observation for radiocaesium. In this paper we review those articles which have reported non-linear radiocaesium transfer and also analyse novel data. Mechanisms for the observation as presented in the original works are critically assessed. For instance, some authors have speculated that radiocaesium root uptake is saturated. We suggest that this is unlikely as whilst saturation of root uptake of radiocaesium has been observed above 1.37 mg Cs + L -1 in growth solutions, concentrations of Cs + in soil solutions are typically -1 , and 1 MBq m -2 of 137 Cs will add only 0.3 mg Cs + m -2 . We discuss alternative hypotheses to explain the reported observations and suggest that sampling bias, countermeasure application and statistical chance all contribute to the reported non-linearity in radiocaesium transfer. (author)
Non-linear development of secular gravitational instability in protoplanetary disks
Tominaga, Ryosuke T.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.
2018-01-01
We perform non-linear simulation of secular gravitational instability (GI) in protoplanetary disks, which has been proposed as a mechanism of planetesimal and multiple ring formation. Since the timescale of the growth of the secular GI is much longer than the Keplerian rotation period, we develop a new numerical scheme for a long-term calculation utilizing the concept of symplectic integration. With our new scheme, we first investigate the non-linear development of the secular GI in a disk without a pressure gradient in the initial state. We find that the surface density of dust increases by more than a factor of 100 while that of gas does not increase even by a factor of 2, which results in the formation of dust-dominated rings. A line mass of the dust ring tends to be very close to the critical line mass of a self-gravitating isothermal filament. Our results indicate that the non-linear growth of the secular GI provides a powerful mechanism to concentrate the dust. We also find that the dust ring formed via the non-linear growth of the secular GI migrates inward with a low velocity, which is driven by the self-gravity of the ring. We give a semi-analytical expression for the inward migration speed of the dusty ring.
Foundations of the non-linear mechanics of continua
Sedov, L I
1966-01-01
International Series of Monographs on Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Foundations of the Non-Linear Mechanics of Continua deals with the theoretical apparatus, principal concepts, and principles used in the construction of models of material bodies that fill space continuously. This book consists of three chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to the theory of tensors and kinematic applications, focusing on the little-known theory of non-linear tensor functions. The laws of dynamics and thermodynamics are covered in Chapter 3.This volume is suitable
Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst
2017-01-01
We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion...... processes to the manifold. Defining the data distribution as the transition distribution of the mapped stochastic process, parameters of the model, the non-linear analogue of design matrix and intercept, are found via maximum likelihood. The model is intrinsically related to the geometry encoded...
Non-Linear Fibres for Widely Tunable Femtosecond Fibre Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard
and numerically. For the intermodal four-wave mixing experiment an alternative version of the Generalised Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation is derived, which includes the correct dispersion of the transverse field. It is observed that the alternative version of the Generalised Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation......, as opposed to the commonly used version, is able to reproduce the intermodal four-wave mixing experiment. The relation between the intramodal self-phase modulation and the intramodal Raman effect is determined from experimental measurements on a number of step-index fibres. The Raman fraction is found...
E11 and the non-linear dual graviton
Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter
2018-04-01
The non-linear dual graviton equation of motion as well as the duality relation between the gravity and dual gravity fields are found in E theory by carrying out E11 variations of previously found equations of motion. As a result the equations of motion in E theory have now been found at the full non-linear level up to, and including, level three, which contains the dual graviton field. When truncated to contain fields at levels three and less, and the spacetime is restricted to be the familiar eleven dimensional space time, the equations are equivalent to those of eleven dimensional supergravity.
On the stability of non-linear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guelman, M.
1968-09-01
A study is made of the absolute stability of nonlinear systems, using Liapounov's second method and taking into account the results obtained from V.M. Popov's work. The results already established are first presented, in particular concerning the frequency domain criterions for absolute stability of automatic control systems containing one single non linearity. The results have been extended to show the existence of a limiting parabola. New use is then made of the methods studied for deriving absolute stability criterions for a system containing a different type of non linearity. Finally, the results obtained are considered from the point of view of Aizerman's conjecture. (author) [fr
Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole
1998-01-01
The paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems including open loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed extended for the control of non......-linear systems. GPC is model-based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis on an efficient Quasi......-Newton optimization algorithm. The performance is demonstrated on a pneumatic servo system....
Dynamic stability of a vertically excited non-linear continuous system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril
2015-01-01
Roč. 155, July (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : non-linear systems * auto-parametric systems * semi-trivial solution * dynamic stability * system recovery * post- critical response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045794915000024
Current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forger, M.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.
1992-01-01
The current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is analyzed. It is found that introducing, in addition to the Noether current j μ associated with the global symmetry of the theory, a composite scalar field j, the algebra closes under Poisson brackets. (orig.)
Smoothing identification of systems with small non-linearities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kozánek, Jan; Piranda, J.
2003-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 1 (2003), s. 71-84 ISSN 0025-6455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : identification * small non-linearities * smoothing methods Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2003
Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blair, D.G.
1982-01-01
A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)
Non Linear signa models probing the string structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.
1987-01-01
The introduction of a term depending on the extrinsic curvature to the string action, and related non linear sigma models defined on a symmetric space SO(D)/SO(2) x SO(d-2) is descussed . Coupling to fermions are also treated. (author) [pt
Non-linear variation of the beta function with momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parzen, G.
1983-07-01
A theory is presented for computing the non-linear dependence of the β-functions on momentum. Results are found for the quadratic term. The results of the theory are compared with computed results. A procedure is proposed for computing the strengths of the sextupole correctors to correct the dependence of the β-function on momentum
Non-linear thermal fluctuations in a diode
Kampen, N.G. van
As an example of non-linear noise the fluctuations in a circuit consisting of a diode and a condenser C are studied. From the master equation for this system the following results are derived. 1. (i) The equilibrium distribution of the voltage is rigorously Gaussian, the average voltage being
Effect of Integral Non-Linearity on Energy Calibration of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The integral non-linearity (INL) of four spectroscopy systems, two integrated (A1 and A2) and two classical (B1 and B2) systems was determined using pulses from a random pulse generator. The effect of INL on the system's energy calibration was also determined. The effect is minimal in the classical system at high ...
Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.
2003-01-01
In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure loa...
Validation of Individual Non-Linear Predictive Pharmacokinetic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia ... Purpose: To evaluate the predictive performance of phenytoin multiple dosing non-linear pharmacokinetic ... status epilepticus affects an estimated 152,000 ..... causal factors, i.e., infection, inflammation, tissue.
S-AMP for non-linear observation models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.
2015-01-01
Recently we presented the S-AMP approach, an extension of approximate message passing (AMP), to be able to handle general invariant matrix ensembles. In this contribution we extend S-AMP to non-linear observation models. We obtain generalized AMP (GAMP) as the special case when the measurement...
Non-Linear Interactive Stories in Computer Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bangsø, Olav; Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Kocka, Tomas
2003-01-01
The paper introduces non-linear interactive stories (NOLIST) as a means to generate varied and interesting stories for computer games automatically. We give a compact representation of a NOLIST based on the specification of atomic stories, and show how to build an object-oriented Bayesian network...
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...
Quantum osp-invariant non-linear Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, P.P.
1985-04-01
The generalizations of the non-linear Schroedinger equation (NS) associated with the orthosymplectic superalgebras are formulated. The simplest osp(1/2)-NS model is solved by the quantum inverse scattering method on a finite interval under periodic boundary conditions as well as on the wholeline in the case of a finite number of excitations. (author)
Non-linear coupling of drift modes in a quadrupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, J.A.; Sandeman, J.C.; Tessema, G.Y.
1990-01-01
We report continuing experimental studies of non-linear interactions of drift waves, with direct evidence of a growth saturation mechanism by transfer of energy to lower frequency modes. Wave launching experiments show that the decay rate of drift waves can be strongly amplitude dependent. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs
Some aspects of non-linear semi-groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plant, A.T.
1976-01-01
Some simpler theorems in the theory of non-linear semi-groups of non-reflexive Banach spaces are proved, with the intention to introduce the reader to this active field of research. Flow invariance, in particular for Lipschitz generators, and contraction semi-groups are discussed in some detail. (author)
Applicability of refined Born approximation to non-linear equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rayski, J.
1990-01-01
A computational method called ''Refined Born Approximation'', formerly applied exclusively to linear problems, is shown to be successfully applicable also to non-linear problems enabling me to compute bifurcations and other irregular solutions which cannot be obtained by the standard perturbation procedures. (author)
An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.
2008-01-01
A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...
About one non linear generalization of the compression reflection ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Both cases of stage and spiral iterations are considered. A geometrical interpretation of a convergence of a generalize method of iteration is brought, the case of stage and spiral iterations are considered. The formula for the non linear generalize compression reflection operator as a function from one variable is obtained.
Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio
2015-01-01
The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter...
Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
when compared to the other engineering materials (Akhavan and Hamed, 2010). However, FGM plates under mechanical loading may undergo elastic instability. Hence, the non-linear behavior of functionally graded plates has to be understood for their optimum design. Reddy (2000) proposed the theoretical formulation ...
Canonical structure of evolution equations with non-linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The dispersion produced is compensated by non-linear effects resulting in the formation of exponentially localized .... determining the values of Lagrange's multipliers αis. We postulate that a slightly .... c3 «w2x -v. (36). To include the effect of the secondary constraint c3 in the total Hamiltonian H we modify. (33) as. 104.
Numerical simulation of non-linear phenomena in geotechnical engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Smed
Geotechnical problems are often characterized by the non-linear behavior of soils and rock which are strongly linked to the inherent properties of the porous structure of the material as well as the presence and possible flow of any surrounding fluids. Dynamic problems involving such soil-fluid i...
Modeling and verifying non-linearities in heterodyne displacement interferometry
Cosijns, S.J.A.G.; Haitjema, H.; Schellekens, P.H.J.
2002-01-01
The non-linearities in a heterodyne laser interferometer system occurring from the phase measurement system of the interferometer andfrom non-ideal polarization effects of the optics are modeled into one analytical expression which includes the initial polarization state ofthe laser source, the
Fostering Critical Thinking in Physical Education Students
Lodewyk, Ken R.
2009-01-01
Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…
Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.
1988-02-01
The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr
Critical eigenvalue in LMFBRs: a physics assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKnight, R.D.; Collins, P.J.; Olsen, D.N.
1984-01-01
This paper summarizes recent work to put the analysis of past critical eigenvalue measurements from the US critical experiments program on a consistent basis. The integral data base includes 53 configurations built in 11 ZPPR assemblies which simulate mixed oxide LMFBRs. Both conventional and heterogeneous designs representing 350, 700, and 900 MWe sizes and with and without simulated control rods and/or control rod positions have been studied. The review of the integral data base includes quantitative assessment of experimental uncertainties in the measured excess reactivity. Analyses have been done with design level and higher-order methods using ENDF/B-IV data. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments are used to generate recommended bias factors for criticality predictions. Recommended methods for analysis of LMFBR fast critical assemblies and LMFBR design calculations are presented. Unresolved issues and areas which require additional experimental or analytical study are identified
Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education
Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan
2017-01-01
Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…
Non-linear realizations of superconformal and W-algebras as embeddings of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellucci, S.
1998-01-01
We propose a simple method for constructing representations of (super)conformal and non-linear W-type algebras in terms of their subalgebras and corresponding Nambu-Goldstone fields. We apply it to N=2 and N=1 superconformal algebras and describe in this way various embeddings of strings and superstrings for which these algebras and their subalgebras define world-sheet symmetries. Besides reproducing the known examples, we present some new ones, in particular an embedding of the bosonic string with additional U(1) affine symmetry into N=2 superstring. We also apply our method to the non-linear W 3 (2) algebra and demonstrate that the linearization procedure worked out for it some time ago gets a natural interpretation as a kind of string embedding. All these embeddings include the critical ones as particular cases. (orig.)
Seismic evaluation of a large nuclear pump bearing using non-linear dynamic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, K.A.; Hugins, M.S.
1983-01-01
Hydrostatic bearings of a large vertical pump using sodium as the lubricant were critically examined to determine their ability to withstand seismic loads. Initial linear dynamics analyses predicted journal displacements to exceed bearing clearance by a ratio of 3:1. Equivalent time-history excitations were then developed from the response spectra to determine the number, magnitude, and duration of the bearing impact loads. Predicted loads were further reduced by 50% by modeling non-linear bearing characteristics normally present but not generally included in conventional linear analyses. Results are presented of the comprehensive design evaluation performed, based on these non-linear predictions, that assess stress, wear, and fatigue to demonstrate hydrostatic bearing integrity
Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications
de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.
2007-05-01
Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Sørensen, Lasse; Frigaard, Peter Bak
2016-01-01
A non-linear stretching method was implemented for stream function theory to solve wave kinematics for physical conditions close to breaking waves in shallow waters, with wave heights limited by the water depth. The non-linear stretching method proves itself robust, efficient and fast, showing good...
Comparison of Simulated and Measured Non-linear Ultrasound Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
In this paper results from a non-linear AS (angular spectrum) based ultrasound simulation program are compared to water-tank measurements. A circular concave transducer with a diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) is used as the emitting source. The measured pulses are rst compared with the linear...... simulation program Field II, which will be used to generate the source for the AS simulation. The generated non-linear ultrasound eld is measured by a hydrophone in the focal plane. The second harmonic component from the measurement is compared with the AS simulation, which is used to calculate both...... fundamental and second harmonic elds. The focused piston transducer with a center frequency of 5 MHz is excited by a waveform generator emitting a 6-cycle sine wave. The hydrophone is mounted in the focal plane 118 mm from the transducer. The point spread functions at the focal depth from Field II...
A non-linear model of economic production processes
Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.
2003-06-01
We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.
Non-linear elastic thermal stress analysis with phase changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amada, S.; Yang, W.H.
1978-01-01
The non-linear elastic, thermal stress analysis with temperature induced phase changes in the materials is presented. An infinite plate (or body) with a circular hole (or tunnel) is subjected to a thermal loading on its inner surface. The peak temperature around the hole reaches beyond the melting point of the material. The non-linear diffusion equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The material properties change rapidly at temperatures where the change of crystal structures and solid-liquid transition occur. The elastic stresses induced by the transient non-homogeneous temperature distribution are calculated. The stresses change remarkably when the phase changes occur and there are residual stresses remaining in the plate after one cycle of thermal loading. (Auth.)
On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory
Blas, Diego; Konstandin, Thomas
2013-01-01
We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.
Dark matter as a non-linear effect of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.; Capistrano, A.J.S.
2006-01-01
The rotation curves of stars in disk galaxies are calculated with the Newtonian law of motion applied to a scalar potential derived from the geodesic equation, only, under the slow motion condition, the so-called Nearly Newtonian Gravity (NNG). A nearly Newtonian gravitational potential, Φ NN = -1/2 c 2 (1+g 44 ), is obtained, characterized by an exact solution of Einsteins equations, with the non-linear effects present in the component g 44 . This gravitational field lies somewhere between General Relativity and Newtonian Gravity. Therefore, Einsteins equations and the equivalence principle are preserved, but the general covariance is broken. The resulting curves are remarkably close to the observed rotation curves in spiral galaxies, suggesting that a substantial component of dark matter may be explained by the non-linearity of Einsteins equations. (author)
On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas
2013-04-01
We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.
Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst
2017-01-01
We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion...... processes to the manifold. Defining the data distribution as the transition distribution of the mapped stochastic process, parameters of the model, the non-linear analogue of design matrix and intercept, are found via maximum likelihood. The model is intrinsically related to the geometry encoded...... in the connection of the manifold. We propose an estimation procedure which applies the Laplace approximation of the likelihood function. A simulation study of the performance of the model is performed and the model is applied to a real dataset of Corpus Callosum shapes....
On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Diego [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-04-15
We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.
Constrained non-linear waves for offshore wind turbine design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainey, P J; Camp, T R
2007-01-01
Advancements have been made in the modelling of extreme wave loading in the offshore environment. We give an overview of wave models used at present, and their relative merits. We describe a method for embedding existing non-linear solutions for large, regular wave kinematics into linear, irregular seas. Although similar methods have been used before, the new technique is shown to offer advances in computational practicality, repeatability, and accuracy. NewWave theory has been used to constrain the linear simulation, allowing best possible fit with the large non-linear wave. GH Bladed was used to compare the effect of these models on a generic 5 MW turbine mounted on a tripod support structure
Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole
1999-01-01
This paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems, including open-loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed to be extended for the control...... of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...... on an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. The performance is demonstrated on a pneumatic servo system....
NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF DEEP DRAWING PROCESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan YILDIZ
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.
Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, L.; Nash, B.
2009-01-01
We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.
NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TOMAS, R.; FISCHER, W.; JAIN, A.; LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.
2004-01-01
For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability
General treatment of a non-linear gauge condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malleville, C.
1982-06-01
A non linear gauge condition is presented in the frame of a non abelian gauge theory broken with the Higgs mechanism. It is shown that this condition already introduced for the standard SU(2) x U(1) model can be generalized for any gauge model with the same type of simplification, namely the suppression of any coupling of the form: massless gauge boson, massive gauge boson, unphysical Higgs [fr
Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX upgrade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Orain, Francois; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Becoulet, Marina; Huysmans, Guido [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2016-07-01
Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for the operation of future tokamak devices like ITER or DEMO due to the high transient heat loads induced on divertor targets and wall structures. It is therefore important to study ELMs both theoretically and experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms which is necessary for the prediction of ELM properties and the design of ELM mitigation systems. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed first simulations of full ELM crashes in ASDEX Upgrade, taking into account a large number of toroidal Fourier harmonics. The evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum has been investigated. In particular, we confirm the previously observed non-linear drive of linearly sub-dominant low-n components in the early non-linear phase of the ELM crash. Preliminary comparisons of the simulations with experimental observations regarding heat and particle losses, pedestal evolution and heat deposition patterns are shown. On the long run we aim at code validation as well as an improved understanding of the ELM dynamics and possibly a better characterization of different ELM types.
Neural Generalized Predictive Control of a non-linear Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole
1998-01-01
The use of neural network in non-linear control is made difficult by the fact the stability and robustness is not guaranteed and that the implementation in real time is non-trivial. In this paper we introduce a predictive controller based on a neural network model which has promising stability qu...... detail and discuss the implementation difficulties. The neural generalized predictive controller is tested on a pneumatic servo sys-tem.......The use of neural network in non-linear control is made difficult by the fact the stability and robustness is not guaranteed and that the implementation in real time is non-trivial. In this paper we introduce a predictive controller based on a neural network model which has promising stability...... qualities. The controller is a non-linear version of the well-known generalized predictive controller developed in linear control theory. It involves minimization of a cost function which in the present case has to be done numerically. Therefore, we develop the numerical algorithms necessary in substantial...
Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage
Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten
2013-04-01
Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows
The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wenninger, Ronald
2013-01-01
Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal
Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)
2000-07-01
In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es
The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wenninger, Ronald
2013-01-09
Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal
Sasaki, Misao; Wands, David
2010-06-01
In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of non-linear perturbations of cosmological models. This has been the result of both theoretical developments and observational advances. New theoretical challenges arise at second and higher order due to mode coupling and the need to develop new gauge-invariant variables beyond first order. In particular, non-linear interactions lead to deviations from a Gaussian distribution of primordial perturbations even if initial vacuum fluctuations are exactly Gaussian. These non-Gaussianities provide an important probe of models for the origin of structure in the very early universe. We now have a detailed picture of the primordial distribution of matter from surveys of the cosmic microwave background, notably NASA's WMAP satellite. The situation will continue to improve with future data from the ESA Planck satellite launched in 2009. To fully exploit these data cosmologists need to extend non-linear cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear theory that has previously been sufficient on cosmological scales. Another recent development has been the realization that large-scale structure, revealed in high-redshift galaxy surveys, could also be sensitive to non-linearities in the primordial curvature perturbation. This focus section brings together a collection of invited papers which explore several topical issues in this subject. We hope it will be of interest to theoretical physicists and astrophysicists alike interested in understanding and interpreting recent developments in cosmological perturbation theory and models of the early universe. Of course it is only an incomplete snapshot of a rapidly developing field and we hope the reader will be inspired to read further work on the subject and, perhaps, fill in some of the missing pieces. This focus section is dedicated to the memory of Lev Kofman (1957-2009), an enthusiastic pioneer of inflationary cosmology and non-Gaussian perturbations.
Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.
2016-01-01
Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811
Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesus M. de la Cruz
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.
Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration
Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael
2017-07-01
Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.
The non-linear ion trap. Part 5. Nature of non-linear resonances and resonant ion ejection
Franzen, J.
1994-01-01
The superposition of higher order multipole fields on the basic quadrupole field in ion traps generates a non-harmonic oscillator system for the ions. Fourier analyses of simulated secular oscillations in non-linear ion traps, therefore, not only reveal the sideband frequencies, well-known from the Mathieu theory, but additionally a commonwealth of multipole-specific overtones (or higher harmonics), and corresponding sidebands of overtones. Non-linear resonances occur when the overtone frequencies match sideband frequencies. It can be shown that in each of the resonance conditions, not just one overtone matches one sideband, instead, groups of overtones match groups of sidebands. The generation of overtones is studied by Fourier analysis of computed ion oscillations in the direction of thez axis. Even multipoles (octopole, dodecapole, etc.) generate only odd orders of higher harmonics (3, 5, etc.) of the secular frequency, explainable by the symmetry with regard to the planez = 0. In contrast, odd multipoles (hexapole, decapole, etc.) generate all orders of higher harmonics. For all multipoles, the lowest higher harmonics are found to be strongest. With multipoles of higher orders, the strength of the overtones decreases weaker with the order of the harmonics. Forz direction resonances in stationary trapping fields, the function governing the amplitude growth is investigated by computer simulations. The ejection in thez direction, as a function of timet, follows, at least in good approximation, the equation wheren is the order of multipole, andC is a constant. This equation is strictly valid for the electrically applied dipole field (n = 1), matching the secular frequency or one of its sidebands, resulting in a linear increase of the amplitude. It is valid also for the basic quadrupole field (n = 2) outside the stability area, giving an exponential increase. It is at least approximately valid for the non-linear resonances by weak superpositions of all higher odd
An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Maleknejad, Azadeh, E-mail: matthew.lewandowski@cea.fr, E-mail: azade@ipm.ir, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-05-01
In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark energy both on the matter fields and on the biased tracers. For the specific case of clustering quintessence, we then perturbatively solve to cubic order the resulting non-linear equations and construct the one-loop power spectrum of the total density contrast.
Oscillations of a Beam on a Non-Linear Elastic Foundation under Periodic Loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald Mark Santee
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The complexity of the response of a beam resting on a nonlinear elastic foundation makes the design of this structural element rather challenging. Particularly because, apparently, there is no algebraic relation for its load bearing capacity as a function of the problem parameters. Such an algebraic relation would be desirable for design purposes. Our aim is to obtain this relation explicitly. Initially, a mathematical model of a flexible beam resting on a non-linear elastic foundation is presented, and its non-linear vibrations and instabilities are investigated using several numerical methods. At a second stage, a parametric study is carried out, using analytical and semi-analytical perturbation methods. So, the influence of the various physical and geometrical parameters of the mathematical model on the non-linear response of the beam is evaluated, in particular, the relation between the natural frequency and the vibration amplitude and the first period doubling and saddle-node bifurcations. These two instability phenomena are the two basic mechanisms associated with the loss of stability of the beam. Finally Melnikov's method is used to determine an algebraic expression for the boundary that separates a safe from an unsafe region in the force parameters space. It is shown that this can be used as a basis for a reliable engineering design criterion.
Non-linear dynamic response of reactor containment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takemori, T.; Sotomura, K.; Yamada, M.
1975-01-01
A computer program was developed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior of structures. This program is outlined and the problems of non-linear response of structures are discussed. Since the mode superposition method is only valid in an elastic analysis, the direct integration method was adopted here. As the sample model, an actual reactor containment (reactor building) of PWR plant was adopted. This building consists of three components, that is, a concrete internal structure, a steel containment vessel and a concrete outer shield wall. These components are resting on a rigid foundation mat. Therefore they were modeled with a lumped mass model respectively and coupled on the foundation. The following assumptions were employed to establish the properties of dynamic model: rocking and swaying springs of soil can be obtained from an elastic half-space solution, and the hysteretic characteristic of springs is bi-linear; springs connecting each mass are dealt with shear beams so that both bending and shear deflections can be included (Hysteretic characteristics of springs are linear, bi-linear and tri-linear for the internal structure, the containment vessel and the outer shield wall, respectively); generally, each damping coefficient is given for each mode in modal superposition (However, a damping matrix must be made directly in a non-linear response). Therefore the damping matrix of the model was made by combining the damping matrices [C] of each component obtained by Caughy's method and a damping value of the rocking and swaying by the half-space solution. On the basis of above conditions, the non-linear response of the structure was obtained and the difference between elastic and elasto-plastic analysis is presented
New non-linear modified massless Klein-Gordon equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asenjo, Felipe A. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, UAI Physics Center, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Santiago (Chile); Hojman, Sergio A. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, UAI Physics Center, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Recursos Educativos Avanzados, CREA, Santiago (Chile)
2017-11-15
The massless Klein-Gordon equation on arbitrary curved backgrounds allows for solutions which develop ''tails'' inside the light cone and, therefore, do not strictly follow null geodesics as discovered by DeWitt and Brehme almost 60 years ago. A modification of the massless Klein-Gordon equation is presented, which always exhibits null geodesic propagation of waves on arbitrary curved spacetimes. This new equation is derived from a Lagrangian which exhibits current-current interaction. Its non-linearity is due to a self-coupling term which is related to the quantum mechanical Bohm potential. (orig.)
Non-linear feedback neural networks VLSI implementations and applications
Ansari, Mohd Samar
2014-01-01
This book aims to present a viable alternative to the Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) model for analog computation. It is well known that the standard HNN suffers from problems of convergence to local minima, and requirement of a large number of neurons and synaptic weights. Therefore, improved solutions are needed. The non-linear synapse neural network (NoSyNN) is one such possibility and is discussed in detail in this book. This book also discusses the applications in computationally intensive tasks like graph coloring, ranking, and linear as well as quadratic programming. The material in the book is useful to students, researchers and academician working in the area of analog computation.
Quantization of a non-linearly realized supersymmetric theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shima, Kazunari
1976-01-01
The two-dimensional version of the Volkov-Akulov's Lagrngian, where the super-symmetry is realized non-linearly by means of a single Majorana spinor psi(x), is quantized. The equal time anti-commutators for the field are not c-numbers but functions of the field itself. By the explicite calculation we shall show that supersymmetry charges of the model form the supersymmetry algebra(the graded Lie algebra) and the supersymmetry charges exactly generate a constant translation of psi(x) in the spinor space. In this work we restrict our investigation to the two-dimensional space-time for the sake of simplicity. (auth.)
Non-linear sigma model on the fuzzy supersphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurkcuoglu, Seckin
2004-01-01
In this note we develop fuzzy versions of the supersymmetric non-linear sigma model on the supersphere S (2,2) . In hep-th/0212133 Bott projectors have been used to obtain the fuzzy C P 1 model. Our approach utilizes the use of supersymmetric extensions of these projectors. Here we obtain these (super)-projectors and quantize them in a fashion similar to the one given in hep-th/0212133. We discuss the interpretation of the resulting model as a finite dimensional matrix model. (author)
Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy of microbiological suspensions
Treo, Ernesto F; Felice, Carmelo J
2009-01-01
Background Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) of microorganism was characterized by the generation of harmonics in the polarization current when a microorganism suspension was exposed to a sinusoidal electric field. The biological nonlinear response initially described was not well verified by other authors and the results were susceptible to ambiguous interpretation. In this paper NLDS was performed to yeast suspension in tripolar and tetrapolar configuration with a recently developed analyzer. Methods Tripolar analysis was carried out by applying sinusoidal voltages up to 1 V at the electrode interface. Tetrapolar analysis was carried on with sinusoidal field strengths from 0.1 V cm-1 to 70 V cm-1. Both analyses were performed within a frequency range from 1 Hz through 100 Hz. The harmonic amplitudes were Fourier-analyzed and expressed in dB. The third harmonic, as reported previously, was investigated. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was used to test the effect of inhibitor an activator of the plasma membrane enzyme in the measured response. Results No significant non-linearities were observed in tetrapolar analysis, and no observable changes occurred when inhibitor and activator were added to the suspension. Statistical analysis confirmed these results. When a pure sinus voltage was applied to an electrode-yeast suspension interface, variations higher than 25 dB for the 3rd harmonic were observed. Variation higher than 20 dB in the 3rd harmonics has also been found when adding an inhibitor or activator of the membrane-bounded enzymes. These variations did not occur when the suspension was boiled. Discussion The lack of result in tetrapolar cells suggest that there is no, if any, harmonic generation in microbiological bulk suspension. The non-linear response observed was originated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The frequency and voltage windows observed in previous tetrapolar analysis were repeated in the tripolar measurements, but maximum were not
Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy of microbiological suspensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felice Carmelo J
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS of microorganism was characterized by the generation of harmonics in the polarization current when a microorganism suspension was exposed to a sinusoidal electric field. The biological nonlinear response initially described was not well verified by other authors and the results were susceptible to ambiguous interpretation. In this paper NLDS was performed to yeast suspension in tripolar and tetrapolar configuration with a recently developed analyzer. Methods Tripolar analysis was carried out by applying sinusoidal voltages up to 1 V at the electrode interface. Tetrapolar analysis was carried on with sinusoidal field strengths from 0.1 V cm-1 to 70 V cm-1. Both analyses were performed within a frequency range from 1 Hz through 100 Hz. The harmonic amplitudes were Fourier-analyzed and expressed in dB. The third harmonic, as reported previously, was investigated. Statistical analysis (ANOVA was used to test the effect of inhibitor an activator of the plasma membrane enzyme in the measured response. Results No significant non-linearities were observed in tetrapolar analysis, and no observable changes occurred when inhibitor and activator were added to the suspension. Statistical analysis confirmed these results. When a pure sinus voltage was applied to an electrode-yeast suspension interface, variations higher than 25 dB for the 3rd harmonic were observed. Variation higher than 20 dB in the 3rd harmonics has also been found when adding an inhibitor or activator of the membrane-bounded enzymes. These variations did not occur when the suspension was boiled. Discussion The lack of result in tetrapolar cells suggest that there is no, if any, harmonic generation in microbiological bulk suspension. The non-linear response observed was originated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The frequency and voltage windows observed in previous tetrapolar analysis were repeated in the tripolar
Non-linear electromagnetic interactions in thermal QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.
1994-08-01
The behavior of the non-linear interactions between electromagnetic fields at high temperature is examined. It is shown that, in general, the log(T) dependence on the temperature of the Green functions is simply related to their UV behavior at zero-temperature. It is argued that the effective action describing the nonlinear thermal electromagnetic interactions has a finite limit as T -> ∞. This thermal action approaches, in the long wavelength limit, the negative of the corresponding zero-temperature action. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig
Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J.
2002-01-01
A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings
Esposito, Larry W.
2015-11-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects
Non-linear unidimensional Debye screening in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clemente, R.A.; Martin, P.
1992-01-01
An exact analytical solution for T e = T i and an approximate solution for T e ≠ T i have been obtained for the unidimensional non-linear Debye potential. The approximate expression is a solution of the Poisson equation obtained by expanding up to third order the Boltzmann's factors. The analysis shows that the effective Debye screening length can be quite different from the usual Debye length, when the potential to thermal energy ratio of the particles is not much smaller than unity. (author)
Non-linear effective Lagrangian treatment of 'Penguin' interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham, T.N.
1984-01-01
Using the non-linear effective lagrangian technique, we show explicitly that only derivative coupling is allowed for the K - π, K -> 2 π and K -> 3 π transitions induced by the ΔS = 1 Penguin operator of SVZ in agreement with chiral symmetry requirements. From a derivative coupling (3, anti 3) mass term and the SU(3) breaking effect for fsub(K)/fsub(π), we estimate the strength of the Penguin interactions and find it too small to account for the ΔI = 1/2 amplitude. (orig.)
Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, J M [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G J [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.
A theorem for non-linear stability to tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avinash, K.
1992-12-01
Within the reduced MHD approximation it is shown that dJ z /dΨ≤0 [J z is z component of the current density and Ψ is the helical flux] is a sufficient condition for the equilibrium to be non-linearly stable to tearing mode. It is further shown that this is also a sufficient condition for an equilibrium to be axisymmetric, hence helical equilibrium consistent with this condition cannot be constructed. However a class of axisymmetric equilibrium with hollow current profile is shown to satisfy the stability criterion. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs
Non-linear ultrasonic time-reversal mirrors in NDT
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Převorovský, Zdeněk
-, č. 4 (2012), s. 4-4 [World Conference on Nondestructive Testing /18./. 16.4.2012-20.4.2012, Durban] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274; GA MPO(CZ) FR-T1/198; GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/10/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : non-linear ime reversal mirror * ultrasonic techniques * ESAM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.academia-ndt.org/Downloads/AcademiaNews4.pdf
Non-linear spin transport in magnetic semiconductor superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejar, Manuel; Sanchez, David; Platero, Gloria; MacDonald, A.H.
2004-01-01
The electronic spin dynamics in DC-biased n-doped II-VI semiconductor multiquantum wells doped with magnetic impurities is presented. Under certain range of electronic doping, conventional semiconductor superlattices present self-sustained oscillations. Magnetically doped wells (Mn) present large spin splittings due to the exchange interaction. The interplay between non-linear interwell transport, the electron-electron interaction and the exchange between electrons and the magnetic impurities produces interesting time-dependent features in the spin polarization current tuned by an external magnetic field
Numerical solution of non-linear diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmen, A. del; Ferreri, J.C.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a method for the numerical solution of non-linear diffusion problems using finite-differences in moving grids. Due to the presence of steep fronts in the solution domain and to the presence of advective terms originating in the grid movement, an implicit TVD scheme, first order in time and second order in space has been developed. Some algebraic details of the derivation are given. Results are shown for the pure advection of a scalar as a test case and an example dealing with the slow spreading of viscous fluids over plane surfaces. The agreement between numerical and analytical solutions is excellent. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs
Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design
Ratner, LW
2003-01-01
In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it
On non-linear magnetic-charged black hole surrounded by quintessence
Nam, Cao H.
2018-06-01
We derive a non-linear magnetic-charged black hole surrounded by quintessence, which behaves asymptotically like the Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence but at the short distances like the dS geometry. The horizon properties of this black hole are investigated in detail. The thermodynamics of the black hole is studied in the local and global views. Finally, by calculating the heat capacity and the free energy, we point to that the black hole may undergo a thermal phase transition, between a larger unstable black hole and a smaller stable black hole, at a critical temperature.
A statistical physics perspective on criticality in financial markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bury, Thomas
2013-01-01
Stock markets are complex systems exhibiting collective phenomena and particular features such as synchronization, fluctuations distributed as power-laws, non-random structures and similarity to neural networks. Such specific properties suggest that markets operate at a very special point. Financial markets are believed to be critical by analogy to physical systems, but little statistically founded evidence has been given. Through a data-based methodology and comparison to simulations inspired by the statistical physics of complex systems, we show that the Dow Jones and index sets are not rigorously critical. However, financial systems are closer to criticality in the crash neighborhood. (paper)
The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P.A.N.
2016-01-01
The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)
Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications
Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.
2016-02-01
This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.
A penalized framework for distributed lag non-linear models.
Gasparrini, Antonio; Scheipl, Fabian; Armstrong, Ben; Kenward, Michael G
2017-09-01
Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) are a modelling tool for describing potentially non-linear and delayed dependencies. Here, we illustrate an extension of the DLNM framework through the use of penalized splines within generalized additive models (GAM). This extension offers built-in model selection procedures and the possibility of accommodating assumptions on the shape of the lag structure through specific penalties. In addition, this framework includes, as special cases, simpler models previously proposed for linear relationships (DLMs). Alternative versions of penalized DLNMs are compared with each other and with the standard unpenalized version in a simulation study. Results show that this penalized extension to the DLNM class provides greater flexibility and improved inferential properties. The framework exploits recent theoretical developments of GAMs and is implemented using efficient routines within freely available software. Real-data applications are illustrated through two reproducible examples in time series and survival analysis. © 2017 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.
A non-linear theory of strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
A non-linear theory of mesons, nucleons and hyperons is proposed. The three independent fields of the usual symmetrical pseudo-scalar pion field are replaced by the three directions of a four-component field vector of constant length, conceived in an Euclidean four-dimensional isotopic spin space. This length provides the universal scaling factor, all other constants being dimensionless; the mass of the meson field is generated by a φ 4 term; this destroys the continuous rotation group in the iso-space, leaving a 'cubic' symmetry group. Classification of states by this group introduces quantum numbers corresponding to isotopic spin and to 'strangeness'; one consequences is that, at least in elementary interactions, charge is only conserved module 4. Furthermore, particle states have not a well-defined parity, but parity is effectively conserved for meson-nucleon interactions. A simplified model, using only two dimensions of space and iso-space, is considered further; the non-linear meson field has solutions with particle character, and an indication is given of the way in which the particle field variables might be introduced as collective co-ordinates describing the dynamics of these particular solutions of the meson field equations, suggesting a unified theory based on the meson field alone. (author). 7 refs
Parameter Scaling in Non-Linear Microwave Tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Talcoth, Oskar
2012-01-01
Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels. This implies that special care must be taken when the imag......Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels. This implies that special care must be taken when...... the imaging problem is formulated. Under such conditions, microwave imaging systems will most often be considerably more sensitive to changes in the electromagnetic properties in certain regions of the breast. The result is that the parameters might not be reconstructed correctly in the less sensitive regions...... introduced as a measure of the sensitivity. The scaling of the parameters is shown to improve performance of the microwave imaging system when applied to reconstruction of images from 2-D simulated data and measurement data....
Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiwei eHuang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e. linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells.
A non-linear model of information seeking behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allen E. Foster
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed examples of information seeking. Coding of interview transcripts took place in multiple iterations over time and used Atlas-ti software to support the process. The results of the study are represented in a non-linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. The model describes three core processes (Opening, Orientation, and Consolidation and three levels of contextual interaction (Internal Context, External Context, and Cognitive Approach, each composed of several individual activities and attributes. The interactivity and shifts described by the model show information seeking to be non-linear, dynamic, holistic, and flowing. The paper concludes by describing the whole model of behaviours as analogous to an artist's palette, in which activities remain available throughout information seeking. A summary of key implications of the model and directions for further research are included.
The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Kanshin, K. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Machado, P.A.N. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States)
2016-12-15
The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)
Non-Linear Slosh Damping Model Development and Validation
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Propellant tank slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of spring mass damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) analysis. For a partially-filled smooth wall propellant tank, the critical damping based on classical empirical correlation is as low as 0.05%. Due to this low value of damping, propellant slosh is potential sources of disturbance critical to the stability of launch and space vehicles. It is postulated that the commonly quoted slosh damping is valid only under the linear regime where the slosh amplitude is small. With the increase of slosh amplitude, the critical damping value should also increase. If this nonlinearity can be verified and validated, the slosh stability margin can be significantly improved, and the level of conservatism maintained in the GN&C analysis can be lessened. The purpose of this study is to explore and to quantify the dependence of slosh damping with slosh amplitude. Accurately predicting the extremely low damping value of a smooth wall tank is very challenging for any Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. One must resolve thin boundary layers near the wall and limit numerical damping to minimum. This computational study demonstrates that with proper grid resolution, CFD can indeed accurately predict the low damping physics from smooth walls under the linear regime. Comparisons of extracted damping values with experimental data for different tank sizes show very good agreements. Numerical simulations confirm that slosh damping is indeed a function of slosh amplitude. When slosh amplitude is low, the damping ratio is essentially constant, which is consistent with the empirical correlation. Once the amplitude reaches a critical value, the damping ratio becomes a linearly increasing function of the slosh amplitude. A follow-on experiment validated the developed nonlinear damping relationship. This discovery can
Zia, Haider
2017-06-01
This paper describes an updated exponential Fourier based split-step method that can be applied to a greater class of partial differential equations than previous methods would allow. These equations arise in physics and engineering, a notable example being the generalized derivative non-linear Schrödinger equation that arises in non-linear optics with self-steepening terms. These differential equations feature terms that were previously inaccessible to model accurately with low computational resources. The new method maintains a 3rd order error even with these additional terms and models the equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The class of non-linear differential equations that this method applies to is shown. The method is fully derived and implementation of the method in the split-step architecture is shown. This paper lays the mathematical ground work for an upcoming paper employing this method in white-light generation simulations in bulk material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola, R.
2005-01-01
It was proponed recently to apply an extension of Lyapunov's first method to the non-linear regime, known as non-linear modal analysis (NMA), to the study of space-time problems in nuclear reactor kinetics, nuclear power plant dynamics and nuclear power plant instrumentation and control(1). The present communication shows how to apply NMA to the study of Xenon spatial oscillations in large nuclear reactors. The set of non-linear modal equations derived by J. Lewins(2) for neutron flux, Xenon concentration and Iodine concentration are discussed, and a modified version of these equations is taken as a starting point. Using the methods of singular perturbation theory a slow manifold is constructed in the space of mode amplitudes. This allows the reduction of the original high dimensional dynamics to a low dimensional one. It is shown how the amplitudes of the first mode for neutron flux field, temperature field and concentrations of Xenon and Iodine fields can have a stable steady state value while the corresponding amplitudes of the second mode oscillates in a stable limit cycle. The extrapolated dimensions of the reactor's core are used as bifurcation parameters. Approximate analytical formulae are obtained for the critical values of this parameters( below which the onset of oscillations is produced), for the period and for the amplitudes of the above mentioned oscillations. These results are applied to the discussion of neutron flux and temperature excursions in critical locations of the reactor's core. The results of NMA can be validated from the results obtained applying suitable computer codes, using homogenization theory(3) to link the complex heterogeneous model of the codes with the simplified mathematical model used for NMA
Non-linear 3D simulations of current-driven instabilities in jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanovski, S.; Bonanno, A.
2009-01-01
We present global 3D nonlinear simulations of the Taylor instability in the presence of vertical fields. The initial configuration is in equilibrium, which is achieved by a pressure gradient or an external potential force. The non linear evolution of the system leads to a stable equilibrium with a current free toroidal field. We find the that presence of a vertical poloidal field stabilize the system if B φ ∼B z . The implication of our findings for the physics of astrophysical jets are discussed.
Interpolation between multi-dimensional histograms using a new non-linear moment morphing method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baak, M., E-mail: max.baak@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gadatsch, S., E-mail: stefan.gadatsch@nikhef.nl [Nikhef, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Harrington, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Verkerke, W. [Nikhef, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2015-01-21
A prescription is presented for the interpolation between multi-dimensional distribution templates based on one or multiple model parameters. The technique uses a linear combination of templates, each created using fixed values of the model's parameters and transformed according to a specific procedure, to model a non-linear dependency on model parameters and the dependency between them. By construction the technique scales well with the number of input templates used, which is a useful feature in modern day particle physics, where a large number of templates are often required to model the impact of systematic uncertainties.
Interpolation between multi-dimensional histograms using a new non-linear moment morphing method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baak, M.; Gadatsch, S.; Harrington, R.; Verkerke, W.
2015-01-01
A prescription is presented for the interpolation between multi-dimensional distribution templates based on one or multiple model parameters. The technique uses a linear combination of templates, each created using fixed values of the model's parameters and transformed according to a specific procedure, to model a non-linear dependency on model parameters and the dependency between them. By construction the technique scales well with the number of input templates used, which is a useful feature in modern day particle physics, where a large number of templates are often required to model the impact of systematic uncertainties
Interpolation between multi-dimensional histograms using a new non-linear moment morphing method
Baak, Max; Harrington, Robert; Verkerke, Wouter
2014-01-01
A prescription is presented for the interpolation between multi-dimensional distribution templates based on one or multiple model parameters. The technique uses a linear combination of templates, each created using fixed values of the model's parameters and transformed according to a specific procedure, to model a non-linear dependency on model parameters and the dependency between them. By construction the technique scales well with the number of input templates used, which is a useful feature in modern day particle physics, where a large number of templates is often required to model the impact of systematic uncertainties.
Interpolation between multi-dimensional histograms using a new non-linear moment morphing method
Baak, Max; Harrington, Robert; Verkerke, Wouter
2015-01-01
A prescription is presented for the interpolation between multi-dimensional distribution templates based on one or multiple model parameters. The technique uses a linear combination of templates, each created using fixed values of the model's parameters and transformed according to a specific procedure, to model a non-linear dependency on model parameters and the dependency between them. By construction the technique scales well with the number of input templates used, which is a useful feature in modern day particle physics, where a large number of templates is often required to model the impact of systematic uncertainties.
Critical Thinking and Disposition Toward Critical Thinking Among Physical Therapy Students.
Domenech, Manuel A; Watkins, Phillip
2015-01-01
Students who enter a physical therapist (PT) entry-level program with weak critical thinking skills may not be prepared to benefit from the educational training program or successfully engage in the future as a competent healthcare provider. Therefore, assessing PT students' entry-level critical thinking skills and/or disposition toward critical thinking may be beneficial to identifying students with poor, fair, or good critical thinking ability as one of the criteria used in the admissions process into a professional program. First-year students (n=71) from the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI), and demographic survey during orientation to the DPT program. Three students were lost from the CCTST (n=68), and none lost from the CCTDI (n=71). Analysis indicated that the majority of students had a positive disposition toward critical thinking, yet the overall CCTST suggested that these students were somewhat below the national average. Also, individuals taking math and science prerequisites at the community-college level tended to have lower overall CCTST scores. The entering DPT class demonstrated moderate or middle range scores in critical thinking and disposition toward critical thinking. This result does not indicate, but might suggest, the potential for learning challenges. Assessing critical thinking skills as part of the admissions process may prove advantageous.
Realising traceable electrostatic forces despite non-linear balance motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stirling, Julian; Shaw, Gordon A
2017-01-01
Direct realisation of force, traceable to fundamental constants via electromagnetic balances, is a key goal of the proposed redefinition of the international system of units (SI). This will allow small force metrology to be performed using an electrostatic force balance (EFB) rather than subdivision of larger forces. Such a balance uses the electrostatic force across a capacitor to balance an external force. In this paper we model the capacitance of a concentric cylinder EFB design as a function of the displacement of its free electrode, accounting for the arcuate motion produced by parallelogram linkages commonly used in EFB mechanisms. From this model we suggest new fitting procedures to reduce uncertainties arising from non-linear motion as well as methods to identify misalignment of the mechanism. Experimental studies on both a test capacitor and the NIST EFB validate the model. (paper)
Non-linear numerical studies of the tearing mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnack, D.D. Jr.
1978-01-01
A non-linear, time dependent, hydromagnetic model is developed and applied to the tearing mode, one of a class of instabilities which can occur in a magnetically confined plasma when the constraint of infinite conductivity is relaxed. The model is based on the eight partial differential equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The equations are expressed as a set of conservation laws which conserves magnetic flux, momentum, mass, and total energy. These equations are then written in general, orthogonal, curvilinear coordinates in two space dimensions, so that the model can readily be applied to a variety of geometries. No assumption about the ordering of terms is made. The resulting equations are then solved by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. The model is applied to several geometries
Neutron stars in non-linear coupling models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taurines, Andre R.; Vasconcellos, Cesar A.Z.; Malheiro, Manuel; Chiapparini, Marcelo
2001-01-01
We present a class of relativistic models for nuclear matter and neutron stars which exhibits a parameterization, through mathematical constants, of the non-linear meson-baryon couplings. For appropriate choices of the parameters, it recovers current QHD models found in the literature: Walecka, ZM and ZM3 models. We have found that the ZM3 model predicts a very small maximum neutron star mass, ∼ 0.72M s un. A strong similarity between the results of ZM-like models and those with exponential couplings is noted. Finally, we discuss the very intense scalar condensates found in the interior of neutron stars which may lead to negative effective masses. (author)
Neutron stars in non-linear coupling models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taurines, Andre R.; Vasconcellos, Cesar A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malheiro, Manuel [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Chiapparini, Marcelo [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2001-07-01
We present a class of relativistic models for nuclear matter and neutron stars which exhibits a parameterization, through mathematical constants, of the non-linear meson-baryon couplings. For appropriate choices of the parameters, it recovers current QHD models found in the literature: Walecka, ZM and ZM3 models. We have found that the ZM3 model predicts a very small maximum neutron star mass, {approx} 0.72M{sub s}un. A strong similarity between the results of ZM-like models and those with exponential couplings is noted. Finally, we discuss the very intense scalar condensates found in the interior of neutron stars which may lead to negative effective masses. (author)
Non-linear realizations and higher curvature supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ferrara, S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, U.C.L.A., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Luest, D. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2017-12-15
We focus on non-linear realizations of local supersymmetry as obtained by using constrained superfields in supergravity. New constraints, beyond those of rigid supersymmetry, are obtained whenever curvature multiplets are affected as well as higher derivative interactions are introduced. In particular, a new constraint, which removes a very massive gravitino is introduced, and in the rigid limit it merely reduces to an explicit supersymmetry breaking. Higher curvature supergravities free of ghosts and instabilities are also obtained in this way. Finally, we consider direct coupling of the goldstino multiplet to the super Gauss-Bonnet multiplet and discuss the emergence of a new scalar degree of freedom. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Magnetodynamic non-linearity of electric properties of uncompensated metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobol', V.R.; Mazurenko, O.N.
2001-01-01
Magnetodynamic non-linearity of electric properties of normal metals is investigated both experimentally and analytically provided that the drift of charge carriers of high density in crossed electric and magnetic fields results in generation of a self current field. The measurements were made on high purity polycrystalline aluminium cylindrical conductors under the action of the magnetic field, coaxial the sample axis, on the radial current. The electric potential and its nonlinear correction are determined in a wide range of energy dissipation values up to the levels corresponding to the crisis of liquid helium boiling. In the approximation of contribution additivity to the resistive effect of both the external and self magnetic field agreement between the experimental data and the results calculated using the macroscopic field equations is attained. The problems of magnetic energy concentration for cylindrical conductors is discussed in the approximation of long and short solenoids
On modulated complex non-linear dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, G.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Rauh, A.
1999-01-01
This paper is concerned with the development of an approximate analytical method to investigate periodic solutions and their stability in the case of modulated non-linear dynamical systems whose equation of motion is describe. Such differential equations appear, for example, in problems of colliding particle beams in high-energy accelerators or one-mass systems with two or more degrees of freedom, e.g. rotors. The significance of periodic solutions lies on the fact that all non-periodic responses, if convergent, would approach to periodic solutions at the steady-state conditions. The example shows a good agreement between numerical and analytical results for small values of ε. The effect of the periodic modulation on the stability of the 2π-periodic solutions is discussed
Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten
2014-01-01
by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear...... models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS......-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration...
Locally supersymmetric D=3 non-linear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wit, B. de; Tollsten, A.K.; Nicolai, H.
1993-01-01
We study non-linear sigma models with N local supersymmetries in three space-time dimensions. For N=1 and 2 the target space of these models is riemannian or Kaehler, respectively. All N>2 theories are associated with Einstein spaces. For N=3 the target space is quaternionic, while for N=4 it generally decomposes, into two separate quaternionic spaces, associated with inequivalent supermultiplets. For N=5, 6, 8 there is a unique (symmetric) space for any given number of supermultiplets. Beyond that there are only theories based on a single supermultiplet for N=9, 10, 12 and 16, associated with coset spaces with the exceptional isometry groups F 4(-20) , E 6(-14) , E 7(-5) and E 8(+8) , respectively. For N=3 and N ≥ 5 the D=2 theories obtained by dimensional reduction are two-loop finite. (orig.)
Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note
Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.
2001-01-01
Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.
Considering system non-linearity in transmission pricing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Salehizadeh, M. Reza
2008-01-01
In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The contribution of a contract on power flow of a transmission line is used as extent-of-use criterion for transmission pricing. In order to determine the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line, first the contribution of each contract on each voltage angle is determined, which is called voltage angle decomposition. To this end, DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for voltage angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on voltage angle decomposition, a method is presented to determine the share of different terms of sine argument in sine value. Then the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow using the presented sharing method. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system and the results are analyzed. (author)
Robust C subroutines for non-linear optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun
2004-01-01
This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have standardized calls, and the user does not have...... by changing 1 to 0. The present report is a new and updated version of a previous report NI-91-03 with the same title, [16]. Both the previous and the present report describe a collection of subroutines, which have been translated from Fortran to C. The reason for writing the present report is that some...... of the C subroutines have been replaced by more effective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modi ed to some extent. For a description of the original Fortran subroutines see the report [17]. The software...
Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helsen, M.; De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Gangwar, A.; Back, C. H.; Weigand, M.
2015-01-01
We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point
Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail: allahyari@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: j.taghizadeh.f@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-01
We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.
Non-linearities in Theory-of-Mind Development.
Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M A; van Geert, Paul L C
2016-01-01
Research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) has mainly focused on ages of core ToM development. This article follows a quantitative approach focusing on the level of ToM understanding on a measurement scale, the ToM Storybooks, in 324 typically developing children between 3 and 11 years of age. It deals with the eventual occurrence of developmental non-linearities in ToM functioning, using smoothing techniques, dynamic growth model building and additional indicators, namely moving skewness, moving growth rate changes and moving variability. The ToM sum-scores showed an overall developmental trend that leveled off toward the age of 10 years. Within this overall trend two non-linearities in the group-based change pattern were found: a plateau at the age of around 56 months and a dip at the age of 72-78 months. These temporary regressions in ToM sum-score were accompanied by a decrease in growth rate and variability, and a change in skewness of the ToM data, all suggesting a developmental shift in ToM understanding. The temporary decreases also occurred in the different ToM sub-scores and most clearly so in the core ToM component of beliefs. It was also found that girls had an earlier growth spurt than boys and that the underlying developmental path was more salient in girls than in boys. The consequences of these findings are discussed from various theoretical points of view, with an emphasis on a dynamic systems interpretation of the underlying developmental paths.
Modelling non-linear effects of dark energy
Bose, Benjamin; Baldi, Marco; Pourtsidou, Alkistis
2018-04-01
We investigate the capabilities of perturbation theory in capturing non-linear effects of dark energy. We test constant and evolving w models, as well as models involving momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. Specifically, we compare perturbative predictions at 1-loop level against N-body results for four non-standard equations of state as well as varying degrees of momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. The interaction is modelled phenomenologically using a time dependent drag term in the Euler equation. We make comparisons at the level of the matter power spectrum and the redshift space monopole and quadrupole. The multipoles are modelled using the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space spectrum. We find perturbation theory does very well in capturing non-linear effects coming from dark sector interaction. We isolate and quantify the 1-loop contribution coming from the interaction and from the non-standard equation of state. We find the interaction parameter ξ amplifies scale dependent signatures in the range of scales considered. Non-standard equations of state also give scale dependent signatures within this same regime. In redshift space the match with N-body is improved at smaller scales by the addition of the TNS free parameter σv. To quantify the importance of modelling the interaction, we create mock data sets for varying values of ξ using perturbation theory. This data is given errors typical of Stage IV surveys. We then perform a likelihood analysis using the first two multipoles on these sets and a ξ=0 modelling, ignoring the interaction. We find the fiducial growth parameter f is generally recovered even for very large values of ξ both at z=0.5 and z=1. The ξ=0 modelling is most biased in its estimation of f for the phantom w=‑1.1 case.
STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pagliari Carmen
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to
Risk Assessment Methodology for Protecting Our Critical Physical Infrastructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BIRINGER,BETTY E.; DANNEELS,JEFFREY J.
2000-12-13
Critical infrastructures are central to our national defense and our economic well-being, but many are taken for granted. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 highlights the importance of eight of our critical infrastructures and outlines a plan for action. Greatly enhanced physical security systems will be required to protect these national assets from new and emerging threats. Sandia National Laboratories has been the lead laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and deploying physical security systems for the past twenty-five years. Many of the tools, processes, and systems employed in the protection of high consequence facilities can be adapted to the civilian infrastructure.
Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.
1993-01-01
This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref
Fluctuations of two-time quantities and non-linear response functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corberi, F; Lippiello, E; Sarracino, A; Zannetti, M
2010-01-01
We study the fluctuations of the autocorrelation and autoresponse functions and, in particular, their variances and covariance. In a first general part of the paper, we show the equivalence of the variance of the response function to the second-order susceptibility of a composite operator, and we derive an equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem beyond linear order, relating it to the other variances. In a second part of the paper we apply the formalism in the study of non-disordered ferromagnets, in equilibrium or in the coarsening kinetics following a critical or sub-critical quench. We show numerically that the variances and the non-linear susceptibility obey scaling with respect to the coherence length ξ in equilibrium, and with respect to the growing length L(t) after a quench, similar to what is known for the autocorrelation and the autoresponse functions
Linear and non-linear simulation of joints contact surface using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The joint modelling including non-linear effects needs accurate and precise study of their behaviors. When joints are under the dynamic loading, micro, macro- slip happens in contact surface which is non-linear reason of the joint contact surface. The non-linear effects of joint contact surface on total behavior of structure are ...
Non linear dynamics of magnetic islands in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meshcheriakov, D.
2012-10-01
In this thesis we investigate the issues of linear stability of the tearing modes in a presence of both curvature and diamagnetic rotation using the non linear full-MHD toroidal code XTOR-2F, which includes anisotropic heat transport, diamagnetic and geometrical effects. This analysis is applied to one of the fully non-inductive discharges on Tore-Supra. Such experiments are crucially important to demonstrate reactor scale steady state operation for the tokamak. The possibility of a full linear stabilization of the tearing modes by diamagnetic rotation in the presence of toroidal curvature is shown. The stabilization threshold does not follow the classical scaling law connecting the growth rate of islands to plasma conductivity, measured here by the Lundquist number (S). However, for numerical reasons, the conductivity used in the simulations is lower than that of the experiment, which raises the question of extrapolation of the obtained results to the experimental situation. The extrapolation of the obtained results requires simulations with several different conductivities. It predicts that the mode at q = 2 surface to be stable at value of diamagnetic frequency consistent with the experimental one at S = S(exp). In the linearly stable domain, the mode is metastable: saturation level depends on the seed island size. In the non linear regime, the saturation of n=1, m=2 mode is found to be strongly reduced by diamagnetic rotation and by Lundquist number. However, the extrapolation to the experimental situation shows that if the island is destabilized, it will saturate at a detectable level for the Tore Supra diagnostic. For a large plasma aspect ratio (i.e. weak curvature effects), the reduction of the saturated width by diamagnetic frequency takes the form of a jump reminiscent of multiple states evidenced in slab geometry case. The question of extrapolation of the obtained results towards future generation of fusion devices is also addressed. In particular, for
Summary of ORSphere critical and reactor physics measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marshall Margaret A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader, J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF with highly enriched uranium (HEU metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP. Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the evaluated critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations.
Summary of ORSphere Critical and Reactor Physics Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.
2016-09-01
In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J. J. Lynn, and J. R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP). Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is summary summarize all the critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations and, when possible, to compare them to GODIVA experiment results.
Summary of ORSphere critical and reactor physics measurements
Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.
2017-09-01
In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP). Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the evaluated critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations.
Non linear permanent magnets modelling with the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavanne, J.; Meunier, G.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.
1989-01-01
In order to perform the calculation of permanent magnets with the finite element method, it is necessary to take into account the anisotropic behaviour of hard magnetic materials (Ferrites, NdFeB, SmCo5). In linear cases, the permeability of permanent magnets is a tensor. This one is fully described with the permeabilities parallel and perpendicular to the easy axis of the magnet. In non linear cases, the model uses a texture function which represents the distribution of the local easy axis of the cristallytes of the magnet. This function allows a good representation of the angular dependance of the coercitive field of the magnet. As a result, it is possible to express the magnetic induction B and the tensor as functions of the field and the texture parameter. This model has been implemented in the software FLUX3D where the tensor is used for the Newton-Raphson procedure. 3D demagnetization of a ferrite magnet by a NdFeB magnet is a suitable representative example. They analyze the results obtained for an ideally oriented ferrite magnet and a real one using a measured texture parameter
A Design of a Hybrid Non-Linear Control Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farinaz Behrooz
2017-11-01
Full Text Available One of the high energy consuming devices in the buildings is the air-conditioning system. Designing a proper controller to consider the thermal comfort and simultaneously control the energy usage of the device will impact on the system energy efficiency and its performance. The aim of this study was to design a Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, non-linear, and intelligent controller on direct expansion air-conditioning system The control algorithm uses the Fuzzy Cognitive Map method as a main controller and the Generalized Predictive Control method is used for assigning the initial weights of the main controller. The results of the proposed controller shows that the controller was successfully designed and works in set point tracking and under disturbance rejection tests. The obtained results of the Generalized Predictive Control-Fuzzy Cognitive Map controller are compared with the previous MIMO Linear Quadratic Gaussian control design on the same direct expansion air-conditioning system under the same conditions. The comparative results indicate energy savings would be achieved with the proposed controller with long-term usage. Energy efficiency and thermal comfort conditions are achieved by the proposed controller.
A numerical study of non-linear crack tip parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.V. Antunes
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Crack closure concept has been widely used to explain different issues of fatigue crack propagation. However, different authors have questioned the relevance of crack closure and have proposed alternative concepts. The main objective here is to check the effectiveness of crack closure concept by linking the contact of crack flanks with non-linear crack tip parameters. Accordingly, 3D-FE numerical models with and without contact were developed for a wide range of loading scenarios and the crack tip parameters usually linked to fatigue crack growth, namely range of cyclic plastic strain, crack tip opening displacement, size of reversed plastic zone and total plastic dissipation per cycle, were investigated. It was demonstrated that: i LEFM concepts are applicable to the problem under study; ii the crack closure phenomenon has a great influence on crack tip parameters decreasing their values; iii the Keff concept is able to explain the variations of crack tip parameters produced by the contact of crack flanks; iv the analysis of remote compliance is the best numerical parameter to quantify the crack opening level; v without contact there is no effect of stress ratio on crack tip parameters. Therefore it is proved that the crack closure concept is valid.
Non-linear modulation of short wavelength compressional Alfven eigenmodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Bortolon, A. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Crocker, N. A. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-04-15
Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to Almost-Equal-To 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n = 1 kink-like mode. In this paper, we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE) and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present a predator-prey type model of the curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.
A simple non-linear model of immune response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutnikov, Sergei; Melnikov, Yuri
2003-01-01
It is still unknown why the adaptive immune response in the natural immune system based on clonal proliferation of lymphocytes requires interaction of at least two different cell types with the same antigen. We present a simple mathematical model illustrating that the system with separate types of cells for antigen recognition and patogen destruction provides more robust adaptive immunity than the system where just one cell type is responsible for both recognition and destruction. The model is over-simplified as we did not have an intention of describing the natural immune system. However, our model provides a tool for testing the proposed approach through qualitative analysis of the immune system dynamics in order to construct more sophisticated models of the immune systems that exist in the living nature. It also opens a possibility to explore specific features of highly non-linear dynamics in nature-inspired computational paradigms like artificial immune systems and immunocomputing . We expect this paper to be of interest not only for mathematicians but also for biologists; therefore we made effort to explain mathematics in sufficient detail for readers without professional mathematical background
Non-linear iterative strategy for nem refinement and extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engrand, P.R.; Maldonado, G.I.; Al-Chalabi, R.; Turinsky, P.J.
1994-10-01
The following work is related to the non-linear iterative strategy developed by K. Smith to solve the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) representation of the neutron diffusion equations. We show how to improve this strategy and how to adapt it to time dependant problems. This work has been done in the NESTLE code, developed at North Carolina State University. When using Smith's strategy, one ends up with a two-node problem which corresponds to a matrix with a fixed structure and a size of 16 x 16 (for a 2 group representation). We show how to reduce this matrix into 2 equivalent systems which sizes are 4 x 4 and 8 x 8. The whole problem needs many of these 2 node problems solution. Therefore the gain in CPU time reaches 45% in the nodal part of the code. To adapt Smith's strategy to time dependent problems, the idea is to get the same structure of the 2 node problem system as in steady-state calculation. To achieve this, one has to approximate the values of the past time-step and of the previous by a second order polynomial and to treat it as a source term. We show here how to make this approximation consistent and accurate. (authors). 1 tab., 2 refs
Predicting Madura cattle growth curve using non-linear model
Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.; Widi, T. S. M.; Baliarti, E.
2018-03-01
Madura cattle is Indonesian native. It is a composite breed that has undergone hundreds of years of selection and domestication to reach nowadays remarkable uniformity. Crossbreeding has reached the isle of Madura and the Madrasin, a cross between Madura cows and Limousine semen emerged. This paper aimed to compare the growth curve between Madrasin and one type of pure Madura cows, the common Madura cattle (Madura) using non-linear models. Madura cattles are kept traditionally thus reliable records are hardly available. Data were collected from small holder farmers in Madura. Cows from different age classes (5years) were observed, and body measurements (chest girth, body length and wither height) were taken. In total 63 Madura and 120 Madrasin records obtained. Linear model was built with cattle sub-populations and age as explanatory variables. Body weights were estimated based on the chest girth. Growth curves were built using logistic regression. Results showed that within the same age, Madrasin has significantly larger body compared to Madura (plogistic models fit better for Madura and Madrasin cattle data; with the estimated MSE for these models were 39.09 and 759.28 with prediction accuracy of 99 and 92% for Madura and Madrasin, respectively. Prediction of growth curve using logistic regression model performed well in both types of Madura cattle. However, attempts to administer accurate data on Madura cattle are necessary to better characterize and study these cattle.
Non-linear analysis of solid propellant burning rate behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Junye Wang [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hanzhou (China)
2000-07-01
The parametric analysis of the thermal wave model of the non-steady combustion of solid propellants is carried out under a sudden compression. First, to observe non-linear effects, solutions are obtained using a computer under prescribed pressure variations. Then, the effects of rearranging the spatial mesh, additional points, and the time step on numerical solutions are evaluated. Finally, the behaviour of the thermal wave combustion model is examined under large heat releases (H) and a dynamic factor ({beta}). The numerical predictions show that (1) the effect of a dynamic factor ({beta}), related to the magnitude of dp/dt, on the peak burning rate increases as the value of beta increases. However, unsteady burning rate 'runaway' does not appear and will return asymptotically to ap{sup n}, when {beta}{>=}10.0. The burning rate 'runaway' is a numerical difficulty, not a solution to the models. (2) At constant beta and m, the amplitude of the burning rate increases with increasing H. However, the increase in the burning rate amplitude is stepwise, and there is no apparent intrinsic instability limit. A damped oscillation of burning rate occurs when the value of H is less. However, when H>1.0, the state of an intrinsically unstable model is composed of repeated, amplitude spikes, i.e. an undamped oscillation occurs. (3) The effect of the time step on the peak burning rate increases as H increases. (Author)
Non linear stability analysis of parallel channels with natural circulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Ashish Mani; Singh, Suneet, E-mail: suneet.singh@iitb.ac.in
2016-12-01
Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in natural circulation loop are studied. • Generalized Hopf points, Sub and Supercritical Hopf bifurcations are identified. • Bogdanov–Taken Point (BT Point) is observed by nonlinear stability analysis. • Effect of parameters on stability of system is studied. - Abstract: Linear stability analysis of two-phase flow in natural circulation loop is quite extensively studied by many researchers in past few years. It can be noted that linear stability analysis is limited to the small perturbations only. It is pointed out that such systems typically undergo Hopf bifurcation. If the Hopf bifurcation is subcritical, then for relatively large perturbation, the system has unstable limit cycles in the (linearly) stable region in the parameter space. Hence, linear stability analysis capturing only infinitesimally small perturbations is not sufficient. In this paper, bifurcation analysis is carried out to capture the non-linear instability of the dynamical system and both subcritical and supercritical bifurcations are observed. The regions in the parameter space for which subcritical and supercritical bifurcations exist are identified. These regions are verified by numerical simulation of the time-dependent, nonlinear ODEs for the selected points in the operating parameter space using MATLAB ODE solver.
Non-linear and signal energy optimal asymptotic filter design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josef Hrusak
2003-10-01
Full Text Available The paper studies some connections between the main results of the well known Wiener-Kalman-Bucy stochastic approach to filtering problems based mainly on the linear stochastic estimation theory and emphasizing the optimality aspects of the achieved results and the classical deterministic frequency domain linear filters such as Chebyshev, Butterworth, Bessel, etc. A new non-stochastic but not necessarily deterministic (possibly non-linear alternative approach called asymptotic filtering based mainly on the concepts of signal power, signal energy and a system equivalence relation plays an important role in the presentation. Filtering error invariance and convergence aspects are emphasized in the approach. It is shown that introducing the signal power as the quantitative measure of energy dissipation makes it possible to achieve reasonable results from the optimality point of view as well. The property of structural energy dissipativeness is one of the most important and fundamental features of resulting filters. Therefore, it is natural to call them asymptotic filters. The notion of the asymptotic filter is carried in the paper as a proper tool in order to unify stochastic and non-stochastic, linear and nonlinear approaches to signal filtering.
Non linear seismic analysis of charge/discharge machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dostal, M.; Trbojevic, V.M.; Nobile, M.
1987-01-01
The main conclusions of the seismic analysis of the Latina CDM are: i. The charge machine has been demonstrated to be capable of withstanding the effects of a 0.1 g earthquake. Stresses and displacements were all within allowable limits and the stability criteria were fully satisfied for all positions of the cross-travel bogie on the gantry. ii. Movements due to loss of friction between the cross-travel bogie wheels and the rail was found to be small, i.e. less than 2 mm for all cases considered. The modes of rocking of the fixed and hinged legs preclude any possibility of excessive movement between the long travel bogie wheels and the rail. iii. The non-linear analysis incorporating contact and friction has given more realistic results than any of the linear verification analyses. The method of analysis indicates that even the larger structures can be efficiently solved on a mini computer for a long forcing input (16 s). (orig.)
Non-linear Imaging using an Experimental Synthetic Aperture Real Time Ultrasound Scanner
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
This paper presents the first non-linear B-mode image of a wire phantom using pulse inversion attained via an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS). The purpose of this study is to implement and validate non-linear imaging on SARUS for the further development of new...... non-linear techniques. This study presents non-linear and linear B-mode images attained via SARUS and an existing ultrasound system as well as a Field II simulation. The non-linear image shows an improved spatial resolution and lower full width half max and -20 dB resolution values compared to linear...
A non-linear reduced order methodology applicable to boiling water reactor stability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prill, Dennis Paul
2013-01-01
Thermal-hydraulic coupling between power, flow rate and density, intensified by neutronics feedback are the main drivers of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability behavior. High-power low-flow conditions in connection with unfavorable power distributions can lead the BWR system into unstable regions where power oscillations can be triggered. This important threat to operational safety requires careful analysis for proper understanding. Analyzing an exhaustive parameter space of the non-linear BWR system becomes feasible with methodologies based on reduced order models (ROMs), saving computational cost and improving the physical understanding. Presently within reactor dynamics, no general and automatic prediction of high-dimensional ROMs based on detailed BWR models are available. In this thesis a systematic self-contained model order reduction (MOR) technique is derived which is applicable for several classes of dynamical problems, and in particular to BWRs of any degree of details. Expert knowledge can be given by operational, experimental or numerical transient data and is transfered into an optimal basis function representation. The methodology is mostly automated and provides the framework for the reduction of various different systems of any level of complexity. Only little effort is necessary to attain a reduced version within this self-written code which is based on coupling of sophisticated commercial software. The methodology reduces a complex system in a grid-free manner to a small system able to capture even non-linear dynamics. It is based on an optimal choice of basis functions given by the so-called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Required steps to achieve reliable and numerical stable ROM are given by a distinct calibration road-map. In validation and verification steps, a wide spectrum of representative test examples is systematically studied regarding a later BWR application. The first example is non-linear and has a dispersive character
Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aktaa, J., E-mail: jarir.aktaa@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2014-10-15
Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of
Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aktaa, J.; Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of
Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele
2017-07-01
The present paper is devoted to the analysis of entire 3D masonry structures adopting a Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model. A series of non linear static and dynamic analyses are conducted with respect to two structures with technical relevance. The elementary cell is discretized by means of three-noded plane stress elements and non-linear interfaces. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are performed replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage (RBSM) by means of which both in and out of plane mechanisms are allowed. In order to validate the proposed model for the analyses of full scale structures subjected to seismic actions, two different examples are critically discussed, namely a church façade and an in-scale masonry building, both subjected to dynamic excitation. The results obtained are compared with experimental or numerical results available in literature.
Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus
2014-12-01
An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.
A test to evaluation non-linear soil structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagiwara, T.; Kitada, Y.
2005-01-01
JNES is planning a new project to study non-linear soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect under large earthquake ground motions equivalent to and/or over a design earthquake ground motion of S2. Concerning the SSI test, it is pointed out that handling of the scale effect of the specimen taking into account the surrounding soil on the earthquake response evaluation to the actual structure is essential issue for the scaled model test. Thus, for the test, the largest specimen possible and the biggest input motion possible are necessary. Taking into account the above issues, new test methodology, which utilizes artificial earthquake ground motion, is considered desirable if it can be performed at a realistic cost. With this motivation, we have studied the test methodology which applying blasting power as for a big earthquake ground motion. The information from a coalmine company in the U.S.A. indicates that the works performed in the surface coalmine to blast a rock covering a coal layer generates a big artificial ground motion, which is similar to earthquake ground motion. Application of this artificial earthquake ground motion for the SSI test is considered very promising because the blasting work is carried out periodically for mining coal so that we can apply artificial motions generated by the work if we construct a building model at a closed point to the blasting work area. The major purposes of the test are to understand (a) basic earthquake response characteristics of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor building when a large earthquake strikes the NPP site and (b) nonlinear characteristics of SSI phenomenon during a big earthquake. In the paper of ICONE-13, we will introduce the test method and basic characteristics of measured artificial ground motions generated by the blasting works on an actual site. (authors)
Core seismic behaviour: linear and non-linear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, M.; Van Dorsselaere, M.; Gauvain, M.; Jenapierre-Gantenbein, M.
1981-08-01
The usual methodology for the core seismic behaviour analysis leads to a double complementary approach: to define a core model to be included in the reactor-block seismic response analysis, simple enough but representative of basic movements (diagrid or slab), to define a finer core model, with basic data issued from the first model. This paper presents the history of the different models of both kinds. The inert mass model (IMM) yielded a first rough diagrid movement. The direct linear model (DLM), without shocks and with sodium as an added mass, let to two different ones: DLM 1 with independent movements of the fuel and radial blanket subassemblies, and DLM 2 with a core combined movement. The non-linear (NLM) ''CORALIE'' uses the same basic modelization (Finite Element Beams) but accounts for shocks. It studies the response of a diameter on flats and takes into account the fluid coupling and the wrapper tube flexibility at the pad level. Damping consists of one modal part of 2% and one part due to shocks. Finally, ''CORALIE'' yields the time-history of the displacements and efforts on the supports, but damping (probably greater than 2%) and fluid-structures interaction are still to be precised. The validation experiments were performed on a RAPSODIE core mock-up on scale 1, in similitude of 1/3 as to SPX 1. The equivalent linear model (ELM) was developed for the SPX 1 reactor-block response analysis and a specified seismic level (SB or SM). It is composed of several oscillators fixed to the diagrid and yields the same maximum displacements and efforts than the NLM. The SPX 1 core seismic analysis with a diagrid input spectrum which corresponds to a 0,1 g group acceleration, has been carried out with these models: some aspects of these calculations are presented here
Basic experiments of reactor physics using the critical assembly TCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obara, Toru; Igashira, Masayuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Ken; Suzaki, Takenori.
1994-02-01
This report is based on lectures given to graduate students of Tokyo Institute of Technology. It covers educational experiments conducted with the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in July, 1993. During this period, the following basic experiments on reactor physics were performed: (1) Critical approach experiment, (2) Measurement of neutron flux distribution, (3) Measurement of power distribution, (4) Measurement of fuel rod worth distribution, (5) Measurement of safety sheet worth by the rod drop method. The principle of experiments, experimental procedure, and analysis of results are described in this report. (author)
Non-linear effects in vortex viscous flow in superconductors-role of finite heat removal velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezuglyj, A.I.; Shklovskij, V.A.
1991-01-01
The role of finite heat removal velocity in experiments on non-linear effects in vortex viscous flow in superconducting films near critical temperature was investigated. It was shown that the account of thermal effects permits to explain the experimentally observed dependence of electron energy relaxation time and current break-down in voltage-current characteristic from magnetic field value. 5 refs.; 1 fig. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.
2016-01-01
The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum
Critical behavior in continuous dimension, ε∞ theory and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldfain, Ervin
2008-01-01
Bringing closure to the host of open questions posed by the current standard model for particle physics (SM) continues to be a major challenge for the theoretical physics community. Despite years of multiple research efforts, a consistent and comprehensive understanding of standard model parameters is missing. Our work suggests that critical dynamics of the renormalization group flow provides valuable insights into most of the unresolved issues surrounding SM. We report that the dynamics of the renormalization group flow and the topological approach of El Naschie's ε ∞ theory are viewpoints that share a common foundation. The paper concludes with a brief overview of future developments and integration efforts
Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure
Das, Sajal K; Zhang, Nan
2012-01-01
The worldwide reach of the Internet allows malicious cyber criminals to coordinate and launch attacks on both cyber and cyber-physical infrastructure from anywhere in the world. This purpose of this handbook is to introduce the theoretical foundations and practical solution techniques for securing critical cyber and physical infrastructures as well as their underlying computing and communication architectures and systems. Examples of such infrastructures include utility networks (e.g., electrical power grids), ground transportation systems (automotives, roads, bridges and tunnels), airports a
Non-linear interactions of multi-level atoms with a near-resonant standing wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Kane, T.J.; Scholten, R.E.; Walkiewicz, M.R.; Farrell, P.M.
1998-01-01
Using a semiclassical density matrix formalism we have calculated the behavior of multi-level atoms interacting with a standing wave field, and show how complex non-linear phenomena, including multi-photon effects, combine to produce saturation spectra as observed in experiments. We consider both 20-level sodium and 24-level rubidium models, contrasting these with a simple 2-level case. The influence of parameters such as atomic trajectory and the time the atom remains in the beam are shown to have a critical effect on the lineshape of these resonances and the emission/absorption processes. Stable oscillations in the excited state populations for both the two-level and multi-level cases are shown to be limit cycles. These limit cycles undergo period doubling as the system evolves into chaos. Finally, using a Monte Carlo treatment, these processes average to produce saturated absorption spectra complete with power and Doppler broadening effects consistent with experiment. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravets, E.A.; Berezhnaya, V.V.; Sakada, V.I.; Rashidov, N.M.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Kravets, E.A.; Berezhnaya, V.V.; Sakada, V.I.; Rashidov, N.M.; Grodzinskij, D.M.
2012-01-01
The dose dependences of the aberrant anaphases in the root meristem in 48 hours after the irradiation have non-linear character and a plateau in the region about 6-8 Gy. The plateau indicates the activation of recovery processes. In the plateau range, the level of damages for this genotype is 33% for aberrant anaphases (FAA), 2.3 aberrations per aberrant anaphase (A/AC), and 0.74 aberrations for the total number of anaphases. At 10 Gy, the dose curve forms the exponential region caused by the involvement of the large number of new cells with unrepaired damages in the mutation process. The increase of A/AC to 1.1 indicate the ''criticality'' of the meristem radiation damage.
Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna
2015-04-01
Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways
Entropy, non-linearity and hierarchy in ecosystems
Addiscott, T.
2009-04-01
Soil-plant systems are open systems thermodynamically because they exchange both energy and matter with their surroundings. Thus they are properly described by the second and third of the three stages of thermodynamics defined by Prigogine and Stengers (1984). The second stage describes a system in which the flow is linearly related to the force. Such a system tends towards a steady state in which entropy production is minimized, but it depends on the capacity of the system for self-organization. In a third stage system, flow is non-linearly related to force, and the system can move far from equilibrium. This system maximizes entropy production but in so doing facilitates self-organization. The second stage system was suggested earlier to provide a useful analogue of the behaviour of natural and agricultural ecosystems subjected to perturbations, but it needs the capacity for self-organization. Considering an ecosystem as a hierarchy suggests this capacity is provided by the soil population, which releases from dead plant matter nutrients such as nitrate, phosphate and captions needed for growth of new plants and the renewal of the whole ecosystem. This release of small molecules from macromolecules increases entropy, and the soil population maximizes entropy production by releasing nutrients and carbon dioxide as vigorously as conditions allow. In so doing it behaves as a third stage thermodynamic system. Other authors (Schneider and Kay, 1994, 1995) consider that it is in the plants in an ecosystem that maximize entropy, mainly through transpiration, but studies on transpiration efficiency suggest that this is questionable. Prigogine, I. & Stengers, I. 1984. Order out of chaos. Bantam Books, Toronto. Schneider, E.D. & Kay, J.J. 1994. Life as a manifestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Mathematical & Computer Modelling, 19, 25-48. Schneider, E.D. & Kay, J.J. 1995. Order from disorder: The Thermodynamics of Complexity in Biology. In: What is Life: the Next
'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.
Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A
2015-05-01
Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Non-linear statistical downscaling of present and LGM precipitation and temperatures over Europe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Vrac
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Local-scale climate information is increasingly needed for the study of past, present and future climate changes. In this study we develop a non-linear statistical downscaling method to generate local temperatures and precipitation values from large-scale variables of a Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (here CLIMBER. Our statistical downscaling scheme is based on the concept of Generalized Additive Models (GAMs, capturing non-linearities via non-parametric techniques. Our GAMs are calibrated on the present Western Europe climate. For this region, annual GAMs (i.e. models based on 12 monthly values per location are fitted by combining two types of large-scale explanatory variables: geographical (e.g. topographical information and physical (i.e. entirely simulated by the CLIMBER model.
To evaluate the adequacy of the non-linear transfer functions fitted on the present Western European climate, they are applied to different spatial and temporal large-scale conditions. Local projections for present North America and Northern Europe climates are obtained and compared to local observations. This partially addresses the issue of spatial robustness of our transfer functions by answering the question "does our statistical model remain valid when applied to large-scale climate conditions from a region different from the one used for calibration?". To asses their temporal performances, local projections for the Last Glacial Maximum period are derived and compared to local reconstructions and General Circulation Model outputs.
Our downscaling methodology performs adequately for the Western Europe climate. Concerning the spatial and temporal evaluations, it does not behave as well for Northern America and Northern Europe climates because the calibration domain may be too different from the targeted regions. The physical explanatory variables alone are not capable of downscaling realistic values. However, the inclusion of
AAMQS: a non-linear QCD description of new HERA data at small-x
Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Armesto, Nestor; Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A
2011-01-01
We present a global analysis of available data on inclusive structure functions measured in electron-proton scattering at small values of Bjorken-x, including the latest data from the combined HERA analysis on reduced cross sections. Our approach relies on the dipole formulation of DIS together with the use of the non-linear running coupling BK equation for the description of the small-x dynamics. With the resulting parametrization we are able to describe the latest FL data measured by the H1 collaboration. Further, we discuss the kinematical domain where significant deviations from NLO-DGLAP should be expected and the ability of non-linnear physics to account for such deviations.
Imitation learning of Non-Linear Point-to-Point Robot Motions using Dirichlet Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Volker; Tikhanoff, Vadim; Natale, Lorenzo
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss the use of the infinite Gaussian mixture model and Dirichlet processes for learning robot movements from demonstrations. Starting point of this work is an earlier paper where the authors learn a non-linear dynamic robot movement model from a small number of observations....... The model in that work is learned using a classical finite Gaussian mixture model (FGMM) where the Gaussian mixtures are appropriately constrained. The problem with this approach is that one needs to make a good guess for how many mixtures the FGMM should use. In this work, we generalize this approach...... our algorithm on the same data that was used in [5], where the authors use motion capture devices to record the demonstrations. As further validation we test our approach on novel data acquired on our iCub in a different demonstration scenario in which the robot is physically driven by the human...
Non-linear Yang-Mills instantons from strings are π-stable D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enger, H.; Luetken, C.A.
2004-01-01
We show that B-type Π-stable D-branes do not in general reduce to the (Gieseker-) stable holomorphic vector bundles used in mathematics to construct moduli spaces. We show that solutions of the almost Hermitian Yang-Mills equations for the non-linear deformations of Yang-Mills instantons that appear in the low-energy geometric limit of strings exist iff they are π-stable, a geometric large volume version of Π-stability. This shows that π-stability is the correct physical stability concept. We speculate that this string-canonical choice of stable objects, which is encoded in and derived from the central charge of the string-algebra, should find applications to algebraic geometry where there is no canonical choice of stable geometrical objects
Effects of collisions on linear and non-linear spectroscopic line shapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, P.R.
1978-01-01
A fundamental physical problem is the determination of atom-atom, atom-molecule and molecule-molecule differential and total scattering cross sections. In this work, a technique for studying atomic and molecular collisions using spectroscopic line shape analysis is discussed. Collisions occurring within an atomic or molecular sample influence the sample's absorptive or emissive properties. Consequently the line shapes associated with the linear or non-linear absorption of external fields by an atomic system reflect the collisional processes occurring in the gas. Explicit line shape expressions are derived characterizing linear or saturated absorption by two-or three-level 'active' atoms which are undergoing collisions with perturber atoms. The line shapes may be broadened, shifted, narrowed, or distorted as a result of collisions which may be 'phase-interrupting' or 'velocity-changing' in nature. Systematic line shape studies can be used to obtain information on both the differential and total active atom-perturber scattering cross sections. (Auth.)
Non linear characterisation of optical components of a high power laser chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santran, Stephane
2000-01-01
This work concerns the realisation of non linear properties measurement prototypes in glasses in the near infrared and in the visible range. The various devices are time resolved colinear pump probe experiments in which the non linear susceptibility is deduced by the probe beam intensity variations induced by the pump probe coupled in the material. The sensitivity of these experiments allows us to observe unexpected variations, greater than 30%, of several fused silica non linear indexes. As well, this allow us to analyse the origin of the promising oxide glasses non linearity for all optical applications and to understand an d measure non linear processes in the two photons photodiodes. Finally, an original structure for the non linear index measurement in non degenerated configuration by a probe pulse phase measurement approach with a Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated and analysed. (author) [fr
Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.
Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria
2016-05-15
Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Non-linear free streaming in Vlasov plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sedláček, Zdeněk
2004-01-01
Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C82-C88 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/21th./. Prague, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma oscillations * Vlasov equation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004
Preisach hysteresis model for non-linear 2D heat diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jancskar, Ildiko; Ivanyi, Amalia
2006-01-01
This paper analyzes a non-linear heat diffusion process when the thermal diffusivity behaviour is a hysteretic function of the temperature. Modelling this temperature dependence, the discrete Preisach algorithm as general hysteresis model has been integrated into a non-linear multigrid solver. The hysteretic diffusion shows a heating-cooling asymmetry in character. The presented type of hysteresis speeds up the thermal processes in the modelled systems by a very interesting non-linear way
Non-linear frequency and amplitude modulation of a nano-contact spin torque oscillator
Muduli, P. K.; Pogoryelov, Ye.; Bonetti, S.; Consolo, G.; Mancoff, Fred; Åkerman, Johan
2009-01-01
We study the current controlled modulation of a nano-contact spin torque oscillator. Three principally different cases of frequency non-linearity ($d^{2}f/dI^{2}_{dc}$ being zero, positive, and negative) are investigated. Standard non-linear frequency modulation theory is able to accurately describe the frequency shifts during modulation. However, the power of the modulated sidebands only agrees with calculations based on a recent theory of combined non-linear frequency and amplitude modulation.
Genetic design of interpolated non-linear controllers for linear plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajlouni, N.
2000-01-01
The techniques of genetic algorithms are proposed as a means of designing non-linear PID control systems. It is shown that the use of genetic algorithms for this purpose results in highly effective non-linear PID control systems. These results are illustrated by using genetic algorithms to design a non-linear PID control system and contrasting the results with an optimally tuned linear PID controller. (author)
Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure
Yang, Zhi; Hemar, Yacine; Hilliou, loic; Gilbert, Elliot P.; McGillivray, Duncan James; Williams, Martin A. K.; Chaieb, Saharoui
2015-01-01
We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.
Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure
Yang, Zhi
2015-12-14
We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik
2004-01-01
The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...
Non-linear realizations of supersymmetry with off-shell central charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Filho, P.B.; Oliveira Rivelles, V. de.
1985-01-01
A new class of non-linear realizations of the extended supersymmetry algebra with central charges is presented. They were obtained by applying the technique of dimensional reduction by Legendre transformation to a non-linear realization without central charges in one higher dimension. As a result an off-shell central charge is obtained. The non-linear lagrangian is the same as is the case of vanishing central charge. On-shell the central charge vanishes so this non-linear realization differs from that without central charges only off-shell. It is worked in two dimensions and its extension to higher dimensions is discussed. (Author) [pt
Electron non-linearities in Langmuir waves with application to beat-wave experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, A.R.; Gibbon, P.
1988-01-01
Non-linear Langmuir waves are examined in the context of the beat-wave accelerator. With a background of immobile ions the waves in one dimension are subject to the relativistic non-linearity of Rosenbluth, M.N. and Liu, C.S., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1972, 29, 701. In two or three dimensions, other electron non-linearities occur which involve electric and magnetic fields. The quasi-linear equations for these non-linearities are developed and solved numerically in a geometry representative of laser-driven beat waves. (author)
Recent topics in non-linear partial differential equations 4
Mimura, M
1989-01-01
This fourth volume concerns the theory and applications of nonlinear PDEs in mathematical physics, reaction-diffusion theory, biomathematics, and in other applied sciences. Twelve papers present recent work in analysis, computational analysis of nonlinear PDEs and their applications.
Educational reactor-physics experiments with the critical assemble TCA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Okubo, Masaaki; Igashira, Masayuki [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Horiki, Oichiro; Suzaki, Takenori
1997-10-01
The Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is research equipment for light water reactor physics. In the present report, the lectures given to the graduate students of Tokyo Institute of Technology who participated in the educational experiment course held on 26-30 August at TCA are rearranged to provide useful information for those who will implement educational basic experiments with TCA in the future. This report describes the principles, procedures, and data analyses for (1) Critical approach and Exponential experiment, (2) Measurement of neutron flux distribution, (3) Measurement of power distribution, (4) Measurement of fuel rod worth distribution, and (5) Measurement of safety plate worth by the rod drop method. (author)
Educational reactor-physics experiments with the critical assembly TCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Okubo, Masaaki; Igashira, Masayuki; Horiki, Oichiro; Suzaki, Takenori.
1997-10-01
The Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is research equipment for light water reactor physics. In the present report, the lectures given to the graduate students of Tokyo Institute of Technology who participated in the educational experiment course held on 26-30 August at TCA are rearranged to provide useful information for those who will implement educational basic experiments with TCA in the future. This report describes the principles, procedures, and data analyses for 1) Critical approach and Exponential experiment, 2) Measurement of neutron flux distribution, 3) Measurement of power distribution, 4) Measurement of fuel rod worth distribution, and 5) Measurement of safety plate worth by the rod drop method. (author)
Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P
2015-01-01
Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education
Tiercelin, Nicolas; Preobrazhensky, Vladimir; BouMatar, Olivier; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Giordano, Stefano; Dusch, Yannick; Klimov, Alexey; Mathurin, Théo.; Elmazria, Omar; Hehn, Michel; Pernod, Philippe
2017-09-01
The interaction of a strongly nonlinear spin system with a crystalline lattice through magnetoelastic coupling results in significant modifications of the acoustic properties of magnetic materials, especially in the vicinity of magnetic instabilities associated with the spin-reorientation transition (SRT). The magnetoelastic coupling transfers the critical properties of the magnetic subsystem to the elastic one, which leads to a strong decrease of the sound velocity in the vicinity of the SRT, and allows a large control over acoustic nonlinearities. The general principles of the non-linear magneto-acoustics (NMA) will be introduced and illustrated in `bulk' applications such as acoustic wave phase conjugation, multi-phonon coupling, explosive instability of magneto-elastic vibrations, etc. The concept of the SRT coupled to magnetoelastic interaction has been transferred into nanostructured magnetoelastic multilayers with uni-axial anisotropy. The high sensitivity and the non-linear properties have been demonstrated in cantilever type actuators, and phenomena such as magneto-mechanical RF demodulation have been observed. The combination of the magnetic layers with piezoelectric materials also led to stress-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) composites with high ME coefficients, thanks to the SRT. The magnetoacoustic effects of the SRT have also been studied for surface acoustic waves propagating in the magnetoelastic layers and found to be promising for highly sensitive magnetic field sensors working at room temperature. On the other hand, mechanical stress is a very efficient way to control the magnetic subsystem. The principle of a very energy efficient stress-mediated magnetoelectric writing and reading in a magnetic memory is described.
Non-linear dose response of a few plant taxa to acute gamma radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, J.T.; Patel, B.B.; Pius, J.; Narula, B.; Shankhadarwar, S.; Rane, V.A.; Venu-Babu, P.; Eapen, S.; Singhal, R.K.
2014-01-01
Micronuclei induction serves as an essential biomarker of radiation stress in a living system, and the simplicity of its detection technique has made it a widely used indicator of radiation damage. The present study was conducted to reveal the cytological dose-response of a few plant taxa, viz., Allium cepa var. aggregatum Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, to low LET gamma radiation with special emphasis on the pattern of micronuclei induced across low and high dose regimes. A tri-phasic non-linear dose-response pattern was observed in the four taxa studied, characterized by a low dose linear segment, a plateau and a high dose linear segment. Despite a similar response trend, the critical doses where the phase transitions occurred varied amongst the plant taxa, giving an indication to their relative radiosensitivities. E. crassipes and A. sativum, with their lower critical doses for slope modifications of phase transitions, were concluded as being more radiosensitive as compared to C. comosum and A. cepa, which had relatively higher critical doses. (author)
Shen, Jianxiang; Liu, Jun; Gao, Yangyang; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Liqun
2014-07-28
By setting up a coarse-grained model of polymer nanocomposites, we monitored the change in the elastic modulus as a function of the strain, derived from the stress-strain behavior by determining uniaxial tension and simple shear of two typical spatial distribution states (aggregation and dispersion) of nanoparticles (NPs). In both these cases, we observed that the elastic modulus decreases non-linearly with the increase of strain and reaches a low plateau at larger strains. This phenomenon is similar to the so-called "Payne effect" for elastomer nanocomposites. Particularly, the modulus of the aggregation case is more sensitive to the imposed strain. By examining the structural parameters, such as the number of neighboring NPs, coordination number of NPs, root-mean-squared average force exerted on the NPs, local strain, chain conformations (bridge, dangle, loop, interface bead and connection bead), and the total interaction energy of NP-polymer and NP-NP, we inferred that the underlying mechanism of the aggregation case is the disintegration of the NP network or clusters formed through direct contact; however, for the dispersion case, the non-linear behavior is attributed to the destruction of the NP network or clusters formed through the bridging of adsorbed polymer segments among the NPs. The former physical network is influenced by NP-NP interaction and NP volume fraction, while the latter is influenced by NP-polymer interaction and NP volume fraction. Lastly, we found that for the dispersion case, further increasing the inter-particle distance or grafting NPs with polymer chains can effectively reduce the non-linear behavior due to the decrease of the physical network density. In general, this simulation work, for the first time, establishes the correlation between the micro-structural evolution and the strain-induced non-linear behavior of polymer nanocomposites, and sheds some light on how to reduce the "Payne effect".
Non-Linear Instabilities in an Inhomogeneous Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppi, B.; Laval, G.; Pellat, R.; Khiet, Tu
1969-01-01
The low-frequency drift modes of a low-pressure isothermal inhomogeneous plasma can be stabilized if the shear of the magnetic field lines exceeds a critical value given by the expression r/L s = (1/2 √2) (a/r), where L s is the shear length, r the characteristic length of density variation, and a the ion Larmor radius. The authors first show that, even if r/L s [fr
Generalized Heisenberg algebra and (non linear) pseudo-bosons
Bagarello, F.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.
2018-04-01
We propose a deformed version of the generalized Heisenberg algebra by using techniques borrowed from the theory of pseudo-bosons. In particular, this analysis is relevant when non self-adjoint Hamiltonians are needed to describe a given physical system. We also discuss relations with nonlinear pseudo-bosons. Several examples are discussed.
Non-linear self-reinforced growth of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Persson, M.; Dewar, R.L.; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT
1993-06-01
The non-linear evolution of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces is discussed. It is demonstrated that, in the presence of small differential rotation, the non-linear growth might be faster than exponential. This growth occurs as the rotation frequencies of the plasma at the different rational surfaces go into equilibrium
Measurement of picometre non-linearity in an optical grating encoder using x-ray interferometry
Yacoot, Andrew; Cross, Nigel
2003-01-01
X-ray interferometry has been used to characterize the non-linearity in an optical encoder displacement measuring system. Traceable measurements of the non-linearity have been made and an estimation of the uncertainty associated with the measurements is given. Cyclic errors with a magnitude of up to 50 pm and periodicity of the encoder system (128 nm) have been recorded.
Bosgra, S.; Vlaming, M.L.H.; Vaes, W.H.J.
2015-01-01
Non-linearities occur no more frequently between microdose and therapeutic dose studies than in therapeutic range ascending-dose studies. Most non-linearities are due to known saturable processes, and can be foreseen by integrating commonly available preclinical data. The guidance presented here may
A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik
2015-01-01
This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...
Aeroelastic Limit-Cycle Oscillations resulting from Aerodynamic Non-Linearities
van Rooij, A.C.L.M.
2017-01-01
Aerodynamic non-linearities, such as shock waves, boundary layer separation or boundary layer transition, may cause an amplitude limitation of the oscillations induced by the fluid flow around a structure. These aeroelastic limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) resulting from aerodynamic non-linearities
The non-linear Perron-Frobenius theorem : Perturbations and aggregation
Dietzenbacher, E
The dominant eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector (or Perron vector) of a non-linear eigensystem are considered. We discuss the effects upon these, of perturbations and of aggregation of the underlying mapping. The results are applied to study the sensivity of the outputs in a non-linear
Rigatos, Gerasimos G
2016-06-01
It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrila, Iulian; Bodale, Ilie; Rotarescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru
2011-01-01
A comparative analysis between linear and non-linear energy barriers used for modeling statistical thermally-excited ferromagnetic systems is presented. The linear energy barrier is obtained by new symmetry considerations about the anisotropy energy and the link with the non-linear energy barrier is also presented. For a relevant analysis we compare the effects of linear and non-linear energy barriers implemented in two different models: Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis. The differences between energy barriers which are reflected in different coercive field dependence of the temperature are also presented. -- Highlights: → The linear energy barrier is obtained from symmetry considerations. → The linear and non-linear energy barriers are calibrated and implemented in Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis models. → The temperature and time effects of the linear and non-linear energy barriers are analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y Y
2008-01-01
We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency
Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
2008-07-01
We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency.
Bower, Dan J.; Sanan, Patrick; Wolf, Aaron S.
2018-01-01
The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, ∂S / ∂r , as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with semi-analytical solutions that highlights the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r -around 12 orders of magnitude-for physically-relevant parameters. It also elucidates the thermal structure of a magma ocean during the earliest stage of crystal formation. This motivates the development of a simple yet stable numerical scheme able to capture the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r and hence provide a flexible and robust method for time-integrating the energy equation. Using insight gained from the simplified model, we consider a full model, which includes energy fluxes associated with convection, mixing, gravitational separation, and conduction that all depend on the thermophysical properties of the melt and solid phases. This model is discretised and evolved by applying the finite volume method (FVM), allowing for extended precision calculations and using ∂S / ∂r as the solution variable. The FVM is well-suited to this problem since it is naturally energy conserving, flexible, and intuitive to incorporate arbitrary non-linear fluxes that rely on lookup data. Special attention is given to the numerically challenging scenario in which crystals first form in the centre of a magma ocean. The computational framework we devise is immediately applicable to modelling high melt fraction phenomena in Earth and planetary science research. Furthermore, it provides a template for solving similar non-linear diffusion equations that arise in other science and engineering disciplines, particularly for non-linear functional forms of the diffusion coefficient.
Non-linear nuclear engineering models as genetic programming application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domingos, Roberto P.; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino S.
1997-01-01
This work presents a Genetic Programming paradigm and a nuclear application. A field of Artificial Intelligence, based on the concepts of Species Evolution and Natural Selection, can be understood as a self-programming process where the computer is the main agent responsible for the discovery of a program able to solve a given problem. In the present case, the problem was to find a mathematical expression in symbolic form, able to express the existent relation between equivalent ratio of a fuel cell, the enrichment of fuel elements and the multiplication factor. Such expression would avoid repeatedly reactor physics codes execution for core optimization. The results were compared with those obtained by different techniques such as Neural Networks and Linear Multiple Regression. Genetic Programming has shown to present a performance as good as, and under some features superior to Neural Network and Linear Multiple Regression. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs
On the non-linear pressure distribution in embankment dams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)
1999-12-01
The main objective of this study is to evaluate if a mathematical/numerical model of the air-theory can be formulated. It is the author's view that this has been demonstrated. The model is based on relevant physical laws and principles and produces results which are in qualitative agreement with observations. However, it should be emphasised that it is a feasibility study where some empirical relations have been tuned without considering possible experimental data or findings. If a more well-founded model is to be developed it is suggested that the following points are considered: (1) Compile relevant information on permeabilities for the type of two-phase flow considered. (2) Evaluate relevant laws and coefficients for the phase exchange. (3) Verify simulations by comparisons with laboratory experiments, if available. (4) Consider the two-dimensional situation.
Controlled damping of a physical pendulum: experiments near critical conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, Manuel I; Bol, Alfredo
2006-01-01
This paper presents an experimental device for the study of damped oscillatory motion along with three associated experiments. Special emphasis is given on both didactic aspects and the interactivity of the experimental set-up, in order to assist students in understanding fundamental aspects of damped oscillatory motion and allow them to directly compare their experimental results with the well-known theory they can find in textbooks. With this in mind, a physical pendulum was selected with an eddy-current damping system that allows the damping conditions to be controlled with great precision. The three experiments examine accurate control of damping, frequency shift near critical damping and the transition from underdamped to overdamped conditions
Application of non-linear discretetime feedback regulators with assignable closed-loop dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dubljević Stevan
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work the application of a new approach is demonstrated to a discrete-time state feedback regulator synthesis with feedback linearization and pole-placement for non-linear discrete-time systems. Under the simultaneous implementation of a non-linear coordinate transformation and a non-linear state feedback law computed through the solution of a system of non-linear functional equations, both the feedback linearization and pole-placement design objectives were accomplished. The non-linear state feedback regulator synthesis method was applied to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR under non-isothermal operating conditions that exhibits steady-state multiplicity. The control objective was to regulate the reactor at the middle unstable steady state by manipulating the rate of input heat in the reactor. Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed non-linear state feedback regulator, as it was shown a non-linear state feedback regulator clearly outperformed a standard linear one, especially in the presence of adverse disturbance under which linear regulation at the unstable steady state was not feasible.
Non-linear neutron star oscillations viewed as deviations from an equilibrium state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperhake, U
2002-01-01
A numerical technique is presented which facilitates the evolution of non-linear neutron star oscillations with a high accuracy essentially independent of the oscillation amplitude. We apply this technique to radial neutron star oscillations in a Lagrangian formulation and demonstrate the superior performance of the new scheme compared with 'conventional' techniques. The key feature of our approach is to describe the evolution in terms of deviations from an equilibrium configuration. In contrast to standard perturbation analysis we keep all higher order terms in the evolution equations and thus obtain a fully non-linear description. The advantage of our scheme lies in the elimination of background terms from the equations and the associated numerical errors. The improvements thus achieved will be particularly significant in the study of mildly non-linear effects where the amplitude of the dynamic signal is small compared with the equilibrium values but large enough to warrant non-linear effects. We apply the new technique to the study of non-linear coupling of Eigenmodes and non-linear effects in the oscillations of marginally stable neutron stars. We find non-linear effects in low amplitude oscillations to be particularly pronounced in the range of modes with vanishing frequency which typically mark the onset of instability. (author)
Analysis of fractional non-linear diffusion behaviors based on Adomian polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Guo-Cheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A time-fractional non-linear diffusion equation of two orders is considered to investigate strong non-linearity through porous media. An equivalent integral equation is established and Adomian polynomials are adopted to linearize non-linear terms. With the Taylor expansion of fractional order, recurrence formulae are proposed and novel numerical solutions are obtained to depict the diffusion behaviors more accurately. The result shows that the method is suitable for numerical simulation of the fractional diffusion equations of multi-orders.
Non-linear adjustment to purchasing power parity: an analysis using Fourier approximations
Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín; M. Dolores Robles Fernández
2005-01-01
This paper estimates the dynamics of adjustment to long run purchasing power parity (PPP) using data for 18 mayor bilateral US dollar exchange rates, over the post-Bretton Woods period, in a non-linear framework. We use new unit root and cointegration tests that do not assume a specific non-linear adjustment process. Using a first-order Fourier approximation, we find evidence of non-linear mean reversion in deviations from both absolute and relative PPP. This first-order Fourier approximation...
Non-linear effects in the Snoek relaxation of Nb-O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermida, E.B.; Povolo, F.
1996-01-01
Internal friction peaks measured as a function of temperature or frequency have been associated to non-linear processes only after studying how the amplitude of the applied stress affects the relaxation process. Here it is demonstrated that the partial derivative of the internal friction with respect to the frequency at constant temperature is a useful tool to determine that non-linear effects are involved. This analysis applied to actual data of the Snoek relaxation in Nb-O, reveals that at high interstitial contents non-linear effects appear. (orig.)
A Multiphase Non-Linear Mixed Effects Model: An Application to Spirometry after Lung Transplantation
Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H.
2014-01-01
In medical sciences, we often encounter longitudinal temporal relationships that are non-linear in nature. The influence of risk factors may also change across longitudinal follow-up. A system of multiphase non-linear mixed effects model is presented to model temporal patterns of longitudinal continuous measurements, with temporal decomposition to identify the phases and risk factors within each phase. Application of this model is illustrated using spirometry data after lung transplantation using readily available statistical software. This application illustrates the usefulness of our flexible model when dealing with complex non-linear patterns and time varying coefficients. PMID:24919830
On the nucleon-nucleon potential obtained from non-linear coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Ghabaty, S.S.
1975-07-01
The static limit of a pseudoscalar symmetric meson theory of nuclear forces is examined. The Born-Oppenheimer potential is determined for the case of two very heavy nucleons exchanging pseudoscalar isovector pions with non-linear coupling. It is found that the non-linear terms induced by the γ 5 coupling are cancelled by the additional pion-nucleon coupling of the non-linear sigma model. The nucleon-nucleon potential thus obtained is the same as the Yukava potential except for strength at different separations between the two nucleons
Inverse Boundary Value Problem for Non-linear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations
Nakamura, Gen; Vashisth, Manmohan
2017-01-01
In this article we are concerned with an inverse boundary value problem for a non-linear wave equation of divergence form with space dimension $n\\geq 3$. This non-linear wave equation has a trivial solution, i.e. zero solution. By linearizing this equation at the trivial solution, we have the usual linear isotropic wave equation with the speed $\\sqrt{\\gamma(x)}$ at each point $x$ in a given spacial domain. For any small solution $u=u(t,x)$ of this non-linear equation, we have the linear isotr...
Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas
2007-01-01
An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....
Short- and long-term variations in non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E
1996-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... rate and describes mainly linear correlations. Non-linear predictability is correlated with heart rate variability measured as the standard deviation of the R-R intervals and the respiratory activity expressed as power of the high-frequency band. The dynamics of heart rate variability changes suddenly...
Analysis by numerical simulations of non-linear phenomenons in vertical pump rotor dynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bediou, J.; Pasqualini, G.
1992-01-01
Controlling dynamical behavior of main coolant pumps shaftlines is an interesting subject for the user and the constructor. The first is mainly concerned by the interpretation of on field observed behavior, monitoring, reliability and preventive maintenance of his machines. The second must in addition manage with sometimes contradictory requirements related to mechanical design and performances optimization (shaft diameter reduction, clearance,...). The use of numerical modeling is now a classical technique for simple analysis (rough prediction of critical speeds for instance) but is still limited, in particular for vertical shaftline especially when equipped with hydrodynamic bearings, due to the complexity of encountered phenomenons in that type of machine. The vertical position of the shaftline seems to be the origin of non linear dynamical behavior, the analysis of which, as presented in the following discussion, requires specific modelization of fluid film, particularly for hydrodynamic bearings. The low static load generally no longer allows use of stiffness and damping coefficients classically calculated by linearizing fluid film equations near a stable static equilibrium position. For the analysis of such machines, specific numerical models have been developed at Electricite de France in a package for general rotordynamics analysis. Numerical models are briefly described. Then an example is precisely presented and discussed to illustrate some considered phenomenons and their consequences on machine behavior. In this example, the authors interpret the observed behavior by using numerical models, and demonstrate the advantage of such analysis for better understanding of vertical pumps rotordynamic
Linear and Non-Linear Associations of Gonorrhea Diagnosis Rates with Social Determinants of Health
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazel D. Dean
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Identifying how social determinants of health (SDH influence the burden of disease in communities and populations is critically important to determine how to target public health interventions and move toward health equity. A holistic approach to disease prevention involves understanding the combined effects of individual, social, health system, and environmental determinants on geographic area-based disease burden. Using 2006–2008 gonorrhea surveillance data from the National Notifiable Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance and SDH variables from the American Community Survey, we calculated the diagnosis rate for each geographic area and analyzed the associations between those rates and the SDH and demographic variables. The estimated product moment correlation (PMC between gonorrhea rate and SDH variables ranged from 0.11 to 0.83. Proportions of the population that were black, of minority race/ethnicity, and unmarried, were each strongly correlated with gonorrhea diagnosis rates. The population density, female proportion, and proportion below the poverty level were moderately correlated with gonorrhea diagnosis rate. To better understand relationships among SDH, demographic variables, and gonorrhea diagnosis rates, more geographic area-based estimates of additional variables are required. With the availability of more SDH variables and methods that distinguish linear from non-linear associations, geographic area-based analysis of disease incidence and SDH can add value to public health prevention and control programs.
A new approach of binary addition and subtraction by non-linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
optical domain by exploitation of proper non-linear material-based switching technique. In this communication, the authors extend this technique for both adder and subtractor accommodating the spatial input encoding system.
Non-linearity parameter of binary liquid mixtures at elevated pressures
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Ultrasonic studies in liquid mixtures provide valuable information about structure and interaction in such systems. The present investigation comprises of theoretical evaluation of the acoustic non-linearity parameter / of four binary liquid ...
Dynamics of unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear systems using finite elements in time
Wang, Yu
1995-08-01
The dynamic response and stability of a single-degree-of-freedom system with unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear stiffness are analyzed using the finite element method in the time domain. Based on a Hamilton's weak principle, this method provides a simple and efficient approach for predicting all possible fundamental and sub-periodic responses. The stability of the steady state response is determined by using Floquet's theory without any special effort for calculating transition matrices. This method is applied to a number of examples, demonstrating its effectiveness even for a strongly non-linear problem involving both clearance and continuous stiffness non-linearities. Close agreement is found between available published findings and the predictions of the finite element in time approach, which appears to be an efficient and reliable alternative technique for non-linear dynamic response and stability analysis of periodic systems.
Inertial and viscous effects in the non linear growth of the tearing mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.; Soule, J.L.; Pellat, R.; Bussac, M.N.; Somon, J.P.
1982-08-01
The non linear self similar Tearing mode solution of Rutherford is revisited. We compute explicitly the stream function for the plasma flow including inertia, convection and viscosity. In all cases, Rutherford's solution is asymptotically valid
Numerical solution of two-dimensional non-linear partial differential ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
linear partial differential equations using a hybrid method. The solution technique involves discritizing the non-linear system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to obtain a corresponding nonlinear system of algebraic difference equations to be ...
Sparse PDF maps for non-linear multi-resolution image operations
Hadwiger, Markus; Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Beyer, Johanna; Krü ger, Jens J.; Mö ller, Torsten
2012-01-01
feasible for gigapixel images, while enabling direct evaluation of a variety of non-linear operators from the same representation. We illustrate this versatility for antialiased color mapping, O(n) local Laplacian filters, smoothed local histogram filters
Non-linear realization of the Virasoro-Kac-Moody algebra and the anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoyama, S.
1988-01-01
The non-linear realization of the Virasoro algebra x Kac-Moody algebra will be studied. We will calculate the Ricci tensor of the relevant Kaehler manifold to show a new vacuum structure for this coupled algebra. (orig.)
Controllability of non-linear systems: generic singularities and their stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davydov, Alexey A; Zakalyukin, Vladimir M
2012-01-01
This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in applications of singularity theory to the analysis of generic singularities of controllability of non-linear systems on manifolds. Bibliography: 40 titles.
Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis
Jeffrey, Alan
1971-01-01
The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)
Development of non-linear vibration analysis code for CANDU fuelling machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Hajime; Hirai, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Kiyomi; Mizukoshi, Kaoru; Takenaka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Norio.
1988-01-01
This paper describes the development of a non-linear, dynamic analysis code for the CANDU 600 fuelling machine (F-M), which includes a number of non-linearities such as gap with or without Coulomb friction, special multi-linear spring connections, etc. The capabilities and features of the code and the mathematical treatment for the non-linearities are explained. The modeling and numerical methodology for the non-linearities employed in the code are verified experimentally. Finally, the simulation analyses for the full-scale F-M vibration testing are carried out, and the applicability of the code to such multi-degree of freedom systems as F-M is demonstrated. (author)
Wu, Hui; Hu, Liming; Wen, Qingbo
2017-06-01
Electro-osmotic consolidation is an effective method for soft ground improvement. A main limitation of previous numerical models on this technique is the ignorance of the non-linear variation of soil parameters. In the present study, a multi-field numerical model is developed with the consideration of the non-linear variation of soil parameters during electro-osmotic consolidation process. The numerical simulations on an axisymmetric model indicated that the non-linear variation of soil parameters showed remarkable impact on the development of the excess pore water pressure and degree of consolidation. A field experiment with complex geometry, boundary conditions, electrode configuration and voltage application was further simulated with the developed numerical model. The comparison between field and numerical data indicated that the numerical model coupling of the non-linear variation of soil parameters gave more reasonable results. The developed numerical model is capable to analyze engineering cases with complex operating conditions.
Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic response ... commercial software system and a special-purpose, blast-specific software product to ... depend both on the analysis model of choice and the stand-off distances.
Naganthran, Kohilavani; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan
2018-05-01
This study investigated the influence of the non-linearly stretching/shrinking sheet on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer. A proper similarity transformation simplified the system of partial differential equations into a system of ordinary differential equations. This system of similarity equations is then solved numerically by using the bvp4c function in the MATLAB software. The generated numerical results presented graphically and discussed in the relevance of the governing parameters. Dual solutions found as the sheet stretched and shrunk in the horizontal direction. Stability analysis showed that the first solution is physically realizable whereas the second solution is not practicable.
Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli
Aerts, Johan
The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and
Non-Linear Metamodeling Extensions to the Robust Parameter Design of Computer Simulations
2016-09-15
The combined-array RSM approach has been applied to a piston simulation [11] and an economic order quantity inventory model [12, 13]. A textbook ...are limited when applied to simulations. In the former case, the mean and variance models can be inadequate due to a high level of non-linearity...highly non-linear nature of typical simulations. In the multi-response RPD problem, the objective is to find the optimal control parameter levels
Non-linear analytic and coanalytic problems (Lp-theory, Clifford analysis, examples)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinskii, Yu A; Osipenko, A S
2000-01-01
Two kinds of new mathematical model of variational type are put forward: non-linear analytic and coanalytic problems. The formulation of these non-linear boundary-value problems is based on a decomposition of the complete scale of Sobolev spaces into the 'orthogonal' sum of analytic and coanalytic subspaces. A similar decomposition is considered in the framework of Clifford analysis. Explicit examples are presented
Non-linear analytic and coanalytic problems ( L_p-theory, Clifford analysis, examples)
Dubinskii, Yu A.; Osipenko, A. S.
2000-02-01
Two kinds of new mathematical model of variational type are put forward: non-linear analytic and coanalytic problems. The formulation of these non-linear boundary-value problems is based on a decomposition of the complete scale of Sobolev spaces into the "orthogonal" sum of analytic and coanalytic subspaces. A similar decomposition is considered in the framework of Clifford analysis. Explicit examples are presented.
Construction of local and non-local conservation laws for non-linear field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.
1984-08-01
A method of constructing conserved currents for non-linear field equations is presented. More explicitly for non-linear equations, which can be derived from compatibility conditions of some linear system with a parameter, a procedure of obtaining explicit expressions for local and non-local currents is developed. Some examples such as the classical Heisenberg spin chain and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are considered. (author)
Increase in speed of Wilkinson-type ADC and improvement of differential non-linearity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kinbara, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki. Tokai Research Establishment
1977-06-01
It is shown that the differential non-linearity of a Wilkinson-type analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is dominated by the unbalance of even-numbered periods caused by the action of interference resulting from operation of a channel scaler. To improve this situation, new methods were tested which allow such action of interference to be dispersed. Measurements show that a differential non-linearity value of +- 0.043% is attainable for a clock rate of 300 MHz.
Non-linear effects and plasma heating by lower-hybrid waves in the Petula tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briand, P.; Dupas, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Singh, C.M.; Melin, G.; Grelot, P.; Legardeur, R.; Zymanski, S.
1979-01-01
Lower hybrid waves were excited by a two-waveguide 'grill' (nsub(parallel) approximately 1-10, Esub(grill) approximately 3kVcm -1 , Psub(grill) approximately 5kWcm -2 ) at 1.25GHz, 3ms, 600kW. Plasma heating was observed separately as due to non-linear effects alone as well as to a combination of linear and non-linear mechanisms. (author)
Some problems on non-linear semigroups and the blow-up of integral solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavel, N.H.
1983-07-01
After some introductory remarks, this highly mathematical document considers a unifying approach in the theory of non-linear semigroups. Then a brief survey is given on blow-up of mild solutions from the semilinear case. Finally, the global behavior of solutions to non-linear evolution equations is addressed; it is found that classical results on the behavior of the maximal solution u as t up-arrow tsub(max) hold also for integral solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wenchao; Tan, Sichao; Gao, Puzhen; Wang, Zhanwei; Zhang, Liansheng; Zhang, Hong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Natural circulation flow instabilities in rolling motion are studied. • The method of non-linear time series analysis is used. • Non-linear evolution characteristic of flow instability is analyzed. • Irregular complex flow oscillations are chaotic oscillations. • The effect of rolling parameter on the threshold of chaotic oscillation is studied. - Abstract: Non-linear characteristics of natural circulation flow instabilities under rolling motion conditions were studied by the method of non-linear time series analysis. Experimental flow time series of different dimensionless power and rolling parameters were analyzed based on phase space reconstruction theory. Attractors which were reconstructed in phase space and the geometric invariants, including correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent, were determined. Non-linear characteristics of natural circulation flow instabilities under rolling motion conditions was studied based on the results of the geometric invariant analysis. The results indicated that the values of the geometric invariants first increase and then decrease as dimensionless power increases which indicated the non-linear characteristics of the system first enhance and then weaken. The irregular complex flow oscillation is typical chaotic oscillation because the value of geometric invariants is at maximum. The threshold of chaotic oscillation becomes larger as the rolling frequency or rolling amplitude becomes big. The main influencing factors that influence the non-linear characteristics of the natural circulation system under rolling motion are thermal driving force, flow resistance and the additional forces caused by rolling motion. The non-linear characteristics of the natural circulation system under rolling motion changes caused by the change of the feedback and coupling degree among these influencing factors when the dimensionless power or rolling parameters changes
Evaluation of non-linear blending in dual-energy computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmes, David R.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Apel, Anja; Huprich, James E.; Siddiki, Hassan; Hough, David M.; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas G.; Robb, Richard; McCollough, Cynthia; Wittmer, Michael; Eusemann, Christian
2008-01-01
Dual-energy CT scanning has significant potential for disease identification and classification. However, it dramatically increases the amount of data collected and therefore impacts the clinical workflow. One way to simplify image review is to fuse CT datasets of different tube energies into a unique blended dataset with desirable properties. A non-linear blending method based on a modified sigmoid function was compared to a standard 0.3 linear blending method. The methods were evaluated in both a liver phantom and patient study. The liver phantom contained six syringes of known CT contrast which were placed in a bovine liver. After scanning at multiple tube currents (45, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105, and 115 mAs for the 140-kV tube), the datasets were blended using both methods. A contrast-to-noise (CNR) measure was calculated for each syringe. In addition, all eight scans were normalized using the effective dose and statistically compared. In the patient study, 45 dual-energy CT scans were retrospectively mixed using the 0.3 linear blending and modified sigmoid blending functions. The scans were compared visually by two radiologists. For the 15, 45, and 64 HU syringes, the non-linear blended images exhibited similar CNR to the linear blended images; however, for the 79, 116, and 145 HU syringes, the non-linear blended images consistently had a higher CNR across dose settings. The radiologists qualitatively preferred the non-linear blended images of the phantom. In the patient study, the radiologists preferred non-linear blending in 31 of 45 cases with a strong preference in bowel and liver cases. Non-linear blending of dual energy data can provide an improvement in CNR over linear blending and is accompanied by a visual preference for non-linear blended images. Further study on selection of blending parameters and lesion conspicuity in non-linear blended images is being pursued
Neurosurgery simulation using non-linear finite element modeling and haptic interaction
Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel; Joldes, Grand R.; Enquobahrie, Andinet
2012-02-01
Real-time surgical simulation is becoming an important component of surgical training. To meet the realtime requirement, however, the accuracy of the biomechancial modeling of soft tissue is often compromised due to computing resource constraints. Furthermore, haptic integration presents an additional challenge with its requirement for a high update rate. As a result, most real-time surgical simulation systems employ a linear elasticity model, simplified numerical methods such as the boundary element method or spring-particle systems, and coarse volumetric meshes. However, these systems are not clinically realistic. We present here an ongoing work aimed at developing an efficient and physically realistic neurosurgery simulator using a non-linear finite element method (FEM) with haptic interaction. Real-time finite element analysis is achieved by utilizing the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation and GPU acceleration of per-node and per-element operations. We employ a virtual coupling method for separating deformable body simulation and collision detection from haptic rendering, which needs to be updated at a much higher rate than the visual simulation. The system provides accurate biomechancial modeling of soft tissue while retaining a real-time performance with haptic interaction. However, our experiments showed that the stability of the simulator depends heavily on the material property of the tissue and the speed of colliding objects. Hence, additional efforts including dynamic relaxation are required to improve the stability of the system.
Non-linear dynamics in galactic disks: the spiral-warps connection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masset, Frederic
1997-01-01
After a recall on warp theories and on warp waves, this research thesis reports a linear study of warp waves with an assessment of the role of gas compressibility when taking the galactic disk thickness into account. Then, the author reports an analytical study of the non-linear coupling between warp waves and density waves, in order to calculate coupling efficiency, to identify areas of the galactic disk in which it is efficient, and to discuss concurrent physical processes (such as Landau absorption) and the validity of assumptions made to perform the calculations. The next part reports numerical simulations which have been performed to check the coupling mechanism. The author notably comments evolutions brought to existing codes, and finally presents the three-dimensional version of the developed code, and discusses choices made for this code (presence of gas, choice of hydrodynamics algorithms and of gas mesh geometry, and so on). Numerical results are then presented and discussed: they actually show the existence of a coupling between density waves and warp waves [fr
Non-linear laws of echoic memory and auditory change detection in humans.
Inui, Koji; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamashiro, Koya; Otsuru, Naofumi; Nishihara, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Keceli, Sumru; Kakigi, Ryusuke
2010-07-03
The detection of any abrupt change in the environment is important to survival. Since memory of preceding sensory conditions is necessary for detecting changes, such a change-detection system relates closely to the memory system. Here we used an auditory change-related N1 subcomponent (change-N1) of event-related brain potentials to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying change detection and echoic memory. Change-N1 was elicited by a simple paradigm with two tones, a standard followed by a deviant, while subjects watched a silent movie. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a fixed sound pressure deviance (70 dB vs. 75 dB) was negatively correlated with the logarithm of the interval between the standard sound and deviant sound (1, 10, 100, or 1000 ms), while positively correlated with the logarithm of the duration of the standard sound (25, 100, 500, or 1000 ms). The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a deviance in sound pressure, sound frequency, and sound location was correlated with the logarithm of the magnitude of physical differences between the standard and deviant sounds. The present findings suggest that temporal representation of echoic memory is non-linear and Weber-Fechner law holds for the automatic cortical response to sound changes within a suprathreshold range. Since the present results show that the behavior of echoic memory can be understood through change-N1, change-N1 would be a useful tool to investigate memory systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Pechenkin
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article is concerned with the philosophical talks which became popular in the 1980s and have kept their popularity till now–the philosophical essays about self-organization. The author attempts to find out as to which extent are these essays founded on the scientific theory to which they regularly refer, that is, Ilya Prigogine’s non-linear thermodynamics. The author insists that the equivalent of self-organization in Prigogine’s theoretical physics is the concept of dissipative structure. The concept of selforganization, as it is used in philosophical literature, presupposes a sequence of extrapolations, the first extrapolation being conducted by Prigogine and his coauthors. They became to use the concept of dissipative structure beyond the rigorous theory of this phenomenon. The subsequent step was that the scientific term “dissipative structure” was replaced by the vague concept “self-organization” in many popular and semi-popular books and papers. The author also emphasizes that by placing the concept of self-organization into the framework of philosophical concepts (the picture of the world, the ideals of scientific thought, the contemporary scientific revolution, etc. a philosopher conducts the extrapolation of extrapolation and comes to a kind of what Edmund Husserl called Weltanschauung (‘worldview’ philosophy.
Non-Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elements for Composite Concrete Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Kohnehpooshi
Full Text Available Abstract The current investigation focused on the development of effective and suitable modelling of reinforced concrete component with and without strengthening. The modelling includes physical and constitutive models. New interface elements have been developed, while modified constitutive law have been applied and new computational algorithm is utilised. The new elements are the Truss-link element to model the interaction between concrete and reinforcement bars, the interface element between two plate bending elements and the interface element to represent the interfacial behaviour between FRP, steel plates and concrete. Nonlinear finite-element (FE codes were developed with pre-processing. The programme was written using FORTRAN language. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element programme were achieved by analyzing several examples from the literature. The application of the 3D FE code was further enhanced by carrying out the numerical analysis of the three dimensional finite element analysis of FRP strengthened RC beams, as well as the 3D non-linear finite element analysis of girder bridge. Acceptable distributions of slip, deflection, stresses in the concrete and FRP plate have also been found. These results show that the new elements are effective and appropriate to be used for structural component modelling.
Programmable Solution for Solving Non-linearity Characteristics of Smart Sensor Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Khan
2007-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple but programmable technique to solve the problem of non-linear characteristics of sensors used in more sensitive applications. The nonlinearity of the output response becomes a very sensitive issue in cases where a proportional increase in the physical quantity fails to bring about a proportional increase in the signal measured. The nonlinearity is addressed by using the interpolation method on the characteristics of a given sensor, approximating it to a set of tangent lines, the tangent points of which are recognized in the code of the processor by IF-THEN code. The method suggested here eliminates the use of external circuits for interfacing, and eases the programming burden on the processor at the cost of proportionally reduced memory requirements. The mathematically worked out results are compared with the simulation and experimental results for an IR sensor selected for the purpose and used for level measurement. This work will be of paramount importance and significance in applications where the controlled signal is required to follow the input signal precisely particularly in sensitive robotic applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.
Numerical solution of non-linear dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer equation within skin tissues.
Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, P; Rai, K N
2017-11-01
This paper deals with numerical modeling and simulation of heat transfer in skin tissues using non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bioheat transfer model under periodic heat flux boundary condition. The blood perfusion is assumed temperature-dependent which results in non-linear DPL bioheat transfer model in order to predict more accurate results. A numerical method of line which is based on finite difference and Runge-Kutta (4,5) schemes, is used to solve the present non-linear problem. Under specific case, the exact solution has been obtained and compared with the present numerical scheme, and we found that those are in good agreement. A comparison based on model selection criterion (AIC) has been made among non-linear DPL models when the variation of blood perfusion rate with temperature is of constant, linear and exponential type with the experimental data and it has been found that non-linear DPL model with exponential variation of blood perfusion rate is closest to the experimental data. In addition, it is found that due to absence of phase-lag phenomena in Pennes bioheat transfer model, it achieves steady state more quickly and always predict higher temperature than thermal and DPL non-linear models. The effect of coefficient of blood perfusion rate, dimensionless heating frequency and Kirchoff number on dimensionless temperature distribution has also been analyzed. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sensitivity theory for general non-linear algebraic equations with constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oblow, E.M.
1977-04-01
Sensitivity theory has been developed to a high state of sophistication for applications involving solutions of the linear Boltzmann equation or approximations to it. The success of this theory in the field of radiation transport has prompted study of possible extensions of the method to more general systems of non-linear equations. Initial work in the U.S. and in Europe on the reactor fuel cycle shows that the sensitivity methodology works equally well for those non-linear problems studied to date. The general non-linear theory for algebraic equations is summarized and applied to a class of problems whose solutions are characterized by constrained extrema. Such equations form the basis of much work on energy systems modelling and the econometrics of power production and distribution. It is valuable to have a sensitivity theory available for these problem areas since it is difficult to repeatedly solve complex non-linear equations to find out the effects of alternative input assumptions or the uncertainties associated with predictions of system behavior. The sensitivity theory for a linear system of algebraic equations with constraints which can be solved using linear programming techniques is discussed. The role of the constraints in simplifying the problem so that sensitivity methodology can be applied is highlighted. The general non-linear method is summarized and applied to a non-linear programming problem in particular. Conclusions are drawn in about the applicability of the method for practical problems
Calculation model of non-linear dynamic deformation of composite multiphase rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mishchenko Andrey Viktorovich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The method of formulating non-linear physical equations for multiphase rods is suggested in the article. Composite multiphase rods possess various structures, include shear, polar, radial and axial inhomogeneity. The Timoshenko’s hypothesis with the large rotation angles is used. The method is based on the approximation of longitudinal normal stress low by basic functions expansions regarding the linear viscosity low. The shear stresses are calculated with the equilibrium equation using the subsidiary function of the longitudinal shift force. The system of differential equations connecting the internal forces and temperature with abstract deformations are offered by the basic functions. The application of power functions with arbitrary index allows presenting the compact form equations. The functional coefficients in this system are the highest order rigidity characteristics. The whole multiphase cross-section rigidity characteristics are offered the sums of the rigidity characteristics of the same phases individually. The obtained system allows formulating the well-known particular cases. Among them: hard plasticity and linear elastic deformation, different module deformation and quadratic Gerstner’s low elastic deformation. The reform of differential equations system to the quasilinear is suggested. This system contains the secant variable rigidity characteristics depending on abstract deformations. This system includes the sum of the same uniform blocks of different order. The rods phases defined the various set of uniform blocks phase materials. The integration of dynamic, kinematic and physical equations taking into account initial and edge condition defines the full dynamical multiphase rods problem. The quasilinear physical equations allow getting the variable flexibility matrix of multiphase rod and rods system.
Physical Exercise for Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Critical Review
Hearing, CM; Chang, WC; Szuhany, KL; Deckersbach, T; Nierenberg, AA; Sylvia, LG
2016-01-01
Purpose of the review The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population. Exercise may not only mitigate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but could also potentially improve the long term outcomes of mood disorders. Recent findings We conducted a literature review on the impact of exercise on mood disorders and associated comorbid conditions as well as possible biological mechanisms. We found that exercise impacts both the physical health parameters of mood disorders as well as mental health outcomes. Exercise also positively impacts conditions frequently comorbid with mood disorders (i.e. anxiety, pain, and insomnia). There are multiple candidate biomarkers for exercise, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress as two main promising components of exercise’s anti-depressant effect. Summary Exercise appears to be a promising adjunct treatment for mood disorders. We conclude with recommendations for future research of exercise as an adjunct intervention for mood disorders. PMID:28503402
The non-linear evolution of magnetic flux ropes: 3. effects of dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. Farrugia
1997-02-01
Full Text Available We study the evolution (expansion or oscillation of cylindrically symmetric magnetic flux ropes when the energy dissipation is due to a drag force proportional to the product of the plasma density and the radial speed of expansion. The problem is reduced to a single, second-order, ordinary differential equation for a damped, non-linear oscillator. Motivated by recent work on the interplanetary medium and the solar corona, we consider polytropes whose index, γ, may be less than unity. Numerical analysis shows that, in contrast to the small-amplitude case, large-amplitude oscillations are quasi-periodic with frequencies substantially higher than those of undamped oscillators. The asymptotic behaviour described by the momentum equation is determined by a balance between the drag force and the gradient of the gas pressure, leading to a velocity of expansion of the flux rope which may be expressed as (1/2γr/t, where r is the radial coordinate and t is the time. In the absence of a drag force, we found in earlier work that the evolution depends both on the polytropic index and on a dimensionless parameter, κ. Parameter κ was found to have a critical value above which oscillations are impossible, and below which they can exist only for energies less than a certain energy threshold. In the presence of a drag force, the concept of a critical κ remains valid, and when κ is above critical, the oscillatory mode disappears altogether. Furthermore, critical κ remains dependent only on γ and is, in particular, independent of the normalized drag coefficient, ν*. Below critical κ, however, the energy required for the flux rope to escape to infinity depends not only on κ (as in the conservative force case but also on ν*. This work indicates how under certain conditions a small change in the viscous drag coefficient or the initial energy may alter the evolution drastically. It is thus important to determine ν* and κ from observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Kath
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Groundwater decline is widespread, yet its implications for natural systems are poorly understood. Previous research has revealed links between groundwater depth and tree condition; however, critical thresholds which might indicate ecological ‘tipping points’ associated with rapid and potentially irreversible change have been difficult to quantify. This study collated data for two dominant floodplain species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (river red gum and E. populnea (poplar box from 118 sites in eastern Australia where significant groundwater decline has occurred. Boosted regression trees, quantile regression and Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis were used to investigate the relationship between tree condition and groundwater depth. Distinct non-linear responses were found, with groundwater depth thresholds identified in the range from 12.1 m to 22.6 m for E. camaldulensis and 12.6 m to 26.6 m for E. populnea beyond which canopy condition declined abruptly. Non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition in these species may be linked to rooting depth, with chronic groundwater decline decoupling trees from deep soil moisture resources. The quantification of groundwater depth thresholds is likely to be critical for management aimed at conserving groundwater dependent biodiversity. Identifying thresholds will be important in regions where water extraction and drying climates may contribute to further groundwater decline. Keywords: Canopy condition, Dieback, Drought, Tipping point, Ecological threshold, Groundwater dependent ecosystems
Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities
Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred
2012-07-01
The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in
van Berkel, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Igami, H.; Vandersteen, G.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Tanaka, K.; Tamura, N.; Zwart, H. J.; Kubo, S.; Ito, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; de Baar, M. R.; LHD Experiment Group
2017-12-01
A new methodology to analyze non-linear components in perturbative transport experiments is introduced. The methodology has been experimentally validated in the Large Helical Device for the electron heat transport channel. Electron cyclotron resonance heating with different modulation frequencies by two gyrotrons has been used to directly quantify the amplitude of the non-linear component at the inter-modulation frequencies. The measurements show significant quadratic non-linear contributions and also the absence of cubic and higher order components. The non-linear component is analyzed using the Volterra series, which is the non-linear generalization of transfer functions. This allows us to study the radial distribution of the non-linearity of the plasma and to reconstruct linear profiles where the measurements were not distorted by non-linearities. The reconstructed linear profiles are significantly different from the measured profiles, demonstrating the significant impact that non-linearity can have.
Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)
Non-linear effects in transition edge sensors for X-ray detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandler, S.R.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Murphy, K.D.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.
2006-01-01
In a microcalorimeter that uses a transition-edge sensor to detect energy depositions, the small signal energy resolution improves with decreasing heat capacity. This improvement remains true up to the point where non-linear and saturation effects become significant. This happens when the energy deposition causes a significant change in the sensor resistance. Not only does the signal size become a non-linear function of the energy deposited, but also the noise becomes non-stationary over the duration of the pulse. Algorithms have been developed that can calculate the optimal performance given this non-linear behavior that typically requires significant processing and calibration work-both of which are impractical for space missions. We have investigated the relative importance of the various non-linear effects, with the hope that a computationally simple transformation can overcome the largest of the non-linear and non-stationary effects, producing a highly linear 'gain' for pulse-height versus energy, and close to the best energy resolution at all energies when using a Wiener filter
Extrinsic contribution to the non-linearity in a PZT disc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, Rafel [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Albareda, Alfons [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Jose E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Tiana, Jordi [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ringgaard, Erling [Ferroperm Piezoceramics A/S, Hejreskovvej 18, DK-3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wolny, Wanda W [Ferroperm Piezoceramics A/S, Hejreskovvej 18, DK-3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark)
2004-10-07
Non-linear increases in elastic, piezoelectric (direct and reverse) and dielectric coefficients have been measured under a high electrical field or under high mechanical stress. The permittivity and reverse piezoelectric coefficient can be measured by applying a high voltage at a low frequency, while the elastic compliance and direct piezoelectric coefficient can be measured at the first radial resonance frequency in order to apply a high stress. The non-linear behaviour has been analysed at the radial resonance of a disc. In all the materials tested, the results show that there is a close relation between the non-linear increments of the different coefficients. An empirical model has been proposed in order to describe and understand these relations. It is assumed that either the strain or the electrical displacement is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic processes, but only the latter, which consist mainly in the motion of domain walls, contribute to the non-linearity. The model enables us to find the domain wall contribution to elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric non-linearities, and allows us to compare the amplitudes of the fields and stresses that produce the same displacement of domain walls.
Non-linear actions of physiological agents: Finite disarrangements elicit fitness benefits.
Sedlic, Filip; Kovac, Zdenko
2017-10-01
Finite disarrangements of important (vital) physiological agents and nutrients can induce plethora of beneficial effects, exceeding mere attenuation of the specific stress. Such response to disrupted homeostasis appears to be universally conserved among species. The underlying mechanism of improved fitness and longevity, when physiological agents act outside their normal range is similar to hormesis, a phenomenon whereby toxins elicit beneficial effects at low doses. Due to similarity with such non-linear response to toxins described with J-shaped curve, we have coined a new term "mirror J-shaped curves" for non-linear response to finite disarrangement of physiological agents. Examples from the clinical trials and basic research are provided, along with the unifying mechanisms that tie classical non-linear response to toxins with the non-linear response to physiological agents (glucose, oxygen, osmolarity, thermal energy, calcium, body mass, calorie intake and exercise). Reactive oxygen species and cytosolic calcium seem to be common triggers of signaling pathways that result in these beneficial effects. Awareness of such phenomena and exploring underlying mechanisms can help physicians in their everyday practice. It can also benefit researchers when designing studies and interpreting growing number of scientific data showing non-linear responses to physiological agents. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Cauchy problem for non-linear Klein-Gordon equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, J.C.H.; Taflin, E.
1993-01-01
We consider in R n+1 , n≥2, the non-linear Klein-Gordon equation. We prove for such an equation that there is neighbourhood of zero in a Hilbert space of initial conditions for which the Cauchy problem has global solutions and on which there is asymptotic completeness. The inverse of the wave operator linearizes the non-linear equation. If, moreover, the equation is manifestly Poincare covariant then the non-linear representation of the Poincare-Lie algebra, associated with the non-linear Klein-Gordon equation is integrated to a non-linear representation of the Poincare group on an invariant neighbourhood of zero in the Hilbert space. This representation is linearized by the inverse of the wave operator. The Hilbert space is, in both cases, the closure of the space of the differentiable vectors for the linear representation of the Poincare group, associated with the Klein-Gordon equation, with respect to a norm defined by the representation of the enveloping algebra. (orig.)
Non-linear actions of physiological agents: Finite disarrangements elicit fitness benefits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filip Sedlic
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Finite disarrangements of important (vital physiological agents and nutrients can induce plethora of beneficial effects, exceeding mere attenuation of the specific stress. Such response to disrupted homeostasis appears to be universally conserved among species. The underlying mechanism of improved fitness and longevity, when physiological agents act outside their normal range is similar to hormesis, a phenomenon whereby toxins elicit beneficial effects at low doses. Due to similarity with such non-linear response to toxins described with J-shaped curve, we have coined a new term “mirror J-shaped curves” for non-linear response to finite disarrangement of physiological agents. Examples from the clinical trials and basic research are provided, along with the unifying mechanisms that tie classical non-linear response to toxins with the non-linear response to physiological agents (glucose, oxygen, osmolarity, thermal energy, calcium, body mass, calorie intake and exercise. Reactive oxygen species and cytosolic calcium seem to be common triggers of signaling pathways that result in these beneficial effects. Awareness of such phenomena and exploring underlying mechanisms can help physicians in their everyday practice. It can also benefit researchers when designing studies and interpreting growing number of scientific data showing non-linear responses to physiological agents.
Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, B.-F.
2006-01-01
A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)
Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.
2015-01-01
The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971
Angular spectrum approach for fast simulation of pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
The paper presents an Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) for simulating pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields. The source of the ASA is generated by Field II, which can simulate array transducers of any arbitrary geometry and focusing. The non-linear ultrasound simulation program - Abersim, is used...... as the reference. A linear array transducer with 64 active elements is simulated by both Field II and Abersim. The excitation is a 2-cycle sine wave with a frequency of 5 MHz. The second harmonic field in the time domain is simulated using ASA. Pulse inversion is used in the Abersim simulation to remove...... the fundamental and keep the second harmonic field, since Abersim simulates non-linear fields with all harmonic components. ASA and Abersim are compared for the pulsed fundamental and second harmonic fields in the time domain at depths of 30 mm, 40 mm (focal depth) and 60 mm. Full widths at -6 dB (FWHM) are f0...
Fast simulation of non-linear pulsed ultrasound fields using an angular spectrum approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2013-01-01
A fast non-linear pulsed ultrasound field simulation is presented. It is implemented based on an angular spectrum approach (ASA), which analytically solves the non-linear wave equation. The ASA solution to the Westervelt equation is derived in detail. The calculation speed is significantly...... increased compared to a numerical solution using an operator splitting method (OSM). The ASA has been modified and extended to pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields in combination with Field II, where any array transducer with arbitrary geometry, excitation, focusing and apodization can be simulated...... with a center frequency of 5 MHz. The speed is increased approximately by a factor of 140 and the calculation time is 12 min with a standard PC, when simulating the second harmonic pulse at the focal point. For the second harmonic point spread function the full width error is 1.5% at 6 dB and 6.4% at 12 d...
A solution approach for non-linear analysis of concrete members
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadi, N. M.; Das, S.
1999-01-01
Non-linear solution of reinforced concrete structural members, at and beyond its maximum strength poses complex numerical problems. This is due to the fact that concrete exhibits strain softening behaviour once it reaches its maximum strength. This paper introduces an improved non-linear solution capable to overcome the numerical problems efficiently. The paper also presents a new concept of modeling discrete cracks in concrete members by using gap elements. Gap elements are placed in between two adjacent concrete elements in tensile zone. The magnitude of elongation of gap elements, which represents the width of the crack in concrete, increases edith the increase of tensile stress in those elements. As a result, transfer of local from one concrete element to adjacent elements reduces. Results of non-linear finite element analysis of three concrete beams using this new solution strategy are compared with those obtained by other researchers, and a good agreement is achieved. (authors). 13 refs. 9 figs.,
On projective invariants based on non-linear connections in a Finsler space I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastogi, S.C.
1986-05-01
The projective transformations based on linear connections in a Finsler space have been studied by Berwald, Misra, Szabo, Matsumoto, Fukai and Yamada, Rastogi and others. In almost all these papers the emphasis has been on studying Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, Finsler spaces of constant curvature and Finsler spaces of zero curvature with the help of projective curvature tensors of Weyl and Douglas. In 1981, the author studied projective transformation in a Finsler space based on non-linear connections and obtained certain projective invariants. The aim of the present paper is to study Finsler spaces of scalar curvature, constant curvature and zero curvature with the help of non-linear connections and projective invariants obtained from non-linear connections. (author)
Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre
2016-01-01
In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...... dimension. We constructed a prototype implementation of this approach and performed some experiments on a set of verification problems, which shows some promise....
On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey
2012-01-01
Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a......, for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical...
Single-nary philosophy for non-linear study of mechanics of materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran, C.
2005-01-01
Non-linear study of mechanics of materials is formulated in this paper as a problem of meta-intelligent system analysis. Non-linearity will be singled out as an important concept for understanding of high-order complex systems. Through single-nary thinking, which will be represented in this work, we introduce a modification of Aristotelian philosophy using modal logic and multi-valued logic (these logics we call 'high-order' logic). Next, non-linear cause - effect relations are expressed through non-additive measures and multiple-information aggregation principles based on fuzzy integration. The study of real time behaviors, required experiences and intuition, will be realized using truth measures (non-additive measures) and a procedure for information processing in intelligence levels. (author)
An axisymmetrical non-linear finite element model for induction heating in injection molding tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Menotti, Stefano
2016-01-01
To analyze the heating and cooling phase of an induction heated injection molding tool accurately, the temperature dependent magnetic properties, namely the non-linear B-H curves, need to be accounted for in an induction heating simulation. Hence, a finite element model has been developed......, including the non-linear temperature dependent magnetic data described by a three-parameter modified Frohlich equation fitted to the magnetic saturation curve, and solved with an iterative procedure. The numerical calculations are compared with experiments conducted with two types of induction coils, built...... in to the injection molding tool. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental temperature measurements. It is also shown that the non-linearity can be used without the temperature dependency in some cases, and a proposed method is presented of how to estimate an effective linear permeability to use...
Anti-D3 branes and moduli in non-linear supergravity
Garcia del Moral, Maria P.; Parameswaran, Susha; Quiroz, Norma; Zavala, Ivonne
2017-10-01
Anti-D3 branes and non-perturbative effects in flux compactifications spontaneously break supersymmetry and stabilise moduli in a metastable de Sitter vacua. The low energy 4D effective field theory description for such models would be a supergravity theory with non-linearly realised supersymmetry. Guided by string theory modular symmetry, we compute this non-linear supergravity theory, including dependence on all bulk moduli. Using either a constrained chiral superfield or a constrained vector field, the uplifting contribution to the scalar potential from the anti-D3 brane can be parameterised either as an F-term or Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term. Using again the modular symmetry, we show that 4D non-linear supergravities that descend from string theory have an enhanced protection from quantum corrections by non-renormalisation theorems. The superpotential giving rise to metastable de Sitter vacua is robust against perturbative string-loop and α' corrections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauvain, J.; Hoffmann, A.; Jeandidier, C.; Livolant, M.
1978-01-01
This study presents the tests of a reinforced concrete beam conducted by the Department of Mechanical and Thermal Studies at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, France. The actual behavior of nuclear power plant buildings submitted to seismic loads is generally non linear even for moderate seismic levels. The non-linearity is specially important for reinforced concrete type buildings. To estimate the safety factors when the building is designed by standard methods, accurate non linear calculations are necessary. For such calculations one of the most difficult point is to define a correct model for the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam subject to reversed loads. For that purpose, static and dynamic experimental tests on a shaking table have been carried out and a model reasonably accurate has been established and checked on the test results [fr
Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders
In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...... the scattered photons. Even though the non-linearity also alters the pulse spectrum due to a four-wave mixing process, we demonstrate that input pulses with a Gaussian spectrum can be mapped to the output with up to 80 % fidelity. Using two identical two-level emitters, we propose a setup for a deterministic...... by the capturing process. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising for realizing few-photon non-linearities in solid-state implementations, although coupling to phonon modes in the surrounding lattice have significant influence on the dynamics. By accounting for the commonly neglected asymmetry between...
Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn
2013-05-01
Breathing dynamics vary between infant sleep states, and are likely to exhibit non-linear behaviour. This study applied the non-linear analytical tool recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to 400 breath interval periods of REM and N-REM sleep, and then using an overlapping moving window. The RQA variables were different between sleep states, with REM radius 150% greater than N-REM radius, and REM laminarity 79% greater than N-REM laminarity. RQA allowed the observation of temporal variations in non-linear breathing dynamics across a night's sleep at 30s resolution, and provides a basis for quantifying changes in complex breathing dynamics with physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A linear evolution for non-linear dynamics and correlations in realistic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, E.; Lublinsky, M.
2004-01-01
A new approach to high energy evolution based on a linear equation for QCD generating functional is developed. This approach opens a possibility for systematic study of correlations inside targets, and, in particular, inside realistic nuclei. Our results are presented as three new equations. The first one is a linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that sums the 'fan' diagrams. For the amplitude this equation is equivalent to the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. The second equation is a generalization of the Balitsky-Kovchegov non-linear equation to interactions with realistic nuclei. It includes a new correlation parameter which incorporates, in a model-dependent way, correlations inside the nuclei. The third equation is a non-linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that in addition to the 'fan' diagrams sums the Glauber-Mueller multiple rescatterings
Applicability of linear and non-linear potential flow models on a Wavestar float
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozonnet, Pauline; Dupin, Victor; Tona, Paolino
2017-01-01
as a model based on non-linear potential flow theory and weakscatterer hypothesis are successively considered. Simple tests, such as dip tests, decay tests and captive tests enable to highlight the improvements obtained with the introduction of nonlinearities. Float motion under wave actions and without...... control action, limited to small amplitude motion with a single float, is well predicted by the numerical models, including the linear one. Still, float velocity is better predicted by accounting for non-linear hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces.......Numerical models based on potential flow theory, including different types of nonlinearities are compared and validated against experimental data for the Wavestar wave energy converter technology. Exact resolution of the rotational motion, non-linear hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov forces as well...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-26
We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.
Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Galanis
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.
Estimation of non-linear effective permeability of magnetic materials with fine structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waki, H.; Igarashi, H.; Honma, T.
2006-01-01
This paper describes a homogenization method for magnetic materials with fine structure. In this method, the structures of the magnetic materials are assumed to be periodic, and the unit cell is defined. The effective permeability is determined on the basis of magnetic energy balance in the unit cell. This method can be applied not only for linear problems but also for non-linear ones. In this paper, estimation of the effective permeability of non-linear magnetic materials by using the homogenization method is described in detail, and then the validity for the non-liner problems is tested for two-dimensional problems. It is shown that this homogenization method gives accurate non-linear effective permeability
Applications of Kalman filters based on non-linear functions to numerical weather predictions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Galanis
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of non-linear functions in classical Kalman filter algorithms on the improvement of regional weather forecasts. The main aim is the implementation of non linear polynomial mappings in a usual linear Kalman filter in order to simulate better non linear problems in numerical weather prediction. In addition, the optimal order of the polynomials applied for such a filter is identified. This work is based on observations and corresponding numerical weather predictions of two meteorological parameters characterized by essential differences in their evolution in time, namely, air temperature and wind speed. It is shown that in both cases, a polynomial of low order is adequate for eliminating any systematic error, while higher order functions lead to instabilities in the filtered results having, at the same time, trivial contribution to the sensitivity of the filter. It is further demonstrated that the filter is independent of the time period and the geographic location of application.
Non-linear laws of echoic memory and auditory change detection in humans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takeshima Yasuyuki
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of any abrupt change in the environment is important to survival. Since memory of preceding sensory conditions is necessary for detecting changes, such a change-detection system relates closely to the memory system. Here we used an auditory change-related N1 subcomponent (change-N1 of event-related brain potentials to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying change detection and echoic memory. Results Change-N1 was elicited by a simple paradigm with two tones, a standard followed by a deviant, while subjects watched a silent movie. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a fixed sound pressure deviance (70 dB vs. 75 dB was negatively correlated with the logarithm of the interval between the standard sound and deviant sound (1, 10, 100, or 1000 ms, while positively correlated with the logarithm of the duration of the standard sound (25, 100, 500, or 1000 ms. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a deviance in sound pressure, sound frequency, and sound location was correlated with the logarithm of the magnitude of physical differences between the standard and deviant sounds. Conclusions The present findings suggest that temporal representation of echoic memory is non-linear and Weber-Fechner law holds for the automatic cortical response to sound changes within a suprathreshold range. Since the present results show that the behavior of echoic memory can be understood through change-N1, change-N1 would be a useful tool to investigate memory systems.
Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deep Parikh
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM. Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.
Finiteness of Ricci flat supersymmetric non-linear sigma-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Gaume, L.; Ginsparg, P.
1985-01-01
Combining the constraints of Kaehler differential geometry with the universality of the normal coordinate expansion in the background field method, we study the ultraviolet behavior of 2-dimensional supersymmetric non-linear sigma-models with target space an arbitrary riemannian manifold M. We show that the constraint of N=2 supersymmetry requires that all counterterms to the metric beyond one-loop order are cohomologically trivial. It follows that such supersymmetric non-linear sigma-models defined on locally symmetric spaces are super-renormalizable and that N=4 models are on-shell ultraviolet finite to all orders of perturbation theory. (orig.)
Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically-numerical tec......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...
Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.
1990-07-01
The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of Neural Network known as the multi-layer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs
f (T) Non-linear Massive Gravity and the Cosmic Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu You; Chen Zu-Cheng; Wei Hao; Wang Jia-Xin
2015-01-01
Inspired by the f (R) non-linear massive gravity, we propose a new kind of modified gravity model, namely f (T) non-linear massive gravity, by adding the dRGT mass term reformulated in the vierbein formalism, to the f (T) theory. We then investigate the cosmological evolution of f (T) massive gravity, and constrain it by using the latest observational data. We find that it slightly favors a crossing of the phantom divide line from the quintessence-like phase (w_d_e > −1) to the phantom-like one (w_d_e < −1) as redshift decreases. (paper)
Genomic prediction based on data from three layer lines using non-linear regression models.
Huang, Heyun; Windig, Jack J; Vereijken, Addie; Calus, Mario P L
2014-11-06
Most studies on genomic prediction with reference populations that include multiple lines or breeds have used linear models. Data heterogeneity due to using multiple populations may conflict with model assumptions used in linear regression methods. In an attempt to alleviate potential discrepancies between assumptions of linear models and multi-population data, two types of alternative models were used: (1) a multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model that modelled trait by line combinations as separate but correlated traits and (2) non-linear models based on kernel learning. These models were compared to conventional linear models for genomic prediction for two lines of brown layer hens (B1 and B2) and one line of white hens (W1). The three lines each had 1004 to 1023 training and 238 to 240 validation animals. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by estimating the correlation between observed phenotypes and predicted breeding values. When the training dataset included only data from the evaluated line, non-linear models yielded at best a similar accuracy as linear models. In some cases, when adding a distantly related line, the linear models showed a slight decrease in performance, while non-linear models generally showed no change in accuracy. When only information from a closely related line was used for training, linear models and non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel models performed similarly. The multi-trait GBLUP model took advantage of the estimated genetic correlations between the lines. Combining linear and non-linear models improved the accuracy of multi-line genomic prediction. Linear models and non-linear RBF models performed very similarly for genomic prediction, despite the expectation that non-linear models could deal better with the heterogeneous multi-population data. This heterogeneity of the data can be overcome by modelling trait by line combinations as separate but correlated traits, which avoids the occasional
Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...
Non-linearity consideration when analyzing reactor noise statistical characteristics. [BWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kebadze, B V; Adamovski, L A
1975-06-01
Statistical characteristics of boiling water reactor noise in the vicinity of stability threshold are studied. The reactor is considered as a non-linear system affected by random perturbations. To solve a non-linear problem the principle of statistical linearization is used. It is shown that the halfwidth of resonance peak in neutron power noise spectrum density as well as the reciprocal of noise dispersion, which are used in predicting a stable operation theshold, are different from zero both within and beyond the stability boundary the determination of which was based on linear criteria.
Comparison of modal spectral and non-linear time history analysis of a piping system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, R.; Aelbrecht, D.; Lafaille, J.P.
1987-01-01
A typical piping system of the discharge line of the chemical and volumetric control system, outside the containment, between the penetration and the heat exchanger, an operating power plant was analyzed using four different methods: Modal spectral analysis with 2% constant damping, modal spectral analysis using ASME Code Case N411 (PVRC damping), linear time history analysis, non-linear time history analysis. This paper presents an estimation of the conservatism of the linear methods compared to the non-linear analysis. (orig./HP)
Non-Linear Rheological Properties and Neutron Scattering Investigation on Dilute Ring-Linear Blends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Bras, A.R.; Wischnewski, A.
in a filament stretching rheometer, followed by quenching, strong anisotropic scattering patterns were obtained which were described by affinely deformed rings which function as giant, polymeric chemical crosslinks or sliplinks and more or less isotropic topological contributions from the entangling...... with interpenetrating linear chains. At the same time the non-linear rheological and mechanical data fit to a non-affine slip-tube model as for moderately crosslinked networks and to interchain pressure models or a modified non-linear Doi-Edwards description for the observed strain hardening during the extensional...
Regression of non-linear coupling of noise in LIGO detectors
Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Billman, C.; Effler, A.; Klimenko, S.; Cheng, H.-P.
2018-03-01
In 2015, after their upgrade, the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors started acquiring data. The effort to improve their sensitivity has never stopped since then. The goal to achieve design sensitivity is challenging. Environmental and instrumental noise couple to the detector output with different, linear and non-linear, coupling mechanisms. The noise regression method we use is based on the Wiener–Kolmogorov filter, which uses witness channels to make noise predictions. We present here how this method helped to determine complex non-linear noise couplings in the output mode cleaner and in the mirror suspension system of the LIGO detector.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bessec, Marie [CGEMP, Universite Paris-Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny Paris (France); Fouquau, Julien [LEO, Universite d' Orleans, Faculte de Droit, d' Economie et de Gestion, Rue de Blois, BP 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)
2008-09-15
This paper investigates the relationship between electricity demand and temperature in the European Union. We address this issue by means of a panel threshold regression model on 15 European countries over the last two decades. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between electricity consumption and temperature found in more limited geographical areas in previous studies. By distinguishing between North and South countries, we also find that this non-linear pattern is more pronounced in the warm countries. Finally, rolling regressions show that the sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature in summer has increased in the recent period. (author)
Compensation techniques for non-linearities in H-bridge inverters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Zammit
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents compensation techniques for component non-linearities in H-bridge inverters as those used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV inverters. Novel compensation techniques depending on the switching device current were formulated to compensate for the non-linearities in inverter circuits caused by the voltage drops on the switching devices. Both simulation and experimental results will be presented. Testing was carried out on a PV inverter which was designed and constructed for this research. Very satisfactory results were obtained from all the compensation techniques presented, however the exact compensation method was the most effective, providing the highest reduction in harmonics.
Study on non-linear bistable dynamics model based EEG signal discrimination analysis method.
Ying, Xiaoguo; Lin, Han; Hui, Guohua
2015-01-01
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations generating from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. EEG signal is looked as one of the most important factors that will be focused in the next 20 years. In this paper, EEG signal discrimination based on non-linear bistable dynamical model was proposed. EEG signals were processed by non-linear bistable dynamical model, and features of EEG signals were characterized by coherence index. Experimental results showed that the proposed method could properly extract the features of different EEG signals.
Bistable states of TM polarized non-linear waves guided by symmetric layered structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalache, D.
1985-04-01
Dispersion relations for TM polarized non-linear waves propagating in a symmetric single film optical waveguide are derived. The system consists of a layer of thickness d with dielectric constant epsilon 1 bounded at two sides by a non-linear medium characterized by the diagonal dielectric tensor epsilon 11 =epsilon 22 =epsilon 0 , epsilon 33 =epsilon 0 +α|E 3 | 2 , where E 3 is the normal electric field component. For sufficiently large d/lambda (lambda is the wavelength) we predict bistable states of both symmetric and antisymmetric modes provided that the power flow is the control parameter. (author)
New classical r-matrices from integrable non-linear sigma-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laartz, J.; Bordemann, M.; Forger, M.; Schaper, U.
1993-01-01
Non-linear sigma models on Riemannian symmetric spaces constitute the most general class of classical non-linear sigma models which are known to be integrable. Using the current algebra structure of these models their canonical structure is analyzed and it is shown that their non-ultralocal fundamental Poisson bracket relation is governed by a field dependent non antisymmetric r-matrix obeying a dynamical Yang Baxter equation. The fundamental Poisson bracket relations and the r-matrix are derived explicitly and a new kind of algebra is found that is supposed to replace the classical Yang Baxter algebra governing the canonical structure of ultralocal models. (Author) 9 refs
Novel phenomena in one-dimensional non-linear transport in long quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morimoto, T; Hemmi, M; Naito, R; Tsubaki, K; Park, J-S; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y
2006-01-01
We have investigated the non-linear transport properties of split-gate quantum wires of various channel lengths. In this report, we present results on a resonant enhancement of the non-linear conductance that is observed near pinch-off under a finite source-drain bias voltage. The resonant phenomenon exhibits a strong dependence on temperature and in-plane magnetic field. We discuss the possible relationship of this phenomenon to the spin-polarized manybody state that has recently been suggested to occur in quasi-one dimensional systems
Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.
2014-01-01
the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...
Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.
1991-01-01
The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of neural network known as the multilayer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab
From the hypergeometric differential equation to a non-linear Schrödinger one
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plastino, A.; Rocca, M.C.
2015-01-01
We show that the q-exponential function is a hypergeometric function. Accordingly, it obeys the hypergeometric differential equation. We demonstrate that this differential equation can be transformed into a non-linear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). This NLSE exhibits both similarities and differences vis-a-vis the Nobre–Rego-Monteiro–Tsallis one. - Highlights: • We show that the q-exponential is a hypergeometric function. • It thus obeys the hypergeometric differential equation (HDE). • We show that the HDE can be cast as a non-linear Schrödinger equation. • This is different from the Nobre, Rego-Monteiro, Tsallis one.
Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships
De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico
2015-04-01
analysis (see EGU2015-14374). All non-linearities are lumped into a thin layer representing the main rockslide basal shear zone. Due to the great number of parameters characterizing viscous rheological models we separated the modelling into different stages. Firstly, starting from available geotechnical data, we carried out shear strength reduction analysis for solving elasto-plastic critical parameters of the basal shear band. Then, according to the chosen approach, we applied different viscous rheological models in order to simulate steady and dynamic creep. We identified the Burgers-creep viscoplastic model (Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion coupled with general Burgers-creep time-dependent nucleus) as the most appropriate one for simulating the behavior of the two case studies and more generally of large rockslides that exhibit similar movements. Due to the adopted continuum numerical approach, the models reproduce only portions of displacements curves associated with first and secondary creep phenomena. The models have been calibrated and subsequently validated on long temporal series of monitoring data, and reliably simulate the in situ data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junaid Ahmad Khan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Boundary layer flow around a stretchable rough cylinder is modeled by taking into account boundary slip and transverse magnetic field effects. The main concern is to resolve heat/mass transfer problem considering non-linear radiative heat transfer and temperature/concentration jump aspects. Using conventional similarity approach, the equations of motion and heat transfer are converted into a boundary value problem whose solution is computed by shooting method for broad range of slip coefficients. The proposed numerical scheme appears to improve as the strengths of magnetic field and slip coefficients are enhanced. Axial velocity and temperature are considerably influenced by a parameter M which is inversely proportional to the radius of cylinder. A significant change in temperature profile is depicted for growing wall to ambient temperature ratio. Relevant physical quantities such as wall shear stress, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are elucidated in detail. Keywords: Stretchable boundary, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction, Mathematical modeling, Non-linear differential system, Mass transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth I. SKLAR
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Using pliable materials for the construction of robot bodies presents new and interesting challenges for the robotics community. Within the EU project entitled STIFFness controllable Flexible & Learnable manipulator for surgical Operations (STIFF-FLOP, a bendable, segmented robot arm has been developed. The exterior of the arm is composed of a soft material (silicone, encasing an internal structure that contains air-chamber actuators and a variety of sensors for monitoring applied force, position and shape of the arm as it bends. Due to the physical characteristics of the arm, a proper model of robot kinematics and dynamics is difficult to infer from the sensor data. Here we propose a non-linear approach to predicting the robot arm posture, by training a feed-forward neural network with a structured series of pressures values applied to the arm's actuators. The model is developed across a set of seven different experiments. Because the STIFF-FLOP arm is intended for use in surgical procedures, traditional methods for position estimation (based on visual information or electromagnetic tracking will not be possible to implement. Thus the ability to estimate pose based on data from a custom fiber-optic bending sensor and accompanying model is a valuable contribution. Results are presented which demonstrate the utility of our non-linear modelling approach across a range of data collection procedures.
Physical and geometrical parameters of ANNA critical assemblies. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malewski, S.; Dabrowski, C.
1973-01-01
An extended analysis of four critical configurations of ANNA Assembly has been performed. Diffusion parameters of the thermal group and of one or three epithermal groups have been determined. Using these data the critical calculations have been carried out and the main neutron density distributions presented. The role of some neutron processes in these systems and their influence on integral parameters has been considered. The calculated quantities have been compared with the available experimental data. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dilna, N.; Rontó, András
2010-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 327-338 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-linear boundary value-problem * functional differential equation * non-local condition * unique solvability * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0015-9
Sinkhorn, E. R.; Perakis, S. S.; Compton, J. E.; Cromack, K.; Bullen, T. D.
2007-12-01
Understanding how N availability influences base cation stores is critical for assessing long-term ecosystem sustainability. Indices of nitrogen (N) availability and the distribution of nutrients in plant biomass, soil, and soil water were examined across ten Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands spanning a three-fold soil N gradient (0-10 cm: 0.21 - 0.69% N, 0-100 cm: 9.2 - 28.8 Mg N ha-1) in the Oregon Coast Range. This gradient is largely the consequence of historical inputs from N2-fixing red alder stands that can add 100-200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the ecosystem for decades. Annual net N mineralization and litterfall N return displayed non-linear relationships with soil N, increasing initially, and then decreasing as N-richness increased. In contrast, nitrate leaching from deep soils increased linearly across the soil N gradient and ranged from 0.074 to 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Soil exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K pools to 1 m depth were negatively related to nitrate losses across sites. Ca was the only base cation exhibiting concentration decreases in both plant and soil pools across the soil N gradient, and a greater proportion of total available ecosystem Ca was sequestered in aboveground plant biomass at high N, low Ca sites. Our work supports a hierarchical model of coupled N-Ca cycles across gradients of soil N enrichment, with microbial production of mobile nitrate anions leading to depletion of readily available Ca at the ecosystem scale, and plant sequestration promoting Ca conservation as Ca supply diminishes. The preferential storage of Ca in aboveground biomass at high N and low Ca sites, while critical for sustaining plant productivity, may also predispose forests to Ca depletion in areas managed for intensive biomass removal. Long-term N enrichment of temperate forest soils appears capable of sustaining an open N cycle and key symptoms of N-saturation for multiple decades after the cessation of elevated N inputs.
Fischer, Steven L; Sinden, Kathryn E; MacPhee, Renee S
2017-11-01
Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks. These outcomes are essential to inform the design and development of an evidence-based PES for the paramedic sector. Physical demands of paramedic work were documented and described using a direct observation-based task analysis technique. Five paramedic's were trained to document the physical demands of their work, then applied their training to observe more than 90 calls over the course of 20 full 12-h work shifts. Physical demands data were then listed in a survey, administered service-wide, where 155 frontline paramedics identified critically demanding tasks and rank-ordered physical demands from not physically demanding to very strongly demanding. Critically important and physically demanding tasks were identified such as: transferring a patient; loading or unloading a stretcher in to or out of the ambulance; performing CPR; and, raising and lowering a stretcher. It is important that a paramedic-based PES evaluate a candidate's physical capabilities to perform the critical and physically demanding tasks identified in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Non-linear finite element analyses applicable for the design of large reinforced concrete structures
Engen, M; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik
2017-01-01
In order to make non-linear finite element analyses applicable during assessments of the ultimate load capacity or the structural reliability of large reinforced concrete structures, there is need for an efficient solution strategy with a low modelling uncertainty. A solution strategy comprises
Material model for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures
Engen, Morten; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik; Beushausen, H.
2016-01-01
A fully triaxial material model for concrete was implemented in a commercial finite element code. The only required input parameter was the cylinder compressive strength. The material model was suitable for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures. The importance of including
Asymptotic analysis of a stochastic non-linear nuclear reactor model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, M.A.; Sancho, J.M.
1986-01-01
The asymptotic behaviour of a stochastic non-linear nuclear reactor modelled by a master equation is analysed in two different limits: the thermodynamic limit and the zero-neutron-source limit. In the first limit a finite steady neutron density is obtained. The second limit predicts the neutron extinction. The interplay between these two limits is studied for different situations. (author)
A new active absorption system and its performance to linear and non-linear waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Clavero, M.; Frigaard, Peter Bak
2016-01-01
Highlights •An active absorption system for wavemakers has been developed. •The theory for flush mounted gauges has been extended to cover also small gaps. •The new system has been validated in a wave flume with wavemakers in both ends. •A generation and absorption procedure for highly non-linear...
Non-renormalizability of supersymmetric non-linear sigma models in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, B.
1985-01-01
The one-loop, on-shell, ultraviolet-divergent part of the effective action is calculated for the N=1 and 2 supersymmetric non-linear sigma models in four dimensions. These infinities cannot be absorbed into a redefinition of the bare Kaehler potential and the theories are not renormalizable. (orig.)
Three-point phase correlations: A new measure of non-linear large-scale structure
Wolstenhulme, Richard; Obreschkow, Danail
2015-01-01
We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the non-linear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F_2, which governs the non-linear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a very good agreement for separations r>20 Mpc/h. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the non-linear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly non-linear regime. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the linear bias. Furtherm...
Comments on ''The non-linear saturation of a magnetic island'' by J. Norris
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thyagaraja, A.
1990-01-01
Recent results derived on non-linear saturation of tearing modes (Norris, J., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion, 1989, Vol. 31, 699) are examined in relation to previously published literature. It is explicitly demonstrated that they are at variance in several important respects with those due to previous workers in this area. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garde, Henrik
2018-01-01
. For a fair comparison, exact matrix characterizations are used when probing the monotonicity relations to avoid errors from numerical solution to PDEs and numerical integration. Using a special factorization of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map also makes the non-linear method as fast as the linear method...
On the equivalence between particular types of Navier-Stokes and non-linear Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, K.; Vautherin, D.
1985-01-01
We derive a Schroedinger equation equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation in the special case of constant kinematic viscosities. This equation contains a non-linear term similar to that proposed by Kostin for a quantum description of friction [fr
Peri-implantitis: a complex condition with non-linear characteristics
Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Gogos, C.; Housos, E.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.
2015-01-01
Aim To cluster peri-implantitis patients and explore non-linear patterns in peri-implant bone levels. Materials and Methods Clinical and radiographic variables were retrieved from 94 implant-treated patients (340 implants, mean 7.1 ± 4.1 years in function). Kernel probability density estimations on
Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany (Germany); Baldi, Marco, E-mail: casas@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: mail@marcobaldi.it, E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: vollmer@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, I-40127 Italy (Italy)
2016-01-01
We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.
Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin, E-mail: chienichiang@berkeley.edu, E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2012-12-01
We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.
On the dynamical mass generation in gauge-invariant non-linear σ-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz, A.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W.
1987-12-01
We argue that external gauge fields coupled in a gauge-invariant way to both the bosonic and supersymmetric two-dimensional non-linear σ-models acquire a dynamical mass term whenever the target space is restricted to be a group manifold. (author). 11 refs
Painlevйe analysis and integrability of two-coupled non-linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the Painlevйe property. In this case the system is expected to be integrable. In recent years more attention is paid to the study of coupled non-linear oscilla- ... Painlevйe analysis. To be self-contained, in §2 we briefly outline the salient features.
The non-linear paradigm: The climate system as an egg box''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iversen, Trond
2000-01-01
The article is the last of three dealing with the problems of climatic forecasting. It presents various ways of applying models and points out that regarding the climate system as non-linear and chaotic may be useful for interpreting observations and models. Some applications of the paradigm are presented. The emphasis is on climatic changes due to energy and human activities
Dynamic Response of Non-Linear Inelsatic Systems to Poisson-Driven Stochastic Excitations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Iwankiewicz, R.
of an equivalent linearization techni que and substituting the non-analytical non-linearity in the original system by the cubic form in the pertinent state variables. The response moments are evaluated for the equivalent systems with the help of a generalized Ito's differential rule. The analytical results...
Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer
Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.
2003-01-01
This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.
Experimental validation for calcul methods of structures having shock non-linearity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, D.; Buland, P.
1987-01-01
For the seismic analysis of non-linear structures, numerical methods have been developed which need to be validated on experimental results. The aim of this paper is to present the design method of a test program which results will be used for this purpose. Some applications to nuclear components will illustrate this presentation [fr
Non-linear DSGE Models and The Central Difference Kalman Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller
This paper introduces a Quasi Maximum Likelihood (QML) approach based on the Cen- tral Difference Kalman Filter (CDKF) to estimate non-linear DSGE models with potentially non-Gaussian shocks. We argue that this estimator can be expected to be consistent and asymptotically normal for DSGE models...
The implications of non-linearity for excitation transfer in DNA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baverstock, K.F.; Cundall, R.B.
1990-01-01
Non-linear effects which arise from the coupling of anharmonic interactions can completely change excitation transport through molecular chains. The consequences of this for an understanding of the effect of ionising radiation on DNA are discussed. We consider that these effects should be taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. (author)
Linear and non-linear calculations of the hose instability in the ion-focused regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchanan, H.L.
1982-01-01
A simple model is adopted to study the hose instability of an intense relativistic electron beam in a partially neutralized, low density ion channel (ion focused regime). Equations of motion for the beam and the channel are derived and linearized to obtain an approximate dispersion relation. The non-linear equations of motion are then solved numerically and the results compared to linearized data
Gain scheduling for non-linear time-delay systems using approximated model
Pham, H.T.; Lim, J.T
2012-01-01
The authors investigate a regulation problem of non-linear systems driven by an exogenous signal and time-delay in the input. In order to compensate for the input delay, they propose a reduction transformation containing the past information of the control input. Then, by utilising the Euler
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fusco, D [Messina Univ. (Italy). Instituto de Matematica
1979-01-01
The paper is concerned with a three-dimensional theory of non-linear magnetosonic waves in a turbulent plasma. A perturbation method is used that allows a transport equation, like Burgers equation but with a variable coefficient to be obtained.
Individualized Learning Through Non-Linear use of Learning Objects: With Examples From Math and Stat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rootzén, Helle
2015-01-01
Our aim is to ensure individualized learning that is fun, inspiring and innovative. We believe that when you enjoy, your brain will open up and learning will be easier and more effective. The methods use a non-linear learning environment based on self-contained learning objects which are pieced t...
Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong
2005-01-01
To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sentis, R.
1984-07-01
The radiative transfer equations may be approximated by a non linear diffusion equation (called Rosseland equation) when the mean free paths of the photons are small with respect to the size of the medium. Some technical assomptions are made, namely about the initial conditions, to avoid any problem of initial layer terms
Using system theory and energy methods to prove existence of non-linear PDE's
Zwart, H.J.
2015-01-01
In this discussion paper we present an idea of combining techniques known from systems theory with energy estimates to show existence for a class of non-linear partial differential equations (PDE's). At the end of the paper a list of research questions with possible approaches is given.
Manzoor, Ali; Rafique, Sajid; Usman Iftikhar, Muhammad; Mahmood Ul Hassan, Khalid; Nasir, Ali
2017-08-01
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) consists of a cantilever bimorph with piezoelectric layers pasted on its top and bottom, which can harvest power from vibrations and feed to low power wireless sensor nodes through some power conditioning circuit. In this paper, a non-linear conditioning circuit, consisting of a full-bridge rectifier followed by a buck-boost converter, is employed to investigate the issues of electrical side of the energy harvesting system. An integrated mathematical model of complete electromechanical system has been developed. Previously, researchers have studied PVEH with sophisticated piezo-beam models but employed simplistic linear circuits, such as resistor, as electrical load. In contrast, other researchers have worked on more complex non-linear circuits but with over-simplified piezo-beam models. Such models neglect different aspects of the system which result from complex interactions of its electrical and mechanical subsystems. In this work, authors have integrated the distributed parameter-based model of piezo-beam presented in literature with a real world non-linear electrical load. Then, the developed integrated model is employed to analyse the stability of complete energy harvesting system. This work provides a more realistic and useful electromechanical model having realistic non-linear electrical load unlike the simplistic linear circuit elements employed by many researchers.
Non-linear models for the detection of impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation.
Chacón, Max; Jara, José Luis; Miranda, Rodrigo; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Panerai, Ronney B
2018-01-01
The ability to discriminate between normal and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), based on measurements of spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), has considerable clinical relevance. We studied 45 normal subjects at rest and under hypercapnia induced by breathing a mixture of carbon dioxide and air. Non-linear models with BP as input and CBF velocity (CBFV) as output, were implemented with support vector machines (SVM) using separate recordings for learning and validation. Dynamic SVM implementations used either moving average or autoregressive structures. The efficiency of dynamic CA was estimated from the model's derived CBFV response to a step change in BP as an autoregulation index for both linear and non-linear models. Non-linear models with recurrences (autoregressive) showed the best results, with CA indexes of 5.9 ± 1.5 in normocapnia, and 2.5 ± 1.2 for hypercapnia with an area under the receiver-operator curve of 0.955. The high performance achieved by non-linear SVM models to detect deterioration of dynamic CA should encourage further assessment of its applicability to clinical conditions where CA might be impaired.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai
2011-01-01
We investigate sparse non-linear denoising of functional brain images by kernel Principal Component Analysis (kernel PCA). The main challenge is the mapping of denoised feature space points back into input space, also referred to as ”the pre-image problem”. Since the feature space mapping is typi...
Non-linear Springing Excitation Due to a Bidirectional Wave Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2005-01-01
Significant springing vibrations in ships have recently been measured in a large ocean-going bulk carrier. So far calculations using various linear and non-linear hydrodynamic procedures have not been able to predict the measured responses. In the present paper it is shown that the springing...
Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wehmeyer, Christof; Ferri, Francesco; Andersen, Morten Thøtt
2014-01-01
technologies able to solve this challenge is the floating wind turbine foundation. For the ultimate limit state, where higher order wave loads have a significant influence, a design tool that couples non-linear excitations with structural dynamics is required. To properly describe the behavior...
Self-oscillations of aircraft landing gear shock-strut at considerable non-linear friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Б.М. Шифрин
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The report considers self-oscillations at ε >1. The previous works were dedicated to the elastic frictional L.G. shock strut oscillations, the mathematical model of which is a non-linear differential equation with low ε parameter of its right-hand part.
Stochastic Finite Element Analysis of Non-Linear Structures Modelled by Plasticity Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2003-01-01
A Finite Element Reliability Method (FERM) is introduced to perform reliability analyses on two-dimensional structures in plane stress, modeled by non-linear plasticity theory. FERM is a coupling between the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM). FERM can be us...
Non-linear imaging condition to image fractures as non-welded interfaces
Minato, S.; Ghose, R.
2014-01-01
Hydraulic properties of a fractured reservoir are often controlled by large fractures. In order to seismically detect and characterize them, a high-resolution imaging method is necessary. We apply a non-linear imaging condition to image fractures, considered as non-welded interfaces. We derive the
Adaptive Kronrod-Patterson integration of non-linear finite-element matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janssen, Hans
2010-01-01
inappropriate discretization. In response, this article develops adaptive integration, based on nested Kronrod-Patterson-Gauss integration schemes: basically, the integration order is adapted to the locally observed grade of non-linearity. Adaptive integration is developed based on a standard infiltration...
Neutrino charge in the non-linear R sub(xi) gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monyonko, N.M.; Reid, J.H.
1982-12-01
We show that the electromagnetic Ward identity for the charged W boson is satisfied in the non-linear R sub(xi) gauge. Consequently the one-loop contributions to the neutrino charge give zero, which they do not in the conventional R sub(xi) gauge
Return-Volatility Relationship: Insights from Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression
D.E. Allen (David); A.K. Singh (Abhay); R.J. Powell (Robert); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J. Taylor (James); L. Thomas (Lyn)
2013-01-01
textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to examine the asymmetric relationship between price and implied volatility and the associated extreme quantile dependence using linear and non linear quantile regression approach. Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate that the relationship between the
Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco
2016-01-01
We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β 2 , with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications
Kuindersma, P.I.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Zantvoort, van J.H.C.; Waardt, de H.
2012-01-01
We characterize integrated InP circuits for high speed ‘all-optical’ signal processing. Single chip circuits act as optical transistors. Transmodulation is performed by non-linear gain sections. Integrated tunable filters give signal equalization in time domain.
Perfect observables for the hierarchical non-linear O(N)-invariant σ-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieczerkowski, C.; Xylander, Y.
1995-05-01
We compute moving eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the linear renormalization group transformation for observables along the renormalized trajectory of the hierarchical non-linear O(N)-invariant σ-model by means of perturbation theory in the running coupling constant. Moving eigenvectors are defined as solutions to a Callan-Symanzik type equation. (orig.)
Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
. Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...
Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
. Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...
Torsion-induced gauge superfield mass generation for gauge-invariant non-linear. sigma. -models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helayel-Neto, J.A. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)); Mokhtari, S. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)); Smith, A.W. (Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil))
1989-12-21
It is shown that the explicit breaking of (1,0)-supersymmetry by means of a torsion-like term yields dynamical mass generation for the gauge superfields which couple to a (1,0)-supersymmetric non-linear {sigma}-model. (orig.).
Diode array pumped, non-linear mirror Q-switched and mode-locked
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A non-linear mirror consisting of a lithium triborate crystal and a dichroic output coupler are used to mode-lock (passively) an Nd : YVO4 laser, pumped by a diode laser array. The laser can operate both in cw mode-locked and simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) regime. The peak power of the laser while ...
Ramo, Nicole L.; Puttlitz, Christian M.
2018-01-01
Compelling evidence that many biological soft tissues display both strain- and time-dependent behavior has led to the development of fully non-linear viscoelastic modeling techniques to represent the tissue’s mechanical response under dynamic conditions. Since the current stress state of a viscoelastic material is dependent on all previous loading events, numerical analyses are complicated by the requirement of computing and storing the stress at each step throughout the load history. This requirement quickly becomes computationally expensive, and in some cases intractable, for finite element models. Therefore, we have developed a strain-dependent numerical integration approach for capturing non-linear viscoelasticity that enables calculation of the current stress from a strain-dependent history state variable stored from the preceding time step only, which improves both fitting efficiency and computational tractability. This methodology was validated based on its ability to recover non-linear viscoelastic coefficients from simulated stress-relaxation (six strain levels) and dynamic cyclic (three frequencies) experimental stress-strain data. The model successfully fit each data set with average errors in recovered coefficients of 0.3% for stress-relaxation fits and 0.1% for cyclic. The results support the use of the presented methodology to develop linear or non-linear viscoelastic models from stress-relaxation or cyclic experimental data of biological soft tissues. PMID:29293558
A Quantitative and Combinatorial Approach to Non-Linear Meanings of Multiplication
Tillema, Erik; Gatza, Andrew
2016-01-01
We provide a conceptual analysis of how combinatorics problems have the potential to support students to establish non-linear meanings of multiplication (NLMM). The problems we analyze we have used in a series of studies with 6th, 8th, and 10th grade students. We situate the analysis in prior work on students' quantitative and multiplicative…
Slope Safety Calculation With A Non-Linear Mohr Criterion Using Finite Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2005-01-01
Safety factors for soil slopes are calculated using a non-linear Mohr envelope. The often used linear Mohr-Coulomb envelope tends to overestimate the safety as the material parameters are usually determined at much higher stress levels, than those present at slope failure. Experimental data...
Diode array pumped, non-linear mirror Q-switched and mode-locked ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A non-linear mirror consisting of a lithium triborate crystal and a dichroic ... effects such as all-optical switching [7,8], nearly degenerate four-wave mixing [9,10], .... is driven by a radio frequency signal of 27.2MHz with a modulation available in.
PWR control system design using advanced linear and non-linear methodologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabindran, N.; Whitmarsh-Everiss, M.J.
2004-01-01
Consideration is here given to the methodology deployed for non-linear heuristic analysis in the time domain supported by multi-variable linear control system design methods for the purposes of operational dynamics and control system analysis. This methodology is illustrated by the application of structural singular value μ analysis to Pressurised Water Reactor control system design. (author)
Could solitons be adiabatic invariants attached to certain non linear equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochak, P.
1984-01-01
Arguments are given to support the claim that solitons should be the adiabatic invariants associated to certain non linear partial differential equations; a precise mathematical form of this conjecture is then stated. As a particular case of the conjecture, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is studied. (Auth.)
Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...
Some examples of non-linear systems and characteristics of their solutions
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
2006-07-01
Full Text Available . In contrast to certain other applications in complexity theory, these non-linear solutions are characterized by great stability. To go beyond the dominant non-perturbative solution one has to consider the source term as well. The parameter freedom...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michele Betti
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between two numerical modelling approaches employed to investigate the seismic behavior of unreinforced masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms. The comparison is performed analyzing a two-story prototype tested on a shaking table at the CNR-ENEA research center of Casaccia (Italy. The first numerical model was built by using the finite element (FE technique, while the second one was built by a simplified macro-element (ME approach. Both models were employed to perform non-linear dynamic analyses, integrating the equations of motion by step-by-step procedures. The shaking table tests were simulated to analyze the behavior of the prototype from the initial elastic state until the development of extensive damage. The main results of the analyses are discussed and critically compared in terms of engineering parameters, such as accelerations, displacements and base shears. The effectiveness of both models within the investigated typology of buildings is then evaluated in depth.
Pillai, Goonaseelan Colin; Mentré, France; Steimer, Jean-Louis
2005-04-01
Few scientific contributions have made significant impact unless there was a champion who had the vision to see the potential for its use in seemingly disparate areas-and who then drove active implementation. In this paper, we present a historical summary of the development of non-linear mixed effects (NLME) modeling up to the more recent extensions of this statistical methodology. The paper places strong emphasis on the pivotal role played by Lewis B. Sheiner (1940-2004), who used this statistical methodology to elucidate solutions to real problems identified in clinical practice and in medical research and on how he drove implementation of the proposed solutions. A succinct overview of the evolution of the NLME modeling methodology is presented as well as ideas on how its expansion helped to provide guidance for a more scientific view of (model-based) drug development that reduces empiricism in favor of critical quantitative thinking and decision making.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Aert, S.; Chen, J.H.; Van Dyck, D.
2010-01-01
A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has
Quantum triangulations moduli space, quantum computing, non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow
Carfora, Mauro
2017-01-01
This book discusses key conceptual aspects and explores the connection between triangulated manifolds and quantum physics, using a set of case studies ranging from moduli space theory to quantum computing to provide an accessible introduction to this topic. Research on polyhedral manifolds often reveals unexpected connections between very distinct aspects of mathematics and physics. In particular, triangulated manifolds play an important role in settings such as Riemann moduli space theory, strings and quantum gravity, topological quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, critical phenomena and complex systems. Not only do they provide a natural discrete analogue to the smooth manifolds on which physical theories are typically formulated, but their appearance is also often a consequence of an underlying structure that naturally calls into play non-trivial aspects of representation theory, complex analysis and topology in a way that makes the basic geometric structures of the physical interactions involv...
Effects of dual-energy CT with non-linear blending on abdominal CT angiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Sulan; Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiao Chen; Xu, Ge
2014-01-01
To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning.
Effects of dual-energy CT with non-linear blending on abdominal CT angiography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Sulan; Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiao Chen; Xu, Ge [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)
2014-08-15
To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning.
A spline-based non-linear diffeomorphism for multimodal prostate registration.
Mitra, Jhimli; Kato, Zoltan; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Sidibé, Désiré; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C; Comet, Josep; Meriaudeau, Fabrice
2012-08-01
This paper presents a novel method for non-rigid registration of transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance prostate images based on a non-linear regularized framework of point correspondences obtained from a statistical measure of shape-contexts. The segmented prostate shapes are represented by shape-contexts and the Bhattacharyya distance between the shape representations is used to find the point correspondences between the 2D fixed and moving images. The registration method involves parametric estimation of the non-linear diffeomorphism between the multimodal images and has its basis in solving a set of non-linear equations of thin-plate splines. The solution is obtained as the least-squares solution of an over-determined system of non-linear equations constructed by integrating a set of non-linear functions over the fixed and moving images. However, this may not result in clinically acceptable transformations of the anatomical targets. Therefore, the regularized bending energy of the thin-plate splines along with the localization error of established correspondences should be included in the system of equations. The registration accuracies of the proposed method are evaluated in 20 pairs of prostate mid-gland ultrasound and magnetic resonance images. The results obtained in terms of Dice similarity coefficient show an average of 0.980±0.004, average 95% Hausdorff distance of 1.63±0.48 mm and mean target registration and target localization errors of 1.60±1.17 mm and 0.15±0.12 mm respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modelling female fertility traits in beef cattle using linear and non-linear models.
Naya, H; Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I
2017-06-01
Female fertility traits are key components of the profitability of beef cattle production. However, these traits are difficult and expensive to measure, particularly under extensive pastoral conditions, and consequently, fertility records are in general scarce and somehow incomplete. Moreover, fertility traits are usually dominated by the effects of herd-year environment, and it is generally assumed that relatively small margins are kept for genetic improvement. New ways of modelling genetic variation in these traits are needed. Inspired in the methodological developments made by Prof. Daniel Gianola and co-workers, we assayed linear (Gaussian), Poisson, probit (threshold), censored Poisson and censored Gaussian models to three different kinds of endpoints, namely calving success (CS), number of days from first calving (CD) and number of failed oestrus (FE). For models involving FE and CS, non-linear models overperformed their linear counterparts. For models derived from CD, linear versions displayed better adjustment than the non-linear counterparts. Non-linear models showed consistently higher estimates of heritability and repeatability in all cases (h 2 linear models; h 2 > 0.23 and r > 0.24, for non-linear models). While additive and permanent environment effects showed highly favourable correlations between all models (>0.789), consistency in selecting the 10% best sires showed important differences, mainly amongst the considered endpoints (FE, CS and CD). In consequence, endpoints should be considered as modelling different underlying genetic effects, with linear models more appropriate to describe CD and non-linear models better for FE and CS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Non-linear scaling of a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb using statistical shape models.
Nolte, Daniel; Tsang, Chui Kit; Zhang, Kai Yu; Ding, Ziyun; Kedgley, Angela E; Bull, Anthony M J
2016-10-03
Accurate muscle geometry for musculoskeletal models is important to enable accurate subject-specific simulations. Commonly, linear scaling is used to obtain individualised muscle geometry. More advanced methods include non-linear scaling using segmented bone surfaces and manual or semi-automatic digitisation of muscle paths from medical images. In this study, a new scaling method combining non-linear scaling with reconstructions of bone surfaces using statistical shape modelling is presented. Statistical Shape Models (SSMs) of femur and tibia/fibula were used to reconstruct bone surfaces of nine subjects. Reference models were created by morphing manually digitised muscle paths to mean shapes of the SSMs using non-linear transformations and inter-subject variability was calculated. Subject-specific models of muscle attachment and via points were created from three reference models. The accuracy was evaluated by calculating the differences between the scaled and manually digitised models. The points defining the muscle paths showed large inter-subject variability at the thigh and shank - up to 26mm; this was found to limit the accuracy of all studied scaling methods. Errors for the subject-specific muscle point reconstructions of the thigh could be decreased by 9% to 20% by using the non-linear scaling compared to a typical linear scaling method. We conclude that the proposed non-linear scaling method is more accurate than linear scaling methods. Thus, when combined with the ability to reconstruct bone surfaces from incomplete or scattered geometry data using statistical shape models our proposed method is an alternative to linear scaling methods. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The role of dendritic non-linearities in single neuron computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Gutkin
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Experiment has demonstrated that summation of excitatory post-synaptic protientials (EPSPs in dendrites is non-linear. The sum of multiple EPSPs can be larger than their arithmetic sum, a superlinear summation due to the opening of voltage-gated channels and similar to somatic spiking. The so-called dendritic spike. The sum of multiple of EPSPs can also be smaller than their arithmetic sum, because the synaptic current necessarily saturates at some point. While these observations are well-explained by biophysical models the impact of dendritic spikes on computation remains a matter of debate. One reason is that dendritic spikes may fail to make the neuron spike; similarly, dendritic saturations are sometime presented as a glitch which should be corrected by dendritic spikes. We will provide solid arguments against this claim and show that dendritic saturations as well as dendritic spikes enhance single neuron computation, even when they cannot directly make the neuron fire. To explore the computational impact of dendritic spikes and saturations, we are using a binary neuron model in conjunction with Boolean algebra. We demonstrate using these tools that a single dendritic non-linearity, either spiking or saturating, combined with somatic non-linearity, enables a neuron to compute linearly non-separable Boolean functions (lnBfs. These functions are impossible to compute when summation is linear and the exclusive OR is a famous example of lnBfs. Importantly, the implementation of these functions does not require the dendritic non-linearity to make the neuron spike. Next, We show that reduced and realistic biophysical models of the neuron are capable of computing lnBfs. Within these models and contrary to the binary model, the dendritic and somatic non-linearity are tightly coupled. Yet we show that these neuron models are capable of linearly non-separable computations.
Tiruneh, Dawit Tibebu; De Cock, Mieke; Weldeslassie, Ataklti G.; Elen, Jan; Janssen, Rianne
2017-01-01
Although the development of critical thinking (CT) is a major goal of science education, adequate emphasis has not been given to the measurement of CT skills in specific science domains such as physics. Recognizing that adequately assessing CT implies the assessment of both domain-specific and domain-general CT skills, this study reports on the…
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sigaev, V. N.; Sukhov, S.S.; Sarkisov, P. D.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Pernice, P.; Aronne, A.; Gregora, Ivan
2005-01-01
Roč. 318, - (2005), s. 95-104 ISSN 0015-0193 Grant - others:Russian Fondation of Basic Research(RU) 02-03-32105; NATO SfP program(XX) SfP-977980; Italien Ministry of Education , Univerity and Research, FIRB(IT) RBNE0155X7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric * glass composites * optical non-linearity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005
Physical-Chemical and non-linear rheological properties of aqueous solutions of agave fructans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamné A. Ponce S.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Los fructanos son carbohidratos de reserva formados por unidades fructofuranosil con enlaces tipo B principalmente, que se encuentran presentes en diversas variedades de plantas. Los fructanos empleados en el presente estudio, fueron obtenidos mediante una extracción acuosa a partir de piñas maduras de Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Se sabe que las moléculas de fructanos derivados del agave, poseen una configuración ramificada a diferencia de la configuración lineal presente en la inulina comercial (derivada de la Cichorium intybus, lo que les podría otorgar diferentes propiedades y aplicaciones tecnológicas. La composición de los fructanos de agave obtenidos en éste estudio, mostró una mezcla con diferentes tamaños y pesos moleculares promedio de 3,182 Da así como un grado de polimerización promedio de 18. Las soluciones acuosas de fructanos de agave fueron preparadas (de 5-90% p/p y sometidas a una serie de pruebas como pH y densidad a 30, 40, 50 y 60 °C; adicionalmente, la conductividad y el tamaño de partícula (QLS por sus siglas en inglés fueron analizadas a temperatura ambiente. Los resultados de las pruebas mencionadas anteriormente sugieren que, los fructanos derivados del agave pueden formar agregados a concentraciones superiores al 28% p/p. Por otro lado, las mediciones reológicas no lineales de las soluciones acuosas de fructanos de agave se llevaron a cabo a 30, 40, 50 y 60 °C (previa estabilización de la muestra a la temperatura de medición mostrando que presentan comportamientos Newtonianos excepto aquellas a 80 y 90 % p/p, donde comportamientos de adelgazamiento y espesamiento al corte fueron observados. Finalmente, los resultados reológicos aportan valiosa información sobre la formación de agregados en las soluciones acuosas de fructanos de agave en el intervalo de concentraciones de 30 a 70 % p/p, por medio de mediciones de velocidad de corte en estado estacionario efectuadas a 30, 40, 50 y 60°C.
Mathematical and numerical study of non-linear models used in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrard, G.
2005-12-01
We study the interaction of several crossing beams with a plasma in the Laser-Megajoule context. We start from Euler-Maxwell. The formal asymptotic is the Zakharov system. For simplified systems of Klein-Gordon-wave type, we justify an approximation by a Zakharov equation for solutions of large amplitude. We construct a new system that simulates the interaction of 2 beams and present a whole hierarchy of models. We introduce a numerical scheme using the known results on Zakharov-wave equations which are valid for short pulses. We give a scheme which eliminate the backscattering wave. We give some numerical results. Finally, we do several numerical simulations of laser-plasma interaction for the initial value problem and the boundary value problem. (author)
Study of linear and non-linear waves propagation. Application to fluid mechanics and plasmas physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forestier, A.
2002-01-01
This contribution's topic is the resolution of the hyperbolic system which describes a compressible flow in perfect or real situation. It is always in a compressible case and a turbulent model or a multicomponent isentropic turbulent model can be associated. Different schemes are tested as S α β scheme or TVD scheme. An extension to generalized geometry is purposed in 2D or 3D. For chemical aspects, the ZND theory is under control with connexion of second order method. In the same way, MHD or Turbulent problem are developed with computations for compressible situation. Implicit aspects are investigated that show the lost of knowledge in large CFL even if computation can be driven for all time step. At the end, for Plasma situations in which pressure effects can be neglected, there is a lost of hyperbolicity that requires investigation in generated problems. We don't present numerical simulations that are exhibited in an other paper. (author)
Some mathematical problems in non-linear Physics; Algunos problemas matematicos en fisica no-lineal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1983-07-01
The main results contained in this report are the following: I) A general analysis of non-autonomous conserved densities for simple linear evolution systems. II) Partial differential systems within a wide class are converted into Lagrange an form. III) Rigorous criteria for existence of integrating factor matrices. IV) Isolation of all third-order evolution equations with high order symmetries and conservation laws. (Author) 3 refs.
The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schapira, J.P.; Vergnes, J.; Zaetta, A.
1998-01-01
This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, Alexander J; Szablewski, Marek; Bloor, David; Atkinson, Del; Graham, Adam; Laughlin, Paul; Lussey, David
2013-01-01
Printable electronics is an innovative area of technology with great commercial potential. Here, a screen-printed functional ink, comprising a combination of semiconducting acicular particles, electrically insulating nanoparticles and a base polymer ink, is described that exhibits pronounced pressure sensitive electrical properties for applications in sensing and touch sensitive surfaces. The combination of these components in the as-printed ink yield a complex structure and a large and reproducible touch pressure sensitive resistance range. In contrast to the case for some composite systems, the resistance changes occur down to applied pressures of 13 Pa. Current–voltage measurements at fixed pressures show monotonic non-linear behaviour, which becomes more Ohmic at higher pressures and in all cases shows some hysteresis. The physical basis for conduction, particularly in the low pressure regime, can be described in terms of field assisted quantum mechanical tunnelling. (paper)
Webb, Alexander J; Szablewski, Marek; Bloor, David; Atkinson, Del; Graham, Adam; Laughlin, Paul; Lussey, David
2013-04-26
Printable electronics is an innovative area of technology with great commercial potential. Here, a screen-printed functional ink, comprising a combination of semiconducting acicular particles, electrically insulating nanoparticles and a base polymer ink, is described that exhibits pronounced pressure sensitive electrical properties for applications in sensing and touch sensitive surfaces. The combination of these components in the as-printed ink yield a complex structure and a large and reproducible touch pressure sensitive resistance range. In contrast to the case for some composite systems, the resistance changes occur down to applied pressures of 13 Pa. Current-voltage measurements at fixed pressures show monotonic non-linear behaviour, which becomes more Ohmic at higher pressures and in all cases shows some hysteresis. The physical basis for conduction, particularly in the low pressure regime, can be described in terms of field assisted quantum mechanical tunnelling.
Webb, Alexander J.; Szablewski, Marek; Bloor, David; Atkinson, Del; Graham, Adam; Laughlin, Paul; Lussey, David
2013-04-01
Printable electronics is an innovative area of technology with great commercial potential. Here, a screen-printed functional ink, comprising a combination of semiconducting acicular particles, electrically insulating nanoparticles and a base polymer ink, is described that exhibits pronounced pressure sensitive electrical properties for applications in sensing and touch sensitive surfaces. The combination of these components in the as-printed ink yield a complex structure and a large and reproducible touch pressure sensitive resistance range. In contrast to the case for some composite systems, the resistance changes occur down to applied pressures of 13 Pa. Current-voltage measurements at fixed pressures show monotonic non-linear behaviour, which becomes more Ohmic at higher pressures and in all cases shows some hysteresis. The physical basis for conduction, particularly in the low pressure regime, can be described in terms of field assisted quantum mechanical tunnelling.
Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, M.
2018-03-01
Boundary layer flow around a stretchable rough cylinder is modeled by taking into account boundary slip and transverse magnetic field effects. The main concern is to resolve heat/mass transfer problem considering non-linear radiative heat transfer and temperature/concentration jump aspects. Using conventional similarity approach, the equations of motion and heat transfer are converted into a boundary value problem whose solution is computed by shooting method for broad range of slip coefficients. The proposed numerical scheme appears to improve as the strengths of magnetic field and slip coefficients are enhanced. Axial velocity and temperature are considerably influenced by a parameter M which is inversely proportional to the radius of cylinder. A significant change in temperature profile is depicted for growing wall to ambient temperature ratio. Relevant physical quantities such as wall shear stress, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are elucidated in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shkarofsky, I.P.
1997-01-01
The relativistic Fokker-Planck collision term in Braams and Karney [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1355 (1989)] is expanded using Cartesian tensors (equivalent to associated Legendre spherical harmonics) retaining all non-linear terms and an arbitrary zeroth order distribution background. Expressions are given for collision terms between all harmonics and the background distribution in terms of the j and y functions in Braams and Karney. The results reduce to Braams and Karney for the first order harmonic term with a Maxwellian background and to those given by Shkarofsky [Can. J. Phys. 41, 1753 (1963)] in the non-relativistic limit. Expressions for the energy and momentum transfer associated with relativistic Coulomb collisions are given. The fast two dimensional Fokker-Planck solver in Shoucri and Shkarofsky [Comput. Phys. Commun. 82, 287 (1994)] has been extended to include the second order harmonic term. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika
2014-01-01
dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...