WorldWideScience

Sample records for physical mechanical properties

  1. Swelling and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Sasaki, Saori

    2015-12-01

    Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels are versatile biomaterials due to their excellent biocompatibility. In the past decades, physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels have been extensively studied for biomedical applications. However, these materials have not yet been implemented due to their mechanical strength. Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels consist of a swollen amorphous network of poly(vinyl alcohol) physically crosslinked by microcrystallites. Although the mechanical properties can be improved to some extent by controlling the distribution of microcrystallites on the nano- and micro-scales, enhancing the mechanical properties while maintaining high water content remains very difficult. It may be technologically impossible to significantly improve the mechanical properties while keeping the gel's high water absorbance ability using conventional fabrication methods. Physical and chemical understandings of the swelling and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels are considered here; some promising strategies for their practical applications are presented. This review focuses more on the recent studies on swelling and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, prepared using only poly(vinyl alcohol) and pure water with no other chemicals, as potential biomedical materials. © IMechE 2015.

  2. Effects of gamma rays on the physical and mechanical properties of hide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno Puspodikoro.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays on the physical and mechanical properties of hide has been studied, using Gammacell 220 as an irradiator. The determination of the physical and mechanical properties of the irradiated hide was carried out by Balai Penelitian Kulit (Leather Research Institute) at Yogyakarta. Experiments show that up to a certain dose of irradiation, favourable effects can be obtained, while higher doses impair the physical and mechanical properties of the leather raw materials. (author)

  3. Physical and mechanical properties of gamma radiation cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria E.; Romero, G.; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    1999-01-01

    Granulated LDPE 2003 polyethylene was extruded and irradiated under nitrogen with 150, 200 and 300 kGy gamma rays doses to produce cross-linking. The study of the physical and mechanical properties shows that the product has a high degree of molecular cross-linking, can be heated up to 200 C for 2 hours without deformation and that the mechanical properties improve. Preliminary aging tests indicate that after heating at 60 C for 4 weeks no physical or mechanical deterioration can be observed. (author)

  4. Mechanical and physical properties of agro-based fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lee; T.F. Shupe; C.Y. Hse

    2006-01-01

    In order to better utilize agricultural fibers as an alternative resource for composite panels, several variables were investigated to improve mechanical and physical properties of agm-based fiberboard. This study focused on the effect of fiber morphology, slenderness ratios (UD), and fiber mixing combinations on panel properties. The panel construction types were also...

  5. Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Daniellia Ogea Harms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    density were the physical properties tested while the mechanical properties were the modulus of rupture ... 300kN capacity of the food laboratory of the department of Agriculture of the University. ..... Negro, F; Cremonini, C; Zanuttini, R (2013).

  6. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization.

  7. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUVENILE Schizolobium amazonicum WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth in world demand for wood implies a search for new fast growing species with silvicultural potential, and in this scenario for native species such as Paricá . Thus, the objective of this study was determining the physical and mechanical wood properties of the Schizolobium amazonicum species (known as Paricá in Brazil. Trees were collected from commercial plantations located in the north of Brazil with ages of 5, 7, 9 and 11 years. Four logs from trees of each age in the longitudinal direction of the trees were obtained, and later a diametrical plank of each log was taken to manufacture the specimens which were used to evaluate some physical and mechanical properties of the wood. The basic density of Paricá was reduced in the basetop direction and no difference between the radial positions was observed, while the average basic density of this wood was characterized as low. The region close to the bark showed less longitudinal contraction and also greater homogeneity of this property along the trunk, while for tangential contraction the smallest variation was found in the region near the pith. Paricá wood contraction was characterized as low. Age influenced most of the mechanical properties, where logs from the base had the highest values of mechanical strength.

  8. Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of oriented strandboard with fire retardant treated veneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Zeki Candan; Robert White

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated physical, mechanical and fire properties of oriented strand boards (OSB) covered with fire retardant treated veneers. The beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) veneers were treated with either monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, lime water or a borax/boric acid (1 : 1 by weight) mixture. Physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were...

  9. Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Geever, Luke M; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L; Cahill, Paul A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2010-02-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Gelatin hydrogels are under active investigation as potential vascular cell culture biomaterials, tissue models and vascular implants. The PVA/Gelatin hydrogels are physically crosslinked by the freeze-thaw technique, which is followed by a coagulation bath treatment. In this study, the thermal behavior of the gels was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Rheological measurement and uniaxial tensile tests revealed key mechanical properties. The role of polymer fraction in relation to these mechanical properties is explored. Gelatin has no significant effect on the thermal behavior of PVA, which indicates that no substantial change occurs in the PVA crystallite due to the presence of gelatin. The glass transition temperature, melting temperature, degree of crystallinity, polymer fraction, storage modulus (G') and ultimate strength of one freeze-thaw cycle (1FT) hydrogels are inferior to those of 3FT hydrogels. With coagulation, both 1FT and 3FT hydrogels shifted to a lower value of T(g), melting temperature and polymer fraction are further increased and the degree of crystallinity is depressed. The mechanical properties of 1FT, but not 3FT, were strengthened with coagulation treatment. This study gives a detailed investigation of the microstructure formation of PVA/Gelatin hydrogel in each stage of physical treatments which helps us to explain the role of physical treatments in tuning their physical properties for biomechanical applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review on Synthesis, Thermo-Physical Property, and Heat Transfer Mechanism of Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Suresh Patil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are suspended nano-sized particles in a base fluid. With increasing demand for more high efficiency thermal systems, nanofluids seem to be a promising option for researchers. As a result, numerous investigations have been undertaken to understand the behaviors of nanofluids. Since their discovery, the thermo-physical properties of nanofluids have been under intense research. Inadequate understanding of the mechanisms involved in the heat transfer of nanofluids has been the major obstacle for the development of sophisticated nanofluids with the desired properties. In this comprehensive review paper, investigations on synthesis, thermo-physical properties, and heat transfer mechanisms of nanofluids have been reviewed and presented. Results show that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids increases with the increase of the operating temperature. This can potentially be used for the efficiency enhancement of thermal systems under higher operating temperatures. In addition, this paper also provides details concerning dependency of the thermo-physical properties as well as synthesis and the heat transfer mechanism of the nanofluids.

  11. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. WOOD FOR THREE STRATUM PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beltrame

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of physical and mechanical properties of wood is essential for industrial use both in construction and the manufacture of furniture. Thus, the study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the Araucaria angustifolia wood in terms of three strata phytosociological. For this, 15 trees were felled, five belonging to the upper stratum, the middle stratum five and five for the lower strata. The trees were deployed for the preparation of specimens used for mechanical testing. In the mechanical characterization of the species assays were performed for impact resistance, static bending, compression axial and perpendicular to the fibers. As for the characterization of physical properties, determined the apparent specific gravity at 12% relative humidity for each extract. The results did not show significant differences in the tests of impact resistance and static bending to the strata phytosociological. As for the apparent specific gravity, compression axial and perpendicular there was a change in the values of propertiesbetween the strata phytosociological, is generally butter in the middle and upper strata. Therefore the physical and mechanical properties tend to present higher values these two strata. The data analysis allowed of Araucaria angustifolia wood has moderate mechanical strength when compared with other species studies.

  12. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Danielsen, CC

    2002-01-01

    structure and mechanical properties. In this study, 160 cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal human tibiae aged from 16 to 85 years at post-mortem. The specimens underwent micro-CT and the microstructural properties were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods. The specimens...... were tested to determine the mechanical properties and the physical/compositional properties were evaluated. The type of structure together with anisotropy correlated well with Young's modulus of human tibial cancellous bone. The plate-like structure reflected high mechanical stress and the rod......-like structure low mechanical stress. There was a strong correlation between the type of trabecular structure and the bone-volume fraction. The most effective microstructural properties for predicting the mechanical properties of cancellous bone seem to differ with age....

  13. Impact of Desalination on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Lanzhou Loess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Min

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salt in soil has a significant influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. We performed desalination experiments on Lanzhou loess, a typical sulfate saline soil, to study the effects of salt on the physical and mechanical properties of the loess and compare variations in the soil properties after desalination. The Atterberg limits of the soil increased after desalination as a result of changes in the soil particle composition and grain refinement. The shear and uniaxial compressive strength of the soil increased as a result of decreased calcitic cementation and other changes to the soil structure. Scanning electron microstructure (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) procedures revealed changes to the microstructure and pore-size distribution of the Lanzhou loess after desalination.

  14. a comparative study of the physical and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP-User

    [11] British Standard Institutes, BS EN 1097-6:2000, Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates. Determination of particle density and water absorption, British Standard Institution, London. [12] Adaba, C. S., Agunwamba, J. C., Nwoji, C. U., Onya, O. E.,. Oze, S, “Comparative Cost And Strength Analysis Of.

  15. Investigation of the mechanical and physical properties of greywacke specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Konečný, Pavel; Knejzlík, Jaromír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2009), s. 188-193 ISSN 1365-1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : greywacke * mechanical and physical properties Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2009 www.elsevier.com/locate ijrmms

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete containing superplasticizer and metakaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidan, Shahiron; Tayeh, Bassam A.; Jamaludin, A. A.; Bahari, N. A. A. S.; Mohd, S. S.; Zuki Ali, N.; Khalid, F. S.

    2017-11-01

    The development of concrete technology shows a variety of admixtures in concrete to produce special concrete. This includes the production of self-compacting concrete which is able to fill up all spaces, take formwork shapes and pass through congested reinforcement bars without vibrating or needing any external energy. In this study, the main objective is to compare the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete containing metakaolin with normal concrete. Four types of samples were produced to study the effect of metakaolin towards the physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete where 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of metakaolin were used as cement replacement. The physical properties were investigated using slump test for normal concrete and slump flow test for self-compacting concrete. The mechanical properties were tested for compressive strength and tensile strength. The findings of this study show that the inclusion of metakaolin as cement replacement can increase both compressive and tensile strength compared to normal concrete. The highest compressive strength was found in self-compacting concrete with 15% metakaolin replacement at 53.3 MPa while self-compacting concrete with 10% metakaolin replacement showed the highest tensile strength at 3.6 MPa. On top of that, the finishing or concrete surface of both cube and cylinder samples made of self-compacting concrete produced a smooth surface with the appearance of less honeycombs compared to normal concrete.

  17. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of a posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of a micro-hybrid resin composite used in adult posterior restorations A micro-hybrid, light curing resin composite Unolux BCS Composite Restorative, (UnoDent, England) was used to restore 74 carious classes I and II cavities on posterior teeth of 62 adult patients.

  18. Role of differential physical properties in the collective mechanics and dynamics of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moumita

    Living cells and tissues are highly mechanically sensitive and active. Mechanical stimuli influence the shape, motility, and functions of cells, modulate the behavior of tissues, and play a key role in several diseases. In this talk I will discuss how collective biophysical properties of tissues emerge from the interplay between differential mechanical properties and statistical physics of underlying components, focusing on two complementary tissue types whose properties are primarily determined by (1) the extracellular matrix (ECM), and (2) individual and collective cell properties. I will start with the structure-mechanics-function relationships in articular cartilage (AC), a soft tissue that has very few cells, and its mechanical response is primarily due to its ECM. AC is a remarkable tissue: it can support loads exceeding ten times our body weight and bear 60+ years of daily mechanical loading despite having minimal regenerative capacity. I will discuss the biophysical principles underlying this exceptional mechanical response using the framework of rigidity percolation theory, and compare our predictions with experiments done by our collaborators. Next I will discuss ongoing theoretical work on how the differences in cell mechanics, motility, adhesion, and proliferation in a co-culture of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells may modulate experimentally observed differential migration and segregation. Our results may provide insights into the mechanobiology of tissues with cell populations with different physical properties present together such as during the formation of embryos or the initiation of tumors. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  20. Physical, mechanical, and biodegradable properties of meranti wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamul Hoque, M.; Aminudin, M.A.M.; Jawaid, M.; Islam, M.S.; Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ polymerization and solution casting method used to manufacture WPC. • In-situ WPC exhibited better properties compared to pure wood, 5% WPC and 20% WPC. • Lowest water absorption and least biodegradability shown by In-situ wood. - Abstract: In-situ polymerization and solution casting techniques are two effective methods to manufacture wood polymer composites (WPCs). In this study, wood polymer composites (WPCs) were manufactured from meranti sapwood by solution casting and in-situ polymerization process using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and epoxy matrix respectively. Physical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations of fabricated WPCs were then carried out to analyse their properties. Morphological properties of composites samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result reveals that in-situ wood composite exhibited better properties compared to pure wood, 5% WPC and 20% WPC. Moreover, in-situ WPC had lowest water absorption and least biodegraded. Conversely, pure wood shown moderate mechanical strength, high biodegradation and water absorption rate. In term of biodegradation, earth-medium brought more severe effect than water in deteriorating the properties of the specimens

  1. Correlation between some mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Fujisaki, Katsuo

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites, tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, electrical resistivity, volume fraction of porosity, and graphitisation were measured for ten brand graphites. Correlation between the mechanical and physical properties of the graphites were studied. Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of the graphites depend on volume fraction of porosity. The Young's modulus of the graphites tended to increase with increasing the thermal expansion coefficient. For an anisotropic graphite, an interesting relationship between the Young's modulus E and the thermal expansion coefficient al pha was found in any specimen orientations; alpha E=constant. The value of alphah E was dependent upon the volume fraction of porosity. It should be noted here that the electrical resistivity increased with decreasing grain size. The flexural and the compressive strength were related with the volume fraction of porosity while the tensile strength was not, The relationships between the tensile, the compressive and the flexural strength can be approximately expressed as linear functions over a wide range of the stresses. (author)

  2. Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of Shea Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of Shea Tree timber ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) used for structural applications in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... strength parallel to grain of 24.7 (N/mm2), compressive strength perpendicular to grain of 8.99 (N/mm2), shear strength of 2.01 (N/mm2), and tensile strength parallel to ...

  3. Mechanical and physical properties of hydrothermally altered rocks, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyering, L. D.; Villeneuve, M. C.; Wallis, I. C.; Siratovich, P. A.; Kennedy, B. M.; Gravley, D. M.; Cant, J. L.

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical characterization of hydrothermally altered rocks from geothermal reservoirs will lead to an improved understanding of rock mechanics in a geothermal environment. To characterize rock properties of the selected formations, we prepared samples from intact core for non-destructive (porosity, density and ultrasonic wave velocities) and destructive laboratory testing (uniaxial compressive strength). We characterised the hydrothermal alteration assemblage using optical mineralogy and existing petrography reports and showed that lithologies had a spread of secondary mineralisation that occurred across the smectite, argillic and propylitic alteration zones. The results from the three geothermal fields show a wide variety of physical rock properties. The testing results for the non-destructive testing shows that samples that originated from the shallow and low temperature section of the geothermal field had higher porosity (15 - 56%), lower density (1222 - 2114 kg/m3) and slower ultrasonic waves (1925 - 3512 m/s (vp) and 818 - 1980 m/s (vs)), than the samples from a deeper and higher temperature section of the field (1.5 - 20%, 2072 - 2837 kg/m3, 2639 - 4593 m/s (vp) and 1476 - 2752 m/s (vs), respectively). The shallow lithologies had uniaxial compressive strengths of 2 - 75 MPa, and the deep lithologies had strengths of 16 - 211 MPa. Typically samples of the same lithologies that originate from multiple wells across a field have variable rock properties because of the different alteration zones from which each sample originates. However, in addition to the alteration zones, the primary rock properties and burial depth of the samples also have an impact on the physical and mechanical properties of the rock. Where this data spread exists, we have been able to derive trends for this specific dataset and subsequently have gained an improved understanding of how hydrothermal alteration affects physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evica MRATINIĆ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04, soluble solids content in ZO-1/03, titratable acidity in ZL-2/03, SS/TA ratio in ZL-1/03, and fruit mass and flesh/stone ratio in DL-1/1/04 genotype. The most number of genotypes have orange and deep orange skin and flesh colour, respectively, whereas sweet kernel taste was predominant in most genotypes. Regarding physical-mechanical properties, the superior fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter and surface area observed in DL-1/1/04 genotype, whereas the highest sphericity and surface area observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04 genotypes. Also, the series of genotypes evaluated have better chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties than Hungarian Best (control. Finally, information about these properties is very important for understanding the behaviour of the product during the postharvest operations.

  5. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  6. Stereology application in the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytermann, Richard.

    1979-04-01

    The sintering of carbonyl nickel powders has been studied through stereology (quantitative microscopy) associated with different physical and mechanical measurements. This study demonstrated that a set of stereological parameters, such as porosity, grain size, mean pore volume ..., was necessary to characterize porous parts with the same porosity obtained through different ways. On the one hand, stereology permitted to elucidate powder shape and speed of pressure rising influence on the compacting process. On the other hand, the study of physical and mechanical properties related to their microstructure led to distinguish: properties such as elasticity modulus independant of compacting pressure, sintering temperature and powder shape. Their evolution has been characterized through contiguity coefficient; properties such as tensile strength dependant of sintering parameters. Their characterization required the simultaneous measurement of porosity mean pore volume, shape factor and grain size [fr

  7. Probabilistic-Stochastic Model of Distribution of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Soft Mineral Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Sdvizhkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of soils and soft rocks obtained as a result of laboratory tests are important initial parameters for assessing the stability of natural and artificial slopes. Such properties of rocks as adhesion and the angle of internal friction are due to the influence of a number of natural and technogenic factors. At the same time, from the set of factors influencing the stability of the slope, the most significant ones are singled out, which to a greater extent determine the properties of the rocks. The more factors are taken into account in the geotechnical model, the more closely the properties of the rocks are studied, which increases the accuracy of the scientific forecast of the landslide danger of the slope. On the other hand, an increase in the number of factors involved in the model complicates it and causes a decrease in the reliability of geotechnical calculations. The aim of the work is to construct a statistical distribution of the studied physical and mechanical properties of soft rocks and to substantiate a probabilistic statistical model. Based on the results of laboratory tests of rocks, the statistical distributions of the quantitative traits studied, the angle of internal friction φ and the cohesion, were constructed. It was established that the statistical distribution of physical mechanical properties of rocks is close to a uniform law.

  8. Physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities into the physical properties of metals and ceramics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are reported. Topics covered include: high field superconductivity; microstructure and mechanical behavior of ceramics, glass-metal, and ceramic-metal systems; high temperature reactions; relation of microstructure to properties in ceramics; and structure and properties of carbon materials and composite materials

  9. Lithium doped calcium phosphate cement maintains physical mechanical properties and promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Renchong; Li, Baichuan; Liang, Wei; Pan, Haobo; Cui, Xu; Tang, Jingli; Li, Bing

    2017-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been widely used in bone tissue repairing due to its physical mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Addition of trace element to CPC has shown promising evidence to improve the physical properties and biological activities of CPC. Lithium (Li) has effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we incorporated Li to CPC and examined the physical properties of Li/CPC and its effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. We found that Li doped CPC maintained similar setting time, pore size distribution, compressive strength, composition, and morphology as CPC without Li. Additionally, Li doped CPC improved osteoblast proliferation and differentiation significantly compared to CPC without Li. To our knowledge, our results, for the first time, show that Li doped CPC has beneficial effect on osteoblast in cell culture while keeps the excellent physical-mechanical properties of CPC. This study will lead to potential application of Li doped CPC in bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 944-952, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell (PKS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some of the mechanical and physical properties of palm kernel shells (PKS) were evaluated. These are moisture content, 7.8325 ± 0.6672%; true density, 1.254 ± 5.292 x 10-3 g/cm3; bulk density, 1.1248g/cm3; mean rupture force along width, and thickness were 3174.52 ± 270.70N and 2806.94 ± 498.45N for ...

  11. IMPACT OF NANOMODIFIERS ON MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GYPSUM BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. In the next 10 years, more than 90% of materials will be replaced with new materials – nanocomposites [1]. The nanocomponents application will allow manufacture of high-strength materials with reduced production cost and will ensure demand for products [2]. Researches aimed to determination of carbon nanotube type nanomodifier concentration impact on the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum binders are important today and must result in creation of competitive strong nano-materials. Purpose. Research of carbon nanotube (CNT type nanomodifier concentration impact on the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum binders. Conclusion. Sample microstructure analysis revealed that the non-modified gypsum sample structure is dominated by prismatic and lamellar crystals randomly distributed throughout the matrix volume. In this case, loose structure with increased porosity is formed, which results in sample mechanical strength reduction. In the CNT-modified gypsum matrix, well-ordered and homogeneous structure is formed with larger needle-shaped crystals, which results in the phase-contacting area increase, porosity reduction and thus the physical and mechanical characteristics improvement. It is experimentally proved that at the identical nano-modifier content in the gypsum matrix (0.035 %, maximum compression strength gain is achieved with the use of CNT and makes 28- 30%. At the use of initial carbon nanotubes, increase in strength at the same nano-modifier content makes 13-15%. The Ca2+ ions interaction with the graphene-like carbon surface was investigated by the DFT method. Capability is demonstrated of the covalent calcium bonding with the hexagonal carbon surface cell as a result of overlap of Ca2+ valence 3p orbitals and carbon 2р orbitals.

  12. The Dependence of the Physical Mechanical Properties of Expanded-Clay Lightweight Concrete on the Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vaičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Binder material is the most expensive raw component of concrete; thus, scientists are looking for cheaper substitute materials. This paper shows that when manufacturing, a part of the binder material of expanded-clay lightweight concrete can be replaced with active filler. The conducted studies show that technogenic – catalyst waste could act as similar filler. The study also includes the dependence of the physical and mechanical properties of expanded-clay lightweight concrete on the concrete mixture and the chemical composition of the samples obtained. Different formation and composition mixtures of expanded-clay lightweight concrete were chosen to determine the properties of physical-mechanical properties such as density, water absorption and compressive strength.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Forcefields based molecular modeling on the mechanical and physical properties of emeraldine base polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Yuan, C.A.; Wong, K.Y.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular mechanical (MM) analysis are carried out to provide reliable and accurate model for emeraldine base polyaniline. This study validate the forcefields and model with the physical and mechanical properties of the polyaniline. The temperature effects on non-bond

  14. Experimental analysis on physical and mechanical properties of thermal shock damage of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of mechanical and physical properties of granite under different thermal loading effects. Uniaxial compression experiments studying the rules of the influence of temperature load on mechanical properties of granite were carried out. After high-temperature heating at above 600 °C, granite tended to have stronger ductility and plasticity as well as declined peak stress and compressive strength. Thermogravimetry - differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC analysis results showed that, thermal load at different temperatures induced reactions such as water loss, oxidation and crystallization in the microstructure of granite, which led to physical changes of granite. Hence it is concluded that, heating can significantly weaken the mechanical performance of granite, which provides an important support for the optimization of heating assisted processing of granite. It also reveals that, heating assisted cutting technique can effectively lower energy consumption and improve processing efficiency.

  15. Physical properties of nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahne, Roman; George, Chandramohan [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanostructures; Manna, Liberato [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanochemistry; Morello, Giovanni [CNR, Lecce (Italy). Nanoscience Institute; Figuerola, Albert [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Inst. de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia; Deka, Sasanka [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-06-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are among the most investigated objects nowadays, both in fundamental science and in various technical applications. In this book the physical properties of nanowires formed by nanoparticles with elongated shape, i.e. rod-like or wire-like, are described. The transition in the physical properties is analyzed for nanorods and nanowires consisting of spherical and rod-like nanoparticles. The physical properties of nanowires and elongated inorganic nanoparticles are reviewed too. The optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical and catalytic properties of nanowires consisting of semiconductors, noble and various other metals, metal oxides properties and metal alloys are presented. The applications of nanorods and nanowires are discussed in the book.

  16. Possibilities for modelling the effect of compression on mechanical and physical properties of various Dutch soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, U.D.; Kroesbergen, B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    The state of compactness of the arable soil layer changes during the growing season as a result of tillage and traction. The aim of this study was to assess and predict some soil mechanical and physical properties governing machine performance and crop response. The following mechanical properties

  17. Effects of varied porosity on the physic-mechanical properties of sintered ceramic from Ifon clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of saw dust admixture on the physic-mechanical properties of sintered clay bonded carbonized palm kernel shell ceramic was investigated. Composite mixtures of powdered carbonized palm kernel shell and clay from Ifon deposit were produced using equal amount of clay and carbonized palm kernel shell. These were then mixed with varied amount of saw dust (0%, 5% and 10% in a ball mill for 6 hours. From this standard sample specimens were produced using uniaxial compression after mixing each mixture with 10% moisture of clay contents. The compressed samples were sintered at 9500C and soaked for one hour. The sintered samples were characterized for various physic-mechanical properties using state of the art equipment’s. The fired samples were also characterized using ultra-high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (UHR-FEGSEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. It was observed that the apparent porosity and water absorption of the clay bonded carbonized palm kernel shell ceramic increased with increased amount of saw dust admixture, cold crushing strength, Young’ modulus of elasticity and absorbed energy of the sample reduced with increased amount of saw dust admixture. It was concluded that the sample with 0% saw dust admixture is judged to possess optimum physic-mechanical properties.

  18. Preparation of highly absorbing polymeric hydrogels by radiation processing: mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Some highly absorbing polymeric hydrogels such as acrylic polymers were produced by radiation processing with gamma sources Co-60 of 10,000 Ci, 3 kGy/h and an electron beam accelerator of 3 - 6 MeV, 0.3 - 3 kGy/s. For practical purposes, such as different applications in agriculture, etc, we studied the physical properties of residual monomers by refractometric and polarographic methods and the mechanical properties (gel strength) with devices made in our laboratory. (Author)

  19. Effects of postpolymerization microwave irradiation on provisional dental acrylics: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkomur, Ahmet; Fortes, Carmen Beatriz Borges

    2016-07-26

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of microwave irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) provisional resins. Twenty bars and 20 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated for each selected provisional restorative material (Dencor and Duralay). Test groups were subjected to microwave irradiation (3 minutes at 600 W) after polymerization. Bar specimens were subjected to a flexural strength test. Disc-shaped specimens were used to evaluate microhardness. Backscattered Raman spectroscopy was employed for each group to define the degree of conversion of the monomer/polymer. The frequency bands corresponding to C = C and C = O groups were used to determine the conversion of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomers into polymers. Glass transition temperature was determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. Microwave irradiation of both tested autopolymerizing PMMA provisional materials resulted in a statistically significant increase in microhardness, degree of conversion and glass transition temperature values. Also, the results demonstrated a significant increase in flexural strength after postpolymerization microwave irradiation for the Dencor specimens. It is concluded that mechanical and physical properties are positively influenced by microwave irradiation.

  20. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  1. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  2. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  3. Physical and Digital Security Mechanisms: Properties, Combinations and Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.

    2015-01-01

    The usage of information technology implies the replacement of physical systems with digital systems: we use information technology because some properties of software, such as high speed, low cost and high accuracy, are more desirable than the corresponding properties of physical systems.

  4. Characterization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Miscible Lactose-Sugars Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runjing; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2017-09-01

    Lactose-sugars systems were produced by spray drying. They were lactose, lactose-glucose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-maltose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-sucrose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-trehalose (4:1) mixtures, and lactose-corn syrup solids (CSS) (4:1) mixtures. The physical characteristics, water sorption behavior, glass transition, and mechanical properties of miscible lactose-sugars systems were investigated. Lactose-glucose mixtures had larger particle size than other lactose-sugars systems after spray drying. The presence of glucose or sucrose in lactose-sugars mixtures decreased the glass transition temperatures of amorphous systems, while the presence of maltose and trehalose had only minor impact on the glass transition temperatures. Moreover, glucose accelerated the crystallization of amorphous system at 0.44 a w , but its presence delayed the loss of sorbed water at higher water activities (≥0.54 a w ). Mechanical property study indicated that glucose and sucrose in amorphous system could result in an increase of molecular mobility, while the presence of CSS could decrease the free volume and maintain the stiffness of the miscible systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Nanodiamond particles/PVDF nanocomposite flexible films: thermal, mechanical and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleh, Babak; Sodagar, Shima; Momeni, Amir; Jabbari, Ameneh

    2016-08-01

    Recently, polymer nanocomposites reinforced with nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this work, poly (vinylidene fluoride)/nanodiamond particles nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method with various nanodiamond particles contents. The samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed an obvious α to β-phase transformation compared to pure PVDF. The most (or the maximum) phase transformation from α to β-phase (>90%) was found for nanocomposite film with 8% wt nanodiamond particles. Scanning electron micrographs showed considerable decrease in the size of spherulitic crystal structure of PVDF with adding nanoparticles. The photoluminescence property of nanocomposite films was investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the optical band gap value was calculated from the UV-visible absorption spectra. The results showed that after the incorporation of nanoparticles into PVDF, the value of optical band gap decreased. Thermal stability of samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Due to an increase in the electroactive phase (β) percentage by adding nanoparticles, the resistance of samples to thermal degradation improved. The mechanical properties of samples were investigated by tensile test and hardness measurements. The elastic modulus and hardness of samples were enhanced by adding nanodiamond particles and elongation to fracture decreased.

  6. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b. The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximated to a sphere. In the mechanical properties, at major diameter, Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.16kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.955kN. In minor diameter, the Dura variety also recorded highest rupture force of 1.12kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Kafir variety had the lowest value of 0.952kN. Also at 20% moisture content, the Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.025kN while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.965kN. The same trend applies in the varieties at 30% moisture content. This is because, increase in moisture content results to decrease in rupture force. And this implies that force beyond these points at these moisture contents may cause damage to the sorghum varieties.

  7. Effect of nanoclay particles on some physical and mechanical properties of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sharifnasab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As a mechanical tillage practices on soil preparation improve soil structure, increase in porosity, better distribution of soil aggregates and eventually modify the physical properties of soil. The use of nano-technology in agricultural science and its application in tillage for improving the physical properties and mechanical issues has grown substantially. Nanotechnology is an appropriate way to reduce soil limitations. However the nanoparticles are very small amounts in soil, due to features such as high surface area, surface charge (appearance and sometimes porous nano-engineering of physical-chemical properties of soil are affected significantly (Mohammadi & Niazian, 2013. To use of nanomaterials in the territory of a new issue (Taipodia et al., 2011. Small developments on the use of nanoparticles to improve soil quality and land reform have been taken (Theron et al., 2008. Clay soil was used to enhance the compressive strength (Yonekura & Miwa, 1993. Nanosilica particle effects were examined for increasing resistance against penetration and consolidation (Noll et al., 1992. In 2005, these particles were used to increase adhesion and reduce viscosity. It seemed that the adhesion of the particles was depended on Nanosilica (Mohammadi & Niazian, 2013. The use of nanomaterials showed that the increased pH and soil fertility, improved soil physical structure, and reduced mobility, availability and toxicity of heavy metals and other environmental factors and those that will stabilize the soil components and subsides the erosion in the mining pick, (Lal, 2008. In agriculture, the soil conditioner studies have shown that nanoparticles can mine the soil quality by increasing water-holding capacity, increasing silt and clay and improve levels of nutrients, and eliminate toxins, (Liu and Lal, 2012.In this study, the effect on some physical and mechanical properties of soil contain clay gradation, Atterberg limits, specifications

  8. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content of rubberwood is an important factor influencing its physical and mechanical behaviours. This research aimed at quantifying effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood core. The specimens at various moisture contents were tested in compression and shear parallel to grain. Information was gathered to determine shrinkage, density and specific gravity of specimens. The equilibrium moisture content determined from desorption experiment, was well described by the Hailwood-Horrobin solution theory. Moisture content of 23+4% best represented the value of apparent fiber saturation point, Mp, determined from physical and mechanical properties data. Above Mp, values of all physical and mechanical properties examined were fairly constant. Maximum volumetric shrinkage from moisture content above Mp to an oven-dry condition was 8.2+1.8%. Specific gravity and density were 0.55+0.03 and 614+30 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. Below Mp, ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain, ultimate shear stress parallel to grain, modulus of elasticity (MOE for compression parallel to grain, and shear modulus parallel to grain increased exponentially with decreasing moisture content. Shear strain at fracture and work to fracture of shear parallel to grain were found to increase as moisture content decreased below Mp and attained the maximum values at 20% and 12% moisture content, respectively. The values decreased with further lowering of the level of moisture content. Ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain was closely correlated with specific gravity and was more sensitive to changes in moisture content at higher specific gravity level.

  9. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND pH OF MODIFICATION PROCESS ON THE PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Wicaksono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of cassava starch for excipient in the manufacturing of the tablet has some problems, especially on physical-mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the differentness of temperature and pH in the process of modification on the physical-mechanical properties of modified cassava starch. Modifications were performed by suspending cassava starch into a solution of 3 % (w/v PVP K30. The effect of the difference of temperature was observed at temperatures of 25; 45 and 65 0C, while the effect of the difference of pH was observed at pH of 4.0; 7.0 and 12.0. The results showed that the temperature and pH did not affect the physical-mechanical properties of the modified cassava starch. Modification of cassava starch at pH and temperature of 7.0 and 45 0C was produced modified cassava starch with the most excellent solubility, while the best swelling power were formed by the modification process at pH and temperature of 7.0 and 25 0C. Overall, the most excellent compression properties of modified cassava starch resulted from the modification process at pH 12.

  10. Effects of fire retardants on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of flat-pressed WPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (10% by weight) at different levels of wood flour (WF) content, 40, 50, or 60 wt%, were investigated. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP), and fire retardant (FR) powders with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (2...

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of cast 17-4 PH stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of an overaged 17-4 PH stainless steel casting have been examined. The tensile and compressive properties of cast 17-4 PH are only influenced to a slight degree by changing test temperature and strain rate. However, both the Charpy impact energy and dynamic fracture toughness exhibit a tough-to-brittle transition with decreasing temperature - this transition being related to a change in fracture mode from ductile, dimple to cleavage-like. Finally, although the overaged 17-4 PH casting had a relatively low room temperature Charpy impact energy when compared to wrought 17-4 PH, its fracture toughness was at least comparable to that of wrought 17-4 PH. This observation suggests that prior correlations between Charpy impact energies and fracture toughness, as derived from wrought materials, must be approached with caution when applied to cast alloys

  12. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARDS OF Acrocarpus fraxinifolius COMPOUNDS WITH DIFFERENT PERCENTAGES OF BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilani Trianoski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812360The particleboard industries have used a large volume of wood mainly from planted forest of Pinus, beingnecessary to diversify the wood species and optimize the use of raw material. One of the ways to optimizethe use of this resource is the utilization of the bark in the particleboard manufacturing process. In thisway, this research was developed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboardmanufactured with the wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and different proportions of the bark. The boardswere manufactured with 100% of wood particles of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and replacing the woodparticles with 30%, 20% and 10% of bark, board density of 0.75 g/cm³ and 8% of urea-formaldehyde resin.The properties of board density, water absorption and thickness swelling, static bending, internal bond andscrew pullout strength, were determined according to EN and NBR standards, and then compared with thestandard treatment (100% Pinus taeda and with the minimum requirements of these standards. The resultsindicated that Acrocarpus fraxinifolius species showed technical feasibility for particleboard production and the addition of the bark until 30% did not negatively affect the physical and mechanical properties ofthe boards.

  13. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK WOOD (EBONY AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to determine physical and mechanical properties of Ebony wood as a construction material. The physical and mechanical properties test is conducted based on ASTM D 143-94 code. The mean value of moisture content and specific gravity of Ebony wood is obtained 12,90% and 0,92 gr.cm-3 respectively. Meanwhile MOE, bending strength, compressive strength parallel to grain, shear strength, and tensile strength parallel to grain are 180.425,87 kg.cm-2; 1656,22 kg.cm-2; 861,55 kg.cm-2; 119,61 kg.cm-2; dan 2.319,03 kg.cm-2 respectively. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that Ebony wood is classified to Strength Class I due to PKKI 1961, so it can be recommended for use in heavy construction such as bridge and building structures   Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan sifat fisis dan mekanis kayu  Ebony sebagai material konstruksi. Pengujian sifat fisis dan mekanis dilakukan berdasarkan standar ASTM D 143-94. -3Nilai kadar air rata-rata kayu Ebony diperoleh sebesar 12,90% dan berat jenis 0,92 gr.cm . Sementara nilai rata-rata MOE, kuat lentur, kuat tekan sejajar serat, kuat geser, dan kuat tarik -2 -2 -2sejajar serat berturut-turut adalah 180.425,87 kg.cm ; 1656,22 kg.cm ; 861,55 kg.cm ; -2 -2119,61 kg.cm ; dan 2.319,03 kg.cm . Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kayu Ebony tergolong kelas kuat I menurut PKKI 1961, sehingga dapat direkomendasikan untuk digunakan pada konstruksi-konstruksi berat seperti jembatan dan struktur bangunan.   REFERENCES Aghayere A & Jason V. 2007. Structural Wood Design: A Practice-Oriented Approach Using the ASD Method. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey Boen T. 2009. Constructing Seismic Resistant Masonry Houses in Indonesia. United Nation. Chauf KA. 2005. Karakteristik Mekanik Kayu Kamper sebagai Bahan Konstruksi. Majalah Ilmiah MEKTEK . Vol 7 : 41-47. Dolan JD. 2004. Timber Structures. Pp 628-669 in Wai FC & Eric ML (Eds Handbook of Structural Engineering – 2nd

  14. Effect of temperature on physical and mechanical properties of concrete containing silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Hanna, G.B.; Abo-El-Enein, S.A.; Kotkata, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Heat-resistant materials are usually used for structural purposes. The need for such building materials is particularly important in the chemical and metallurgical industries and for the thermal shieldings of nuclear power plants. Thus the effect of high temperatures on physical and mechanical properties of concrete was investigated. In this study ordinary Portland cement has been partially replaced by ratios of silica fume. The heat treatment temperature varied from 100 to 600 C by increments of 100 C for three hours without any load. Concrete specimens were treated at each temperature level. The specimens were heated under the same condition for each temperature level. Comparison between physical and mechanical properties during heat treatment were investigated. All specimens were moist-cured for 28 days after casting. Tests were carried out on specimens cooled slowly to room temperature after heating. Results of this investigation indicated that the replacement of ordinary Portland cement by 10% silica fume by weight improved the compressive strength by about 64.6%, but replacement of ordinary Portland cement by silica fume by ratios 20 and 30% improved the compressive strength by only 28% at 600 C. This could be attributed to the additional tobermorite gel (CSH phase) which formed due to the reaction of silica fume with Ca(OH) 2

  15. Determination and Investigation of Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Date Fruit (Kabkab Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kermani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on physical and mechanical properties of fruits is necessary for designing and optimizing processing systems. In this study, several physical and mechanical properties of date fruit (Kabkab cultivar and its seed were determined. The average of length, width, thickness, unit mass, 1000 fruit mass, geometric mean diameter, unit volume, surface and projected areas, sphericity, fruit true and bulk densities, porosity of Kabkab cultivar date fruit were 36.89, 18.68, 23.56 mm, 8264.07 and 8.25 g, 25.24 mm, 8507.8 mm3, 2008.27 mm2, 502.07 mm2, 0.96 g/cm3, 0.51 g/cm3, 46.20%, respectively. The respective values for its seeds were 22.98, 6.25, 7.48 mm, 789.2 and 0.79 g, 10.23 mm, 568.24 mm3, 330.30 mm2, 82.58 mm2, 0.99 g/cm3, 0.65 g/cm3, 30.45%, respectively. The static coefficients of friction were 0.34 for galvanized, 0.30 for steel, 0.32 for plexiglass, 0.31 for glass and 0.42 for plywood. Compressive loading testes were conducted at three loading rates of 5, 15 and 25 mm/min for deformation of fruit until 15%, 30% and 45% of thickness of fruit with seven replications. Some mechanical parameters such as force-deformation, energy and toughness were determined. The results showed that the loading rates affected the mechanical parameters significantly. By increasing the loading rate, the mean values of the mechanical parameters increased significantly.

  16. Physical Principles Pertaining to Ultrasonic and Mechanical Properties of Anisotropic Media and Their Application to Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Scott Michael

    The central theme of this thesis is to contribute to the physics underlying the mechanical properties of highly anisotropic materials. Our hypothesis is that a fundamental understanding of the physics involved in the interaction of interrogating ultrasonic waves with anisotropic media will provide useful information applicable to quantitative ultrasonic measurement techniques employed for the determination of material properties. Fiber-reinforced plastics represent a class of advanced composite materials that exhibit substantial anisotropy. The desired characteristics of practical fiber -reinforced composites depend on average mechanical properties achieved by placing fibers at specific angles relative to the external surfaces of the finished part. We examine the physics underlying the use of ultrasound as an interrogation probe for determination of ultrasonic and mechanical properties of anisotropic materials such as fiber-reinforced composites. Fundamental constituent parameters, such as elastic stiffness coefficients (c_{rm IJ}), are experimentally determined from ultrasonic time-of-flight measurements. Mechanical moduli (Poisson's ratio, Young's and shear modulus) descriptive of the anisotropic mechanical properties of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites are obtained from the ultrasonically determined stiffness coefficients. Three-dimensional visualizations of the anisotropic ultrasonic and mechanical properties of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites are generated. A related goal of the research is to strengthen the connection-between practical ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods and the physics underlying quantitative ultrasonic measurements for the assessment of manufactured fiber-reinforced composites. Production defects such as porosity have proven to be of substantial concern in the manufacturing of composites. We investigate the applicability of ultrasonic interrogation techniques for the detection and characterization of porosity in

  17. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Evica MRATINIĆ; Bojan POPOVSKI; Tomo MILOŠEVIĆ; Melpomena POPOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control) such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness), arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X...

  18. Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Gupta, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    This book presents selected peer-reviewed contributions from the 2017 International Conference on “Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications”, PHENMA 2017 (Jabalpur, India, 14–16 October, 2017), which is devoted to processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications of advanced materials. The book focuses on a wide spectrum of nanostructures, ferroelectric crystals, materials and composites as well as promising materials with special properties. It presents nanotechnology approaches, modern environmentally friendly piezoelectric and ferromagnetic techniques and physical and mechanical studies of the structural and physical–mechanical properties of materials. Various original mathematical and numerical methods are applied to the solution of different technological, mechanical and physical problems that are interesting from theoretical, modeling and experimental points of view. Further, the book highlights novel devices with high accuracy, longevity and extended capabilities ...

  19. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión, F.; Montalban Domingo, Maria Laura; Real Herráiz, Julia Irene; Real, T.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate) and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strenght, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity,...

  20. Laboratory Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Granite After Heating and Water-Cooling Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Jianjian; Hu, Dawei; Skoczylas, Frederic; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature treatment may cause changes in physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Temperature changing rate (heating, cooling and both of them) plays an important role in those changes. Thermal conductivity tests, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, gas permeability tests and triaxial compression tests are performed on granite samples after a heating and rapid cooling treatment in order to characterize the changes in physical and mechanical properties. Seven levels of temperature (from 25 to 900 °C) are used. It is found that the physical and mechanical properties of granite are significantly deteriorated by the thermal treatment. The porosity shows a significant increase from 1.19% at the initial state to 6.13% for samples heated to 900 °C. The increase in porosity is mainly due to three factors: (1) a large number of microcracks caused by the rapid cooling rate; (2) the mineral transformation of granite through high-temperature heating and water-cooling process; (3) the rapid cooling process causes the mineral particles to weaken. As the temperature of treatment increases, the thermal conductivity and P-wave velocity decrease while the gas permeability increases. Below 200 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion increase with temperature increasing. Between 200 and 500 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion have no obvious change with temperature. Beyond 500 °C, as the temperature increases, the elastic modulus and cohesion obviously decrease and the decreasing rate becomes slower with the increase in confining pressure. Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient have no obvious change as the temperature increases. Moreover, there is a transition from a brittle to ductile behavior when the temperature becomes high. At 900 °C, the granite shows an obvious elastic-plastic behavior.

  1. Research physic-mechanical properties of composite materials on the base of peeled veneer and low density polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Aleksandr; Vasilkin, Andrey; Fedotov, Aleksandr

    2017-10-01

    Use film of LDPE as thermoplastic binder for production of plywood is proposed. Results of physic-mechanical properties of plywood based on the LDPE film of different thicknesses in comparison with conventional thermosetting synthetic binder are presented.

  2. Electro-optical and physic-mechanical properties of colored alicyclic polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, V.; Umerzakova, M.; Korobova, N.; Timoshenkov, S.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Iskakov, R.; Prikhodko, O.

    2016-09-01

    Main optical, thermal and mechanical properties of new compositions based on alicyclic polyimide and active bright red 6C synthetic dye have been studied. It was shown that the transmission ratio of the new material in the region of 400-900 nm and 2.0 wt.% dye concentration was around 60-70%. Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of new colored compositions were comparable with the properties of original polyimide.

  3. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pehuen cellulosic husk and its pehuen-starch based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Carrasco, C; Bouza, R

    2012-11-06

    Pehuen cellulosic husk was characterized and employed as reinforcement for composite materials. In this research, thermoplastic pehuen starch (TPS) and TPS/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites, reinforced with 5 and 10% of pehuen husk, were prepared by melt-blending. Comparative samples of pehuen TPS and TPS/PLA/PVA blend were also studied. Physical, thermal, structural and mechanical properties of composites were evaluated. Pehuen husk mainly consists of cellulose (50 wt%), hemicellulose (30 wt%) and lignin (14 wt%). In respect to lipids, this husk has only a 0.6 wt%. Its surface is smooth and damage-free and it is decomposed above 325 °C. The incorporation of pehuen husk improved considerably the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the studied composites, mainly in TPS composites. Their thermal stability enhances since biofiber hinders the "out-diffusion" of volatile molecules from the polymer matrix, while mechanical properties could raise due to the natural affinity between husk and starch in the pehuen seed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oriented particleboard made from tali bamboo (Gigantochloa Apus): effect of particle length on physical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Strength properties are one of the problems of particleboard. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of particle length on physical and mechanical properties oriented particleboard (OPB). The variation particle length size in this experiment namely 3, 5, and 7 cm. The width and thickness size of all bamboo particles were 1 and 0.1 cm respectively. 12% mixed resin of UF and MDI (70/30 %w/w) used for binding. Board size fabricated in 25 by 25 cm2 with thickness and density target of 1 cm and 0.75 gcm-3. The OPB layers for face and back layers aligned perpendicular to the core layer. The weight ratio of the face-to-core-to-back layers were set at 1:2:1. Mat was pressed at 160 °C under 30 kgcm-2 as the pressure for 10 minutes. The results showed that 7 cm length particle produced of the best strength and dimensional stability. The increase of particle length resulted in increasing of strength properties. Over all the parameters of physical and mechanical properties fulfill requirements of JIS A 5908 (2003) excepted of thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity.

  5. Effect of Radiation on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Polyblend polyethylene (LDPE)-Akrilonitril Butadiene Styrene(ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrawan, M.H.; Mashuri; Sudirman

    2001-01-01

    Poly blend material is blended material that made of two or more polymer material with or without chemical reaction. Polyethylene (LDPE)- ABS poly blend material was made of two materials, ABS resin and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). This research is conducted to synthesize LDPE and ABS poly blend material before and after irradiation by γ ray and to investigate the effect of γ-ray irradiation doses on mechanical, and physical properties. This effect will enhanced mechanical properties of poly blend LDPE and ABS material that was caused by crosslinking. The gel fraction showed that the crosslinking occurred. The other effect of γ-ray irradiation are increased tensile strength and melting point, but the elongation at break, and yield strength decreased. The best composition to get the best properties is 5 % LDPE : 95 % ABS

  6. Photocrosslinked PLA-PEO-PLA Hydrogels from Self-Assembled Physical Networks: Mechanical Properties and Influence of Assumed Constitutive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J.; Tew, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactide) – block – poly(ethylene oxide) – block – poly(lactide) [PLA-PEO-PLA] triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water, due to the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently crosslinked and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this report, a hydrogel was formed by using a novel two step approach. In the first step end-functionalized PLA-PEOPLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and then, in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photocrosslinking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast to physical hydrogels, the photocrosslinked gels remained intact in phosphate buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized and demonstrated extended degradation time (~ 65 days), exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and tunable shear modulus (1.6 – 133 kPa) by varying concentration. We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, Neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influences the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, demonstrating the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature. PMID:18817440

  7. The effects of weathering on the physical and mechanical properties of igneous and metamorphic saprolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Coop, M. R.; Maccarini, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper presents three extensive datasets of laboratory testing on weathered geomaterials, which are emblematic of soil types widely found worldwide. The overall dataset includes soils originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks, either coarse or fine grained and having either felsic...... or mafic minerals. In particular, the data are interpreted to highlight the effects that weathering has on the physical and mechanical properties of these natural geomaterials comparing them with published data with the aim to provide a general framework of interpretation that takes into account...... this geological process and links soil mechanics to engineering geology. Generally, weathering induces a reduction in the grain size, both due to physical actions (e.g. opening of grain contacts) and to the chemical decomposition of minerals resulting in the formation of clay minerals. As weathering proceeds...

  8. Investigation on the feasibility of coffee husk (endocarp) as efficient filler material for enhancing physical and mechanical properties of styrofoam based particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milawarni; Nurlaili; Ernayusnianti

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on introducing a coffee husk as viable and efficient filler for enhancing physical and mechanical properties of Styrofoam based particleboard. Heat treatment method was adopted to produce the particleboard from the mixture of coffee husk (CH) with Styrofoam (PS). Styrofoam is material derived from polystyrene. The aim of this research is to get the appropriate weight composition between coffee husks with PS and to identify the physical and mechanical properties of the produced particleboard. The composition of coffee husk varies between 0-90%wt. The manufacture of particleboard i.e. coffee husk milled with size 20/10 mesh then soak with 10% NaOH for 2 hours, rinsed with clean water and dried and weight according to the composition. The mixture of CH and PS is inserted into mold and put into hot-press. The result shows from physical properties that density, water absorption and thick development test corresponding with SNI 03-2105-2006 standard, the mechanical properties shows MOR test meets the standard on the addition of CH 10-50%, while the MOE test has not meet the standard.

  9. The validity of generic trends on multiple scales in rock-physical and rock-mechanical properties of the Whitby Mudstone, United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, L.A.N.R.; Primarini, M.I.W.; Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.

    Finding generic trends in mechanical and physical rock properties will help to make predictions of the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales. Understanding the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales is important for the successful development of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper presents

  10. Determination of the mechanical and physical properties of cartilage by coupling poroelastic-based finite element models of indentation with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Campoli, Gianni; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-03-21

    One of the most widely used techniques to determine the mechanical properties of cartilage is based on indentation tests and interpretation of the obtained force-time or displacement-time data. In the current computational approaches, one needs to simulate the indentation test with finite element models and use an optimization algorithm to estimate the mechanical properties of cartilage. The modeling procedure is cumbersome, and the simulations need to be repeated for every new experiment. For the first time, we propose a method for fast and accurate estimation of the mechanical and physical properties of cartilage as a poroelastic material with the aid of artificial neural networks. In our study, we used finite element models to simulate the indentation for poroelastic materials with wide combinations of mechanical and physical properties. The obtained force-time curves are then divided into three parts: the first two parts of the data is used for training and validation of an artificial neural network, while the third part is used for testing the trained network. The trained neural network receives the force-time curves as the input and provides the properties of cartilage as the output. We observed that the trained network could accurately predict the properties of cartilage within the range of properties for which it was trained. The mechanical and physical properties of cartilage could therefore be estimated very fast, since no additional finite element modeling is required once the neural network is trained. The robustness of the trained artificial neural network in determining the properties of cartilage based on noisy force-time data was assessed by introducing noise to the simulated force-time data. We found that the training procedure could be optimized so as to maximize the robustness of the neural network against noisy force-time data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of fluorescent dye on physical-mechanical properties of luting cements for confocal microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dayane; Prieto, Lúcia; Araújo, Cíntia; Coppini, Erick; Pereira, Gisele; Paulillo, Luís

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of a fluorescent dye (rhodamine B) on the physical and mechanical properties of three different luting cements: a conventional adhesive luting cement (RelyX ARC, 3M/ESPE), a self-adhesive luting cement (RelyX U-200, 3M/ESPE), and a self-etching and self-adhesive luting cement (SeT PP, SDI). The cements were mixed with 0.03 wt% rhodamine B, formed into bar-shaped specimens (n = 10), and light cured using an LED curing unit (Radii, SDI) with a radiant exposure of 32 J/cm(2) . The Knoop hardness (KHN), flexural strength (FS), and Young's modulus (YM) analyses were evaluated after storage for 24 h. Outcomes were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05) for multiple comparisons. No significant differences in FS or YM were observed among the tested groups (P ≥ 0.05); the addition of rhodamine B increased the hardness of the luting cements tested. The addition of a fluorescent agent at 0.03 wt% concentration does not negatively affect the physical-mechanical properties of the luting cement polymerization behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of aluminium content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of zinc-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.K.; Patwardhan, A.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Attention has been focussed on the influence of Al content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of Zn-based alloys. Aspects studied include microstructure, density, electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and elongation as well as sliding wear response of the alloys. Microstructural features of the alloys showed the presence of primary α, eutectic/eutectoid α + η (depending on whether the alloy was hypereutectic/hypereutectoid with regard to the concentration of Al) along with the meta stable ε phase. The study suggests that it is possible to design and develop Zn-based alloys with a wide range of concentration of Al. The alloys in turn attain different combinations of physical, mechanical and wear properties which could suit a variety of engineering applications. Increasing the Al content in the alloy system proves beneficial within limits. In other words, there exists an optimum quantity of Al which could reap its advantage to the maximum extent. This of course varies with reference to a specific property of the alloy(s). The changing response of the alloys has been explained in terms of their microstructural features and the effects produced as a result of the test conditions maintained while characterizing the specimens. (orig.)

  13. Effect of epoxidised soybean oil loading as plasticiser on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, M.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Farah Nordyana, A. R.; Syed Anas, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of epoxidised soybean oil (ESO) as an alternative plasticizer on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PPVC). Samples were prepared using 10, 20, 30 and 40% by weight percent of ESO. The samples were characterized for density, water absorption, tensile, hardness and thermal properties. The addition of ESO as plasticizer in PVC had caused significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of PPVC. Increasing of ESO loading had resulted in decreased density, tensile strength, tensile modulus but increased in elongation at break and shore hardness. From water absorption study, it was observed that the all the samples reached the plateau absorption at days 8 to 10 with absorption percentages of between 1.8 to 2%. In general the crystallinity of PPVC maintained between 10 to 13% with increase in ESO loading while the melting point ( Tm) is slightly decreased about 3 to 6°C. In this study, ESO which acts as plasticiser were found to result in lower glass transition temperature (Tg). The enhancements of super cooling with higher ESO loading were found to increase the crystallization temperature, promoting crystallisation and act as nucleating agent.

  14. Mechanical and physical properties of 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel in support of CRBRP steam generator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, C.R.; Williams, R.K.; Klueh, R.L.; Hebble, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical and physical property tests on annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel were conducted in an effort to define behavior in support of the design of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. Interim empirical expressions and/or data are reported from the results of tensile, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue, subcritical crack growth, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion tests and analysis. These expressions cover behavior, where appropriate, over a range of temperatures from 25 to as high as 700 0 C. Comparisons between thermal conductivity and diffusivity values and those found in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code indicated that the new values were significantly higher than those found presently in the Code. The importance and complexity of obtaining valid mechanical and physical properties for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator are discussed. (U.S.)

  15. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  16. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    : medial arthrosis, lateral control, normal medial and normal lateral controls. The specimens were tested in compression to determine mechanical properties and then physical/compositional properties. Compared to the normal medial control, we found reductions in ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and failure...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests...

  17. Physical and mechanical properties of spinach for whole-surface online imaging inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiuying; Mo, Chang Y.; Chan, Diane E.; Peng, Yankun; Qin, Jianwei; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2011-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of baby spinach were investigated, including density, Young's modulus, fracture strength, and friction coefficient. The average apparent density of baby spinach leaves was 0.5666 g/mm3. The tensile tests were performed using parallel, perpendicular, and diagonal directions with respect to the midrib of each leaf. The test results showed that the mechanical properties of spinach are anisotropic. For the parallel, diagonal, and perpendicular test directions, the average values for the Young's modulus values were found to be 2.137MPa, 1.0841 MPa, and 0.3914 MPa, respectively, and the average fracture strength values were 0.2429 MPa, 0.1396 MPa, and 0.1113 MPa, respectively. The static and kinetic friction coefficient between the baby spinach and conveyor belt were researched, whose test results showed that the average coefficients of kinetic and maximum static friction between the adaxial (front side) spinach leaf surface and conveyor belt were 1.2737 and 1.3635, respectively, and between the abaxial (back side) spinach leaf surface and conveyor belt were 1.1780 and 1.2451 respectively. These works provide the basis for future development of a whole-surface online imaging inspection system that can be used by the commercial vegetable processing industry to reduce food safety risks.

  18. Effect of Amount of 3-Methacryloxy Propyl Thrimethoxysilane Coupling Agent and Nano Filling Structure on Physic-Mechanical Properties of Dental Resin Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Tondnevis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers in the field of dental polymeric base nano composite investigated the effect filling morphology and filling material content on mechanical and physical properties of construction after setting reaction. Our present study concentrated on the effect of ϒ metacryloxy propyloxt tri metoxy silane (ϒ MPS content as coupling agent (orgnic material on physical and mechanical performance of nano composite material. It was shown that despite of contraction after setting reaction, all this properties improved and efficient silanization can efficiently affect structural integrity of dental filling nano composite

  19. EFFECTS OF IMPREGNATION WITH STYRENE AND NANO-ZINC OXIDE ON FIRE-RETARDING, PHYSICAL, AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Habibzade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have been vastly applied in wood polymer composites (WPCs in the recent years to improve some of the drawbacks of solid wood species. In the present study, the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on fire retarding, physical, and mechanical properties of polymerized poplar wood were investigated. Poplar specimens were impregnated with styrene monomer, containing four different contents of nano-zinc oxide (ZnO (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%, based on the dry weight of monomer. Results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in the WPC matrix. Nano-zinc oxide improved physical properties such as dimensional stability and water absorption. Moreover, mechanical properties increased in comparison to the control specimens. The impregnation process also significantly improved some of the fire-retarding properties, including the ignition time; however, the flammability nature of styrene aggravated some others, such as carbonized area. It was concluded that, although most of the properties were improved, the final application of WPC should be taken in to consideration before making decision on whether or not to impregnate populus wood with styrene.

  20. Effect of Camphorquinone Concentration in Physical-Mechanical Properties of Experimental Flowable Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayany da Silva Alves Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of camphorquinone concentration in physical-mechanical properties of experimental flowable composites in order to find the concentration that results in maximum conversion, balanced mechanical strength, and minimum shrinkage stress. Model composites based on BISGMA/TEGDMA with 70% wt filler loading were prepared containing different concentrations of camphorquinone (CQ on resin matrix (0.25%, 0.50%, 1%, 1.50%, and 2% by weight. Degree of conversion was determined by FTIR. Surface hardness was assessed before and after 24 h ethanol storage and softening rate was determined. Depth of cure was determined by Knoop hardness evaluation at different depths. Color was assessed by reflectance spectrophotometer, employing the CIE-Lab system. Flexural strength and elastic modulus were determined by a three-point bending test. Shrinkage stress was determined in a Universal Testing Machine in a high compliance system. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. The increase in CQ concentration caused a significant increase on flexural strength and luminosity of composites. Surface hardness was not affected by the concentration of CQ. Composite containing 0.25% wt CQ showed lower elastic modulus and shrinkage stress when compared to others. Depth of cure was 3 mm for composite containing 1% CQ and 2 mm for the other tested composites. Degree of conversion was inversely correlated with softening rate and directly correlated with elastic modulus and shrinkage stress. In conclusion, CQ concentration affects polymerization characteristics and mechanical strength of composites. The concentration of CQ in flowable composite for optimized polymerization and properties was 1% wt of the resin matrix, which allows adequate balance among degree of conversion, depth of cure, mechanical properties, and color characteristics of these materials.

  1. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  2. Magnetic and physical-mechanical properties of polymer composites with soft magnetic fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usakova, M.; Usak, E.; Olah, V.; Rekosova, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of soft magnetic ferrite fillers on magnetic and physical-mechanical properties of the prepared composite samples based in natural rubber matrix was studied. The soft magnetic ferrite materials with the chemical composition Mn_0_._3_7Zn_0_._5_7Fe_2_._0_6O_4 and Ni_0_._3_3Zn_0_._6_7Fe_2O_4 were used as magnetic filler in various concentrations. Further, the effect of thermo-oxidative ageing on the prepared composite materials was investigated. Magneto-rheological elastomers are solid analogues to magneto-rheological fluids. These materials are considered as smart materials comprising of micro- or submicro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in non-magnetic matrix. (authors)

  3. Mechanical and physical properties of LVL panels made from three amazonic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerci Nina Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the physical-mechanical performance of laminated veneer lumber (LV produced with different compositions of tropical Amazonian species and Pinus oocarpa. Three tropical species were used: Cordia goeldiana Huber. (Freijó, Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke (Faveira and Brosimum parinarioides Ducke (Amapá doce. For comparison, Pinus oocarpa wood obtained from an experimental stand was used. Three types of veneer combination were evaluated: (i one species; (ii the three Amazonian species combination and (iii combination of Amazonian species with Pinus oocarpa. The acoustic propagation velocity was also evaluated with the stress wave timer for correlation between dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEd and static modulus of elasticity (MOEs of the panel. Panels produced with Amazonian species presented lower water absorption than Pinus oocarpa panels. Regarding the mechanical properties, the lowest strength was verified for "faveira" panels. There was no statistical difference among panels in glue line shear strength. The stress wave timer could be used for prediction of MOEs by using MOEd.

  4. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from bamboo - industrial wood particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid vaziri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical and mechanical properties of single layer particleboard made from bamboo powder (with and without alkali treatment and wood particles were investigated. Bamboo powder (30 mesh particles was treated with 5% hydroxide sodium for 120 minutes. Industrial wood chips from Sanate Choube Shomal Company were used.The variable in this research were the ratio of bamboo powder (with and without alkali treatment to wood chips (at four levels; 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70. Urea formaldehyde resin used at 10 percent level of dry weight of raw material as well as ammonium chloride was used as a catalyst at 2 percent level of the dry weight of adhesive. Physical and mechanical properties of panels measured according to EN Standard. Mechanical properties of the particleboards made from treated bamboo was superior to the relevant untreated bamboo. Water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours immersion in water decreased with alkali treatment. Mercerization, or treating cellulose fibers in alkaline solution, because of fibrillation, the removal of lignin and hemicellulose enhances the mechanical properties and dimension stability of the particleboard by promoting resin-fiber mechanical interlocking at the interface. Results showed, there was usability of the treated bamboo up to 30 percent for general purpose boards for use in dry conditions.

  5. Influence of alloy elements on physical and mechanical properties of single crystalline austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazutaka; Kaneda, Junya; Yoshinari, Akira; Aono, Yasuhisa

    2000-01-01

    The single crystalline austenitic stainless steels based on 316 L were developed to improve their resistance to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. However the mechanical properties of the single crystals were lower than those of polycrystalline. The precipitation hardening methods were applied to the single crystal for the increase of their mechanical strength by addition of niobium and heat treatments. In this paper, the influences of niobium concentration on the several physical and mechanical properties of these single crystalline austenitic stainless steels were studied. The thermal conductivity, coefficients of thermal expansion and elastic constants of the single crystals were almost the same as those of polycrystalline independently of the niobium concentration. The mechanical properties of the single crystals strongly depended on the niobium concentration and the orientation. In the specimen which contains 1.0 mass% niobium, 0.2% proof stress were remarkably improved; 370 MPa, 337 MPa and 403 MPa were obtained in , and orientations at the room temperature. The creep rupture strength and the high cycle fatigue strength were also improved by addition of niobium. In the -orientated specimen which contains 1.0 mass% niobium, the creep rupture strength at 873 K for 103 hours, 245 MPa and the high cycle fatigue strength at 773 K for 107 cycles, 220 MPa were obtained. Furthermore, the single crystalline pipe, bolts and nuts were successfully manufactured for the application of these single crystals. (author)

  6. The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nanoparticles in concrete. → Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. → Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO 2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO 2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO 2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO 2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete

  7. Manufacturing of wollastonite-based glass from cement dust: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Francis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By-pass cement dust is considered as a source of environmental pollution. Wollastonite-based glass foams are made by adding glass waste and SiC to the cement dust. XRD on samples indicated that the main crystalline phase after heat treatment at 850–1,000°C is wollastonite. Empirical models were developed to derive conclusion on the impact of SiC and temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of the products. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be at 900°C for 60 min, at which crushing strength was about 15 MPa and was the best uniform. Such wollastonite-based glass foam could be very attractive for thermal and acoustic applications.

  8. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE CONTENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA contents on the performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs made from poplar wood flour (PWF and high density polyethylene (HDPE, physical properties tests, mechanical properties tests, and scanning electron microscope (SEM tests were employed. The thermal stability and functional groups of PWF treated by EVA were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. The results showed that the hardness, water uptake, and thickness swelling of the WPCs was reduced with increasing content of EVA. The MOR and tensile strength of the WPC treated by 15% EVA content were enhanced by 17.48% and 9.97%, respectively, compared with those of the WPC without EVA. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PWF treated by EVA was improved. FTIR analysis indicated that PWF was reacted and coated with EVA. SEM results showed that gaps and voids hardly existed in the sections of the WPCs treated by EVA. This research suggests that the flexibility and mechanical properties of WPCs could be improved by adding EVA. The best condition of EVA content could be 15%.

  9. Physical and Mechanical Properties of LoVAR: A New Lightweight Particle-Reinforced Fe-36Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timothy; Tricker, David; Tarrant, Andrew; Michel, Robert; Clune, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Fe-36Ni is an alloy of choice for low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) for optical, instrument and electrical applications in particular where dimensional stability is critical. This paper outlines the development of a particle-reinforced Fe-36Ni alloy that offers reduced density and lower CTE compared to the matrix alloy. A summary of processing capability will be given relating the composition and microstructure to mechanical and physical properties.

  10. Data on the physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete materials modified with metakaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades eco-friendly, low-cost, sustainable construction materials for utilization in civil engineering projects have attracted much attention. To this end, soilcretes are non-conventional construction materials produced by mixing natural soil such as natural clay or limestone sand with a hydraulic binder and are recently under detailed and in-depth investigation by many researchers. In this paper the results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of a large set of cylindrical specimens under uniaxial compression, are presented. Specifically, two types of soils such as sand and clay with metakaolin as a mineral additive have been used. This database can be extremely valuable for better understanding of the behavior of soilcrete materials. Furthermore, the results presented herein expected to be of great interest for researchers who deal with the prediction of mechanical properties of materials using soft computing techniques such as artificial intelligence (AI techniques.

  11. Data on the physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete materials modified with metakaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G; Kolovos, Konstantinos G

    2017-08-01

    During the last decades eco-friendly, low-cost, sustainable construction materials for utilization in civil engineering projects have attracted much attention. To this end, soilcretes are non-conventional construction materials produced by mixing natural soil such as natural clay or limestone sand with a hydraulic binder and are recently under detailed and in-depth investigation by many researchers. In this paper the results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of a large set of cylindrical specimens under uniaxial compression, are presented. Specifically, two types of soils such as sand and clay with metakaolin as a mineral additive have been used. This database can be extremely valuable for better understanding of the behavior of soilcrete materials. Furthermore, the results presented herein expected to be of great interest for researchers who deal with the prediction of mechanical properties of materials using soft computing techniques such as artificial intelligence (AI) techniques.

  12. Enhanced Mechanical Properties in Cellulose Nanocrystal-Poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) Injectable Nanocomposite Hydrogels through Control of Physical and Chemical Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De France, Kevin J; Chan, Katelyn J W; Cranston, Emily D; Hoare, Todd

    2016-02-08

    While injectable hydrogels have several advantages in the context of biomedical use, their generally weak mechanical properties often limit their applications. Herein, we describe in situ-gelling nanocomposite hydrogels based on poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) (POEGMA) and rigid rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that can overcome this challenge. By physically incorporating CNCs into hydrazone cross-linked POEGMA hydrogels, macroscopic properties including gelation rate, swelling kinetics, mechanical properties, and hydrogel stability can be readily tailored. Strong adsorption of aldehyde- and hydrazide-modified POEGMA precursor polymers onto the surface of CNCs promotes uniform dispersion of CNCs within the hydrogel, imparts physical cross-links throughout the network, and significantly improves mechanical strength overall, as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance gravimetry and rheometry. When POEGMA hydrogels containing mixtures of long and short ethylene oxide side chain precursor polymers were prepared, transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase segregation occurs with CNCs hypothesized to preferentially locate within the stronger adsorbing short side chain polymer domains. Incorporating as little as 5 wt % CNCs results in dramatic enhancements in mechanical properties (up to 35-fold increases in storage modulus) coupled with faster gelation rates, decreased swelling ratios, and increased stability versus hydrolysis. Furthermore, cell viability can be maintained within 3D culture using these hydrogels independent of the CNC content. These properties collectively make POEGMA-CNC nanocomposite hydrogels of potential interest for various biomedical applications including tissue engineering scaffolds for stiffer tissues or platforms for cell growth.

  13. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; Abu Bakar Sulong; M.K. Fadzly Radzi; N.F. Ismail; M.R. Raza; Norhamidi Muhamad; Muhammad Azhar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers have been used for the developments of many products. Therefore, Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications. The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP)-reinforced composites. Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique. Different fiber loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 wt%treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the treated, untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites. Moreover, the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical, morphological, and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP. However, variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents. The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured. In addition, 40 wt%kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties. By contrast, kenaf/PP composite with 50%fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix. To conclude, 40%kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive, sports, construction, animal bedding, and mass production industries.

  14. Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance. The highest tensile (17.74MPa) and flexural strength (31.24MPa) was obtained from hybrid composite with 50:50 ratio of seaweed/SPF. Good fibre-matrix bonding was evident in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hybrid composites' tensile fracture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following the addition of SPF. Thermal stability of hybrid composites was enhanced, indicated by a higher onset degradation temperature (259°C) for 25:75 seaweed/SPF composites than the individual seaweed composites (253°C). Water absorption, thickness swelling, water solubility, and soil burial tests showed higher water and biodegradation resistance of the hybrid composites. Overall, the hybridization of SPF with seaweed/TPSA composites enhances the properties of the biocomposites for short-life application; that is, disposable tray, plate, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of starch films containing starch nanoparticles: part 1: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-07-25

    We report, for the first time, the preparation method and characteristics of starch films incorporating spray dried and vacuum freeze dried starch nanoparticles. Physical properties of these films such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties (strain versus temperature, strain versus stress, Young's modulus and toughness) were measured. Addition of both starch nanoparticles in starch films increased roughness of surface, lowered degree of crystallinity by 23.5%, WVP by 44% and Tg by 4.3°C, respectively compared to those of starch-only films. Drying method used in preparation of starch nanoparticles only affected opacity of films. The incorporation of nanoparticles in starch films resulted into denser films due to which the extent of variation of strain with temperature was much lower. The toughness and Young's modulus of films containing both types of starch nanoparticles were lower than those of control films especially at <100°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carrión

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate, and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%, and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of polyester polymer concrete using recycled aggregates from concrete sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco; Montalbán, Laura; Real, Julia I; Real, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate), and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption) was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%), and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  18. Photo-cross-linked PLA-PEO-PLA hydrogels from self-assembled physical networks: mechanical properties and influence of assumed constitutive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-10-01

    Poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEO-PLA) triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water as a result of the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently cross-linked, and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this article, a hydrogel was formed by the use of a novel two-step approach. In the first step, the end-functionalized PLA-PEO-PLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photo-cross-linking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast with physical hydrogels, the photo-cross-linked gels remained intact in phosphate-buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized, and they demonstrated an extended degradation time (approximately 65 days), an exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and a tunable shear modulus (1.6-133 kPa). We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influenced the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, which demonstrates the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature.

  19. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AGARWAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

  20. Effects of sintering atmosphere on the physical and mechanical properties of modified BOF slag glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-bin; Li, Yu; Cang, Da-qiang; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Fan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an efficient way to utilize all the chemical components of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag to prepare high value-added glass-ceramics. A molten modified BOF slag was converted from the melting BOF slag by reducing it and separating out iron component in it, and the modified BOF slag was then quenched in water to form glasses with different basicities. The glasses were subsequently sintered in the temperature range of 600-1000°C in air or nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h. The effects of different atmospheres on the physical and mechanical properties of sintered samples were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by conducting experiment on evaluating the sintering shrinkage, water absorption and bulk density. It is found that the kinetics of the sintering process is significantly affected by sintering atmosphere. In particular, compared with sintering in air atmosphere, sintering in N2 atmosphere promotes the synergistic growth of pyroxene and melilite crystalline phases, which can contribute to better mechanical properties and denser microstructure.

  1. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; Abu Bakar Sulong; M.K.Fadzly Radzi; N.F.Ismail; M.R.Raza; Norhamidi Muhamad; Muhammad Azhar Khan

    2016-01-01

    Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products,Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers have been used for the developments of many products.Therefore,Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications.The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP)-reinforced composites.Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique.Different fiber loadings of 10,20,30,40,50 wt% treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared.Xray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the treated,untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites.Moreover,the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical,morphological,and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP.However,variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents.The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured.In addition,40 wt%kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties.By contrast,kenaf/PP composite with 50% fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix.To conclude,40% kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive,sports,construction,animal bedding,and mass production industries.

  2. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Niaz Akhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus fibers have been used for the developments of many products. Therefore, Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications. The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP-reinforced composites. Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique. Different fiber loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 wt% treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were performed on the treated, untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites. Moreover, the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical, morphological, and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP. However, variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents. The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured. In addition, 40 wt% kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties. By contrast, kenaf/PP composite with 50% fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix. To conclude, 40% kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive, sports, construction, animal bedding, and mass production industries.

  3. 2016 International Conference on Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Jani, Muaffaq

    2017-01-01

    This book presents 50 selected peer-reviewed reports from the 2016 International Conference on “Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications”, PHENMA 2016 (Surabaya, Indonesia, 19–22 July, 2016). The Proceedings are devoted to processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications of advanced materials. As such, they examine a wide spectrum of nanostructures, ferroelectric crystals, materials and composites, as well as other promising materials with special properties. They present nanotechnology approaches, modern environmentally friendly piezoelectric and ferromagnetic techniques, and physical and mechanical studies of the structural and physical-mechanical properties of the materials discussed.  Further, a broad range of original mathematical and numerical methods is applied to solve various technological, mechanical and physical problems, which are inte resting for applications. Great attention is devoted to novel devices with high accuracy, longevity and extended possibilitie...

  4. Structural Characteristics and Physical Properties of Tectonically Deformed Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Yiwen Ju; Zhifeng Yan; Xiaoshi Li; Quanlin Hou; Wenjing Zhang; Lizhi Fang; Liye Yu; Mingming Wei

    2012-01-01

    Different mechanisms of deformation could make different influence on inner structure and physical properties of tectonically deformed coal (TDC) reservoirs. This paper discusses the relationship between macromolecular structure and physical properties of the Huaibei-Huainan coal mine areas in southern North China. The macromolecular structure and pore characteristics are systematically investigated by using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron mic...

  5. Effects of surface atomistic modification on mechanical properties of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Yuanjie; Wang, Gang-Feng; Gu, Yuantong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulations of surface modification effect of Au nanowires. • Surface modification can greatly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Core–shell model is used to elucidate the effect of residual surface stress. - Abstract: Modulation of the physical and mechanical properties of nanowires is a challenging issue for their technological applications. In this paper, we investigate the effects of surface modification on the mechanical properties of gold nanowires by performing molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that by modifying a small density of silver atoms to the surface of a gold nanowire, the residual surface stress state can be altered, rendering a great improvement of its plastic yield strength. This finding is in good agreement with experimental measurements. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed by a core–shell nanowire model. The results are helpful for the design and optimization of advanced nanomaterial with superior mechanical properties

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of PLA, and their functions in widespread applications - A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert

    2016-12-15

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), so far, is the most extensively researched and utilized biodegradable aliphatic polyester in human history. Due to its merits, PLA is a leading biomaterial for numerous applications in medicine as well as in industry replacing conventional petrochemical-based polymers. The main purpose of this review is to elaborate the mechanical and physical properties that affect its stability, processability, degradation, PLA-other polymers immiscibility, aging and recyclability, and therefore its potential suitability to fulfill specific application requirements. This review also summarizes variations in these properties during PLA processing (i.e. thermal degradation and recyclability), biodegradation, packaging and sterilization, and aging (i.e. weathering and hygrothermal). In addition, we discuss up-to-date strategies for PLA properties improvements including components and plasticizer blending, nucleation agent addition, and PLA modifications and nanoformulations. Incorporating better understanding of the role of these properties with available improvement strategies is the key for successful utilization of PLA and its copolymers/composites/blends to maximize their fit with worldwide application needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of PVA-co-MMA Copolymer on the Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Tropical Wood Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the effect of copolymer on the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of tropical wood and wood polymer composites (WPCs. Mixed monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were effectively impregnated into the cellular structure of several types of tropical wood, which then underwent a catalyst-thermal process to polymerize and form WPC. The manufacturing of WPC was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis. The SEM observation showed that polymer converted from monomers filled up wood cell cavities and tightly interacted with wood matrix. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that the degree of crystallinity was significantly improved upon impregnation with PVA-co-MMA copolymer. The modulus of elasticity (MOE and compressive modulus were found to be significantly higher after treatment with MMA/PVA indicating improvement of mechanical properties of the wood samples. In addition, the modified WPC had lower water absorption compared to their corresponding raw samples. It is interesting to note that thermogravimetric (TGA analysis shows an extensive improvement in thermal properties of WPC.

  8. Effects of short-term alendronate treatment on the three-dimensional microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of dog trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, J; Ding, Ming; Søballe, K

    2002-01-01

    The bisphosphonate, alendronate, is well known for its potent inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It has been used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and has also recently been used to reduce osteolysis around prostheses in a canine revision model of implant loosening...... proximal humeri. These specimens were scanned using a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) system. From accurate data sets, three-dimensional microstructural properties were calculated and physical and mechanical properties were determined. Treatment with alendronate increased bone volume...

  9. Films Based on Poly(lactic acid Biopolymer: Effect of Clay and Cellulosic Nanoparticles on their Physical, Mechanical and Structural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Dadashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical and structural properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA-basedfilms containing different amounts of nanoclay and cellulose prepared bysolvent casting method were examined. Physical properties including thickness,transparency and color did not change significantly with addition of nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. X-Ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that pure PLA has a semi-crystalline structure and addition of nanoclay into this polymer would produce more regular structure which results in improved crystallization. It also showed that the peak is shifted to lower degrees, with greater interlayer distance of nanoclay giving an intercalated structure. Because of the nature and particle size of the MCC, it did not interact sufficiently with the polymer. Tensile strength, elastic modulus andelongation-at-break of neat PLA were 27.44 MPa, 1.84 GPa and 24.53% which with the addition of 7% of nanoclay, was changed to 40.34, 2.62 and 10.36°C, respectively. As the results of XRD, MCC were indications of no significant effect on mechanical properties, AFM images were used to evaluate the surface morphology and roughness of PLA films. Neat PLA had smoother surfaces and a lower roughness parameter (Sa. This study indicates that PLA has acceptable properties which could be used forpackaging and other applications.

  10. Physical-Mechanical Properties and Micromorphology of Calcium Cements Exposed to Polyacrylic and Phosphoric Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gustavo Fernandes; Arrais, Ana Beatriz; Aragão, Cícero Flávio Soares; Ferreira, Isana Alvares; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate if physical and mechanical properties of self-curing calcium hydroxide cements were affected by contact with polyacrylic and phosphoric acids. Resin-containing (Life (LF)) and resin-free (Hydro C (HyC)) materials were subjected to polyacrylic acid conditioning and rinsing (POL); phosphoric acid conditioning and rinsing (PHO); rinsing only; and no treatment ( n = 10). Water sorption/solubility, release of hydroxyl ions (pH), roughness (Ra), and impact resistance were evaluated. Additional samples ( n = 1) were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the surface morphology. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test ( P < 0.05). Water sorption was significantly higher for LF when in contact with PHO and lower for POL ( P < 0.05). The mean solubility was higher with POL for both cements ( P < 0.05). PHO increased the mean surface roughness for HyC ( P < 0.01); a significant decrease was noted for LF after contact with both acids ( P < 0.01). PHO promoted lower release of hydroxyl ions on both cements ( P < 0.05). For LF, rinsing, PHO, and POL presented similar morphology, differing from the control group. For HyC, PHO and POL presented similar morphology, differing from the control group. PHO had a negative effect on the physical properties of the cements tested, except for the solubility test. POL affected roughness and solubility of HyC cement. Clinical procedures that require polyacrylic and phosphoric acid conditioning must be done carefully on self-curing calcium hydroxide cements in order to avoid negative impact on their properties.

  11. The role of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Nanoparticles in concrete. {yields} Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. {yields} Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could

  12. Physically crosslinked composite hydrogels of PVA with natural macromolecules: structure, mechanical properties, and endothelial cell compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Vrana, N E; Cahill, P A; McGuinness, G B

    2009-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels have been considered potentially suitable for applications as engineered blood vessels because of their structure and mechanical properties. However, PVA's hydrophilicity hinders its capacity to act as a substrate for cell attachment. As a remedy, PVA was blended with chitosan, gelatin, or starch, and hydrogels were formed by subjecting the solutions to freeze-thaw cycles followed by coagulation bath immersion. The structure-property relationships for these hydrogels were examined by measurement of their swelling, rehydration, degradation, and mechanical properties. For the case of pure PVA hydrogels, the equilibrium swelling ratio was used to predict the effect of freeze thaw cycles and coagulation bath on average molecular weights between crosslinks and on mesh size. For all hydrogels, trends for the reswelling ratio, which is indicative of the crosslinked polymer fraction, were consistent with relative tensile properties. The coagulation bath treatment increased the degradation resistance of the hydrogels significantly. The suitability of each hydrogel for cell attachment and proliferation was examined by protein adsorption and bovine vascular endothelial cell culture experiments. Protein adsorption and cell proliferation was highest on the PVA/gelatin hydrogels. This study demonstrates that the potential of PVA hydrogels for artificial blood vessel applications can be improved by the addition of natural polymers, and that freeze-thawing and coagulation bath treatment can be utilized for fine adjustment of the physical characteristics.

  13. Effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on the performance of an automated peeling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Ademosun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of cassava tuber at all levels is still largely carried out manually; however, this work is presented with a view to investigate the effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on mechanical peeling and hence provides a basis for cassava peeling mechanization. These properties include size of the tuber, tl, proportion by weight of peel, wp, average moisture content of the peel, map, peel thickness, tp, tuber diameter, td, tuber surface taper angle, α, peel penetration force, F, and peel shearing stress, ts. The results showed that for Slmhf; tl ranged from 140-460mm, wp ranged from 13.12-20.06%, map was 76.27%, tp ranged from 1.62-4.34mm, td ranged from 31.08-136.63mm, α ranged from 9.03-23.130, F ranged from 0.17-1.85N/mm, ts ranged from 0.85-9.25N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 70.82-96.21%. Similarly, for Ssmlf; tl ranged from 125-362mm, wp ranged from 10.52-16.66%, map was 70.97%, tp ranged from 1.22-4.12mm, td ranged from 18.86-99.29mm, α ranged from 5.20-12.290, F ranged from 0.13-1.54N/mm, ts ranged from 0.65-7.70N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 67.27-92.25 %. The results confirm influence of physico-mechanical properties of cassava tuber on mechanical peeling.

  14. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  15. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Hydrophobized Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Franus, Małgorzata; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2016-04-27

    This article is focused on lightweight aggregate-concrete modified by municipal sewage sludge and lightweight aggregate-concrete obtained from light aggregates. The article presents laboratory examinations of material physical parameters. Water absorptivity of the examined material was decreased by the admixture of water emulsion of reactive polysiloxanes. Water transport properties were determined using Time Domain Reflectometry, an indirect technique for moisture detection in porous media. Together with basic physical parameters, the heat conductivity coefficient λ was determined for both types of lightweight aggregate-concrete. Analysis of moisture and heat properties of the examined materials confirmed the usefulness of light aggregates supplemented with sewage sludge for prospective production.

  16. Modeling the mechanics of cancer: effect of changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katira, Parag; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation, though primarily driven by genetic mutations in cells, is also accompanied by specific changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties such as stiffness and adhesivity. As the transformed cells grow into tumors, they interact with their surroundings via physical contacts and the application of forces. These forces can lead to changes in the mechanical regulation of cell fate based on the mechanical properties of the cells and their surrounding environment. A comprehensive understanding of cancer progression requires the study of how specific changes in mechanical properties influences collective cell behavior during tumor growth and metastasis. Here we review some key results from computational models describing the effect of changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties and identify mechanistic pathways for cancer progression that can be targeted for the prediction, treatment, and prevention of cancer.

  17. Surface modification, microstructure and mechanical properties of investment cast superalloy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zielińska; K. Kubiak; J. Sieniawski

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to determine physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) modifiers produced by different companies and the influence of different types of modifiers on the grain size, the microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77.Design/methodology/approach: The first stage of the research work took over the investigations of physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate manufactured by three diff...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND STATISTICAL CORRELATION BETWEEN CHARCOAL’S PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus AND Corymbia CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Pereira Moutinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the physical and mechanical properties of charcoal from eucalypt clones by principal component analysis and demonstrate the relationships between these properties, in order to assess which charcoal property should aimed in the process to obtain a higher quality product. In this way, was cut eight clones of Eucalyptus and two of Corymbia , collecting three trees per clone and five disk in different heights. The disks were transformed into test samples, totaling an average of 75 samples per clones, which were carbonized under specific conditions for analysis of apparent density, compressive strength parallel to grain and linear and volumetric degradation due to high temperature. It is noteworthy that the data were weighted by disk and per tree, to an average closer to reality. For correlations, was used multivariate analysis of principal components. Herein, it is found that the apparent density of charcoal acts as the focal point of the other properties studied, and observed that as the higher the density, higher will be the compressive strength parallel to grain, the elastic modulus and the gravimetric yield.

  19. Physical-mechanical and electrical properties of aluminium anodic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dima, L. [Research and Design Inst. for Electr. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, L. [Research and Design Inst. for Electr. Eng., Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-11-01

    Mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of aluminium anodic films obtained by continuously anodization of Al wires of 4.5 mm diameter and Al sheets of 40 x 0.2 mm (Al min.99.5% purity), using an electrolyte based on oxalic acid, citric acid, boric acid, isopropilic alcohol, were investigated. The thickness of Al anodic oxide layers was 5 {+-} 1{mu}, 10 {+-} 1{mu}, for Al sheet, respectively 5 {+-} 1{mu}, 10 {+-} 1{mu}, 15 {+-} 1{mu}, for Al wire. To establish the influence of anodic film formation on mechanical parameters, measurements of breaking strength and relative elongation at break for anodized and non-anodized Al conductors, were made. In order to electrically characterize the anodic films, the breakdown voltage for different curvature radii of the conductor, between 50 - 12.5 mm, were measured. The influence of the layer thickness, as well as of the cracking during its bending, was established, too. To test the thermal resistance of the insulating anodic films, the Al conductors were subjected to 1 - 5 cyclic thermal shocks at 500 C. After the experimentals were done, it was found that Al anodic films of 5 {+-} 1{mu} may assure a breakdown voltage of minimum 200 V, for coils having a curvature radius greater than 12.5 mm and operating temperatures up to 500 C. From mechanical point of view, anodic oxide film determines a relatively reinforcing of Al conductor, but it doesn`t influence its functional properties. (orig.)

  20. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil Frond and Stem Bunch for Developing Pruner and Harvester Machinery Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A development of oil palm pruner and harvester machinery design implemented in the field still faces a problem due to the lack of effective and efficient design which is need to be solved. It was noted that in order to develop the design, an early data and information of physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem fruits is critically important. The objective of the research was to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem in order to develop the design of pruner and harvester machinery. The result showed that tool machinery was been advantageous by the physical properties of the plant i.e. the total weight of frond and leaf which enable to support the cutting process. The average of total weight of frond and leaf was 16.8 kg. The diagonal cutting trajectory was been more advantageous because of total weight and frond shape toward to the different of the plant tissue area. The measurement result shows that cutting curve follows the time required for cutting. The comparison among cutting curve shows differences in cutting thickness or length. In this case, the thickness is linear with cutting time. Besides, those curves show differences at the height which determine the maximum value of tested material cutting resistance. Alternative solution for machinery development design is pruner-harvester for height plant below 6 m and among 6 to 12 m. For below 6 m, pruner-harvester was designed by incorporating motor as power source and cutter-disc as the knife cutter. That condition was relied on that estate which was maintenance intensively commonly used cutter-disc. Pruner-harvester above 6 m and up to 12 m was improved based on manual egrek-designed by adding fresh fruit bunch alley supply glide in order to keep the fruits still in intact form. The consideration was based on affectivity and efficiency. It also considers homogenous ecological of palm oil plant which should be maintained to reduce global

  1. Thermo-physical Properties and Mechanical Properties of Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy Ti40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI Yunjin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a functional material of burn-resistant titanium alloy, the physical properties of Ti40 alloy were first reported. The chemical compositions of Ti40 alloy ingots by VAR were uniform. The microstructures of Ti40 alloy slab manufactured by HEFF+WPF were uniform. The results show that the room temperature tensile strength of Ti40 alloy is 950 MPa degree. The properties of high temperature heat exposure, creep resistance and lasting time are good at 500 ℃. In the range from room temperature to 600 ℃, Young's modulus and shear modulus are decreased linearly with increasing the temperature, Poisson's ratio is increases slowly as the temperature rises, and linear thermal expansion coefficient and average linear expansion coefficient is increase as the temperature rises.

  2. Construction of database server system for fuel thermo-physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Je; Kang, Kwon Ho; Song, Kee Chan

    2003-12-01

    To perform the evaluation of various fuels in the nuclear reactors, not only the mechanical properties but also thermo-physical properties are required as one of most important inputs for fuel performance code system. The main objective of this study is to make a database system for fuel thermo-physical properties and a PC-based hardware system has been constructed for ease use for the public with visualization such as web-based server system. This report deals with the hardware and software which are used in the database server system for nuclear fuel thermo-physical properties. It is expected to be highly useful to obtain nuclear fuel data without such a difficulty through opening the database of fuel properties to the public and is also helpful to research of development of various fuel of nuclear industry. Furthermore, the proposed models of nuclear fuel thermo-physical properties will be enough utilized to the fuel performance code system

  3. Computational studies of physical properties of Nb-Si based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Lizhi [Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro, TN (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The overall goal is to provide physical properties data supplementing experiments for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations such as phase filed simulation for microstructure and continuum simulations for mechanical properties. These predictive computational modeling and simulations may yield insights that can be used to guide materials design, processing, and manufacture. Ultimately, they may lead to usable Nb-Si based alloy which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. The main objectives of the proposed projects are: (1) developing a first principles method based supercell approach for calculating thermodynamic and mechanic properties of ordered crystals and disordered lattices including solid solution; (2) application of the supercell approach to Nb-Si base alloy to compute physical properties data that can be used for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations to guide the optimal design of Nb-Si based alloy.

  4. The effect of using waste newspaper in surface layers on physical and mechanical properties of three-layer particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid vaziri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from recycled newspaper in the surface layers were investigated. Coarse and fine wood chips and recycled newspaper with dimension of 0.5 × 4 cm2 were used. The variable in this research were the ratio of recycled newspaper to wood chips (at five levels; 0:100, 15:85, 30:70, 45:55, 60:40. Urea formaldehyde resin used at 10% content on dry weight basis of the wood particles and newspaper and ammonium chloride was used as a catalyst to 2% of the dry weight of adhesive. Physical and mechanical properties of panels measured according to EN Standard. The results showed that panels containing recycled newspapers at the level of 45% had the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Internal bonding and screw holding strength decreased with increasing of recycled newspaper and control sample had the highest strength. Water absorption and thickness swelling increased with increasing of recycled newspaper portion. On the basis of results of this study can be concluded that particleboard containing recycled newspapers in the surface layers up to the level of 30% can be used for general purpose boards and interior fitments (including furniture for use in dry conditions.

  5. Effect of an admixture from Agave americana on the physical and mechanical properties of plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa, J. C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical properties of a plaster paste added with an organic admixture, of the leaves of Agave americana, were studied. Plastic consistency behavior was evaluated and the water/gypsum(w/g ratio was determined for each dosage of the admixture. Admixtur eeffect on setting was evaluated too. The chemical transformation of the hemihydrated form to gypsum (dihydrated form was studied using a novel technique based on a moisture analyzer by halogen light. Flexural and compressive strengths were measured. The results show that ,for the same consistency, accordingly mechanical strengths were improved too. The setting times were increased which would enhance the application time of plaster and would reduce plastic shrinkage, common problems in this type of material. The changes in these physical properties not substantially affect the final mechanical strengths.

    Se estudiaron algunas propiedades físicas y mecánicas de pastas de yeso de construcción adicionadas con un aditivo de origen orgánico, producto de las hojas de la planta Agave americana. Se evaluó el comportamiento plástico de la pasta mediante ensayos de consistencia y se determinó, para cada dosificación, su relación agua/ yeso (a/y. Se evaluó la incidencia del aditivo en los tiempos de fraguado. La transformación química del hemihidrato a yeso dihidrato se estudió mediante una novedosa técnica basada en un analizador de humedad por luz halógena. Se midieron las resistencias mecánicas a flexo-tracción y a compresión. Los resultados del estudio muestran que, para una misma consistencia, se mejoran las resistencias mecánicas. Los tiempos de fraguado de la pasta se aumentaron lo que ayudaría mejorar los tiempos de aplicación del yeso y a disminuir las retracciones plásticas. Las modificaciones de estas propiedades físicas no afectan considerablemente las resistencias mecánicas finales.

  6. EFFECT OF REMOVING OLEORESIN WITH VARIOUS CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF KERUING WOOD (DIPTEROCARPUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wiyono

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Keruing  (Dipterocarpus spp.  was  the  second  important  wood  export of   Indonesia. Unfortunately, this wood contains oleoresin that hinders its utilization. Currently, the method used to remove oleoresin from keruing is by soaking it into bollied sodium salt solution. Result of  this method is unsatisfactory because the residual heavy oleoresin might still appear on the wood surface. The study was conducted to determine suitable chemical compounds for removing oleoresin from keruing, and the effects on physical and mechanical properties of the wood. Four types of chemical compounds were tested, i.e. sodium chloride, oxalic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid, each at the concentrations of  0.5 percent, 1.0 percent, and 1.5 percent. Wood samples were soaked in the boiling solution at different concentration level for seven hours. When the solution cooled down, the oleoresin exudated out of  the wood samples was separated. The oleoresin was weighed for recovery determination after air dried, and the wood samples were cut into smaller-sized specimens for the physical and mechanical testing (MOE, MOR, compression parallel to grain, hardness and density. Results showed that sulfuric acid was the best chemical compound for removing oleoresin, and the higher the concentration the greater the oleoresin recovery. The second best chemical compound was nitric acid at an optimum concentration of one percent. The soaking of keruing in sulfuric acid and oxalic acid solution resulted in paler wood color compare with the untreated wood sample. Nitric acid solutions caused the color of the wood surface to turn into yellow brownish. The physical and mechanical properties (MOE, MOR, compression parallel to grain, hardness and density of the oleoresin-removed keruing were slightly lower than the untreated (control samples.

  7. Electron beam processing of rubber wood fibers - polypropylene composites. Effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Jalaluddin Harun; Khairul Zaman

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of producing agro-fiber reinforced plastic composite (agro-FRPC) from rubber wood fiber blended in polypropylene matrix. The effects of varying fiber dimension and fiber content on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated to provide an insight into the fiber matrix adhesion. The effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated which provides the insight on the reinforcement of the composite. Rubber wood fiber used in this study is currently being used in the manufacturing of medium density fiber (MDF) board. Two sizes of rubber wood fiber were used i.e. 0.5-1.0 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm. Homopolymer polypropylene of MFI 14.0 was used as a matrix. The irradiation work was carried out using electron beam accelerator, 3.0 MeV, 3.0 mA. Various types of reactive additives (RA) with mono-functional, di-functional, tri-functional and oligomer were applied in the blend. For comparison, a conventional chemical cross-linking using two types of maleated polypropylene, MPA (Mw=9,000) and PMAP (Mw=220,000) were also performed. (author)

  8. Electron beam processing of rubber wood fibers - polypropylene composites. Effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Jalaluddin Harun [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Khairul Zaman [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of producing agro-fiber reinforced plastic composite (agro-FRPC) from rubber wood fiber blended in polypropylene matrix. The effects of varying fiber dimension and fiber content on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated to provide an insight into the fiber matrix adhesion. The effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated which provides the insight on the reinforcement of the composite. Rubber wood fiber used in this study is currently being used in the manufacturing of medium density fiber (MDF) board. Two sizes of rubber wood fiber were used i.e. 0.5-1.0 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm. Homopolymer polypropylene of MFI 14.0 was used as a matrix. The irradiation work was carried out using electron beam accelerator, 3.0 MeV, 3.0 mA. Various types of reactive additives (RA) with mono-functional, di-functional, tri-functional and oligomer were applied in the blend. For comparison, a conventional chemical cross-linking using two types of maleated polypropylene, MPA (Mw=9,000) and PMAP (Mw=220,000) were also performed. (author)

  9. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Surface Sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Shen, Z.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methane hydrates are superior energy resources and potential predisposing factors of geohazard. With the success in China's persistent exploitation of methane hydrates in the Shenhu area of South China Sea for 60 days, there is an increasing demand for detailed knowledge of sediment properties and hazard assessment in this area. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of both the surface sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) in the exploitation area, the Shenhu area of South China Sea, were investigated using laboratory geotechnical experiments, and triaxial tests were carried out on remolded sediment samples using a modified triaxial apparatus. The results show that sediments in this area are mainly silt with high moisture content, high plasticity, low permeability and low shear strength. The moisture content and permeability decrease while the shear strength increases with the increasing depth. The elastic modulus and peak strength of MHBS increase with the increasing effective confining pressure and higher hydrate saturation. The cohesion increases with higher hydrate saturation while the internal friction angle is barely affected by hydrate saturation. The obtained results demonstrate clearly that methane hydrates have significant impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of sediments and there is still a wide gap in knowledge about MHBS.

  10. Influence of provenance on physical and mechanical properties wood of Pinus tropicalis Morelet in Viñales. Pinar del Río. Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarelys García García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of origin on the physical-mechanical Pinus tropicalis Morelet wood, with a view to providing the information necessary for their rational use properties. Five provenances were selected in the experimental plots at the Experimental Station of Viñales, where 10 trees were randomly selected to analyze the dendrometer following variables: diameter at 1.30 total height, crown diameter and crown height. In turn, at the height of 1.30 m a log of 50 cm in length for the study Densities, Total shrinkage in volume, radial contraction, Longitudinal, tangential and compression is obtained. The results obtained state that the origin is not a variable that has a marked influence on the physical - mechanical properties analyzed. Diameter 1.30 and crown diameter dendrometric variables are best levels of correlation present in relation to the properties of the wood examined. Considering the results obtained provenances La Jagua and Viñales must be very careful during drying and commissioning since they have a higher coefficient of anisotropy.

  11. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakorenko, N. N.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  12. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Brakorenko, Nataliya Nikolaevna; Korotchenko, Tatiana Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  13. 2015 International Conference on Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Topolov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents selected and peer reviewed 50 reports of the 2015 International Conference on “Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications” (Azov, Russia, 19-22 May, 2015), devoted to 100th Anniversary of the Southern Federal University, Russia. The book presents processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications of advanced materials. The book is concentrated on some nanostructures, ferroelectric crystals, materials and composites and other materials with specific properties. In this book are presented nanotechnology approaches, modern piezoelectric techniques, physical and mechanical studies of the structure-sensitive properties of the materials. A wide spectrum of mathematical and numerical methods is applied to the solution of different technological, mechanical and physical problems for applications. Great attention is devoted to novel devices with high accuracy, longevity and extended possibilities to work in a large scale of  temperatures and pressure r...

  14. Effects of vacuum thermal cycling on mechanical and physical properties of high performance carbon/bismaleimide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qi; Chen Ping; Gao Yu; Mu Jujie; Chen Yongwu; Lu Chun; Liu Dong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The level of cross-links was improved to a certain extent. → The thermal stability was firstly improved and then decreased. → The transverse and longitudinal CTE were both determined by the degree of interfacial debonding. → The mass loss ratio increases firstly and then reaches a plateau value. → The surface morphology was altered and the surface roughness increased firstly and then decreased. → The transverse tensile strength was reduced. → The flexural strength increased firstly and then decreased to a plateau value. → The ILSS increased firstly and then decreased to a plateau value. - Abstract: The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of vacuum thermal cycling on mechanical and physical properties of high performance carbon/bismaleimide (BMI) composites used in aerospace. The changes in dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The changes in linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were measured in directions perpendicular and parallel to the fiber direction, respectively. The outgassing behavior of the composites were examined. The evolution of surface morphology and surface roughness were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Changes in mechanical properties including transverse tensile strength, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured. The results indicated that the vacuum thermal cycling could improve the crosslinking degree and the thermal stability of resin matrix to a certain extent, and induce matrix outgassing and thermal stress, thereby leading to the mass loss and the interfacial debonding of the composite. The degradation in transverse tensile strength was caused by joint effects of the matrix outgassing and the interfacial debonding, while the changes in flexural strength and ILSS were affected by a competing effect between the crosslinking degree

  15. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photocrosslinked PLA-PEO-PLA Hydrogels from Self-Assembled Physical Networks: Mechanical Properties and Influence of Assumed Constitutive Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J.; Tew, Gregory N.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(lactide) – block – poly(ethylene oxide) – block – poly(lactide) [PLA-PEO-PLA] triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water, due to the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently crosslinked and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the des...

  17. Mechanical properties of ZTA: correlation with structural properties and influence of ageing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exare, C.; Kiat, J. M.; Guiblin, N.; Petříček, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, May (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 4264062. ISSN 2090-8628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical properties * zirconia toughened alumina * powder diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of high manganese non-magnetic steel and its application to various products for commercial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Terufumi; Watanabe, Kenji; Nohara, Kiyohiko; Ono, Yutaka; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Sato, Shuzo.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop new high manganese non-magnetic steels that can be employed to extensive applications ranging from cryogenic to elevated temperature uses, the effects of C and Mn on their magnetic permeability, thermal expansion coefficient and mechanical properties are investigated. It is found that the relation between thermal expansion coefficient, β, and both C and Mn contents can be expressed by the following linear regression equation: β( x 10 -6 / 0 C) = 17.66 + 3.82 C (%) - 0.22 Mn (%). Good mechanical properties are exhibited in the wide range of Mn contents between 18 % and 30 % at room temperature, while there is a tendency that this optimum range of Mn content is narrowed at cryogenic temperature. Then, H-shapes, round bars and deformed bars are manufactured at the workshops using 5t vacuum melted ingots, aiming to establish the conditions for practical processes for final products and to study such various characteristics of the products as their physical and mechanical properties, machinability and weldability. As a result, it is shown that all of those products have excellent properties as non-magnetic steels. In addition, the manufacturing of non-magnetic pinch rolls attached to the electro-magnetic stirring equipment on the continuous casting machine is described in detail as one of the practical applications of the high Mn non-magnetic steels. (author)

  19. Chitosan fibers with improved biological and mechanical properties for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Mohammad Z; Bou-Akl, Therese H; Blowytsky, Oksana; Walters, Henry L; Matthew, Howard W T

    2013-04-01

    The low mechanical properties of hydrogel materials such as chitosan hinder their broad utility for tissue engineering applications. Previous research efforts improved the mechanical properties of chitosan fiber through chemical and physical modifications; however, unfavorable toxicity effects on cells were reported. In this paper, we report the preparation of chitosan fibers with improved mechanical and biocompatibility properties. The structure-property relationships of extruded chitosan fibers were explored by varying acetic acid (AA) concentration, ammonia concentration, annealing temperature and degree of heparin crosslinking. Results showed that optimizing AA concentration to 2vol% improved fiber strength and stiffness by 2-fold. Extruding chitosan solution into 25wt% of ammonia solution reduced fiber diameters and improved fiber strength by 2-fold and stiffness by 3-fold, due to an increase in crystallinity as confirmed by XRD. Fiber annealing further reduced fiber diameter and improved fiber strength and stiffness as temperature increased. Chitosan fibers crosslinked with heparin had increased diameter but lower strength and stiffness properties and higher breaking strain values. When individual parameters were combined, further improvement in fiber mechanical properties was achieved. All mechanically improved fibers and heparin crosslinked fibers promoted valvular interstitial cells (VIC) attachment and growth over 10 day cultures. Our results demonstrate the ability to substantially improve the mechanical properties of chitosan fibers without adversely affecting their biological properties. The investigated treatments offer numerous advantages over previous physical/chemical modifications and thus are expected to expand the utility of chitosan fibers with tunable mechanical properties in various tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroxyapatite-TiO(2)-based nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical CO(2) for bone tissue engineering: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarian, Mehrnaz; Xu, William Z; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Charpentier, Paul A

    2014-10-08

    Calcium phosphate-based nanocomposites offer a unique solution toward producing scaffolds for orthopedic and dental implants. However, despite attractive bioactivity and biocompatibility, hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been limited in heavy load-bearing applications due to its intrinsically low mechanical strength. In this work, to improve the mechanical properties of HAp, we grew HAp nanoplates from the surface of one-dimensional titania nanorod structures by combining a coprecipitation and sol-gel methodology using supercritical fluid processing with carbon dioxide (scCO2). The effects of metal alkoxide concentration (1.1-1.5 mol/L), reaction temperature (60-80 °C), and pressure (6000-8000 psi) on the morphology, crystallinity, and surface area of the resulting nanostructured composites were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. Chemical composition of the products was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses. HAp nanoplates and HAp-TiO2 nanocomposites were homogeneously mixed within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to develop scaffolds with enhanced physical and mechanical properties for bone regeneration. Mechanical behavior analysis demonstrated that the Young's and flexural moduli of the PCL/HAp-TiO2 composites were substantially higher than the PCL/HAp composites. Therefore, this new synthesis methodology in scCO2 holds promise for bone tissue engineering with improved mechanical properties.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sakhawy, M.M.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested

  2. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sakhawy, M M; Hassan, M L [Cellulose and Paper Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested.

  3. Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.

    1998-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.

  4. Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Marble Particles Floor-Tile Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Arslan, A.; Ismoyo, A.H.; Jodi, H.E.; Nurhasanah, S.

    2002-01-01

    Two criteria that very predictable to quality products of marble particles composite floor-tile are physical and mechanical properties. Simple manufacturing was conducted from powdering refuges of marble to molding and drying the specimens at ambient atmosphere. The characterization, to observe; density, crystal structure, microstructure, hardness and compressive/bending strength of the material, was performed in Serpong and IPB-Bogor. The analysis shows that polymeric crystallization was occurred by HEXA and the density and the hardness generally rise up with the improvements in mesh and composition of marble particles. But it is not always followed by the real improvements of compressive and bending strength, which related to the material stiffness. The curves figured that these two strengths give the maximum values at 60% composition of marble particles. It can be concluded that density and hardness are dependent on mesh and composition, whereas the stiffness (modulus) is only correlation with composition of particulate. The theoretical modulus of marble particles composite floor-tile has been evaluated at about 56.19 GPa. (author)

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of a thermomechanically treated NiTi wire used in the manufacture of rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E S J; Peixoto, I F C; Viana, A C D; Oliveira, I I; Gonzalez, B M; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2012-05-01

    To compare physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and one thermomechanically treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments. Two NiTi wires 1.0 mm in diameter were characterized; one of them, C-wire (CW), was processed in the conventional manner, and the other, termed M-Wire (MW), received an additional heat treatment according to the manufacturer. Chemical composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, phase constitution by XRD and the transformation temperatures by DSC. Tensile loading/unloading tests and Vickers microhardness measurements were performed to assess the mechanical behaviour. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The two wires showed approximately the same chemical composition, close to the 1 : 1 atomic ratio, and the β-phase was the predominant phase present. B19' martensite and the R-phase were found in MW, in agreement with the higher transformation temperatures found in this wire compared with CW, whose transformation temperatures were below room temperature. Average Vickers microhardness values were similar for MW and CW (P = 0.91). The stress at the transformation plateau in the tensile load-unload curves was lower and more uniform in the M-Wire, which also showed the smallest stress hysteresis and apparent elastic modulus. The M-Wire had physical and mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Microstructure and physical properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Mo powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Zábranský, Karel; Turek, Ilja; Buršík, Jiří; Jančík, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 477, - (2009), s. 55-61 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2111; GA ČR GD106/05/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Microstructure * Magnetic measurements * Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2009

  7. Acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants containing melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Yi; Piao, Yin-Zhu; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) on the acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants. 45S5BAG (glass (180 ± 30 nm) and added into a resin matrix [Bis-GMA/TEGDMA 50/50 (wt%) containing 1% of DMAEMA/CQ 2:1 (wt%)] with varying filler proportions; 0% 45S5BAG+50% glass (BAG0); 12.5% 45S5BAG+37.5% glass (BAG12.5); 25% 45S5BAG+25% glass (BAG25); 37.5% 45S5BAG+12.5% glass (BAG37.5); and 50% 45S5BAG+0% glass (BAG50). To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0). Then, the change in pH and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 were measured. In addition, flexural strength, water sorption and solubility were analyzed. The acid neutralizing properties of each group exhibited increasing pH values as more 45S5BAG was added, and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 became shorter as the proportion of 45S5BAG increased (P0.05), except for BAG50. The novel pit and fissure sealants neutralized the acid solution (pH 4.0) and exhibited appropriate mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, these compounds are suitable candidates for caries-inhibiting dental materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obtaining and physical mechanical properties of cement composites with the use of fillers and mixing water from the Chechen Republic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erofeev Vladimir Trofimovich

    Full Text Available Improving physical mechanical and operational properties of concretes and other composite materials is one of the most important tasks in construction material science. At the present time various methods are applied for that, which includes the use of additives, composite binders, activated mixing water, etc. Composite construction materials based on cement binders with mineral additives are widelu used, because they possess improved physical mechanical and technological properties. Implementation of additives improve placeability and nonsegregation factors of concrete and mortar mixes, lead to compaction of concrete and mortars structure. The additives substantially lower heat generation of concretes, which is of great importance in concrete casting of large structures. The article presents the results of experimental studies of cement composites filled with powders of rocks and mixable with activated water from the deposits of the Chechen Republic. The soundness of cement compositions with the additives of mountain and river limestone, sandstone and quartz sand was established. The results of experimental studies on establishing the effect of fine and coarse aggregate on strength formation of cement composites activated by water mixing were presented.

  9. Mechanical Properties for Reliability Analysis of Structures in Glassy Carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Despite its good physical properties, the glassy carbon material is not widely used, especially for structural applications. Nevertheless, its transparency to particles and temperature resistance are interesting properties for the applications to vacuum chambers and components in high energy physics. For example, it has been proposed for fast shutter valve in particle accelerator [1] [2]. The mechanical properties have to be carefully determined to assess the reliability of structures in such a material. In this paper, mechanical tests have been carried out to determine the elastic parameters, the strength and toughness on commercial grades. A statistical approach, based on the Weibull’s distribution, is used to characterize the material both in tension and compression. The results are compared to the literature and the difference of properties for these two loading cases is shown. Based on a Finite Element analysis, a statistical approach is applied to define the reliability of a structural component in gl...

  10. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  11. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-26

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  12. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (BS bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UNS bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were prepared. Then, composites with 30wt.% fiber content were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding processing. The mechanical and physical properties of these composites were analyzed and compared. Results revealed that the chemical pulping dissolved a fraction of lignin and hemicelluloses so that the linkage potential and aspect ratio of bagasse fibers was improved and consequently, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. The best overall properties were achieved with MEA and AS/AQ fibers. Addition of 5% (wt/wt of coupling agent MAPE resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact strength in line with the improvement of the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion making more effective the transfer of stress from the matrix to the rigid reinforcement.

  13. hermo-Physical and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester /Cobalt Ferrite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamees Salam Faiq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated polyester was used as a matrix which was filled with different percentages of cobalt ferrite using hand lay-up method. Cobalt ferrite was synthesized using solid state ceramic method with reagent of CoO and Fe2O3. Mechanical properties such tensile strength, Young's modulus and shore D hardness of the composite have been studied. All these properties have increased by 10% with increasing cobalt ferrite contents. Also the thermal properties such thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are highly increased as the ferrite content increased, while the thermal diffusivity increased by 22 %. On the other hand dielectric strength of composite has been measured which increased by 50% by increasing the cobalt ferrite content.

  14. Comparative studies of physical properties of kinesiotapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata; Gołąb, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays we observe growing popularity of kinesiotaping as a supportive method in physiotherapy. In documents available on kinesiotaping we can find that mechanical properties of tapes are similar to the ones of a human skin, but usually there is hardly any numerical data characterizing these properties. Therefore, testing and comparing physical properties of commercially available kinesiotapes seems to be important. Physical properties of five commercially available kinesiotapes were examined. Strain vs. stress data was collected up to 15 N. Program Origin 9.0 was used for data analysis. The obtained results show that up to about 2 N the strain vs. stress characteristics of the tested tapes are similar while for greater stress they differ essentially. An alternative, to commonly used, way of defining relative strain is proposed. This definition could be more suitable in those cases when desired tape tensions are higher than 50% i.e. in ligament and tendon techniques.

  15. Initial Comparison of Baseline Physical and Mechanical Properties for the VHTR Candidate Graphite Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Program

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is establishing accurate as-manufactured mechanical and physical property distributions in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding

  16. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  17. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  18. Studies of some physical-mechanical and chemical property in organic waste to use for biogas production in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Hernández, Carlos M.; Oechsner, Hans; Brulé, Mathieu; Marañon Maison, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of agricultural organic residuals which can be used in the biogas production in Cuba´s plants production, using their co-fermentation. It has also been necessary to collect agricultural biomass, canteen waste, influent and effluents of a biogas plant Nina Bonita) next to Santa Clara city, Cuba, for their later analysis. the investigated biomass samples (sorghum.49V-96, sorghum-132 R, sunflower JE-94, cassava, corn, sweet potato skin, bread, potatoes and peanut skin); as well as the influent and effluents of the investigated biogas plant were analyzed in some laboratories belonging to the Central University of Las Villas. Other analyses were done in the biogas lab at Hohenheim University. The maximum value of specifies methane yield achieved was with the sunflower JE-94 (0.393 m3/kg VS), while the minimum value was reached with the peanut shell (0.095 m3/Kg VS).The main objective of the work consists on determining some of the physical-mechanical and chemical properties like carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N), specific methane production (m3/kg VS), total solid (TS), organic total solid (oTS), alkalinity (pH) and volatile solid (VS) in agricultural organic residuals and canteen waste, which can be used for the production of biogas under co-fermentation with animal manure under Cuban conditions. In order to do this, we developed some experiments to syringes, small and real scale. (author)

  19. Physical properties, structure and fracturing of the Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grokhovsky, V. I.; Kohout, Tomáš; Gritsevich, M.; Koneva, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, Special issue 1 (2014), pdf 5364-pdf 5364 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /77./. 08.09.2014-13.09.2014, Casablanca] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Chelyabinsk * LL chondrite * physical properties * structure * mechanical properties * stress Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2014/pdf/5364.pdf

  20. Microstructures and mechanical properties of an Osprey aluminium 7000 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottignies, L.; Brechet, Y.; Audier, M.; Livet, F.; Louchet, F.; Sainfort, P.

    1993-01-01

    An alloy from the 7000 serie obtained by the Osprey process has been studied both from the microstructural (TEM, SAXS) and from the mechanical viewpoint. The modelling of the mechanical properties and of their anisotropy was performed using both models from physical metallurgy and a self consistent elastoplastic model. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of river sand concrete with quarry dust concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Hyginus E.; Eziefula, Uchechi G.; Eziefula, Bennett I.

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the physical and mechanical properties of river sand concrete with quarry dust concrete. The constituent materials were batched by weight. The water-cement ratio and mix ratio selected for the experimental investigation were 0.55 and 1:2:4, respectively. The specimens were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Slump, density and compressive strength tests were carried out. The results showed that river sand concrete had greater density and compressive strength than quarry dust concrete for all curing ages. At 28 days of curing, river sand concrete exceeded the target compressive strength by 36%, whereas quarry dust concrete was less than the target compressive strength by 12%. Both river sand concrete and quarry dust concrete for the selected water/cement ratio and mix ratio are suitable for non-structural applications and lightly-loaded members where high strength is not a prerequisite.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  3. Probing cell mechanical properties with microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting flow on the micron-scale is emerging as a method to probe cell mechanical properties with 10-1000x advances in throughput over existing technologies. The mechanical properties of cells and the cell nucleus are implicated in a wide range of biological contexts: for example, the ability of white blood cells to deform is central to immune response; and malignant cells show decreased stiffness compared to benign cells. We recently developed a microfluidic device to probe cell and nucleus mechanical properties: cells are forced to deform through a narrow constrictions in response to an applied pressure; flowing cells through a series of constrictions enables us to probe the ability of hundreds of cells to deform and relax during flow. By tuning the constriction width so it is narrower than the width of the cell nucleus, we can specifically probe the effects of nuclear physical properties on whole cell deformability. We show that the nucleus is the rate-limiting step in cell passage: inducing a change in its shape to a multilobed structure results in cells that transit more quickly; increased levels of lamin A, a nuclear protein that is key for nuclear shape and mechanical stability, impairs the passage of cells through constrictions. We are currently developing a new class of microfluidic devices to simultaneously probe the deformability of hundreds of cell samples in parallel. Using the same soft lithography techniques, membranes are fabricated to have well-defined pore distribution, width, length, and tortuosity. We design the membranes to interface with a multiwell plate, enabling simultaneous measurement of hundreds of different samples. Given the wide spectrum of diseases where altered cell and nucleus mechanical properties are implicated, such a platform has great potential, for example, to screen cells based on their mechanical phenotype against a library of drugs.

  4. LAMI - a planned Brazilian facility to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of structural materials under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.

    2011-01-01

    The LAMI (Laboratorio de Materiais Irradiados) is a hot laboratory designed to the characterization of irradiated structural material and will constitute one of the main installations of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The strong points of LAMI are: to contribute, through theoretical and experimental investigations, to the development of knowledge in materials science in order to be able to predict the evolution of the physical and mechanical material properties under service conditions (irradiation, thermomechanical solicitation, influence of the environment, etc); to characterize the properties of the materials used in the nuclear industry in order to determine their performance and to be able to predict their life expectancy; to establish, maintain and make use of the database generated by these data and to provide expertise on industrial components, in particular to investigate strain or rupture mechanisms. The test materials can be irradiated or not, and originate from surveillance programs, experimental neutron irradiations or simulated irradiation with charged particles. The main line of LAMI will have 10 shielded hot cells. The building also will have an area dedicated to micro and nano structural materials analysis. The mechanical characterization to be carried out within LAMI includes mechanical tests on irradiated materials, comprehension of behavior and damage processes and the incorporation of the test data results in a data bank for capitalization of test results. Planned materials to be tested are going to be metallic alloys used in industrial and experimental reactor: pressure vessel steels, internal stainless steels, austeno-ferritic steels, zirconium alloys and aluminum alloys. (author)

  5. MICROSTRUCTURE, THERMO-PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF IN-SITU FORMED BORON CARBIDE - ZIRCONIUM DIBORIDE COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. R. Ch. Murthy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure, thermos-physical, mechanical and wear properties of in-situ formed B₄C- ZrB₂ composite were investigated. Coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and electrical resistivity of the composite were measured at different temperatures up to 1000 °C in inert atmosphere. Flexural strength was measured up to 900 °C in air. Friction and wear properties have been studied at different loads under reciprocative sliding, using a counter body (ball of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co at ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA confirmed the formation of ZrB₂ as the reaction product in the composite. Electrical resistivity was measured as 3.02 x 10-4Ω.m at 1000°C. Thermal conductivity measured at temperatures between 25°C and 1000 °C was in the range of 8 to 10 W/m-K. Flexural strength of the composite decreased with increase in temperature and reached a value of 92 MPa at 900°C. The average value of coefficient of friction (COF was measured as 0.15 at 20 N load and 10 Hz frequency. Increase of load from 5 N to 20 N resulted in decrease in COF from 0.24 to 0.15 at 10 Hz frequency. Specific wear rate data observed was of the order of 10-6 mm³/N-m. Both abrasive and tribo-chemical reaction wear mechanisms were observed on the worn surface of flat and counter body materials. At higher loads (≥10 N a tribo-chemical reaction wear mechanism was dominant.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence methods for prediction of steel mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jančíková

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The target of the contribution is to outline possibilities of applying artificial neural networks for the prediction of mechanical steel properties after heat treatment and to judge their perspective use in this field. The achieved models enable the prediction of final mechanical material properties on the basis of decisive parameters influencing these properties. By applying artificial intelligence methods in combination with mathematic-physical analysis methods it will be possible to create facilities for designing a system of the continuous rationalization of existing and also newly developing industrial technologies.

  7. Correlation between physical and mechanical properties changes of austenitic steel ChS-68 under high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershova, O.V.; Shcherbakov, E.N.; Evseev, M.V.; Shihkalev, V.S.; Kozlov, A.V.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is well known that void swelling at high levels exerts significant influence on physical, mechanical and creep properties of austenitic steels. For many fusion or fission reactor concepts it is desirable not only to characterize these relationships but also to develop nondestructive measurements to measure swelling without removing components from the reactor. Previous studies at this institute have shown that swelling can be estimated using changes in elastic moduli via ultrasonic techniques and electrical resistivity via electro-resistive methods. In this study we examined two pin claddings of ChS-68 (Fe-16Cr-15Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si irradiated at somewhat different dpa rates in the high-flux BN-600 fast reactor, with temperatures ranging from 370-590 deg. C to maximum doses of 69 and 78 dpa. After removing the fuel, ring specimens were cut and used to conduct tensile tests using a standardized ring-pull test. Changes in density, elastic moduli and electrical resistivity were performed prior to tensile testing. Maximum swelling levels in the two pins reached ∼7 and 12%, with strong consequences observed in mechanical properties. At the higher swelling level there was a total loss of ductility over a significant middle portion of the pin. In both the lower swelling and higher swelling pins there was a clear correlation between the local swelling along the pin length with declining ultimate strength and total elongation, providing clear evidence of void-induced embrittlement. Changes in electrical resistivity and elastic moduli correlated well with predictions based on void swelling at lower irradiation temperatures where precipitates were not a dominant part of the radiation-induced microstructure. At higher temperatures large precipitates of Ni-rich radiation-stable phases are a large portion of the microstructure and void-based predictions of elastic moduli and electrical resistivity do not agree well with the measurements

  8. Testing program for determining the mechanical properties of concrete to temperatures of 6210C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.; Robinson, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Concrete temperatures in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) in excess of normal code limits can result from postulated large sodium spills in equipment cells. Elevated temperature concrete property data which may have application for providing a basis for the design and evaluation of such postulated accident conditions is limited. Data thus needed to be developed commensurate with LMFBR plant applications for critical physical and mechanical concrete properties under prototypic thermal accident conditions. A test program was conducted to define the variations in physical and mechanical properties of a limestone aggregate concrete and a lightweight insulating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Five test series were conducted: unconfined compression, shear, rebar bond, sustained loading (creep), and thermal properties. Testing procedures for determining the mechanical properties of concrete from ambient to 621 0 C (1150 0 F) are described. Ther thermal properties tests are discussed in a separate paper which is also being presented at this conference

  9. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  10. Thermo-Physical Properties of Kenaf-Filled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatin Siti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on advantageous of natural fillers incorporated into polymer composites on thermo-physical and mechanical properties are still intensively investigated. Several evidences suggest that the natural fillers with small contents combined with polymer increase their composite properties. We thus investigate thermo-physical properties of kenaf-filled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS composites. ABS with 5% kenaf microparticle size (ABS/K5, ABS with 5% kenaf short fiber (ABS/KSF5, and recycled ABS with 5% kenaf microparticle size (RABS/K5 were manufactured. Granular composites were manufactured by the twin screw extruder. Composite properties in terms of X-ray diffractions, surface morphologies, and thermal behaviors were investigated. The present work found that ABS/KSF5 has the highest degree of crystallinity compared to others. No significant difference was found in terms of thermal properties of the composites.

  11. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Microbial Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Elizabeth; Gose, James; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2017-11-01

    The physical properties of microbial biofilms grown subject to shear flows determine the form and mechanical characteristics of the biofilm structure, and consequently, the turbulent interactions over and through the biofilm. These biofilms - sometimes referred to as slime - are comprised of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrices that surround the multicellular communities. Some of the EPSs take the form of streamers that tend to oscillate in flows, causing increased turbulent mixing and drag. As the presence of EPS governs the compliance and overall stability of the filamentous streamers, investigation of the mechanical properties of biofilms may also inform efforts to understand hydrodynamic performance of fouled systems. In this study, a mixture of four diatom genera was grown under turbulent shear flow on test panels. The mechanical properties and hydrodynamic performance of the biofilm were investigated using rheology and turbulent flow studies in the Skin-Friction Flow Facility at the University of Michigan. The diatoms in the mixture of algae were identified, and the elastic and viscous moduli were determined from small-amplitude oscillations, while a creep test was used to evaluate the biofilm compliance.

  12. Physics: quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book is the second part of the physic lectures on quantum mechanics from Ecole Polytechnique. It contains some physic complements a little more thoroughly studied, mathematical complements to which refer, and an exercise and problem collection [fr

  13. Uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of porcine linea alba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooney, Gerard M.; Moerman, Kevin M.; Takaza, Michael; Winter, Des C.; Simms, Ciaran K.

    2015-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a severe complication post-laparoscopic/laparotomy surgery that is commonly associated with the linea alba. However, the few studies on the mechanical properties of the linea alba in the literature appear contradictory, possible due to challenges with the physical dimensions of

  14. Hierarchical and Size Dependent Mechanical Properties of Silica and Silicon Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Chaniotakis. The physical and mechanical properties of composite cements manufactured with cal- careous and clayey greek diatomite mixtures. Cement and...Hierarchical and size dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae by Andre Phillipe Garcia B.S...dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Muds of the Fergoug Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benaissa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Volumes of dredged sediments are rather considerable and are estimated approximately 600 million m3 per year worldwide. These can represent a very interesting source of raw materials, in particular for a sector consuming aggregates such as civil engineering. The work presented in this article is interested particularly in the valorization of the muds which come from the dam of Fergoug (Algeria, with an aim of improving their mechanical behavior using binders (cement, lime in order to use them in road engineering. To this end, we carried out a series of physical, chemical, mechanical and mineralogical analyses presented in this paper.

  16. Mechanics lectures on theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1952-01-01

    Mechanics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume I covers a general course on theoretical physics. The book discusses the mechanics of a particle; the mechanics of systems; the principle of virtual work; and d'alembert's principle. The text also describes oscillation problems; the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a rigid body; the theory of relative motion; and the integral variational principles of mechanics. Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates and the theory of Hamilton are also considered. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking Physics courses will find the book

  17. Physical properties and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.

    The physical aspects influencing the different stages of behaviour of the marine fish can be divided into two categories (1) the physical properties of the ocean like temperature, salinity, oxygen, high penetration etc.; and (2) the physical...

  18. Basic Physical - Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sičáková, Alena; Števulová, Nadežda

    2017-06-01

    The binding potential of fly ash (FA) as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm) FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm) one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden) can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  19. Physics: quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    From important experiment descriptions (sometimes, intentionally simplified), the essential concepts in Quantum Mechanics are first introduced. Wave function notion is described, Schroedinger equation is established, and, after applications rich in physical signification, quantum state and Hilbert space formalism are introduced, which will help to understand many essential phenomena. Then the quantum mechanic general formulation is written and some important consequences are deduced. This formalism is applied to a simple physical problem series (angular momentum, hydrogen atom, etc.) aiming at assimilating the theory operation and its application [fr

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of mortars containing PET and PC waste aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawi, Kinda; Kamali-Bernard, Siham; Prince, William

    2010-11-01

    Non-biodegradable plastic aggregates made of polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste are used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in mortar. Various volume fractions of sand 3%, 10%, 20% and 50% are replaced by the same volume of plastic. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites. The main results of this study show the feasibility of the reuse of PC and PET waste aggregates materials as partial volume substitutes for natural aggregates in cementitious materials. Despite of some drawbacks like a decrease in compressive strength, the use of PC and PET waste aggregates presents various advantages. A reduction of the specific weight of the cementitious materials and a significant improvement of their post-peak flexural behaviour are observed. The calculated flexural toughness factors increase significantly with increasing volume fraction of PET and PC-aggregates. Thus, addition of PC and PET plastic aggregates in cementitious materials seems to give good energy absorbing materials which is very interesting for several civil engineering applications like structures subjected to dynamic or impact efforts. The present study has shown quite encouraging results and opened new way for the recycling of PC waste aggregate in cement and concrete composites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive on physical and mechanical properties of bitumen and compaction of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadykina, V. V.; Akimov, A. E.; Trautvain, A. I.; Kholopov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the use of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive for the preparation and pouring of asphalt concrete mixes at reduced temperatures. It also shows positive influence of the modified bitumen on the efficiency of organo-mineral composite compaction at reduced temperatures. Physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete with the use of bitumen modified by DAD-TA additive including indicators characterizing road surfacing life are presented. Arguments to use this material from the point of view of its production technology and environmental impact are given.

  2. High temperature treatment effect on physical and mechanical properties of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinyaev, A.Ya.; Illarionov, Eh.I.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of variations in electric conductivity, hardness, strength and plastic properties is studied for Ti - 0.75 % W, Ti - 3.5 % W, Ti - 3.5 % W - 2.8 % Zr, Ti - 3.7 % W - 5.4 % Al, Ti - 6.4 % Al - 3.5 % W - 3 % Zr alloys on quench ageing at 400 - 700 Deg C. In the temperature dependences of electric conductivity and mechanical properties the extreme values are observed which may be interpreted as evidence of β-solid solution binodal decomposition [ru

  3. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents partial results of laboratory research into physical and mechanical characteristics of materials most commonly used as walling units in masonry structures of historic and heritage buildings. Core boreholes and specimens for the laboratory research of selected characteristics were sampled from accessible places of historic buildings, which had not been restored or reconstructed. The results of the research brought new knowledge about the unreliability (variance of the properties of historical, mainly natural building materials, and, at the same time, pointed out the need for further research and extension of knowledge necessary for the assessment of residual physical and mechanical characteristics of historic masonry structures.

  4. On the question of determining the amount of experiments, reliability and accuracy of the results in the study of physical-mechanical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetcov n.n.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the methods for determining the required amount of experiments, the accuracy and reliability of the results of physical-mechanical rock properties study has been conducted. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing specialized method for determining the compressive strength of the samples have been discussed. On the basis of the investigation the optimal approach has been proposed to solve a wide range of the problems associated with the rock properties' parameters using

  5. Evaluation of the physical, mechanical and biological properties of the combined wood-plastic in Nothofagus Pumilio wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto Acuna, Andres

    2010-01-01

    In this project he studied the physical, mechanical and biological properties of wood-plastic combinations (WPC) in timber Nothofagus pumilio (Lenga) impregnated with the monomer methyl methacrylate (MMA), trying to get a hold and maximum penetration into the wood . It was used for impregnation method fills the cell (Bethell). To achieve the polymerization, the MMA once absorbed by the specimens under study are irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 25 kGy, ensuring a high percentage of final polymerization, which fluctuated between 55.09% and 84.48%. The tests applied to the specimens were moisture content, dimensional stability, density, compression perpendicular to grain, compression parallel to grain to grain compression 'new' Janka hardness, shear parallel to grain, static bending and termites. In general, except for the static bending test, the WPC had an increase in their property, being the tests of hardness, density and water absorption which achieved higher profits, increasing their properties at 104%, 79% and 75% respectively compared to untreated specimens. From the economic viewpoint, the production of an inch Lenga timber has a cost of $ 19,805, so it may be feasible marketing both domestically and internationally (author)

  6. The Cytoskeleton: Mechanical, Physical, and Biological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This workshop, entitled "The Cytoskeleton: Mechanical, Physical, and Biological Interactions," was sponsored by the Center for Advanced Studies in the Space Life Sciences at the Marine Biological Laboratory. This Center was established through a cooperative agreement between the MBL and the Life Sciences Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To achieve these goals, the Center sponsors a series of workshops on various topics in the life sciences. Elements of the cytoskeleton have been implicated in the effects of gravity on the growth of plants fungi. An intriguing finding in this regard is the report indicating that an integrin-like protein may be the gravireceptor in the internodal cells of Chara. Involvement of the cytoskeleton in cellular graviperception of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes has also been reported. Although the responses of mammalian cells to gravity are not well documented, it has been proposed that integrins can act as mechanochemical transducers in mammalian cells. Little is known about the integrated mechanical and physical properties of cytoplasm, this workshop would be the best place to begin developing interdisciplinary approaches to the effects of mechanical stresses on cells and their most likely responsive cytoplasmic elements- the fibrous proteins comprising the cytoskeleton.

  7. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  8. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, R., E-mail: rezahedayati@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zadpoor, A.A. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. - Highlights: • The octagonal

  9. Physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifacio, C.C.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Raggio, D.P.; Werner, A.; de Carvalho, R.C.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  This study evaluated mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) used for atraumatic restorative treatment. Wear resistance, Knoop hardness (Kh), flexural (Fs) and compressive strength (Cs) were evaluated. The GICs used were Riva Self Cure (RVA), Fuji IX (FIX), Hi Dense (HD),

  10. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  11. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  12. Influence of silica fume on mechanical and physical properties of recycled aggregate concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çakır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies related to sustainable concrete construction have encouraged development of composite binders, involving Portland cement, industrial by-products, and concrete mixes with partial replacement of natural aggregate with recycled aggregate. In this paper, the effects of incorporating silica fume (SF in the concrete mix design to improve the quality of recycled aggregates in concrete are presented. Portland cement was replaced with SF at 0%, 5% and 10%. Specimens were manufactured by replacing natural aggregates with recycled aggregates. Two size fractions (4/12 mm and 8/22 mm as recycled aggregates were used and four series of concrete mixtures were produced. In all concrete mixtures, a constant water/binder ratio at 0.50 was used and concrete mixtures with a target initial slump of S4 class (16–21 cm were prepared. Concrete properties were evaluated by means of compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity and it was found that, using 10% SF as a cement replacement for recycled aggregate concretes enhanced the mechanical and physical properties of concrete. At all the test ages the tensile splitting strength gain of the natural aggregate concrete mixture (NA with and without SF was higher than that of the recycled concrete mixtures. Continuous and significant improvement in the tensile splitting strength of recycled aggregate concretes incorporating SF was observed. Similar to compressive strength test results, concrete incorporating 10% SF and containing 4/12 mm fraction recycled aggregates showed better performance among recycled aggregate concretes.

  13. Bioresorption mechanisms of chitosan physical hydrogels: A scanning electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaise, Sébastien; Rami, Lila; Montembault, Alexandra; Alcouffe, Pierre; Burdin, Béatrice; Bordenave, Laurence; Delmond, Samantha; David, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biodegradable medical devices are widely studied and systems must present suitable balance between versatility and elaboration simplicity. In this work, we aim at illustrating that such equilibrium can be found by processing chitosan physical hydrogels without external cross-linker. Chitosan concentration, degree of acetylation, solvent composition, and neutralization route were modulated in order to obtain hydrogels exhibiting different physico-chemical properties. The resulting in vivo biological response was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. “Soft” hydrogels were obtained from chitosan of high degree of acetylation (35%) and by the neutralization with gaseous ammonia of a chitosan acetate aqueous solutions presenting low polymer concentration (Cp = 1.6% w/w). “Harder” hydrogels were obtained from chitosan with lower degree of acetylation (5%) and after neutralization in sodium hydroxide bath (1 M) of hydro-alcoholic chitosan solutions (50/50 w/w water/1,2-propanediol) with a polymer concentration of 2.5% w/w. Soft and hard hydrogels exhibited bioresorption times from below 10 days to higher than 60 days, respectively. We also evidenced that cell colonization and neo-vascularization mechanisms depend on the hydrogel-aggregated structure that is controlled by elaboration conditions and possibly in relation with mechanical properties. Specific processing conditions induced micron-range capillary formation, which can be assimilated to colonization channels, also acting on the resorption scenario. - Highlights: • We elaborated physical chitosan hydrogels presenting tuneable biological properties. • Cell colonization mechanism depends on biological and mechanical hydrogel properties. • Increasing the degree of acetylation will reduce the bioresorption time. • Capillaries played a role of cell colonization pathways

  14. Bioresorption mechanisms of chitosan physical hydrogels: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaise, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.malaise@gmail.com [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP-UMR 5223), 15 Boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Rami, Lila [Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Inserm U1026, Bioingénierie Tissulaire, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Montembault, Alexandra; Alcouffe, Pierre [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP-UMR 5223), 15 Boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Burdin, Béatrice [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre Technologique des Microstructure, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bordenave, Laurence [Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Inserm U1026, Bioingénierie Tissulaire, Bordeaux 33000 (France); CHU de Bordeaux, CIC-IT Biomaterials, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); Delmond, Samantha [CHU de Bordeaux, CIC-IT Biomaterials, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); David, Laurent [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères (IMP-UMR 5223), 15 Boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-09-01

    Tissue-engineered biodegradable medical devices are widely studied and systems must present suitable balance between versatility and elaboration simplicity. In this work, we aim at illustrating that such equilibrium can be found by processing chitosan physical hydrogels without external cross-linker. Chitosan concentration, degree of acetylation, solvent composition, and neutralization route were modulated in order to obtain hydrogels exhibiting different physico-chemical properties. The resulting in vivo biological response was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. “Soft” hydrogels were obtained from chitosan of high degree of acetylation (35%) and by the neutralization with gaseous ammonia of a chitosan acetate aqueous solutions presenting low polymer concentration (Cp = 1.6% w/w). “Harder” hydrogels were obtained from chitosan with lower degree of acetylation (5%) and after neutralization in sodium hydroxide bath (1 M) of hydro-alcoholic chitosan solutions (50/50 w/w water/1,2-propanediol) with a polymer concentration of 2.5% w/w. Soft and hard hydrogels exhibited bioresorption times from below 10 days to higher than 60 days, respectively. We also evidenced that cell colonization and neo-vascularization mechanisms depend on the hydrogel-aggregated structure that is controlled by elaboration conditions and possibly in relation with mechanical properties. Specific processing conditions induced micron-range capillary formation, which can be assimilated to colonization channels, also acting on the resorption scenario. - Highlights: • We elaborated physical chitosan hydrogels presenting tuneable biological properties. • Cell colonization mechanism depends on biological and mechanical hydrogel properties. • Increasing the degree of acetylation will reduce the bioresorption time. • Capillaries played a role of cell colonization pathways.

  15. Antifungal, Mechanical, and Physical Properties of Edible Film Containing Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus Antagonistic Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Gulsah; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2018-03-01

    The molding of food products causing health risks is a main problem in the food industry. In this study, as an alternative solution for preventing mold growth, an antifungal edible film was developed by incorporating Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus (0; 3; 7; and 9 logs CFU/cm 2 ) into whey protein concentrate (WPC) based films. Antifungal properties of the films against Penicilium expansum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed using the disc diffusion method. Physical (barrier, solubility, color), mechanical (tensile strength and percent elongation) properties of the films as well as the survival of W. saturnus in the film were assessed during 28 days of storage at 23 °C. According to the results, the viability of W. saturnus (7 and 9 logs CFU/cm 2 ) in WPC films stored for 28 days under vacuum or non-vacuum decreased to 36% and 60%, respectively. In addition, films containing W. saturnus decreased the viability of P. expansum and A. niger by 29% and 19%, respectively. Adding yeast did not change the tensile strength (P > 0.05), but significantly decreased % elongation and increased water vapor and oxygen permeability and water solubility (P films may be useful for inhibiting mold growth on foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Effects of irradiation and mechanical stress on the superconducting properties of candidate magnet conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Luhman, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage on the superconducting critical properties of candidate magnet materials are reviewed. Neutron, and charged-particle irradiation results are covered. The discussion is restricted to effects in NbTi and the A15-compound superconductors. The utility of these conductors in radiation fields is first explored by defining the magnitude of critical-property changes with the fluence of various irradiating particles. The physical mechanisms that couple the irradiation defects to the observed critical-property changes are discussed. Annealing/recovery data on irradiated materials are included where they pertain to the understanding of the physical mechanisms involved, and thereby to the desirability of magnet annealing in actual operating circumstances

  17. Physical and mechanical properties evaluation of Acropora palmata coralline species for bone substitution applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, K; Camero, S; Alarcón, M E; Rivas, A; González, G

    2002-05-01

    The search for ideal materials for bone substitution has been a challenge for many decades. Numerous natural and synthetic materials have been studied. For this application, exoskeletons of coral have been considered a good alternative given its tendency to resorption, biocompatibility and similarity to the mineral bone phase. Very few studies of these materials consider a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship. The purpose of this work was to carry out the microstructural characterization of a coralline species named Acropora palmata and the determination of the mechanical and physico-chemical properties. Measurements of hardness, compressive strength, bulk density and apparent porosity were performed. From these results it was determined that this marine coral species could be an alternative xenograft due to its mechanical properties and osteoconductive nature.

  18. Mechanical properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mohsen, Mostafa Abd; Anwar, Ahmed M.; Adam, Ihab A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) has been widely used in both practical and laboratory applications. Selection of its components and their ratios depends, mainly, on the target mechanical and physical properties recommended by the project consultant. Partial replacement of cement in SCC with cheap available industrial by-product could produce environmentally durable concrete with similar properties of normal concrete. In the current research, SCC was produced by blending Cement Kiln Dust (CK...

  19. Mechanical properties of copper-lithium alloys produced by mechanic alloyed and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo B, Ricardo; Gorziglia S, Ezio; Penaloza V, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    In this work are presented the progress carried out on the characterization of some physical and mechanical properties, together with the determination of the micro mechanism of fracture of the Cu-2% wt Li, that was obtained by mechanical alloying followed hot extrusion at 500 o C and 700 o C. Hardness and tensile mechanical tests were performed together with metallographic and fractographic analysis. The experimental results obtained with powders of the Cu-Li alloy studied are compared with powder of pure copper, under similar test conditions. The results show that by hot extrusion was allowed to obtain very high densification levels for the materials under study. Moreover, it was found that lithium reduce both the tensile strength and elongation, of copper by a mechanism of embrittlement. The results are compares with the literature (au)

  20. Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms

  1. Study on mechanical and physical properties of composite materials with recycled PET as fillers for paving block application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Sigit Tri; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rasyida, Amaliya

    2018-04-01

    Base on Sidoarjo's goverment data, there was more than 4000 metric ton perday of waste that has been accumulated during 2016. More than 10 percent from overall waste is plastics. In accordance with the Indonesia government regulation, "Indonesia clean from waste" by 2020 through 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) program, we have been focusing research on how to reduce the accumulation of the plastics waste in Sidoarjo by processing it become a new product. In this research, we have made the plastic waste of PET bottle as additional fillers or agregates of composite material for construction application as a paving block. The composition of PET plastic used as fillers is vary from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% from total volume of agregates. The ratio of cement binder to sands agregate is 1:3. The specimens were characterized its mechanical and physical properties by using flexural testing, compressive testing, density and water absorbance measurement. The results show that the mechanical (flexural and compressive) properties of composite materials is increased significantly by increasing PET fillers up to 20%, however it was decreased when PET content more than 20%. But, both the density and water absobance of specimens are decreased by increasing of PET fillers.

  2. Basic PhysicalMechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sičáková Alena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding potential of fly ash (FA as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  3. Antibacterial, mechanical and surface properties of Ag-DLC films prepared by dual PLD for medical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písařík, Petr; Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Zemek, Josef; Jurek, Karel; Kubinová, Šárka; Lukeš, J.; Šepitka, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, Aug (2017), s. 955-962 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S; GA MŠk LO1409 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : DLC * silver doped DLC * antibacterial properties * mechanical properties * dual PLD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  4. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  5. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assesment of influncing factors on mechanical and electrical properties of Al/Cu joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, R. Meby; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss

    2018-05-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials opens up challenging opportunities in todays technology. Al/Cu weldments are used in applications that demands corrosion resistance, thermal and electrical conducting properties. In dissimilar joining mechanical and thermal properties result in large stress gradients during heating. The Al-Cu joints are lighter, cheaper and have conductivity equal to copper alloy. The main scope of this study is to assess the influencing factors of Al/Cu joints in mechanical and electrical properties. It includes the influence of the dilution between the base metals, influence of physical properties, influence of welding parameters, influence of filler metal, influence of heat treatment, and influence of electrical properties

  7. The Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene-Polyethylene Terephthalate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Avazverdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, one of the thermoplastic polymers, is encountered with arduous problems in its recycling. After recycling, its mechanical properties drop dramatically and therefore it cannot be used to produce the products as virgin PET does. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer which can be easily recycled using the conventional recycling processes. The decreased mechanical properties of virgin polyethylene due to the environmental factors can be improved by reinforcing fillers. In this paper, we studied the effects of adding recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET as a filler, in various amounts with different sizes, on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene. Composite samples were prepared using an internal mixer at temperature 185°C, well below rPET melting point (250°C, and characterized by their mechanical properties. To improve the compatibility between different components, PE grafted with maleic anhydride was added as a coupling agent in all the compositions under study. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were performed using the tensile strength, impact strength, surface hardness and melt flow index (MFI tests. To check the dispersity of the polyethylene terephthalate powder in the polyethylene matrix, light microscopy was used. The results showed that the addition of rPET improved the tensile energy, tensile modulus and surface hardness of the composites while reduced the melt flow index, elongation-at-yield, tensile strength and fracture energy of impact test. We could conclude that with increasing rPET percentage in the recycled polyethylene matrix, the composite became brittle, in other words it decreased the plastic behavior of recycled polyethylene. Decreasing particle size led to higher surface contacts, increased the mechanical properties and made the composite more brittle. The light microscopy micrographs of the samples showed a good distribution of small r

  8. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    many regions of the world if the mechanics of tillage effects on soil physical properties is to be well understood. Thus, the ... tillage systems on water storage of a sandy loam soil after 22 years of ..... Soil infiltration ... and processes. Academy ...

  9. High energy radiation effects on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozenato, Cristina A.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The high energy radiation on butyl rubber compounds causes a number of chemical reactions that occur after initial ionization and excitation events. These reactions lead to changes in molecular mass of the polymer through scission and crosslinking of the molecules, being able to affect the physical and mechanical properties. Butyl rubber has excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance as well as low gas and water vapor permeability. Due to all these properties butyl rubber is widely used industrially and particularly in tires manufacturing. In accordance with various authors, the major effect of high energy, such as gamma rays in butyl rubber, is the yielding of free-radicals along with changes in mechanical properties. There were evaluated effects imparted from high energy radiation on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds, non-irradiated and irradiated with 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. It was also observed a sharp reducing in stress rupture and elongation at break for doses higher than 50 kGy, pointing toward changes in polymeric chain along build-up of free radicals and consequent degradation. (author)

  10. Dodecylamine functionalization of carbon nanotubes to improve dispersion, thermal and mechanical properties of polyethylene based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. V.; Franceschi, W.; Menezes, B. R. C.; Brito, F. S.; Lozano, K.; Coutinho, A. R.; Cividanes, L. S.; Thim, G. P.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the effect of dodecylamine (DDA) functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the thermo-physical and mechanical properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) based composites. Here, we showed that the functionalization with DDA improved the dispersion of the CNTs as well as the interfacial adhesion with the HDPE matrix via non-covalent interactions. The better dispersion and interaction of CNT in the HDPE matrix as a function of the surface chemistry was correlated with the improved thermo-physical and mechanical properties.

  11. Review of the physical and mechanical properties and potential applications of the B2 compound NiAl: Unabridged version of a paper published in International materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable work has been performed on NiAl over the last three decades, with an extremely rapid growth in research on this intermetallic occurring in the last few years due to recent interest in this material for electronic and high temperature structural applications. However, many physical properties and the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms over certain temperature regimes are still in question. Part of this problem lies in the incomplete characterization of many of the alloys previously investigated. Fragmentary data on processing conditions, chemistry, microstructure and the apparent difficulty in accurately measuring composition has made direct comparison between individual studies sometimes tenuous. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize all available mechanical and pertinent physical properties on NiAl, stressing the most recent investigations, in an attempt to understand the behavior of NiAl and its alloys over a broad temperature range.

  12. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of chitosan powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainol, Ismail; Akil, Hazizan Md; Mastor, Azreena

    2009-01-01

    In this study, locally produced chitosan powder was irradiated with pre-determined doses of γ-ray (Co-60) of 10 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy and 100 kGy respectively. The properties of both chitosan powder and the chitosan film were examined and compared with unradiated chitosan. Physical characteristic of the irradiated powder and film was studied using stereo microscope. It was observed that the γ-ray induces a noticeable colour tone intensity change to the chitosan. Further investigation using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has confirmed that the chain scission reaction was occurred as a result of γ-ray exposure through the depolymerization mechanisms. Interestingly, the degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitosan measured using FT-IR showed a negligible effect due to the exposure of γ-ray radiation. Further investigation on the viscosity average molecular weight (M v ) showed a reduction of M v from 577 kD of pure chitosan to 458 kD, 242 kD, 159 kD and 106 kD for 10 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy and 100 kGy of γ-radiated chitosan respectively. In addition, the tensile strength and elongation at break showed a similar decreasing trend with increasing dosage of γ-ray

  13. Improvement of microstructure and mechanical properties of high dense SiC ceramics manufactured by high-speed hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyevodin, V.; Sayenko, S.; Lobach, K.; Tarasov, R.; Zykova, A.; Svitlychnyi, Ye.; Surkov, A.; Abelentsev, V.; Ghaemi, H.; Szkodo, M.; Gajowiec, G.; Kmiec, M.; Antoszkiewicz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics possess high physical-mechanical properties, corrosion and radiation resistance, which can be used as a protective materials for radioactive wastes disposal. The aim of the present study was the manufacturing of high density SiC ceramics with advanced physical and mechanical parameters. The high performance on the properties of produced ceramics was determined by the dense and monolithic structure. The densified silicon carbide samples possessed good mechanical strength, with a high Vickers micro hardness up to 28.5 GPa.

  14. Mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils defined by secondary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, C.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Wang, C.; Besenbacher, F.; Dong, M.

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology are extensively studied - among these parameters, the secondary structures and the pH have been revealed to be crucial, since a variation in pH changes the fibril morphology and net chirality during protein aggregation. It is important to quantify the mechanical properties of these fibrils in order to help the design of effective strategies for treating diseases related to the presence of amyloid fibrils. In this work, we show that by changing pH the mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils vary as well. In particular, we reveal that these mechanical properties are strongly related to the content of secondary structures. We analysed and estimated the Young's modulus (E) by comparing the persistence length (Lp) - measured from the observation of TEM images by using statistical mechanics arguments - with the mechanical information provided by peak force quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (PF-QNM). The secondary structure content and the chirality are investigated by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SR-CD). Results arising from this study could be fruitfully used as a protocol to investigate other medical or engineering relevant peptide fibrils.Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology

  15. Influence of radiative irradiation on structure and physical-mechanical properties of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakhramanov, N.T.; Mamedova, N.A.; Gasanova, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Today in the world it is synthesized a large number of polymer materials, which in one or another way satisfy the requirements for plastic construction products used in the various branches of industry and agriculture. In this work the main attention is paid to investigation of influence of radiative irradiation dose on structural peculiarities and basic physical-mechanical characteristics of cross-linked polyolefins

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of physically-blended-plastic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Issa, M. S.

    1983-10-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (PP) blend were produced in film form and were characterized by a number of techniques such as wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and instron tensile testing. Results of WAXD and DTA showed conclusively that the two components in the blend are incompatible. SEM micrographs indicated that the 60/40 and 40/60 PP/PE blends show approximately fine homogeneous dispersion of the minor component into the matrix of the major component. The mechanical properties of the blend films improved with respect to the PE homo polymer. The improvement was more remarkable with the increase of the PP component in the blend. Results obtained in this work were explained in terms of crystallinity and the crystallite orientation. 28 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  17. Effect of saliva on physical food properties in fat texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupirovič, Urška Pivk; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Juillerat, Marcel-Alexandre; Raspor, Peter

    2017-04-13

    Sensory properties of food drive our food choices and it is generally accepted that lipids greatly contribute to the sensory properties of many foods and consequently to eating pleasure. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms of the fat perception. Unfortunately they used a variety of methods and products, thereby making generalization very difficult. The mechanism of fat perception in oral cavity is combined of several processes. Lipid composition and its properties strongly influence food structure. During consumption food is exposed to a range of in-mouth processing steps. Oral sensation of fat texture changes with time, from a first bite to chewing, while mixing with saliva, up to swallowing and even after swallowing. The present work reviews many aspects of fat texture perception from physical chemistry to physiology. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of in-mouth lipid processing would provide new concepts to produce low-fat food products with full-fat perception.

  18. Progress in organic and physical chemistry structures and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaikov, Gennady E; Lobanov, Anton V

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Organic and Physical Chemistry: Structures and Mechanisms provides a collection of new research in the field of organic and physical properties, including new research on: The physical principles of the conductivity of electrical conducting polymer compounds The dependence on constants of electromagnetic interactions upon electron spacial-energy characteristics Effects of chitosan molecultural weight on rehological behavior of chitosan modified nanoclay at hight hydrated state Bio-structural energy criteria of functional states in normal and pathological conditions Potentiometric study on the international between devalent cations and sodium carboxylates in aqueous solutions Structural characteristic changes in erythrocyte membranes of mice bearing Alzheimer's-like disease caused by the olfactory bulbetomy This volume is intended to provide an overview of new studies and research for engineers, faculty, researchers, and upper-level students in the field of organic and physical chemistry.

  19. Physical properties of LDPE/ethylene-1-butene copolymer film irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Il; Nho, Young Chang

    2004-01-01

    In this study, ethylene-1-butene copolymer (EBP) was blended with LDPE to improve the mechanical properties as the packaging materials. After they were irradiated by electron beam, their physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, modulus, peel strength, DSC, DMA were examined. The results showed that the addition of EBP to LDPE exerted significant effects on the mechanical properties such as the tensile strength and peel strength. The addition of EBP led to a maximum increase in peel strength of ∼430%. The addition of 10 - 25 w% EBP in LDPE was sufficient to enhance the peel strength significantly. (author)

  20. Imaging of Mechanical Properties of Soft Matter. From Heterogeneous Polymer Surfaces to Single Biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred; Gosa, Maria; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the atomic force microscope (AFM) has evolved from a high resolution imaging tool to an enabling platform for physical studies at the nanoscale including quantitative mapping of mechanical characteristics of surfaces providing simultaneous topography and mechanical property maps

  1. Existence of dark matter with observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation substantiates three conservation laws of classical physics and all principles of quantum mechanics as creates the value of Planck’s constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Astronomical data indicate a presence of dark matter (DM) in the space, what is necessary for explanation of observed dynamics of the galaxies within Newtonian mechanics. DM, at its very low density (∼10-26kg/m3), constitutes main part of the matter in the Universe, 10 times the mass of all visible cosmic bodies. No doubt, namely properties of DM, which fills space, must determine its physical properties and fundamental physical laws. Taking into account observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), whose energy is ∼90% of all cosmic radiation, and understanding that this radiation is produced by DM motion, conservation laws of classical physics and principles of quantum mechanics receive their materialistic substantiation. Thus, CMBR high homogeneity and isotropy (∼10-4), and hence the same properties of DM (and space) justify momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, respectively, according to E. Noether's theorems. CMBR has black body spectrum at ∼2.7K with maximum wavelength ∼1.9·10-3m, what allows calculate the value of mechanical action produced by DM thermal motion (∼7·10-34 J·s). This value corresponds well to the Planck’s constant, which is the mechanical action too, what gives materialistic basis for all principles of quantum mechanics. Obtained results directly confirm the reality of DM existence, and show that CMBR is an observed display of DM thermal motion. Understanding that namely from DM occur known creation of electron-positron pairs as contrarily rotating material vortexes (according to their spins) let substantiate positron nature of ball lightning what first explains all its observed specific properties.

  2. Physical and mechanical properties of biobased materials - Starch polylactate and polyhydroxybutyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Olsen, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Commercial and semi-commercial biobased materials (Polylactate, PLA, polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, wheat starch and corn starch) were investigated. Physical and mechanical characterisation (tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, compression, gas permeability (CO2 and O-2) and water vapour...... permeability (WVP)) was examined. Tests on both films and cups show potential use of these materials for primary food packaging, especially PLA and PHB. An interesting O-2:CO2 permeability ratio (1:7 to 1:12) was seen, which make these materials suitable for packaging of food with high respiration...

  3. Physical Properties of Niobium and Specifications for Fabrication of Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, C.; Foley, M.; Dhanaraj, N.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to distinguish among the properties of niobium, the ones that are related to the cavity's SRF performances, the formability of the material, and the mechanical behavior of the formed cavity. In general, the properties that dictate each of the above mentioned characteristics have a detrimental effect on one another and in order to preserve the superconducting properties without subduing the mechanical behavior, a balance has to be established. Depending on the applications, some parameters become less important and an understanding of the physical origin of the requirements might help in this optimization. SRF applications require high purity niobium (high RRR), but pure niobium is very soft from fabrication viewpoint. Moreover conventional fabrication techniques tend to override the effects of any metallurgical process meant to strengthen it. As those treatments dramatically affect the forming of the material they should be avoided. These unfavorable mechanical properties have to be accounted for in the design of the cavities rather than in the material specification. The aim of this paper is to review the significance of the important mechanical properties used to characterize niobium and to present the optimal range of values. Most of the following information deals with the specification of sheets for cell forming unless otherwise noted.

  4. Physical Properties of Niobium and Specifications for Fabrication of Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, C.; Foley, M.; Dhanaraj, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    It is important to distinguish among the properties of niobium, the ones that are related to the cavity's SRF performances, the formability of the material, and the mechanical behavior of the formed cavity. In general, the properties that dictate each of the above mentioned characteristics have a detrimental effect on one another and in order to preserve the superconducting properties without subduing the mechanical behavior, a balance has to be established. Depending on the applications, some parameters become less important and an understanding of the physical origin of the requirements might help in this optimization. SRF applications require high purity niobium (high RRR), but pure niobium is very soft from fabrication viewpoint. Moreover conventional fabrication techniques tend to override the effects of any metallurgical process meant to strengthen it. As those treatments dramatically affect the forming of the material they should be avoided. These unfavorable mechanical properties have to be accounted for in the design of the cavities rather than in the material specification. The aim of this paper is to review the significance of the important mechanical properties used to characterize niobium and to present the optimal range of values. Most of the following information deals with the specification of sheets for cell forming unless otherwise noted.

  5. Physical, Mechanical, and Morphological Properties of Woven Kenaf/Polymer Composites Produced Using a Vacuum Infusion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to renewable issues, environmental concerns, and the financial problems of synthetic fibres, the development of high-performance engineering products made from natural resources is increasing all over the world. Lately, kenaf fibre has been used among many different types of natural resources in various shapes. Unidirectional long fibres or randomly oriented short fibre shapes are the most common type of kenaf fibres that have been investigated in previous works. This work characterises and evaluates the physical, mechanical, and morphological properties of plain woven kenaf fabric and its composites with three types of thermoset resin at 0°/90° and 45°/−45° orientation, in order to assess their suitability as lignocellulosic reinforced polymer composites. A vacuum infusion manufacturing technique was used to prepare the specimens with fibre weight content of 35% ± 2%. Eight specimens were prepared for each test, and five replications were adopted. A total of 78 samples were tested in this study. The results show that the composites with 0°/90° had the highest tensile, flexural strengths, and modulus. The morphological properties of composite samples were analysed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and these clearly demonstrated the better interfacial adhesion between the woven kenaf and the epoxy matrix.

  6. Study of Al-Si Alloy Oxygen Saturation on Its Microstructure and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Arkady; Schaefer, Arseny; Chikova, Оlga; Borodianskiy, Konstantin

    2017-07-11

    One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process, modification, or physical influence during solidification. The present work describes a saturation of the overheated AlSi₇Fe₁ casting alloy by oxides using oxygen blowing approach in overheated alloy. Changes in metals' microstructural and mechanical properties are also described in the work. An Al 10 SiFe intermetallic complex compound was obtained as a preferable component to Al₂O₃ precipitation on it, and its morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the alloy after the oxygen blowing treatment are discussed in this work.

  7. Effect of surface physical and chemical properties on interaction and annihilation mechanisms of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'danskij, V.I.; Levin, B.M.; Shantarovich, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of positron use is illustrated, to investigate physical and chemical properties of the surface, by a number of effects found by the authors while studying the interaction and annihilation of β + -decay positrons in highly-dispersed heterogeneous systems positronium formation and ortho-para conversion close to the surface of metal particles in a dielectric matrix, postronium oxidation by proton centers on the surface of an aluminosilicate catalyst). The ways, new in the main, are revealed to study the properties of the surface by the technique of monochromatic positron beams of low energy

  8. Physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of starch films incorporated with ε-poly-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; Li, Ruichao; Dong, Feng; Tian, Aiying; Li, Zhengjun; Dai, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Starch/ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) composite films were prepared by combining 4% (w/v) gelatinized cornstarch and varying the level of ε-PL. The physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of these films were investigated. Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) showed that the carbonyl group stretching vibration band of the ε-PL molecule shifted from 1646 cm(-1) to 1673 cm(-1) in the composite films. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that there were sharp endothermal peaks at 215-230 °C for the composite films. These results indicated that there was an intense interaction between the two components. The films incorporated with ε-PL showed a higher tensile strength (TS) and elongation-at-break (E) than those of the starch film alone. These composite films exhibited effective inhibition against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, films containing 2% (w/w) ε-PL effectively suppressed the growth of the tested microbes (Pstarch/ε-PL films showed a low inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger. This antimicrobial trend of the composite films was in agreement with the results of free ε-PL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Theoretical physics. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    From the first in two comprehensive volumes appeared Theoretical Physics of the author by this after Mechanics and Electrodynamics also Quantum mechanics appears as thinner single volume. First the illustrative approach via wave mechanics is reproduced. The more abstract Hilbert-space formulation introduces the author later by postulates, which are because of the preceding wave mechanics sufficiently plausible. All concepts of quantum mechanics, which contradict often to the intuitive understanding formed by macroscopic experiences, are extensively discussed and made by means of many examples as well as problems - in the largest part provided with solutions - understandable. To the interpretation of quantum mechanics an extensive special chapter is dedicated. this book arose from courses on theoretical physics, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine University in Duesseldorf, and was in numerous repetitions fitted to the requirement of the studyings. it is so designed that it is also after the study suited as reference book or for the renewing. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied that each step is separately reproducible. About motivation and good understandability is cared much

  11. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  12. Physical Chemistry Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Trimm, Harold H

    2011-01-01

    Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This

  13. Quantum mechanical properties of graphene nano-flakes and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongqing; Barnard, Amanda S; Snook, Ian K

    2012-11-07

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to methods for modifying and controlling the electronic and quantum mechanical properties of graphene quantum dots. However, as these types of properties are indirect consequences of the wavefunction of the material, a more efficient way of determining properties may be to engineer the wavefunction directly. One way of doing this may be via deliberate structural modifications, such as producing graphene nanostructures with specific sizes and shapes. In this paper we use quantum mechanical simulations to determine whether the wavefunction, quantified via the distribution of the highest occupied molecular orbital, has a direct and reliable relationship to the physical structure, and whether structural modifications can be useful for wavefunction engineering. We find that the wavefunction of small molecular graphene structures can be different from those of larger nanoscale counterparts, and the distribution of the highest occupied molecular orbital is strongly affected by the geometric shape (but only weakly by edge and corner terminations). This indicates that both size and shape may be more useful parameters in determining quantum mechanical and electronic properties, which should then be reasonably robust against variations in the chemical passivation or functionalisation around the circumference.

  14. Effects of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Guofeng; Cheng, Biyao; Woldu, Yonas Tesfaye; Shafique, Shareen; Wang, Yiming; Anastase, Ndahimana

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the influences of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire (NW) before and after embedding ZnS nanowire into the ZnO nanowire, respectively. For this work, commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS and three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods were utilized to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior and optical properties of the sample, respectively. Likewise, in this structure a single focused Gaussian beam with wavelength of 633 nm was used as source. The dimensions of ZnO nanowire were defined to be 12280 nm in length and 103.2 nm in diameter with hexagonal cross-section. In order to investigate mechanical properties, three-point bending technique was adopted so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition and then the physical deformation model was imported into FDTD solutions to study optical properties of ZnO nanowire under mechanical strain. Moreover, it was found that increase in the strain due to the external load induced changes in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively.

  15. Effects of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vazinishayan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the influences of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire (NW before and after embedding ZnS nanowire into the ZnO nanowire, respectively. For this work, commercial finite element modeling (FEM software package ABAQUS and three-dimensional (3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD methods were utilized to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior and optical properties of the sample, respectively. Likewise, in this structure a single focused Gaussian beam with wavelength of 633 nm was used as source. The dimensions of ZnO nanowire were defined to be 12280 nm in length and 103.2 nm in diameter with hexagonal cross-section. In order to investigate mechanical properties, three-point bending technique was adopted so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition and then the physical deformation model was imported into FDTD solutions to study optical properties of ZnO nanowire under mechanical strain. Moreover, it was found that increase in the strain due to the external load induced changes in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively.

  16. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  17. Improvement on Physical Properties of Pullulan Films by Novel Cross-Linking Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Ting; Chen, Kuan-I; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Pullulan based films possess several advantages, including high transparency, low toxicity, good biodegradability, good mechanical properties, and low oxygen permeability, are preferable for food packaging. The application of pullulan films on food packaging, however, has inherent disadvantage of high water solubility. In this study, glutaraldehyde and glycerol were used as the cross-linking reagent and the plasticizer respectively to improve water resistance and physical properties of the pullulan films. Effects of cross-linking degree on physical properties, including water absorptions, swelling behaviors, water vapor permeability and tensile strengths of films were evaluated. FTIR results demonstrated that the pullulan films were successfully cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. The tensile strength of pullulan films could be enhanced significantly (P permeability. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of parallel strand lumber made from hot pre-pressed long strand oil palm trunk waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridiyanti, Inayah; Massijaya, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    This research was focused on the utilization of oil palm trunk waste as a Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) raw material. This research aimed to analyze the effect of adhesive types and glue spreads to the physical and mechanical properties of PSL. The adhesive types used were isocyanate and urea formaldehyde adhesives. The glue spreads used were 150 g/m2 and 300 g/m2. The research results showed that the moisture content of PSL ranged from 9.30% to 11.80%. The PSL density ranged from 0.64 to 0.78 g/cm3. The volume shrinkage ranged from 5.69 to 7.17%. Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) parallel to the grain and edge side ranged from 51.6 × 103 to 98.3 × 103 kg/cm2, and 62.1 × 103 to 99.9 × 103 kg/cm2, respectively. The Modulus of Rupture (MOR) parallel to the grain and edge side ranged from 269 to 724 kg/cm2 and 342 to 728 kg/cm2, respectively. The PSL hardness perpendicular to the grain, parallel to the grain and the edge side ranged from 135 to 300 kg/cm2, 87 to 321 kg/cm2, and 128 to 251 kg/cm2, respectively. The compressive strength ranged from 181 to 231 kg/cm2. The best adhesive and glue spreads of PSL was isocyanate with glue spread 300 g/m2. PSL made from hot pre-pressed long strand of oil palm trunk waste bonded by isocyanate fulfill JAS 1152: 2007. However, those of bonded by urea formaldehyde failed to fulfill the standard. The physical and mechanical properties of PSL made from oil palm trunk were better compared to those of solid oil palm trunk.

  19. Effect of fabrication process on physical and mechanical properties of tungsten carbide - cobalt composite: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaidin, Ahmad Aswad; Jaafar, Talib Ria; Selamat, Mohd Asri; Budin, Salina; Sulaiman, Zaim Syazwan; Hamid, Mohamad Hasnan Abdul

    2017-12-01

    WC-Co, which is also known as cemented carbide, is widely used in metal cutting industry and wear related application due to their excellent mechanical properties. Manufacturing industries are focusing on improving productivity and reducing operational cost with machining operation is considered as one of the factors. Thus, machining conditions are becoming more severe and required better cutting tool bit with improved mechanical properties to withstand high temperature operation. Numerous studies have been made over the generation for further improvement of cemented carbide properties to meet the constant increase in demand. However, the results of these studies vary due to different process parameters and manufacturing technology. This paper summarizes the studies to improve the properties of WC-Co composite using different consolidation (powder size, mixing method, formulation, etc) and sintering parameters (temperature, time, atmosphere, etc).

  20. Martensite and bainite in steels: transformation mechanism and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Many essential properties of iron alloys depend on what actually happens when one allotropic form gives way to another, i.e. on the mechanism of phase change. The dependence of the mechanical properties on the atomic mechanism by which bainite and martensite grow is the focus of this paper. The discussion is illustrated in the context of some common engineering design parameters, and with a brief example of the inverse problem in which the mechanism may be a function of the mechanical properties. (orig.)

  1. Impact of ultrasonic assisted triangular lattice like arranged dispersion of nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties of epoxy-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyat, M S; Ghosh, P K

    2018-04-01

    Emerging ex-situ technique, ultrasonic dual mixing (UDM) offers unique and hitherto unapproachable opportunities to alter the physical and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, triangular lattice-like arranged dispersion of TiO 2 nanoparticles (average size ∼ 48 nm) in the epoxy polymer has been attained via concurrent use of a probe ultra-sonicator and 4 blades pitched impeller which collectively named as UDM technique. The UDM processing of neat epoxy reveals the generation of triangular lattice-like arranged nanocavities with nanoscale inter-cavity spacing. The UDM processing of epoxy-TiO 2 nanocomposites reveals two unique features such as partial and complete entrapping of the nanoparticles by the nanocavities leading the arranged dispersion of particles in the epoxy matrix. Pristine TiO 2 nanoparticles were dispersed in the epoxy polymer at loading fractions of up to 20% by weight. The results display that the arranged dispersion of nanoparticles is very effective at enhancing the glass transition temperature (T g ) and tensile properties of the epoxy at loading fractions of 10 wt%. We quantify a direct relationship among three important parameters such as nanoparticle content, cluster size, and inter-particle spacing. Our results offer a novel understanding of these parameters on the T g and tensile properties of the epoxy nanocomposites. The tensile fracture surfaces revealed several toughening mechanisms such as particle pull-out, plastic void growth, crack deflection, crack bridging and plastic deformation. We show that a strong nanoparticle-matrix interface led to the enhanced mechanical properties due to leading toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, plastic deformation and particle pull-out. We showed that the UDM has an inordinate prospective to alter the dispersion state of nanoparticles in viscous polymer matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of cryogenic irradiation influence on mechanical and physical properties of ITER magnetic system insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.V.; Scherbacov, E.N.; Dudchenko, N.A.; Shihalev, V.S.; Bedin, V.V.; Paltusov, N.A.; Korsunskiy, V.E.

    1998-01-01

    A set of methods of cryogenic irradiation influence test on mechanical and physical properties of insulation of ITER magnetic system are presented in this paper. Investigations are carried out without intermediate warming up of samples. A Russian insulating composite material was irradiated in the IVV-2M reactor. The ratio of energy absorbed by insulation materials from neutron irradiation to that from gamma irradiation can be varied from ∝(25:75)% to ∝(50:50)% in the reactor. The test results on the thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and gas evolution of the above material are presented. It was shown, that cryogenic irradiation up to the fluence ∝2 x 10 22 n/m 2 (E ≥ 0.1 MeV) leads to 0.27% linear size changes along layers of fiber-glass, the thermal conductivity coefficient is decreased on 15% at 100 k in perpendicular direction to fiber-glass plane, and thermal coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE) has anomalous temperature dependence. (orig.)

  3. Influence of the Mechanical Properties of Third-Generation Artificial Turf Systems on Soccer Players’ Physiological and Physical Performance and Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier; García-Unanue, Jorge; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Gallardo, Ana; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the mechanical properties of artificial turf systems on soccer players’ performance. A battery of perceptive physiological and physical tests were developed on four different structural systems of artificial turf (System 1: Compacted gravel sub-base without elastic layer; System 2: Compacted gravel sub-base with elastic layer; System 3: Asphalt sub-base without elastic layer; System 4: Asphalt sub-base with elastic layer). The sample was composed of 18 soccer players (22.44±1.72 years) who typically train and compete on artificial turf. The artificial turf system with less rotational traction (S3) showed higher total time in the Repeated Sprint Ability test in comparison to the systems with intermediate values (49.46±1.75 s vs 47.55±1.82 s (S1) and 47.85±1.59 s (S2); pperformance in jumping tests (countermovement jump and squat jump) and ball kicking to goal decreased after the RSA test in all surfaces assessed (pperformance deterioration (p>0.05). The physiological load was similar in all four artificial turf systems. However, players felt more comfortable on the harder and more rigid system (S4; visual analogue scale = 70.83±14.28) than on the softer artificial turf system (S2; visual analogue scale = 54.24±19.63). The lineal regression analysis revealed a significant influence of the mechanical properties of the surface of 16.5%, 15.8% and 7.1% on the mean time of the sprint, the best sprint time and the maximum mean speed in the RSA test respectively. Results suggest a mechanical heterogeneity between the systems of artificial turf which generate differences in the physical performance and in the soccer players’ perceptions. PMID:25354188

  4. Study of Al-Si Alloy Oxygen Saturation on Its Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Finkelstein

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process, modification, or physical influence during solidification. The present work describes a saturation of the overheated AlSi7Fe1 casting alloy by oxides using oxygen blowing approach in overheated alloy. Changes in metals’ microstructural and mechanical properties are also described in the work. An Al10SiFe intermetallic complex compound was obtained as a preferable component to Al2O3 precipitation on it, and its morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the alloy after the oxygen blowing treatment are discussed in this work.

  5. Responses of soil physical and chemical properties to karst rocky desertification evolution in typical karst valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; zeng, Cheng; Xiao, Jianyong; Qian, Qinghuan; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and their response mechanism to the evolution of KRD. The characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties of different grades of KRD were studied by field sampling method to research different types of KRD in the typical karst valley of southern China. Instead of using space of time, to explore the response and the mechanisms of the soil physical and chemical properties at the different evolution process. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, sediment concentration, clay content and AWHC in different levels of KRD environment. However, these indicators are not with increasing desertification degree has been degraded, but improved after a first degradation trends; (2) The correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter, acid, alkali, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and clay contents were significantly correlated with other physical and chemical factors. They are the key factors of soil physical and chemical properties, play a key role in improving soil physical and chemical properties and promoting nutrient cycling; (3) The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and sediment concentration was 80.26%, which was the key index to evaluate rocky desertification degree based on soil physical and chemical properties. The results have important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and restoration of rocky desertification ecosystem in southwest China.

  6. The effect of andiroba oil and chitosan concentration on the physical properties of chitosan emulsion film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Tiemi Kimura

    Full Text Available Abstract Chitosan film is used as a dressing to heal burns. The physical and biological properties of the film can be modified by the addition of phytotherapic compounds. This work used the casting -solvent evaporation technique to prepare chitosan film containing andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis which has anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and healing properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the concentrations of chitosan and andiroba oil on the physical properties of chitosan films. The emulsion films were evaluated concerning the mechanical properties and fluid handling capacity. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis were performed. The results showed that the barrier and mechanical properties were affected by the addition of andiroba oil, and these may be modulated as a function of the concentration of oil added to the film. The thermal analysis showed no evidence of chemical interactions between the oil and chitosan.

  7. A Review of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing Biofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezdiani Mohamad, Mazizah; Mahmood, Ali A.; Min, Alicia Yik Yee; Khalid, Nur Hafizah A.

    2016-11-01

    Sustainable construction is a rapidly increasing research area. Investigators of all backgrounds are using industrial and agro wastes to replace Portland cement in concrete to reduce greenhouse emissions and the corresponding decline in general health. Many types of wastes have been used as cement replacements in concrete including: fly ash, slag and rice husk ash in addition to others. This study investigates the possibility of producing a sustainable approach to construction through the partial replacement of concrete using biofillers. This will be achieved by studying the physical and mechanical properties of two widely available biological wastes in Malaysia; eggshell and palm oil fuel ash (POFA). The mechanical properties tests that were studied and compared are the compression, tensile and flexural tests.

  8. Developing light nano-composites with improved mechanical properties for neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, F. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Medicine; Mortazavi, S.M.J. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering; Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). The Center for Radiological Research; Kardan, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application School; Mosleh-Shirazi, M.A. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiotherapy Dept.; Sina, S. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Research Center; Rahpeyma, J.

    2017-12-15

    Although radiation exposures in manned space missions are normally below the limits recommended to NASA by NCRP, in long-duration deep space exploratory missions astronauts may receive relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Novel light polyethylene-based composites can be considered as effective radiation shields in space explorations. However, normally these composites cannot provide desired mechanical properties. Over the past several years our laboratories have focused on developing efficient methods for both physical and biological protection of the crew in long term space missions. In this study carbon nanotubes and either nano-sized or micro-sized boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) fillers were incorporated into the continuous phase of low density polyethylene (LDPE). In the next phase, the mechanical characteristics of the composites as well as their neutron attenuation properties were studied. Findings of this study indicated enhanced mechanical properties accompanied by an enhanced shielding efficiency for neutrons at some specific weight fraction of the fillers.

  9. Effect of polybutenes on mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Uedson A. do; Timoteo, Gustavo Arante V.; Rabello, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of polybutene (PIB) of molecular weights ranging from 480 the 1.600 g/mol in polypropylene homopolymer. Compositions with 0, 3, 5 and 7% of PIB were prepared in internal mixer and compression moulded. The properties evaluated were: tensile strength, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and melt flow index (IF). The results of mechanical tests showed that the presence of the plasticizer reduced the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness. The analysis of XRD showed a drop in the degree of crystallinity of PP/PIB blends. The micrographs obtained by SEM did not reveal the occurrence of the phase separation. The IF analysis confirm the effect of PIB as internal lubricant's, by increasing the rate of flow. (author)

  10. Effect of Extraction Process and Surface Treatment on the mechanical properties in Pineapple Leaf Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Azrie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple Leaf Fibre (PALF is a one of the natural fibre that has high potential in the industry. Natural fibres have become the main alternative source in the modern world industry. The objective of this study is to observe the effect chemical treatment using Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH solution on the physical and mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre. Different concentration of NaOH solution (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and different treatment time (1 hour, 3 hour and 5 hour are used for the experiment. The tensile test was conducted to obtain the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Yong modulus, (E and elongation at break. From the results obtained, NaOH concentration of 6% and five-hour treatment time that was used for treatment showed the higher physical and mechanical properties values. Furthermore, morphology analysis also shows the surface of the fibre at 6% NaOH after five-hour of treatment was in the better condition with good bonding arrangement of the fibre.

  11. A study on physical properties of concrete and reinforcement at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazu, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures such as a containment vessel, a support of the reactor, piping systems and facilities for storing high level radioactive waste in a nuclear power plant are exposed to a high temperature condition. Changes of physical properties of concrete and reinforcement caused by high temperature influence on mechanical behavior of these structures and internal stresses are induced by difference of thermal coefficients between concrete and reinforcement that was reported in the previous paper by the author. These are the special features in high temperature conditions. Temperature dependence of physical properties of concrete and reinforcement are summarized in the paper based on the experimental results. (author)

  12. Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Barabash, V.R.; Matera, R.; Roedig, M.; Smith, J.J.; Janev, R.K.

    1991-03-01

    This Report contains the proceedings, results and conclusions of the work done and the analysis performed during the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on ''Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials'', convened on December 17-21, 1990, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Although the prime objective of the meeting was to critically assess the available thermo-mechanical properties data for certain types of carbon-based fusion relevant materials, the work of the meeting went well beyond this task. The meeting participants discussed in depth the scope and structure of the IAEA material properties database, the format of data presentation, the most appropriate computerized system for data storage, retrieval, exchange and management. The existing IAEA ALADDIN system was adopted as a convenient tool for this purpose and specific ALADDIN labelling schemes and dictionaries were established for the material properties data. An ALADDIN formatted test-file for the thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties of pyrolytic graphite is appended to this Report for illustrative purposes. (author)

  13. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of single-layer phosphorene at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Ding, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material beyond graphene, has attracted great attention in recent years due to its superior physical and electrical properties. However, compared to graphene and other 2D materials, phosphorene has a relatively low Young’s modulus and fracture strength, which may limit its applications due to possible structure failures. For the mechanical reliability of future phosphorene-based nanodevices, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene. Previous studies on the mechanical properties of phosphorene were based on first principles calculations at 0 K. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. It is found that temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of phosphorene. The fracture strength and strain reduce by more than 65% when the temperature increases from 0 K to 450 K. Moreover, the fracture strength and strain in the zigzag direction is more sensitive to the temperature rise than that in the armchair direction. More interestingly, the failure crack propagates preferably along the groove in the puckered structure when uniaxial tension is applied in the armchair direction. In contrast, when the uniaxial tension is applied in the zigzag direction, multiple cracks are observed with rough fracture surfaces. Our present work provides useful information about the mechanical properties and failure behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. (paper)

  14. Anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of salt tolerant tree species grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Awan, A.R.; Chughtai, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Some anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of four tree species were studied. Twelve wood logs each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora and Tamarix aphylla, collected from two saline sites near Lahore and Faisalabad, were analyzed in both green and air-dry (12% moisture) conditions. The tested tree species differed greatly with respect to different wood quality parameters. Maximum density (842 kg m-3) was observed in P. juliflora followed by E. camaldulensis (817 kg m-3), A. nilotica (701 kg m-3) and T. aphylla (635 kg m-3). Static bending strength was found maximum (1240 kg cm-2) in A. nilotica and minimum (778 kg cm-2) in T. aphylla. The modulus of elasticity ranged from 53735 to 86977 kg cm-2 with maximum value in A. nilotica and minimum in T. aphylla. The crushing strength parallel to grain was observed maximum in P. juliflora (610 kg cm-2) and minimum in A. nilotica (321 kg cm-2). Cleavage value was observed maximum (40 kg cm-1) in P. juliflora and minimum (31 kg cm-1) in E. camaldulensis.The results of impact bending indicated that the wood of P. juliflora has maximum (4.35 kg m-1) tendency to absorb sudden shocks and minimum in T. aphylla (1.47 kg m-1). Calorific value was observed maximum in E. camaldulensis (4900 kcal kg-1) and minimum in T. aphylla (4607 kcal kg-1). Overall, it is concluded that all tested tree species have strength properties comparable with Dalbergia sissoo wood and thus have good utilization potential for different wood products. (author)

  15. Compatibility between Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ceramic water filters were produced by using ten mixtures of different ratios of red clay and sawdust under different production conditions. The physical properties of these filters were tested. The production conditions include five press pressures ranged from 10 to 50MPa and a firing schedule having three different final temperatures of 1000, 1070, and 1100˚C. The tests results of the physical properties were used to obtain best compatibility between the hydraulic and the mechanical properties of these filters. Results showed that as the press pressure and the firing temperature are increased, the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths of the produced filters are increased, while, the porosity and absorption are decreased. As the sawdust content is increased the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths are decreased, while, the porosity and absorption are increased. High hydraulic conductivity is obtained at a firing temperature of 1070˚C when the sawdust content is less than 10%. Otherwise, it is increased as sawdust content and the firing temperature are increased. Filters made of mixture 92.5% red clay and 7.5% sawdust formed . under a press pressure of 20MPa and a firing temperature of 1070˚C gave the best compatibility between hydraulic and mechanical properties. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity was 50mm/day, the compressive strength was 14MPa, and the bending strength was 10.8MPa.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  18. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Jute Mat Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Sadaf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose jute fibre offers a number of benefits as reinforcement for synthetic polymers since it has a high specific strength and stiffness, low hardness, relatively low density and biodegradability. To reduce moisture uptake and hence to improve the mechanical properties of the composites, bleached jute mats were incorporated as reinforcing elements in the epoxy matrix. Composites at varying volume fractions and different orientations of jute mat were fabricated by hot compression machine under specific pressures and temperatures. Tensile, flexure, impact and water absorption tests of composites were conducted. Jute mat oriented at (0 ± 45–90° composites showed reduced strength compared to (0–90° fibre mat composites. Impact strength and water uptake of high volume fraction jute mat reinforced composites was higher compared to that of lower volume fraction composites. Fracture surfaces of jute mat composites were analyzed under SEM. Fracture surface of (0–90° jute mat oriented composites showed twisted fibres, while (0 ± 45–90° jute mat oriented composites had fibre pull-out without any twisting. Overall, composites containing 52% jute mat at orientations of (0–90° showed better properties compared to other fabricated composites.

  20. Chapter 1. General information about uranium. 1.5. Mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The mechanical properties of uranium depend on its purity, and which mechanical and thermal regimes are used for reprocessing. The average elasticity module value for cast uranium is 20.5•10"-"2 mega newton/m"2 (20.9•10"-"3 kilogram-force/mm"2), strength limit during tension at room temperature is 372–470 mega newton/m"2 (38–48 kilogram-force/mm"2), strength is increased after hardening from β - and γ - phases; and average rigidity by Brinell 19.6–21.6•10"2 mega newton/m"2 (200–220 kilogram-force/mm"2). Exposure by neutron flux (which occurs in nuclear reactors) changes the physical and mechanical properties of uranium: creeping develops and brittleness increases, goods deformation is observed, which forces the operator to use uranium in nuclear reactors as different uranium alloys.

  1. Effect of surface treatment of carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties of cement composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONDAKOV Alexander Igorevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the influence of the carbon nanotubes functionalized by oxygen groups on the physical and mechanical properties of cement composites. Advantages and disadvantages of the main methods for the homogeneous distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in solution are discussed. A method for covalent functionalization of CNTs is described. An acid-base titration and dispersion analysis of solutions containing functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs was performed. The research data made it possible to propose new technology of preparation of modified concrete. The results of the work can be used for designing of the additives commonly used in the construction industry, as well as for further studies of the effects of CNTs on the physical and mechanical and structural properties of building materials. Efficient modification of cement composite with f-CNTs was achieved at the concentration of f-CNTs ranging from 0.0004% to 0.0008% by weight of the binder. The observed increase of the concrete mechanical properties is explained by the fact that the CNTs act as nucleation centers for the cement hydration products.

  2. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Composites Made with Aluminous Cement and Basalt Fibers Developed for High Temperature Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Reiterman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the experimental study of the composition of refractory fiber-reinforced aluminous cement based composites and its response to gradual thermal loading. Basalt fibers were applied in doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% in volume. Simultaneously, binder system based on the aluminous cement was modified by fine ground ceramic powder originated from the accurate ceramic blocks production. Ceramic powder was dosed as partial replacement of used cement of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Influence of composition changes was evaluated by the results of physical and mechanical testing; compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density, and fracture energy were determined on the different levels of temperature loading. Increased dose of basalt fibers allows reaching expected higher values of fracture energy, but with respect to results of compressive and flexural strength determination as an optimal rate of basalt fibers dose was considered 0.25% in volume. Fine ground ceramic powder application led to extensive increase of residual mechanical parameters just up to replacement of 10%. Higher replacement of aluminous cement reduced final values of bulk density but kept mechanical properties on the level of mixtures without aluminous cement replacement.

  3. Effect of the leaching of calcium hydroxide from cement paste on mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, C.; Francois, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical and physical properties. In order to characterize this effect, the authors have performed experiments on cement paste samples. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Both compression tests and water porosity tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14 and 20 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was manifested by a peripheral zone of less resistance. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH) 2 and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. Both mechanical tests and water porosity tests show that there is a linear variation of the loss of strength and the increase in porosity in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A d /A t . It means that both compressive resistance and water porosity of the leaching zone are constant whatever the size of the degraded zone and then whatever the time of exposure to the chemical attack. So the authors could venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide is the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity

  4. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs.

  5. Bacterial biofilm mechanical properties persist upon antibiotic treatment and survive cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelli, K; Galy, O; Henry, N; Latour-Lambert, P; Ghigo, J M; Beloin, C; Kirwan, L

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria living on surfaces form heterogeneous three-dimensional consortia known as biofilms, where they exhibit many specific properties one of which is an increased tolerance to antibiotics. Biofilms are maintained by a polymeric network and display physical properties similar to that of complex fluids. In this work, we address the question of the impact of antibiotic treatment on the physical properties of biofilms based on recently developed tools enabling the in situ mapping of biofilm local mechanical properties at the micron scale. This approach takes into account the material heterogeneity and reveals the spatial distribution of all the small changes that may occur in the structure. With an Escherichia coli biofilm, we demonstrate using in situ fluorescent labeling that the two antibiotics ofloxacin and ticarcillin—targeting DNA replication and membrane assembly, respectively—induced no detectable alteration of the biofilm mechanical properties while they killed the vast majority of the cells. In parallel, we show that a proteolytic enzyme that cleaves extracellular proteins into short peptides, but does not alter bacterial viability in the biofilm, clearly affects the mechanical properties of the biofilm structure, inducing a significant increase of the material compliance. We conclude that conventional biofilm control strategy relying on the use of biocides targeting cells is missing a key target since biofilm structural integrity is preserved. This is expected to efficiently promote biofilm resilience, especially in the presence of persister cells. In contrast, the targeting of polymer network cross-links—among which extracellular proteins emerge as major players—offers a promising route for the development of rational multi-target strategies to fight against biofilms. (paper)

  6. Bacterial biofilm mechanical properties persist upon antibiotic treatment and survive cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelli, K.; Galy, O.; Latour-Lambert, P.; Kirwan, L.; Ghigo, J. M.; Beloin, C.; Henry, N.

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria living on surfaces form heterogeneous three-dimensional consortia known as biofilms, where they exhibit many specific properties one of which is an increased tolerance to antibiotics. Biofilms are maintained by a polymeric network and display physical properties similar to that of complex fluids. In this work, we address the question of the impact of antibiotic treatment on the physical properties of biofilms based on recently developed tools enabling the in situ mapping of biofilm local mechanical properties at the micron scale. This approach takes into account the material heterogeneity and reveals the spatial distribution of all the small changes that may occur in the structure. With an Escherichia coli biofilm, we demonstrate using in situ fluorescent labeling that the two antibiotics ofloxacin and ticarcillin—targeting DNA replication and membrane assembly, respectively—induced no detectable alteration of the biofilm mechanical properties while they killed the vast majority of the cells. In parallel, we show that a proteolytic enzyme that cleaves extracellular proteins into short peptides, but does not alter bacterial viability in the biofilm, clearly affects the mechanical properties of the biofilm structure, inducing a significant increase of the material compliance. We conclude that conventional biofilm control strategy relying on the use of biocides targeting cells is missing a key target since biofilm structural integrity is preserved. This is expected to efficiently promote biofilm resilience, especially in the presence of persister cells. In contrast, the targeting of polymer network cross-links—among which extracellular proteins emerge as major players—offers a promising route for the development of rational multi-target strategies to fight against biofilms.

  7. Thermal and physical properties of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, O D; Marcotte, M; Sablani, S S; Castaigne, F

    2001-07-01

    This article reviews the measurement techniques, prediction models, and data on thermo-physical properties of bakery products: specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and density. Over the last decade, investigation has focused more on thermo-physical properties of nonbread bakery products. Both commonly used and new measurement techniques for thermo-physical properties reported in the publication are presented with directions for their proper use. Data and prediction models are tabulated for the range of moisture content and temperature of the bakery products.

  8. 2013 International Symposium on Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Underwater Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parinov, Ivan; Topolov, Vitaly; Advanced Materials : Physics, Mechanics and Applications

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are the basis of modern science and technology. This proceedings volume presents a broad spectrum of studies of novel materials covering their processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications. The book is concentrated on nanostructures, ferroelectric crystals, materials and composites, materials for solar cells and also polymeric composites. Nanotechnology approaches, modern piezoelectric techniques and also latest achievements in materials science, condensed matter physics, mechanics of deformable solids and numerical methods are presented. Great attention is devoted to novel devices with high accuracy, longevity and extended possibilities to work in wide temperature and pressure ranges, aggressive media etc. The characteristics of materials and composites with improved properties opening new possibilities of various physical processes, in particular transmission and receipt of signals under water, are described.

  9. Physical and antibacterial properties of açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia, Paula J P; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Du, Wen-Xian; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Williams, Tina G; Wood, Delilah; McHugh, Tara H; Soares, Nilda F F

    2014-05-01

    Thyme essential oil (TEO) and apple skin polyphenols (ASP) are natural compounds considered as generally recognized as safe by FDA, with biological effects against bacteria and fungi. This work aimed to evaluate physical and antimicrobial properties of açaí edible films formulated with TEO and ASP at 3% and 6% (w/w) individually or combined at 3% (w/w) each. Physical properties studied include mechanical resistance, water vapor permeability (WVP), color, and thermal resistance. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes was determined using the overlay diffusion test. Addition of ASP resulted in improved mechanical properties. TEO at 6% (w/w) resulted in increased elongation. ASP films had significant higher WVP than control film. ASP films were lighter and had more red color than other films. Incorporation of ASP resulted in improved film thermal stability, whereas TEO caused rapid thermal decomposition. Presence of clusters was observed on the surface of films. Addition of ASP resulted in a smoother surface, whereas addition of TEO led to the formation of crater-like pits on the film surface. Açaí edible film incorporated with 6% (w/w) TEO presented the highest antimicrobial activity. However, both antimicrobials are necessary in the açaí films in order to obtain edible films with suitable physical-mechanical properties. The results of the present study showed that TEO and ASP can be used to prepare açaí edible films with adequate physical-mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity for food applications by direct contact. Developed açaí edible films presented antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes and good physical-mechanical properties, showing the potential use of açaí edible films in food preservation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursamar, S. Ali [Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Lehner, Alexander N. [Centre for Physical Activity and Chronic Disease and the Aging Research Centre, Institute for Health and Wellbeing, School of Health, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali [Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Antunes, A.P.M., E-mail: Paula.Antunes@northampton.ac.uk [Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. - Highlights: • In-situ gas foaming application in the production of sponge-like gelatin structures • The crosslinkers molecular length impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of the structure. • The effect of crosslinkers on the biocompatibility of gelatin scaffolds.

  11. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursamar, S. Ali; Lehner, Alexander N.; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Antunes, A.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. - Highlights: • In-situ gas foaming application in the production of sponge-like gelatin structures • The crosslinkers molecular length impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of the structure. • The effect of crosslinkers on the biocompatibility of gelatin scaffolds

  12. Physics and Mechanics of Cometary Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.; Guyenne, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    In these proceedings the following questions are reported: comet missions and comet models, review of physical and compositional comet nucleus models, physical and chemical properties of ices and ice-dust mixtures

  13. Computational modelling of thermo-mechanical and transport properties of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii-Tabar, H.

    2004-01-01

    Over the recent years, numerical modelling and computer-based simulation of the properties of carbon nanotubes have become the focal points of research in computational nano-science and its associated fields of computational condensed matter physics and materials modelling. Modelling of the mechanical, thermal and transport properties of nanotubes via numerical simulations forms the central part of this research, concerned with the nano-scale mechanics and nano-scale thermodynamics of nanotubes, and nano-scale adsorption, storage and flow properties in nanotubes. A review of these properties, obtained via computational modelling studies, is presented here. We first introduce the physics of carbon nanotubes, and then present the computational simulation tools that are appropriate for conducting a modelling study at the nano-scales. These include the molecular dynamics (MD), the Monte Carlo (MC), and the ab initio MD simulation methods. A complete range of inter-atomic potentials, of two-body and many-body varieties, that underlie all the modelling studies considered in this review is also given. Mechanical models from continuum-based elasticity theory that have been extensively employed in computing the energetics of nanotubes, or interpret the results from atomistic modelling, are presented and discussed. These include models based on the continuum theory of curved plates, shells, vibrating rods and bending beams. The validity of these continuum-based models has also been examined and the conditions under which they are applicable to nanotube modelling have been listed. Pertinent concepts from continuum theories of stress analysis are included, and the relevant methods for conducting the computation of the stress tensor, elastic constants and elastic modulii at the atomic level are also given. We then survey a comprehensive range of modelling studies concerned with the adsorption and storage of gases, and flow of fluids, in carbon nanotubes of various types. This

  14. Computational modelling of thermo-mechanical and transport properties of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii-Tabar, H

    2004-02-01

    Over the recent years, numerical modelling and computer-based simulation of the properties of carbon nanotubes have become the focal points of research in computational nano-science and its associated fields of computational condensed matter physics and materials modelling. Modelling of the mechanical, thermal and transport properties of nanotubes via numerical simulations forms the central part of this research, concerned with the nano-scale mechanics and nano-scale thermodynamics of nanotubes, and nano-scale adsorption, storage and flow properties in nanotubes. A review of these properties, obtained via computational modelling studies, is presented here. We first introduce the physics of carbon nanotubes, and then present the computational simulation tools that are appropriate for conducting a modelling study at the nano-scales. These include the molecular dynamics (MD), the Monte Carlo (MC), and the ab initio MD simulation methods. A complete range of inter-atomic potentials, of two-body and many-body varieties, that underlie all the modelling studies considered in this review is also given. Mechanical models from continuum-based elasticity theory that have been extensively employed in computing the energetics of nanotubes, or interpret the results from atomistic modelling, are presented and discussed. These include models based on the continuum theory of curved plates, shells, vibrating rods and bending beams. The validity of these continuum-based models has also been examined and the conditions under which they are applicable to nanotube modelling have been listed. Pertinent concepts from continuum theories of stress analysis are included, and the relevant methods for conducting the computation of the stress tensor, elastic constants and elastic modulii at the atomic level are also given. We then survey a comprehensive range of modelling studies concerned with the adsorption and storage of gases, and flow of fluids, in carbon nanotubes of various types. This

  15. Influence of different curing systems on the physico-mechanical properties and stability of SBR and NR rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A.A. E-mail: abasfar@kacst.edu.sa; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Mofti, S

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of radiation, sulfur and peroxide-cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) were compared. The dependence of the mechanical properties of the radiation-vulcanized SBR and NR on the coagent concentration and radiation dose was studied. The effect of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of the different rubber formulations was discussed. The radiation-cured formulations of SBR have superior mechanical properties and thermal stability compared with those of the chemically vulcanized compounds. Whereas, the radiation-cured formulations of NR have similar mechanical properties but superior thermal stability (based on the % change in E after thermal aging), when compared with those of the sulfur-vulcanized compounds and slightly better than those of the peroxide-vulcanized compounds.

  16. Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer-Small Molecule Complexes with Tunable Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianqi; Peng, Xin; Chen, Ya-Nan; Bai, Qing-Wen; Shang, Cong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Huiliang

    2018-03-13

    A novel type of polymeric material with tunable mechanical properties is fabricated from polymers and small molecules that can form hydrogen-bonded intermolecular complexes (IMCs). In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycerol hydrogels are first prepared, and then they are dried to form IMCs. The tensile strengths and moduli of IMCs decrease dramatically with increasing glycerol content, while the elongations increase gradually. The mechanical properties are comparable with or even superior to those of common engineering plastics and rubbers. The IMCs with high glycerol content also show excellent flexibility and cold-resistance at subzero temperatures. Cyclic tensile and stress relaxation tests prove that there is an effective energy dissipation mechanism in IMCs and dynamic mechanical analysis confirms their physical crosslinking nature. FTIR and NMR characterizations prove the existence of hydrogen bonding between glycerol and PVA chains, which suppresses the crystallization of PVA from X-ray diffraction measurement. These PVA-glycerol IMCs may find potential applications in barrier films, biomedical packaging, etc., in the future. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the mechanization level of harvest and post-harvest operations of Berberis fruit, as one of the major and local crops of south Khorasan province, some of its physical properties were investigated. Different dimensions, geometrical mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, mass of thousand fruit, true density, bulk density, porosity, static coefficient of friction and the repose angles were determined. The properties and the effect of moisture content on them were studied by the completely randomized designs statistical method. Analysis of data indicated that the change of moisture content caused significant difference (P

  18. On the influence of Ti-Al intermetallic coating architecture on mechanical properties and wear resistance of end mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, E. L.; Budilov, V. V.; Ramazanov, K. N.; Ataullin, Z. R.

    2017-07-01

    Thin-film wear-resistant coatings are widely used to increase life and efficiency of metal cutting tools. This paper shows the results of a study on the influence of architecture (number, sequence and thickness of layers) of wear-resistant coatings on physical, mechanical and operational properties of end mills. Coatings consisting of alternating Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N layers of equal thickness demonstrated the best physical and mechanical properties. Durability of coated tools when processing materials from chromium-vanadium steel increased twice as compared to uncoated tools.

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Compressed Earth Brick (CEB Containing Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of brick in construction is commonly used, especially in the construction of buildings and infrastructure. Various studies have been conducted to produce methods that can increase the strength of brick at the same time can reduce the cost of manufacturing bricks. In order to reduce cost of manufacturing, one of the solution applied was by using waste as part of bricks production materials. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SuCaB ash was used as a part of compressed earth brick (CEB by replacing the quantity of cement for SuCaB ash. The study focused on the physical and mechanical properties of CEB containing SuCaB and the optimum percentage of SuCaB ash as partial cement replacement in CEB. There are 4 types of percentages used; 0%, 20%, 25% and 30% from cement content. All mixed use the same water content of 30% of cement content by weight and the ratio for cement: laterite soil used was 1: 6. A total of 72 specimen with size of 100mm × 50mm × 40mm was produced. The test conducted were Initial Rate Absorption Test (IRA, Density Test, Dimensions Test, Compression Test and Water Absorption Test. From the experimental results, the optimum SuCaB ash percentage as cement replacement in CEB was 20%. It recorded the highest compressive strength of 16.23 MPa at 28 days while for the Initial Rate Absorption test, it lies within the range specified. The density of CEB containing 20% of SuCaB shows slightly lower value where it decreased for about 0.4% from the control specimen. From this study, it can be concluded that waste materials such as sugarcane bagasse can be used as part of construction materials. However, further study needs to be conducted such as on the energy consumption, chemical properties and others to enhance the knowledge on this area before it can be applied into the brick production.

  20. Determination of basalt physical and thermal properties at varying temperatures, pressures, and moisture contents. First progress report, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Bishop, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report is a summary of the rock mechanics testing done at the Earth Mechanics Institute of the Colorado School of Mines for Rockwell Hanford Operations under Subcontract SA-917. Cores were supplied from drill hole DC-6 on the Hanford Site, characterized geologically, and tested for thermal and physical properties for designing long-term underground storage of radioactive waste materials. This report presents the approved test procedures, results, and data analysis for this test series. Results indicated thermophysical properties similar to those of previously tested basalt cores from the Hanford area, but showed no significant trends; thus, generalizations are risky at this time. However, density was found to be a good guide to thermal and physical properties--higher density basalt cores showed significant improvements in physical and thermal properties

  1. Chalk: composition, diagenesis and physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    Chalk is a sedimentary rock of unusually high homogeneity on the scale where physical properties are measured, but the properties fall in wide ranges. Chalk may thus be seen as the ideal starting point for a physical understanding of rocks in general. Properties as porosity, permeability, capillary...... involving clay, silica, and calcite are interlinked, but progress differently in different localities. This partly depends on primary sediment composition, including organic content, which may induce the formation of concretions by microbial action. The diagenetic processes also depend on water depth, rate...

  2. Mechanical and physical properties of Bi-2223 and Nb3Sn superconducting materials between 300 K and 7 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman; Osamura, Kozo; Sugano, Michinaka

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of IEC/TC90-WG5 and VAMAS/TWA16, superconducting (SC) materials are investigated with respect to their mechanical properties between 300 K and 7 K. Besides the mechanical tests, physical and electrical properties are also determined for high T c SC-tapes. The mechanical tests comprised the characterization of tensile properties at ambient temperature as well as at 7 K of Nb 3 Sn-reacted strands, Bi2223 tapes, pure silver tapes, silver bars, silver alloy tapes and bare filaments extracted from Bi-2223 tapes. All these investigations are carried out using a variable temperature helium gas flow cryostat equipped with a servo hydraulic tensile machine (MTS, model 810). For the load measurements specially developed, highly sensitive cryogenic proof in situ working load cells are used. For the strain determination of the wires, a high resolution ultra-light double extensometer system with a specially developed low noise signal conditioner is used. The engineering parameters such as yield strength and elastic modulus are evaluated using the obtained data with newly developed software. For the tiny and brittle filaments load versus displacement data are obtained. A determined master line (Young's modulus versus machine compliance) established by thin 0.125 mm O wires of different pure metals is used for the Young's modulus estimation of filaments. For the 4 K electrical voltage-current measurements under magnetic fields of up to 13 T, an existing test facility is used for the high T c tapes. No dependency between applied strain up to 0.3% and the critical current under magnetic field could be observed for the selected specific Bi-2223 tapes. In addition, thermal expansion curves of Bi-2223 tapes along with pure silver and silver alloy (AgMg) are determined between 290 K and 7 K using in situ working extensometers. The coefficient of thermal expansion is evaluated by the determined thermal expansion versus temperature curve

  3. Physical-mechanical image of the cell surface on the base of AFM data in contact mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtseva, M. N.; Starodubtsev, I. E.; Yegorenkov, N. I.; Kuzhel, N. S.; Konstantinova, E. E.; Chizhik, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of the cell surface are well-known markers of a cell state. The complex of the parameters characterizing the cell surface properties, such as the elastic modulus (E), the parameters of adhesive (Fa), and friction (Ff) forces can be measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) in a contact mode and form namely the physical-mechanical image of the cell surface that is a fundamental element of the cell mechanical phenotype. The paper aims at forming the physical-mechanical images of the surface of two types of glutaraldehyde-fixed cancerous cells (human epithelial cells of larynx carcinoma, HEp-2c cells, and breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cells) based on the data obtained by AFM in air and revealing the basic difference between them. The average values of friction, elastic and adhesive forces, and the roughness of lateral force maps, as well as dependence of the fractal dimension of lateral force maps on Z-scale factor have been studied. We have revealed that the response of microscale areas of the HEp-2c cell surface having numerous microvilli to external mechanical forces is less expressed and more homogeneous in comparison with the response of MCF-7 cell surface.

  4. Elastic and Mechanical Properties of the MAX Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Radovic, Miladin

    2011-08-01

    The more than 60 ternary carbides and nitrides, with the general formula Mn+1AXn—where n = 1, 2, or 3; M is an early transition metal; A is an A-group element (a subset of groups 13-16); and X is C and/or N—represent a new class of layered solids, where Mn+1Xn layers are interleaved with pure A-group element layers. The growing interest in the Mn+1AXn phases lies in their unusual, and sometimes unique, set of properties that can be traced back to their layered nature and the fact that basal dislocations multiply and are mobile at room temperature. Because of their chemical and structural similarities, the MAX phases and their corresponding MX phases share many physical and chemical properties. In this paper we review our current understanding of the elastic and mechanical properties of bulk MAX phases where they differ significantly from their MX counterparts. Elastically the MAX phases are in general quite stiff and elastically isotropic. The MAX phases are relatively soft (2-8 GPa), are most readily machinable, and are damage tolerant. Some of them are also lightweight and resistant to thermal shock, oxidation, fatigue, and creep. In addition, they behave as nonlinear elastic solids, dissipating 25% of the mechanical energy during compressive cycling loading of up to 1 GPa at room temperature. At higher temperatures, they undergo a brittle-to-plastic transition, and their mechanical behavior is a strong function of deformation rate.

  5. Analytical relationships for prediction of the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.; Hedayati, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques have motivated an increasing number of researchers to study regular porous biomaterials that are based on repeating unit cells. The physical and mechanical properties of such porous biomaterials have therefore received increasing attention

  6. Comparison of the physical and mechanical properties of MTA and portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Intekhab; Chng, Hui Kheng; Yap, Adrian U Jin

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated and compared the pH, radiopacity, setting time, solubility, dimensional change, and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA (PMTA), ProRoot MTA (tooth colored formula) (WMTA), white Portland cement (WP), and ordinary Portland cement (OP). The results showed that PMTA and Portland cement have very similar physical properties. However, the radiopacity of Portland cement is much lower than that of PMTA. The compressive strength of PMTA was greater than Portland cement at 28 days. The major constituent of PMTA is Portland cement. Given the low cost of Portland cement and similar properties when compared to PMTA, it is reasonable to consider Portland cement as a possible substitute for PMTA in endodontic applications. However, industrially manufactured Portland cement is not approved currently for use in the United States and therefore no clinical recommendation can be made for its use in the human body. Further in vitro and in vivo tests, especially with regards its biocompatibility, should be conducted to ascertain if it meets the FDA requirements for use as a medical device.

  7. Physical properties of inorganic PMW-PNN-PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Sang-Hoon; Yoo, Ju-hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Baek, Sam-ki; Ha, Jun-Soo; No, Chung-Han; Song, Hyun-Seon; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2015-07-01

    In this work, inorganic Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)0.03(Ni1/3Nb2/3)x(Zr0.5Ti0.5)0.97-xO3 (x = 0.02 ∼ 0.12) composition ceramics were fabricated by the conventional solid state reaction method. And then their micro structure and ferroelectric properties were investigated according to the amount of PNN substitution. Small amounts of Li2CO3 and CaCO3 were used in order to decrease the sintering temperature of the ceramics. The 0.10 mol PNN-substituted PMW-PNN- PZT ceramics sintered at 920°C showed the excellent physical properties of piezoelectric constant (d33), electromechanical coupling factor (kp), mechanical quality coefficient (Qm), and dielectric constant of 566 pC/N, 0.61, 73, and 2183, respectively.

  8. MODIFICATION OF RESIN EDT-69N FOR THE PURPOSE OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Краля

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy matrix EDT-69N it is one of license matrix which applies by aviation industry in theCommonwealth of Independent States. This matrix created according to the standards NLGS-3 with a glanceto requirements of a self-damping. A self-damping achieved by a mixing of resin UP-631 in a recipe of amatrix EDT-69N. It led to a increasing of matrix cost and a decreasing of the physical-mechanical properties.According to current standards AP-25 the matrix EDT-69N does not ensure the compliances by requirementsof combustibility, fume evolution and toxicity of combustion products. That is why a pressing problem ofmodification of matrix EDT-69N appears for the purpose of increasing of the physical-mechanical andtechnologic properties in the prejudice of requirement of combustibility.

  9. Mechanical properties of rock at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Naoto; Abe, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Naruki; Ishida, Tsuyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory tests have been performed in order to investigate the effects of temperature up to 300degC and pressure up to 30 MPa on the mechanical properties of three types of rocks, Inada granite, Sanjoume andesite and Oya tuff. The experimental results indicated that the significant differences in temperature dependence of mechanical properties exist between the three rocks, because of the difference of the factors which determine the mechanical properties of the rocks. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties for the rocks is lower than that of pressure and water content. Temperature dependence of the mechanical properties is reduced by increase in pressure in the range of pressure and temperature investigated in this paper. (author)

  10. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Networks with Precise Doping of Primary Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Doreen; Ding, Yichuan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Appel, Eric A

    2017-12-06

    Polymer networks are extensively utilized across numerous applications ranging from commodity superabsorbent polymers and coatings to high-performance microelectronics and biomaterials. For many applications, desirable properties are known; however, achieving them has been challenging. Additionally, the accurate prediction of elastic modulus has been a long-standing difficulty owing to the presence of loops. By tuning the prepolymer formulation through precise doping of monomers, specific primary network defects can be programmed into an elastomeric scaffold, without alteration of their resulting chemistry. The addition of these monomers that respond mechanically as primary defects is used both to understand their impact on the resulting mechanical properties of the materials and as a method to engineer the mechanical properties. Indeed, these materials exhibit identical bulk and surface chemistry, yet vastly different mechanical properties. Further, we have adapted the real elastic network theory (RENT) to the case of primary defects in the absence of loops, thus providing new insights into the mechanism for material strength and failure in polymer networks arising from primary network defects, and to accurately predict the elastic modulus of the polymer system. The versatility of the approach we describe and the fundamental knowledge gained from this study can lead to new advancements in the development of novel materials with precisely defined and predictable chemical, physical, and mechanical properties.

  11. NanoTest™ NT600 – A device for analyses of mechanical properties of materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čtvrtlík, Radim; Stranyánek, Martin; Boháč, Petr; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2006), s. 90-93 ISSN 1211-5894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : nano -mechanical properties * nano indentation * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Spinorial space-time and the origin of Quantum Mechanics. The dynamical role of the physical vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Is Quantum Mechanics really and ultimate principle of Physics described by a set of intrinsic exact laws? Are standard particles the ultimate constituents of matter? The two questions appear to be closely related, as a preonic structure of the physical vacuum would have an influence on the properties of quantum particles. Although the first preon models were just « quark-like » and assumed preons to be direct constituents of the conventional « elementary » particles, we suggested in 1995 that preons could instead be constituents of the physical vacuum (the superbradyon hypothesis). Standard particles would then be excitations of the preonic vacuum and have substantially different properties from those of preons themselves (critical speed…). The standard laws of Particle Physics would be approximate expressions generated from basic preon dynamics. In parallel, the mathematical properties of space-time structures such as the spinoral space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can have strong implications for Quantum Mechanics and even be its real origin. We complete here our recent discussion of the subject by pointing out that: i) Quantum Mechanics corresponds to a natural set of properties of vacuum excitations in the presence of a SST geometry ; ii) the recently observed entanglement at long distances would be a logical property if preons are superluminal (superbradyons), so that superluminal signals and correlations can propagate in vacuum ; iii) in a specific description, the function of space-time associated to the extended internal structure of a spin-1/2 particle at very small distances may be incompatible with a continuous motion at space and time scales where the internal structure of vacuum can be felt. In the dynamics associated to iii), and using the SST approach to space-time, a contradiction can appear between macroscopic and microscopic space-times due to an overlap in the time variable directly related to the fact that a spinorial function takes

  13. Electro-mechanical properties of hydrogel composites with micro- and nano-cellulose fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid U N, Mohamed; Deshpande, Abhijit P; Rao, C Lakshmana

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli responsive cross-linked hydrogels are of great interest for applications in diverse fields such as sensors and biomaterials. In this study, we investigate polymer composites filled with cellulose fillers. The celluloses used in making the composites were a microcrystalline cellulose of commercial grade and cellulose nano-whiskers obtained through acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. The filler concentration was varied and corresponding physical, mechanical and electro-mechanical characterization was carried out. The electro-mechanical properties were determined using a quasi-static method. The fillers not only enhance the mechanical properties of the composite by providing better reinforcement but also provide a quantitative electric potential in the composite. The measurements reveal that the polymer composites prepared from two different cellulose fillers possess a quantitative electric potential which can be utilized in biomedical applications. It is argued that the mechanism behind the quantitative electric potential in the composites is due to streaming potentials arising due to electrical double layer formation. (paper)

  14. Quantum mechanics for applied physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fromhold, Albert T

    2011-01-01

    This excellent text, directed to upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering and applied physics, introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, emphasizing those aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics essential to an understanding of solid-state theory. A heavy background in mathematics and physics is not required beyond basic courses in calculus, differential equations, and calculus-based elementary physics.The first three chapters introduce quantum mechanics (using the Schrödinger equations), quantum statistics, and the free-electron theory of metals. Ch

  15. EFFECT OF THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF PARICA PLYWOODS (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Thermo-mechanical treatment is a technique for wood modification in which samples are densified by means of heat and mechanical compression, applied perpendicularly to fibers, which under different combinations of time, temperature, and pressure increases wood density and thus improve some of its properties. This study aimed to treat thermo-mechanically parica plywood and observe the effects on its physical and mechanical properties. Specimens were submitted to two treatments, 120 and 150 ºC, remaining under pressure for seven minutes and, subsequently, under zero pressure for 15 minutes. Results showed a significant increase in specific mass from 0.48 g cm-3 to an average of 0.56 g cm-3, and a compression ratio of about 31.7% on average. Physical properties also varied significantly and results showed that treated samples swelled and absorbed more water than those untreated, leading to a greater thickness non-return rate. This indicates the proposed thermal treatments did not release the internal compressive stress generated during panel pressing, not improving its dimensional stability as a result. On the other hand, mechanical properties were positively affected, leading to an increase of 27.5% and 51.8% in modulus of rupture after treatments at 120 and 150 ºC, respectively. Modulus of elasticity and glue-line shear strength did not vary statistically and Janka hardness was 29.7% higher after treatment at 150 ºC.

  16. Effect of the Particle Geometry and Adhesive Mass Percentage on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particleboard made from Peanut Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyi Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peanut hull residues were considered for the manufacturing of particleboards. Various concentrations of two types of adhesive—polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI and urea-formaldehyde (UF—were separately combined with four types of peanut hull particles (fine, mixed, coarse particles, and peanut hull powder to manufacture particleboards with a certain target density. The confidence level of the effect of the selected production parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the panels was evaluated. The results showed that increasing the adhesive mass percentage significantly improved the dimensional stability of the boards. A better mechanical performance was achieved for the MDI-bonded boards compared with the UF-bonded boards. Superior bonding between the MDI adhesive and the peanut hulls with different particle geometries was also observed; the peanut hull powder and coarse particles were unsuitable for the manufacturing of panels, due to the risk of an internal blowout. The water resistance of the panels was poor, whereas the mechanical strength of the peanut hull particleboard met the class M-1 requirement of the ANSI A208.1 (2009 standard for wood particleboard.

  17. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  18. Effects of physical properties of powder particles on binder liquid requirement and agglomerate growth mechanisms in a high shear mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, A; Schaefer, T

    2001-09-01

    A study was performed in order to elucidate the effects of the physical properties of small powder particles on binder liquid requirement and agglomerate growth mechanisms. Three grades of calcium carbonate having different particle size distribution, surface area, and particle shape but approximately the same median particle size (4-5 microm), were melt agglomerated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 or 20,000 in an 8-l high shear mixer at three impeller speeds. The binder liquid requirement was found to be very dependent on the packing properties of the powder, a denser packing resulting in a lower binder liquid requirement. The densification of the agglomerates in the high shear mixer could be approximately predicted by compressing a powder sample in a compaction simulator. With the PEG having the highest viscosity (PEG 20,000), the agglomerate formation and growth occurred primarily by the immersion mechanism, whereas PEG 3000 gave rise to agglomerate growth by coalescence. Powder particles with a rounded shape and a narrow size distribution resulted in breakage of agglomerates with PEG 3000, whereas no breakage was seen with PEG 20,000. Powder particles having an irregular shape and surface structure could be agglomerated with PEG 20,000, whereas agglomerate growth became uncontrollable with PEG 3000. When PEG 20,000 was added as a powder instead of flakes, the resultant agglomerates became rounder and the size distribution narrower.

  19. Mechanical Property and Its Comparison of Superalloys for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, D. W.; Ryu, W. S.; Han, C. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Chang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Since structural materials for high temperature gas cooled reactor are used during long period in nuclear environment up to 1000 .deg. C, it is important to have good properties at elevated temperature such as mechanical properties (tensile, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue), microstructural stability, interaction between metal and gas, friction and wear, hydrogen and tritium permeation, irradiation behavior, corrosion by impurity in He. Thus, in order to select excellent materials for the high temperature gas cooled reactor, it is necessary to understand the material properties and to gather the data for them. In this report, the items related to material properties which are needed for designing the high temperature gas cooled reactor were presented. Mechanical properties; tensile, creep, and fatigue etc. were investigated for Haynes 230, Hastelloy-X, In 617 and Alloy 800H, which can be used as the major structural components, such as intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), hot duct and piping and internals. Effect of He and irradiation on these structural materials was investigated. Also, mechanical properties; physical properties, tensile properties, creep and creep crack growth rate were compared for them, respectively. These results of this report can be used as important data to select superior materials for high temperature gas reactor

  20. Mechanical and magnetic properties of Mn-Pt compounds and nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Káňa, Tomáš; Šob, Mojmír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 21 (2012), 214438/1-214438/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10008; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanocomposites * magnetism * mechanical properties * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  1. Biopolymers to improve physical properties and leaching characteristics of mortar and concrete: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, M.; Jingga, H.; Toni, N.; Wibisono, G.

    2018-04-01

    The invention of environmentally friendly, high performance, and green material such as biopolymers marked an emerging trend for sustainable construction over the past decades. Biopolymer comprises of natural monomers and synthesized by plants or other organisms. The sustainable, biodegradable, and renewable biopolymers were used in concrete mixes to improve their physical and mechanical properties and durability. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief an overview of the impact of biopolymer addition into concrete and mortar mixes. Many studies on the influence of biopolymer on the properties of concrete and mortar by adding biopolymers at a certain proportion (usually less than one wt.%) to the concrete or mortar mixes, and the heavy metal leaching, rheological, and mechanical properties of the mixes were conducted. Biopolymers included in this review are chitosan (CH), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), lignosulphonate (LS), and cellulose ethers (CE). Data from previous studies showed that the addition of certain types of biopolymer into concrete and mortar mixes improve workability, water retention, and compressive strength by up to 30 percent. Chitosan strengthens heavy metal encapsulation in the mortar and neutralizes the negative impact of heavy metal on the mortar properties and environment. To sum up, the use of biopolymers improve physical properties and leaching characteristics of mortar and concrete.

  2. Study of influence of content organoclay on mechanical properties of propylene and bentonite clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Giselly M.G.; Costa, Jonei M.; Pachekoski, Wagner; Barbosa, Joseane D. Viana; Farias, Romulo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied activated organoclay nanocomposites in pilot scale, obtained by physical mixing in twin screw extruder co-rotating. The organophilic clay content included in the formulation of these compounds ranged from 2 to 6% by weight. The clays were characterized using the techniques of x-ray. Systems PP / clay were characterized by tensile test, flexural and impact strength. The results indicated that there was no loss of mechanical properties and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanocomposite obtained. (author)

  3. Girdler-sulfide process physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuburg, H.J.; Atherley, J.F.; Walker, L.G.

    1977-05-01

    Physical properties of pure hydrogen sulfide and of gaseous and liquid solutions of the H 2 S-H 2 O system have been formulated. Tables for forty-nine different properties in the pressure and temperature range of interest to the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) process for heavy water production are given. All properties are presented in SI units. A computer program capable of calculating properties of the pure components as well as gaseous mixtures and liquid solutions at saturated and non-saturated conditions is included. (author)

  4. Effects of temperature on mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soon Wan; Park, Seung Bae [State University of New York, New York (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A representative fabrication processing of SU-8 photoresist, Ultraviolet (UV) lithography is usually composed of spin coat, soft bake, UV exposure, post exposure bake (PEB), development and optional hard bake, etc. The exposed region of SU-8 is crosslinked during the PEB process and its physical properties highly depend on UV exposure and PEB condition. This work was initiated to investigate if thermal baking after fabrication can affect the mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material because SU-8 is trying to be used as a structural material for MEMS operated at high temperature. Since a temperature of 95 .deg. C is normally recommended for PEB process, elevated temperatures up to 200 .deg. C were considered for the optional hard bake process. The viscoelastic material properties were measured by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA). Also, pulling tests were performed to obtain Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as a function of strain rate in a wide temperature range. From this study, the effects of temperature on the elastic and viscoelastic material properties of SU-8 were obtained.

  5. Effects of temperature on mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soon Wan; Park, Seung Bae

    2013-01-01

    A representative fabrication processing of SU-8 photoresist, Ultraviolet (UV) lithography is usually composed of spin coat, soft bake, UV exposure, post exposure bake (PEB), development and optional hard bake, etc. The exposed region of SU-8 is crosslinked during the PEB process and its physical properties highly depend on UV exposure and PEB condition. This work was initiated to investigate if thermal baking after fabrication can affect the mechanical properties of SU-8 photoresist material because SU-8 is trying to be used as a structural material for MEMS operated at high temperature. Since a temperature of 95 .deg. C is normally recommended for PEB process, elevated temperatures up to 200 .deg. C were considered for the optional hard bake process. The viscoelastic material properties were measured by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA). Also, pulling tests were performed to obtain Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as a function of strain rate in a wide temperature range. From this study, the effects of temperature on the elastic and viscoelastic material properties of SU-8 were obtained.

  6. Empirical correlation between mechanical and physical parameters of irradiated pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, P.; Solt, G.; Waeber, W.

    1991-02-01

    Neutron irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (PV) steels is one of the best known ageing factors of nuclear power plants. If the safety limits set by the regulators for the PV steel are not satisfied any more, and other measures are too expensive for the economics of the plant, this embrittlement could lead to the closure of the plant. Despite this, the fundamental mechanisms of neutron embrittlement are not yet fully understood, and usually only empirical mathematical models exist to asses neutron fluence effects on embrittlement, as given by the Charpy test for example. In this report, results of a systematic study of a French forging (1.2 MD 07 B), irradiated to several fluences will be reported. Mechanical property measurements (Charpy tensile and Vickers microhardness), and physical property measurements (small angle neutron scattering - SANS), have been done on specimens having the same irradiation or irradiation-annealing-reirradiation treatment histories. Empirical correlations have been established between the temperature shift and the decrease in the upper shelf energy as measured on Charpy specimens and tensile stresses and hardness increases on the one hand, and the size of the copper-rich precipitates formed by the irradiation on the other hand. The effect of copper (as an impurity element) in enhancing the degradation of mechanical properties has been demonstrated; the SANS measurements have shown that the size and amount of precipitates are important. The correlations represent the first step in an effort to develop a description of neutron irradiation induced embrittlement which is based on physical models. (author) 6 figs., 27 refs

  7. Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, S P

    2013-01-01

    Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of

  8. PROPERTIES AND OPTICAL APPLICATION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ZINC SELENIDE OBTAINED BY PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dunaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings on production technology, mechanical and optical properties of polycrystalline zinc selenide are presented. The combination of its physicochemical properties provides wide application of ZnSe in IR optics. Production technology is based on the method of physical vapor deposition on a heated substrate (Physical Vapor Deposition - PVD. The structural features and heterogeneity of elemental composition for the growth surfaces of ZnSe polycrystalline blanks were investigated using CAMEBAX X-ray micro-analyzer. Characteristic pyramid-shaped crystallites were recorded for all growth surfaces. The measurements of the ratio for major elements concentrations show their compliance with the stoichiometry of the ZnSe compounds. Birefringence, optical homogeneity, thermal conductivity, mechanical and optical properties were measured. It is established that regardless of polycrystalline condensate columnar and texturing, the optical material is photomechanically isotropic and homogeneous. The actual performance of parts made of polycrystalline optical zinc selenide in the thermal spectral ranges from 3 to 5 μm and from 8 to 14 μm and in the CO2 laser processing plants with a power density of 500 W/cm2 is shown. The developed technology gives the possibility to produce polycrystalline optical material on an industrial scale.

  9. Waste Feed Evaporation Physical Properties Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the waste feed evaporator modeling work done in the Waste Feed Evaporation and Physical Properties Modeling test specification and in support of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project. A private database (ZEOLITE) was developed and used in this work in order to include the behavior of aluminosilicates such a NAS-gel in the OLI/ESP simulations, in addition to the development of the mathematical models. Mathematical models were developed that describe certain physical properties in the Hanford RPP-WTP waste feed evaporator process (FEP). In particular, models were developed for the feed stream to the first ultra-filtration step characterizing its heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, as well as the density of the evaporator contents. The scope of the task was expanded to include the volume reduction factor across the waste feed evaporator (total evaporator feed volume/evaporator bottoms volume). All the physical properties were modeled as functions of the waste feed composition, temperature, and the high level waste recycle volumetric flow rate relative to that of the waste feed. The goal for the mathematical models was to predict the physical property to predicted simulation value. The simulation model approximating the FEP process used to develop the correlations was relatively complex, and not possible to duplicate within the scope of the bench scale evaporation experiments. Therefore, simulants were made of 13 design points (a subset of the points used in the model fits) using the compositions of the ultra-filtration feed streams as predicted by the simulation model. The chemistry and physical properties of the supernate (the modeled stream) as predicted by the simulation were compared with the analytical results of experimental simulant work as a method of validating the simulation software

  10. Research Update: Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks - Influence of structure and chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2014-12-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a young family of functional materials, have been attracting considerable attention from the chemistry, materials science, and physics communities. In the light of their potential applications in industry and technology, the fundamental mechanical properties of MOFs, which are of critical importance for manufacturing, processing, and performance, need to be addressed and understood. It has been widely accepted that the framework topology, which describes the overall connectivity pattern of the MOF building units, is of vital importance for the mechanical properties. However, recent advances in the area of MOF mechanics reveal that chemistry plays a major role as well. From the viewpoint of materials science, a deep understanding of the influence of chemical effects on MOF mechanics is not only highly desirable for the development of novel functional materials with targeted mechanical response, but also for a better understanding of important properties such as structural flexibility and framework breathing. The present work discusses the intrinsic connection between chemical effects and the mechanical behavior of MOFs through a number of prototypical examples.

  11. Fabrication and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.-K.; Hsieh, T.-H.; Tai, N.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have better physical and mechanical behavior than the traditional materials. In this study, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were added to the epoxy resin as a reinforcement to fabricate MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites. The pressure and temperature were applied to cure the MWNTs/epoxy compound by hot press method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio were measured. The effect of weight percentages of the MWNTs was investigated. Morphologies of the fracture surface of MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites were observed by scanning electron microscope

  12. Mechanical properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abd El-Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC has been widely used in both practical and laboratory applications. Selection of its components and their ratios depends, mainly, on the target mechanical and physical properties recommended by the project consultant. Partial replacement of cement in SCC with cheap available industrial by-product could produce environmentally durable concrete with similar properties of normal concrete. In the current research, SCC was produced by blending Cement Kiln Dust (CKD with cement in different ratios. Four mixes incorporating cement kiln dust with partial cement replacement of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were produced and compared with a control mix of Normally Vibrated Concrete (NVC. Superplasticizer was used to increase the flow-ability of SCC mixes. The fresh and hardened mechanical properties of all mixes were determined and evaluated. Moreover, time-dependent behavior was investigated for all mixes in terms of drying shrinkage test. The shrinkage strain was measured for all specimens for a period of 120 days. Based on the experimental results, it was found that SCC mixture containing 20% cement replacement of CKD exhibited the highest mechanical strength compared to other SCC mixes and NVC mix as well. It was observed that the volumetric changes of specimens were directly proportional to the increase of the cement replacement ratio.

  13. Physico-Mechanical Properties of Coprocessed Excipient MicroceLac® 100 by DM(3) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haware, Rahul V; Kancharla, Joseph P; Udupa, Aishwarya K; Staton, Scott; Gupta, Mali R; Al-Achi, Antoine; Stagner, William C

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of relative humidity (RH) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the physico-mechanical properties of coprocessed MacroceLac(®) 100 using 'DM(3)' approach. Effects of RH and 5% w/w HPMC on MacroceLac(®) 100 Compressibility Index (CI) and tablet mechanical strength (TMS) were evaluated by 'DM(3)'. The 'DM(3)' approach evaluates material properties by combining 'design of experiments', material's 'macroscopic' properties, 'molecular' properties, and 'multivariate analysis' tools. A 4X4 full-factorial experimental design was used to study the relationship of MacroceLac(®) 100 molecular properties (moisture content, dehydration, crystallization, fusion enthalpy, and moisture uptake) and macroscopic particle size and shape on CI and TMS. A physical binary mixture (PBM) of similar composition to MacroceLac(®) 100 was also evaluated. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), principle component analysis, and partial least squares (PLS) were used to analyze the data. MANOVA CI ranking was: PBM-HPMC > PBM > MicroceLac(®)100 > MicroceLac(®)100-HPMC (p TMS values were lower than MicroceLac(®)100 and MicroceLac(®)100-HPMC (p TMS. Significant MicroceLac(®)100 changes occurred with % RH exposure affecting performance attributes. HPMC physical addition did not prevent molecular or macroscopic matrix changes.

  14. Baseball Physics: A New Mechanics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kasey; Flanagan, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The game of baseball provides an interesting laboratory for experimenting with mechanical phenomena (there are many good examples in "The Physics Teacher," available on Professor Alan Nathan's website, and discussed in "Physics of Baseball & Softball"). We have developed a lab, for an introductory-level physics course, that…

  15. Mechanical and thermal properties of short-coirfiber-reinforced natural rubber/polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zh. H.; Kong, Zh. N.

    2014-07-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and polyethylene (PE) composites were compounded with chemically treated coir fibers by using a heated two-roll mill. Two chemical treatments of the fibers — by silane and sodium hydroxide — were carried out to improve the interfacial adhesion between them and the polyethylene matrix. The mechanical properties of the composites obtained were evaluated and compared with those made from a neat polymer and untreated fibers. The mechanical properties of the composites, such as the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and the elongation at break, were examined, and their shrinkage and flame retardant characteristics were measured. From these experiments, the effect of plasma treatment on the mechanical-physical behavior of coconut-fiberreinforced NR/PE composites was identified. In addition, their thermal characteristics were evaluated, and the results showed a slight decrease in them with increasing content of coir fibers.

  16. Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...

  17. Rock Burst Mechanics: Insight from Physical and Mathematical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vacek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock burst processes in mines are studied by many groups active in the field of geomechanics. Physical and mathematical modelling can be used to better understand the phenomena and mechanisms involved in the bursts. In the present paper we describe both physical and mathematical models of a rock burst occurring in a gallery of a coal mine.For rock bursts (also called bumps to occur, the rock has to possess certain particular rock burst properties leading to accumulation of energy and the potential to release this energy. Such materials may be brittle, or the rock burst may arise at the interfacial zones of two parts of the rock, which have principally different material properties (e.g. in the Poíbram uranium mines.The solution is based on experimental and mathematical modelling. These two methods have to allow the problem to be studied on the basis of three presumptions:· the solution must be time dependent,· the solution must allow the creation of cracks in the rock mass,· the solution must allow an extrusion of rock into an open space (bump effect. 

  18. Physical properties of organic soils. Chapter 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Don H. Boelter; Juhani Paivanen; Dale S. Nichols; Tom Malterer; Avi Gafni

    2011-01-01

    Compared with research on mineral soils, the study of the physical properties of organic soils in the United States is relatively new. A comprehensive series of studies on peat physical properties were conducted by Don Boelter (1959-1975), first at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) and later throughout the northern Lakes States to investigate how to express bulk...

  19. Physical mechanical and tablet formation properties of hydroxypropylcellulose: In pure form and in mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Dürig, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in pure form and in excipient mixtures and to relate its physical and chemical properties to tablet binder functionality. The materials used were Klucel hydroxypropylcellulose grades ranging from low to high molecular weight (80–1000 kDa) of regular particle size (250 µm mean size) and fine particle size (80 µm mean size). These were compared with microcrystalline cellulose, spray-dried lactose, and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate...

  20. SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED COMPOSITES TYPE OF POROUS PVC-METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies of selected physical and mechanical properties of hybrid materials type of polymer-metal. In the frame of this work modification of PVC with the iron and copper powder in amount of 0, 1.5 and 3% and blowing agent in amount of 0, 0.5, 1% was done. Extrudates in a form of pipe were tested to determine density, porosity, maximum tensile stress, stress at break, modulus of elasticity and elongation with break. The samples were also observed in a microscope. The studies have shown significant influence of the added components on the properties tested.

  1. Chronic alcohol abuse in men alters bone mechanical properties by affecting both tissue mechanical properties and microarchitectural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruel, M; Granke, M; Bosser, C; Audran, M; Hoc, T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-induced secondary osteoporosis in men has been characterized by higher fracture prevalence and a modification of bone microarchitecture. Chronic alcohol consumption impairs bone cell activity and results in an increased fragility. A few studies highlighted effects of heavy alcohol consumption on some microarchitectural parameters of trabecular bone. But to date and to our knowledge, micro- and macro-mechanical properties of bone of alcoholic subjects have not been investigated. In the present study, mechanical properties and microarchitecture of trabecular bone samples from the iliac crest of alcoholic male patients (n=15) were analyzed and compared to a control group (n=8). Nanoindentation tests were performed to determine the tissue's micromechanical properties, micro-computed tomography was used to measure microarchitectural parameters, and numerical simulations provided the apparent mechanical properties of the samples. Compared to controls, bone tissue from alcoholic patients exhibited an increase of micromechanical properties at tissue scale, a significant decrease of apparent mechanical properties at sample scale, and significant changes in several microarchitectural parameters. In particular, a crucial role of structure model index (SMI) on mechanical properties was identified. 3D microarchitectural parameters are at least as important as bone volume fraction to predict bone fracture risk in the case of alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical and morphological properties of different muscle-tendon units in the lower extremity and running mechanics: effect of aging and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to investigate whether chronic endurance running is a sufficient stimulus to counteract the age-related changes in the mechanical and morphological properties of human triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon units (MTUs) by comparing runners and non-active subjects at different ages (young and old), (ii) to identify adaptational phenomena in running mechanics due to age-related changes in the mechanical and morphological properties of the TS and QF MTUs, and finally (iii) to examine whether chronic endurance-running exercise is associated with adaptational effects on running characteristics in old and young adults. The investigation was conducted on 30 old and 19 young adult males divided into two subgroups according to their running activity: endurance-runners vs non-active. To analyse the properties of the MTUs, all subjects performed isometric maximal voluntary (MVC) ankle plantarflexion and knee extension contractions at 11 different MTU lengths on a dynamometer. The activation of the TS and QF during MVC was estimated by surface electromyography. The gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis and their distal aponeuroses were visualized by ultrasonography at rest and during MVC, respectively. Ground reaction forces and kinematic data were recorded during running trials at 2.7 m s(-1). The TS and QF MTU capacities were reduced with aging (lower muscle strength and lower tendon stiffness). Runners and non-active subjects had similar MTU properties, suggesting that chronic endurance-running exercise does not counteract the age-related degeneration of the MTUs. Runners showed a higher mechanical advantage for the QF MTU while running (lower gear ratio) compared to non-active subjects, indicating a task-specific adaptation even at old age. Older adults reacted to the reduced capacities of their MTUs by increasing running safety (higher duty factor, lower flight time) and benefitting from a mechanical

  3. Role of differential physical properties in emergent behavior of 3D cell co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbman, Dan; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    The biophysics of binary cell populations is of great interest in many biological processes, whether the formation of embryos or the initiation of tumors. During these processes, cells are surrounded by other cell types with different physical properties, often with important consequences. For example, recent experiments on a co-culture of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells suggest that the mechanical mismatch between the two cell types may contribute to enhanced migration of the cancer cells. Here we explore how the differential physical properties of different cell types may influence cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. To this end, we study a proof of concept model- a three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as elastic stiffness, contractility, and particle-particle adhesion, using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our results may provide insights into emergent behavior such as segregation and differential migration in cell co-cultures in three dimensions.

  4. Direct Comparison of Physical Properties of Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610 and B-1 Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesel, Sara; Grumbein, Stefan; Gümperlein, Ina; Tallawi, Marwa; Marel, Anna-Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Many bacteria form surface-attached communities known as biofilms. Due to the extreme resistance of these bacterial biofilms to antibiotics and mechanical stresses, biofilms are of growing interest not only in microbiology but also in medicine and industry. Previous studies have determined the extracellular polymeric substances present in the matrix of biofilms formed by Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610. However, studies on the physical properties of biofilms formed by this strain are just emerging. In particular, quantitative data on the contributions of biofilm matrix biopolymers to these physical properties are lacking. Here, we quantitatively investigated three physical properties of B. subtilis NCIB 3610 biofilms: the surface roughness and stiffness and the bulk viscoelasticity of these biofilms. We show how specific biomolecules constituting the biofilm matrix formed by this strain contribute to those biofilm properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the surface roughness and surface elasticity of 1-day-old NCIB 3610 biofilms are strongly affected by the surface layer protein BslA. For a second strain, B. subtilis B-1, which forms biofilms containing mainly γ-polyglutamate, we found significantly different physical biofilm properties that are also differently affected by the commonly used antibacterial agent ethanol. We show that B-1 biofilms are protected from ethanol-induced changes in the biofilm's stiffness and that this protective effect can be transferred to NCIB 3610 biofilms by the sole addition of γ-polyglutamate to growing NCIB 3610 biofilms. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of specific biofilm matrix components for the distinct physical properties of B. subtilis biofilms. PMID:26873313

  5. Studying physical properties of deformed intact and fractured rocks by micro-scale hydro-mechanical-seismicity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziperchikolaee, Samin

    The pore pressure variation in an underground formation during hydraulic stimulation of low permeability formations or CO2 sequestration into saline aquifers can induce microseismicity due to fracture generation or pre-existing fracture activation. While the analysis of microseismic data mainly focuses on mapping the location of fractures, the seismic waves generated by the microseismic events also contain information for understanding of fracture mechanisms based on microseismic source analysis. We developed a micro-scale geomechanics, fluid-flow and seismic model that can predict transport and seismic source behavior during rock failure. This model features the incorporation of microseismic source analysis in fractured and intact rock transport properties during possible rock damage and failure. The modeling method considers comprehensive grains and cements interaction through a bonded-particle-model. As a result of grain deformation and microcrack development in the rock sample, forces and displacements in the grains involved in the bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. In addition, geometric description of the complex pore structure is regenerated to predict fluid flow behavior of fractured samples. Numerical experiments are conducted for different intact and fractured digital rock samples, representing various mechanical behaviors of rocks and fracture surface properties, to consider their roles on seismic and transport properties of rocks during deformation. Studying rock deformation in detail provides an opportunity to understand the relationship between source mechanism of microseismic events and transport properties of damaged rocks to have a better characterizing of fluid flow behavior in subsurface formations.

  6. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun; He Shuojie; Lee, Imshik; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E * . The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E * -values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus

  7. A simple method to characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of micro-fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to characterize the electrical and mechanical properties of micro-fibres is presented here. As the required equipment can be found in many teaching laboratories, it can be carried out by physics and mechanical/electrical engineering students. The electrical resistivity, mass density and Young's modulus of carbon micro-fibres have been determined using this procedure, obtaining values in very good agreement with the reference values. Young's modulus has been obtained by measuring the resonance frequency of carbon fibre-based cantilevers. In this way, one can avoid common approaches based on tensile or bending tests which are difficult to implement for microscale materials. Despite the simplicity of the experiments proposed here, they can be used to trigger in the students interest regarding the electrical and mechanical properties of microscale materials. (paper)

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of promising polymer composites for food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah Ali, S. F.

    2016-07-01

    Blending starches with biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a route to make processable thermoplastics. When developing biodegradable polymer composites it is important to use high concentrations of starch for legislative and cost reasons. The addition of starch has a significant effect on all physical properties including toughness, elongation at break and the rheological behaviour of the melt. To enhance the physical properties, we used cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) as a cellulose derivative with high amylase starch and PCL blends. It is suggested that the PCL/starch/CAP blends are partially miscible. It was found that the yield tensile strengths of most PCL/Starch/CAP blends were higher than that of pure PCL itself. There was a big difference between glass transition temperature values of PCL/Starch/CAP blends and the pure PCL glass transition temperature which indicates that no phase separation occurs. Addition of CAP to starch and PCL blends improved the mechanical and thermal properties even at high content of starch.

  9. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  10. Sensing, Measuring and Modelling the Mechanical Properties of Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, S. J.; Olugbenga, A.; Ozerkan, N. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a hybrid framework for simulating the strength and dilation characteristics of sandstone. Where possible, the grain-scale properties of sandstone are evaluated experimentally in detail. Also, using photo-stress analysis, we sense the deviator stress (/strain) distribution at the micro-scale and its components along the orthogonal directions on the surface of a V-notch sandstone sample under mechanical loading. Based on this measurement and applying a grain-scale model, the optical anisotropy index K 0 is inferred at the grain scale. This correlated well with the grain contact stiffness ratio K evaluated using ultrasound sensors independently. Thereafter, in addition to other experimentally characterised structural and grain-scale properties of sandstone, K is fed as an input into the discrete element modelling of fracture strength and dilation of the sandstone samples. Physical bulk-scale experiments are also conducted to evaluate the load-displacement relation, dilation and bulk fracture strength characteristics of sandstone samples under compression and shear. A good level of agreement is obtained between the results of the simulations and experiments. The current generic framework could be applied to understand the internal and bulk mechanical properties of such complex opaque and heterogeneous materials more realistically in future.

  11. Physical-chemical property based sequence motifs and methods regarding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Werner [Friendswood, TX; Mathura, Venkatarajan S [Sarasota, FL; Schein, Catherine H [Friendswood, TX

    2008-09-09

    A data analysis system, program, and/or method, e.g., a data mining/data exploration method, using physical-chemical property motifs. For example, a sequence database may be searched for identifying segments thereof having physical-chemical properties similar to the physical-chemical property motifs.

  12. Properties and toughening mechanisms of PVA/PAM double-network hydrogels prepared by freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Kangkang; Dong, Xia; Qin, Chengling; Ji, Xinan; He, Jinxin

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that preparation method of hydrogels has a significant effect on their properties. In this paper, freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling were applied to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide (PVA/PAM) double-network hydrogels with covalently and physically cross-linked networks. The properties of these hydrogels were investigated and compared to control hydrogels. Results indicated that hydrogels fabricated by freeze-thawing show larger pores size and higher swelling capacity than those made by anneal-swelling and control hydrogels. Hydrogels prepared by anneal-swelling exhibit higher mechanical strength, energy dissipation, fracture energy, gel fraction and crystallinity than those made by freeze-thawing and control hydrogels. Physical cross-linking plays a key role in formation of physical-chemical double-network. The toughening mechanism of double-network hydrogel is related to their chain-fracture behavior and elasticity. The results also indicated that appropriate methods can endow hydrogels with specific microstructures and properties which would broaden current hydrogels research and applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 716.50 - Reporting physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical properties. Studies of physical and chemical properties must be reported under this subpart if... they investigated one or more of the following properties: (a) Water solubility. (b) Adsorption... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting physical and chemical...

  14. Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, George W; Spiess, Hans W

    1999-01-01

    This handbook is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the physics of liquid crystals. In over 500 pages it provides detailed information on the physical properties of liquid crystals as well as the recent theories and results on phase transitions, defects and textures of different types of liquid crystals. An in-depth understanding of the physical fundamentals is a prerequisite for everyone working in the field of liquid crystal research. With this book the experts as well as graduate students entering the field get all the information they need.

  15. Relationship of vibro-mechanical properties and microstructure of wood and varnish interface in string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi Gilani, Marjan; Pflaum, Johanna; Hartmann, Stefan; Kaufmann, Rolf; Baumgartner, Michael; Schwarze, Francis Willis Mathew Robert

    2016-04-01

    Wood varnish coatings not only are aesthetically important, but also preserve the musical instrument from wear and fluctuations in the ambient humidity. Depending on the thickness, extent of penetration into the wood and the physical and mechanical properties after hardening, varnishes may change the mechanical and also vibro-acoustical properties of the coated wood. Contrary to studies on the chemistry of the varnish and primer used for old and contemporary musical instruments, the physical and mechanical properties of the varnished wood in relation to the geometry of their interface have been poorly studied. We implemented non-destructive test methods, i.e., vibration tests and X-ray tomography, to characterize the hardening-dependent change in the vibrational properties of master grade tone wood specimens after coating with four different varnishes. Two were manufactured in the laboratory, and two were supplied from master violin makers. For a controlled accelerated hardening of the varnish, a UV exposure method was used. It was demonstrated that varnishes increase wood damping, along and perpendicular to the grain directions. Varnishes reduce the sound radiation along the grain, but increase it in the perpendicular direction. Changes in the vibrational properties were discussed together with results of 3D images of wood and varnish microstructure, obtained from a customized tabletop X-ray microtomographic setup. For comparison, the microstructure of the interface of the varnished wood in the laboratory and of specimens from two old violins was analyzed with the same X-ray tomography setup. Laboratory varnishes with various compositions penetrated differently into the wood structure. One varnish of a master grade old violin had a higher density and was also thicker and penetrated weaker into the wood, which is more likely related to a more sophisticated primer and varnish application. The study demonstrates the importance of the vibro-mechanical properties of

  16. Centrifugal forming and mechanical properties of silicone-based elastomers for soft robotic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Parth

    This thesis describes the centrifugal forming and resulting mechanical properties of silicone-based elastomers for the manufacture of soft robotic actuators. This process is effective at removing bubbles that get entrapped within 3D-printed, enclosed molds. Conventional methods for rapid prototyping of soft robotic actuators to remove entrapped bubbles typically involve degassing under vacuum, with open-faced molds that limit the layout of formed parts to raised 2D geometries. As the functionality and complexity of soft robots increase, there is a need to mold complete 3D structures with controlled thicknesses or curvatures on multiples surfaces. In addition, characterization of the mechanical properties of common elastomers for these soft robots has lagged the development of new designs. As such, relationships between resulting material properties and processing parameters are virtually non-existent. One of the goals of this thesis is to provide guidelines and physical insights to relate the design, processing conditions, and resulting properties of soft robotic components to each other. Centrifugal forming with accelerations on the order of 100 g's is capable of forming bubble-free, true 3D components for soft robotic actuators, and resulting demonstrations in this work include an aquatic locomotor, soft gripper, and an actuator that straightens when pressurized. Finally, this work shows that the measured mechanical properties of 3D geometries fabricated within enclosed molds through centrifugal forming possess comparable mechanical properties to vacuumed materials formed from open-faced molds with raised 2D features.

  17. The physical properties and compaction characteristics of swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Ogata, Nobuhide

    1990-01-01

    Expansive soils have recently attracted increasing attention as the back filling material for the repositories of high level nuclear wastes or as the material for improving extremely soft grounds. However, since very little has been known concerning the physical and mechanical properties of such materials, it is necessary to clarify the swelling, compaction and thermal characteristics of expansive soils. For this purpose, various kinds of index tests and a series of static compaction tests were performed using several kinds of swelling soils in order to investigate the relationship between the fundamental physical properties and the compaction characteristics. Since the ordinary testing method stipulated in JIS is difficult to perform for such expansive soils, the new method was proposed to obtained the reliable values of specific gravity, grain size distribution and liquid/plastic limits. By this method, some representative values were presented for various kinds of clay including bentonite. As the results of static compaction tests, the compaction characteristics of clay were strongly dependent on the plastic limit of clay. The maximum dry density and optimum water content were strongly dependent on both plastic limit and compaction pressure. (K.I.)

  18. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  19. Effect of grain boundary segregation on mechanical properties of p-doped Fe-Si base alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovec, J.; Jenko, M.; Pokluda, J.; Vlach, B.; Lejček, Pavel; Svoboda, Milan; Šandera, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 482, - (2005), s. 191-194 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/02/0253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Fe-Si alloys * phosphorus grain boundary segregation * mechanical properties * Auger electron spectroscopy * transmission electron microscopy * mechanical testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  20. Research Update: Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks – Influence of structure and chemical bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, a young family of functional materials, have been attracting considerable attention from the chemistry, materials science, and physics communities. In the light of their potential applications in industry and technology, the fundamental mechanical properties of MOFs, which are of critical importance for manufacturing, processing, and performance, need to be addressed and understood. It has been widely accepted that the framework topology, which describes the overall connectivity pattern of the MOF building units, is of vital importance for the mechanical properties. However, recent advances in the area of MOF mechanics reveal that chemistry plays a major role as well. From the viewpoint of materials science, a deep understanding of the influence of chemical effects on MOF mechanics is not only highly desirable for the development of novel functional materials with targeted mechanical response, but also for a better understanding of important properties such as structural flexibility and framework breathing. The present work discusses the intrinsic connection between chemical effects and the mechanical behavior of MOFs through a number of prototypical examples.

  1. Physical Properties of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds in relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical properties are very important in the design and manufacturing of processing machines. In this research work, the physical properties of Moringa were determined as design parameters for the development of an oil expeller for the crop. The properties were: length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric ...

  2. Theoretical physics 6 quantum mechanics : basics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to the basics of quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the physical understanding further on to quantized states. The first part of the book introduces wave equations while exploring the Schrödinger equation and the hydrogen atom. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the Dirac formulism of quantum mechanics. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this...

  3. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Marble sludge/natural rubber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible utilization of Marble Sludge (MS) in Natural Rubber (NR) composites, which would reduce both the environmental pollution and product cost. Marble waste in the form of sludge is taken from Mangopir Marble industrial area Karachi. The sludge was dried, grinded and passed through desire sieves (20, 37 and 75 micro m) and incorporated in the formulation of NR composites. The physical characteristics of dry MS were carried out in order to identify all components by instrumental techniques. Different micro sized particles of MS (20, 37 and 75 micro-m) were added with different loading (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 phr). Mechanical properties of MS filled NR composites were studied. It was found that tensile strength and tear strength increased with increasing the MS till 70 phr. Further addition of MS in the composites decreased both strengths. Elongation at break and rebound resilience decreased with increasing MS loading, while modulus, (100%, 200% and 300% elongation), hardness, compression set and abrasion loss increased with increase loading of MS. All mechanical properties of smaller micro size MS particle (20 micro-m) filled NR composites have higher values then 37 and 75 micro-m size particle. The results of mechanical properties after aging show that the tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break and rebound resilience values decreased while hardness, compression set and abrasion loss values increased. (author)

  4. The physical properties and ion release of CPP-ACP-modified calcium silicate-based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A E; Manton, D J; Parashos, P; Wong, Rhk; Palamara, Jea; Stanton, D P; Reynolds, E C

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the physical properties and ion release of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) and compared the properties of a trial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with two commercially available CSCs, Biodentine(™) and Angelus(®) MTA. The setting time, solubility, compressive strength and Vickers surface microhardness of the three CSCs incorporated with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/w) CPP-ACP were investigated. Release of calcium (Ca(2+) ), phosphate ions (Pi ) and pH of the test cements were measured after 24, 72, 168 and 336 h of storage. The addition of up to 1.0% CPP-ACP into Biodentine(™) and 0.5% into the other cements did not adversely affect their physical properties except for the setting time. The addition of 0.5% CPP-ACP increased Ca(2+) released from Biodentine(™) (after 168 and 336 h), Angelus(®) MTA (after 168 h) and the trial MTA (after 72 h). The addition of 1.0-3.0% CPP-ACP increased Ca(2+) and Pi released from all the cements. Biodentine(™) released more Ca(2+) particularly in the early stages and showed shorter setting time and higher mechanical properties than the other cements. The mechanical properties of Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA were similar. All the cements produced highly alkaline storage solutions. Up to 1.0% CPP-ACP in Biodentine(™) improves Ca(2+) and Pi release and 0.5% CPP-ACP in Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA improves Ca(2+) release without altering the mechanical properties and solubility. The addition of CPP-ACP into CSCs prolonged the setting time. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  6. Effect of reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotubes hybrid nanofillers in mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Kadambinee; Mahakul, Prakash C.; Subramanyam, B. V. R. S.; Raiguru, Jagatpati; Das, Sonali; Alam, Injamul; Mahanandia, Pitamber

    2018-03-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have tremendous interest as reinforcing fillers due to their excellent physical properties. However, their reinforcing effect in polymer matrix is limited due to agglomeration of graphene and CNTs within the polymer matrix. Mechanical properties by the admixture of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and CNTs in Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by solution mixing method has been investigated. The prepared samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The hybrid composite shows improvement in the mechanical properties compared to rGO/PMMA and MWCNTs/PMMA composites due to better interaction between rGO-MWCNTs and polymer matrix.

  7. Hydrate-Bearing Clayey Sediments: Morphology, Physical Properties, Production and Engineering/Geological Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Fine-grained sediments host more than 90 percent of global gas hydrate accumulation. However, hydrate formation in clay-dominated sediments is less understood and characterized than other types of hydrate occurrence. There is an inadequate understanding of hydrate formation mechanisms, segregation structures, hydrate lens topology, system connectivity, and physical macro-scale properties of clay-dominated hydrate-bearing sediments. This situation hinders further analyses of the global carbon budget as well as engineering challenges/solutions related to hydrate instability and production. This project studies hydrate-bearing clay-dominated sediments with emphasis on the enhanced fundamental understanding of hydrate formation and resulting morphology, the development laboratory techniques to emulate natural hydrate formations, the assessment of analytical tools to predict physical properties, the evaluation of engineering and geological implications, and the advanced understanding of gas production potential from finegrained sediments.

  8. Microstructures and mechanical properties of aging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, P.K.; Viswanathan, R.; Murty, K.L.; Simonen, E.P.; Frear, D.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains a collection of papers presented at the symposium on ''Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials,'' that was held in Chicago, IL. November 2-5, 1992 in conjunction with the Fall Meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS). The subjects of interest in the symposium included: (1) mechanisms of microstructural degradation, (2) effects of microstructural degradation on mechanical behavior, (3) development of life prediction methodology for in-service structural and electronic components, (4) experimental techniques to monitor degradation of microstructures and mechanical properties, and (5) effects of environment on microstructural degradation and mechanical properties. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation.

  10. Research on Wetting-Drying Cycles’ Effect on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Expansive Soil Improved by OTAC-KCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soil experiences periodic swelling and shrinkage during the alternate wet and dry environments, which will result in severe damage to the slope stability. In this study, a promising modifier OTAC-KCl is introduced, which has a good diffusivity and is soluble in water or other solvents easily. Firstly, a reasonable combination of ameliorant 0.3% STAC and 3% KCl is chosen referring to the free swell test. Then, the best curing period, 14 days, is gotten from UCS tests. The effect of wetting and drying cycles on engineering properties of expansive soil improved by OTAC-KCl admixtures after 14-day curing is also studied accordingly. Both treated and untreated expansive soil samples are prepared for the cyclic wetting-drying tests which mainly include cyclic swelling potential and cyclic strength tests. Experimental results show that the swelling potential of expansive soil samples stabilized with OTAC-KCl is suppressed efficiently, and the untreated soil specimens will collapse when immersed in water while the treated specimens keep in good conditions. Moreover, expansive soil samples modified with 0.3% OTAC + 3% KCl show enough durability on the swelling ability, shear strength, and unconfined compressive strength, which means, that both the physical and the mechanical properties of stabilized expansive soil have been improved effectively.

  11. Measurement of mechanical and thermophysical properties of dimensionally stable materials for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Suraj P.; Misra, Mohan S.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical, thermal, and physical property test data was generated for as-fabricated advanced composite materials at room temperature (RT), -150 and 250 F. The results are documented of mechanical and thermophysical property tests of IM7/PEEK and discontinuous SiC/Al (particulate (p) and whisker (w) reinforced) composites which were tested at three different temperatures to determine the effect of temperature on material properties. The specific material systems tested were IM7/PEEK (0)8, (0, + or - 45, 90)s, (+ or - 30, 04)s, 25 vol. pct. (v/o) SiCp/Al, and 25 v/o SiCw/Al. RT material property results of IM7/PEEK were in good agreement with the predicted values, providing a measure of consolidation integrity attained during fabrication. Results of mechanical property tests indicated that modulus values at each test temperature were identical, whereas the strength (e.g., tensile, compressive, flexural, and shear) values were the same at -150 F, and RT, and gradually decreased as the test temperature was increased to 250 F. Similar trends in the strength values was also observed in discontinuous SiC/Al composites. These results indicate that the effect of temperature was more pronounced on the strength values than modulus values.

  12. Facts at your fingertips introducing physics : mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Graham

    2011-01-01

    This series explains and illustrates the science of physics and its everyday applications. Physics is concerned with matter - the stuff from which everything is made - and with energy in all its forms. Mechanics deals with force and motion. In order for something to move a force must be involved, and when opposing forces are equal an object will be stationary.While this book deals primarily with mechanics it also describes levers and other simple machines. Numerous diagrams and practical experiments help to provide the perfect introduction to the science of physics.

  13. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  14. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling

  15. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesla, K. E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C

    2004-10-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and {beta}-sheets, in particular from increase of {beta}-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  16. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  17. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  18. Boron carbide reinforced aluminium matrix composite: Physical, mechanical characterization and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvanimoghaddam, K.; Khayyam, H.; Abdizadeh, H.; Karbalaei Akbari, M.; Pakseresht, A.H.; Ghasali, E.; Naebe, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the manufacturing of aluminium–boron carbide composites using the stir casting method. Mechanical and physical properties tests to obtain hardness, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and density are performed after solidification of specimens. The results show that hardness and tensile strength of aluminium based composite are higher than monolithic metal. Increasing the volume fraction of B_4C, enhances the tensile strength and hardness of the composite; however over-loading of B_4C caused particle agglomeration, rejection from molten metal and migration to slag. This phenomenon decreases the tensile strength and hardness of the aluminium based composite samples cast at 800 °C. For Al-15 vol% B_4C samples, the ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness of the samples that were cast at 1000 °C, are the highest among all composites. To predict the mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composites, two key prediction modelling methods including Neural Network learned by Levenberg–Marquardt Algorithm (NN-LMA) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) models are constructed based on experimental data. Although the results revealed that both mathematical models of mechanical properties of Al–B_4C are reliable with a high level of accuracy, the TPS models predict the hardness and tensile strength values with less error compared to NN-LMA models.

  19. Electroweak properties of particle physics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Ellis, N.; Falvard, A.; Fayard, L.; Frere, J.M.; Kuehn, J.H.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Roudeau, P.; Wormser, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 23th GIf school was held at Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France from 16 to 20 September 1991. The subject was large: Electroweak properties of heavy quarks. The second part has been devoted to B physics at hadron machines, search for Top, Charm particle physics and Quarkonium physics

  20. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the rubber wastes are an important part of municipal solid waste. This work focuses on the recycling of rubber waste, specifically rubber waste of used shoes discharged into the nature and added in the mass of crushed sand concrete with percentage (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The physical (workability, fresh density, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and thermal (thermal conductivity of different crushed sand concrete made are analyzed and compared to the respective controls. The use of rubber waste in crushed sand concrete contributes to reduce the bulk density and performance of sand concrete. Nevertheless, the use of rubber aggregate leads to a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, which improves the thermal insulation of crushed sand concrete.

  1. Mechanical properties data of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel for the experimental very high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo; Kikuyama, Toshihiko; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Kodaira, Tsuneo

    1978-11-01

    This is a collection of mechanical properties data of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel necessary for structural design and safety analysis of the pressure vessel of the Experimental Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). These include physical properties, mechanical properties, temper embrittlement, creep with fatigue, fracture toughness and irradiation effects. A review of the data shows the research areas to be carried out particularly in the future for more data. (author)

  2. Production of PVC/Abs/Nbr blend and the study of its physical and mechanical properties, thermal behaviour and its morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabzadeh, M.; Honarkar, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this research a product of triplet blend of polyvinyl chloride, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PVC/Abs/Nbr) is obtained. The physical, mechanical and thermal behaviour as well as morphology of the blend were studied. Results show that optimum properties in ratio PVC/Abs: 60/40 is obtained. For substituting the Nbr by a portion of Dop to modify the migration to surface, a triplet blend of PVC/Abs/Nbr was made. Experiments with constant amount of Nbr and variable Dop and vice versa were carried out. For preparation of triplet blend from PVC/Abs, a ratio of 60/40 was used. The best results were obtained for a blend with Nbr (10%) and PVC powder, 20% Nbr and PVC granules containing 34% Dop and the thermo formability of PVC/Abs/Nbr blend was examined as well

  3. SPATIAL CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND WEEDS IN TWO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Roberto Schaffrath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial correlation between soil properties and weeds is relevant in agronomic and environmental terms. The analysis of this correlation is crucial for the interpretation of its meaning, for influencing factors such as dispersal mechanisms, seed production and survival, and the range of influence of soil management techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial correlation between the physical properties of soil and weeds in no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems. The following physical properties of soil and weeds were analyzed: soil bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, aeration capacity of soil matrix, soil water content at field capacity, weed shoot biomass, weed density, Commelina benghalensis density, and Bidens pilosa density. Generally, the ranges of the spatial correlations were higher in NT than in CT. The cross-variograms showed that many variables have a structure of combined spatial variation and can therefore be mapped from one another by co-kriging. This combined variation also allows inferences about the physical and biological meanings of the study variables. Results also showed that soil management systems influence the spatial dependence structure significantly.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly degreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  5. Local microstructures, Hardness and mechanical properties of a stainless steel pipe-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carefully performed into the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties of the three zones (the base metal, heat affecting zone and weld metal) of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-welded joint. The local microstructures are observed by a metallurgical test and a surface replica technology, the local hardness values are measures by a random Vickers hardness test, and the local mechanical properties are characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood and modified Ramberg-Osgood stress-stain relations. The investigation reveals that there are significant differences of the three zones in the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the three zones in the local microstructure, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the weld metal. The weld metal exhibits the largest heterogeneity of local microstructures and monotonic mechanical properties, and the largest scatter of local hardness values. It is necessary to consider these difference and introduce the reliability method to model the scatter in the pipe analysis. In addition, it is verified that a columnar grain structure, which is made up of matrix-rich δ ferrite bands, can characterize the weld metal and the distance between the neighboring rich δ ferrite bands is an appropriate measurement of the columnar grain structure. This measurement is in accordance with the transition point between the microstructural short crack and physical small crack stages, which are generally used for characterizing the short fatigue crack behavior of materials. This indicates that the microstructure controls the fatigue damage character of the present material

  6. Tribological and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline-TiC/a-C nanocomposite thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Jindřich; Novák, P.; Čerstvý, R.; Soukup, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2010), s. 244-248 ISSN 0734-2101 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : nc-TiC/a-C nanocomposite * friction * mechanical properties * magnetron sputtering * wear Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.291, year: 2010

  7. Study of anisotropic mechanical properties for aeronautical PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shang

    Full Text Available For the properties of polymer are relative to its structure, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of the aeronautical PMMA which has been treated by the directional tensile technology. Isodyne images reveal the stress state in directional PMMA. And then, an anisotropic mechanical model is established. Furthermore, all mechanical parameters are measured by the digital image correlation method. Finally, based on the anisotropic mechanical model and mechanical parameters, the FEM numerical simulation and experimental methods are applied to analyze the fracture mechanical properties along different directions.

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of HSC with fine natural pozzolana as SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    KoÅ¥átková, Jaroslava; Čáchová, Monika; KoÅáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Reiterman, Pavel

    2017-07-01

    The paper is dealing with an influence of fine pozzolanic admixture supplementing a part of cement on various properties of high-strength concrete. The measured characteristics were basic physical properties, compressive strength and thermal properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity). Replacing the cement by the natural pozzolana in higher dosages leads to the higher porosity and thus to the lower compressive strength of the developed material. Conversely, in case of lower amounts of pozzolana (up to 10% of weight) such replacement has an opposite consequence, the open porosity decreases which results in the higher compressive strength. Taking into account thermal properties which are enhanced by an increase of amount of pores, it is evident that it is necessary to optimize the amount of pozzolana (pozzolanic) admixture in order to obtain reasonable mechanical and thermal properties.

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of sand stabilized by cement and natural zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatpoor, Sina; Jafarian, Yaser; Hajiannia, Alborz

    2018-05-01

    Loose sands are prone to lose their shear strength when being subjected to static or cyclic loads. To this end, there exist several methods to improve the mechanical properties of sands, but the most crucial and viable approach is the one with the lowest harmful environmental impact both in production and recycling processes. In this regard, zeolite as a natural pozzolanic additive offers an eco-friendly improvement in strength parameters of cemented sandy soils. Thereby, in this study, a series of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests are conducted to evaluate the mechanical parameters of the zeolite-cemented sand. The results demonstrate a meaningful increase in the UCS of the treated sand samples for replacement of cement by zeolite at an optimum proportion of 40% in specimens with 14 and 28 days curing time. The effectiveness of the improvement process is demonstrated by the strength improvement ratio which was up to be 128% to 209% for the samples with 14 and 28 days curing time, respectively. With regard to the above results, zeolite can be introduced as a promising cement substitute in stabilization of sandy ground including backfills, roadbed, embankments, and other structural filling systems.

  10. [Physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge cured by micro-wave heating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K

    1989-09-01

    A heating method using micro-waves was utilized to obtain strong thermosetting resin for crown and bridge. The physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin were examined. The resin was cured in a shorter time by the micro-waves heating method than by the conventional heat curing method and the working time was reduced markedly. The base resins of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge for the micro-waves heating method were 2 PA and diluent 3 G. A compounding volume of 30 wt% for diluent 3 G was considered good the results of compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. Grams of 200-230 of the filler compounded to the base resins of 2 PA-3 G system provided optimal compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. A filler gram of 230 provided optimal hardness and curing shrinkage rate, the coefficient of thermal expansion became smaller with the increase of the compounding volume of the filler. The trial thermosetting resin for crown and bridge formed by the micro-waves heating method was not inferior to the conventional resin by the heat curing method or the light curing method.

  11. Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of African Birch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Also, strength properties of African birch timber perpendicular to grain ... Air dried African birch (Anogeissus leiocarpus) ..... Forest Product Research Labouratory. ... America. 001 – 589. Ikram Mohamed, EE; Abdel Khalig, M; Hiba, AA;. Saad ...

  12. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  13. Physical and dielectric properties of irradiated polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, H.; Okamoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation in air and in nitrogen on the physical and dielectric properties of polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) has been studied by measurements of electric strength, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, tensile strength, gel fraction and molecular weight distribution. Electric strength of polypropylene was improved by irradiation, while dielectric properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) were virtually unaffected by irradiation of 1.0-20 Mrad. Possible mechanisms for increasing electric strength are discussed from the point of view of degradation and oxidation taking place simultaneously with crosslinking of polypropylene. The maximum dose level to improve the electric strength of polypropylene is determined to be about 5 Mrad. (author)

  14. Magnetorheological technology for fabricating tunable solid electrolyte with enhanced conductivity and mechanical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gangrou; Ge, Yu; Ding, Jie; Wang, Caiyun; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Ionogels are a new class of hybrid materials where ionic liquids are immobilized by macromolecular support. The excessive amount of crosslinking polymer enhances the mechanical strength but compromises the conductivity. Here, we report an elastomeric magnetorheological (MR) ionogel with an enhanced conductivity and mechanical strength as well. Following the application of magnetic nanoparticles into an ionic liquid containing minimum cross-linking agent, the formation, thus physical properties, of MR ionogels are co-controlled by simultaneously applied UV light and external magnetic field. The application of MR ionogels as solid electrolytes in supercapacitors is also demonstrated to study electrochemical performance. This work opens a new avenue to synthesize robust ionogels with the desired conductivity and controllable mechanical properties for soft flexible electronic devices. Besides, as a new class of conductive MR elastomers, the proposed MR ionogel also possesses the potential for engineering applications, such as sensors and actuators.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Organic Semiconductors for Stretchable, Highly Flexible, and Mechanically Robust Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Samuel E; Savagatrup, Suchol; Printz, Adam D; Rodriquez, Daniel; Lipomi, Darren J

    2017-05-10

    Mechanical deformability underpins many of the advantages of organic semiconductors. The mechanical properties of these materials are, however, diverse, and the molecular characteristics that permit charge transport can render the materials stiff and brittle. This review is a comprehensive description of the molecular and morphological parameters that govern the mechanical properties of organic semiconductors. Particular attention is paid to ways in which mechanical deformability and electronic performance can coexist. The review begins with a discussion of flexible and stretchable devices of all types, and in particular the unique characteristics of organic semiconductors. It then discusses the mechanical properties most relevant to deformable devices. In particular, it describes how low modulus, good adhesion, and absolute extensibility prior to fracture enable robust performance, along with mechanical "imperceptibility" if worn on the skin. A description of techniques of metrology precedes a discussion of the mechanical properties of three classes of organic semiconductors: π-conjugated polymers, small molecules, and composites. The discussion of each class of materials focuses on molecular structure and how this structure (and postdeposition processing) influences the solid-state packing structure and thus the mechanical properties. The review concludes with applications of organic semiconductor devices in which every component is intrinsically stretchable or highly flexible.

  16. Physically unclonable functions constructions, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are innovative physical security primitives that produce unclonable and inherent instance-specific measurements of physical objects; in many ways they are the inanimate equivalent of biometrics for human beings. Since they are able to securely generate and store secrets, they allow us to bootstrap the physical implementation of an information security system. In this book the author discusses PUFs in all their facets: the multitude of their physical constructions, the algorithmic and physical properties which describe them, and the techniques required to

  17. Mapping of mechanical properties of cast iron melts using non-destructive structuroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dočekal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is focused on mapping of mechanical properties using methods of non-destructive structuroscopy of cast irons, which are a result of research at TU of Liberec and Institute of Physics of ASCR. Investigated samples become from melts of FOCAM s.r.o Olomouc Foundry shop. It compares data of mechanical properties obtained using ultrasound method with data from magnetic spot method and MAT. These are interpreted by mathematic models applicable in practice. In the following it concerns to derivation of loading tensile curve method, which can be used to obtain yield and fatigue strength limits even for cast irons with flake graphite. In spite of promising results reported by literature the experiments are bothered with error. This method can be applied to structure checking both before casting and at vendor inspection of castings.

  18. Theoretical physics 2 analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to analytical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses.It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus expanding the knowledge in classical mechanics. The book starts with a thorough introduction into Lagrangian mechanics, detailing the d’Alembert principle, Hamilton’s principle and conservation laws. It continues with an in-depth explanation of Hamiltonian mechanics, illustrated by canonical and Legendre transformation, the generalization to quantum mechanics through Poisson brackets and all relevant variational principles. Finally, the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the transition to wave mechanics are presented in detail. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by ...

  19. Stochastic modelling in design of mechanical properties of nanometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengen, T.B.; Wejrzanowski, T.; Iwankiewicz, R.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline nanometals are being fabricated through different processing routes and conditions. The consequence is that nanometals having the same mean grain size may have different grain size dispersion and, hence, may have different material properties. This has often led to conflicting reports from both theoretical and experimental findings about the evolutions of the mechanical properties of nanomaterials. The present paper employs stochastic model to study the impact of microstructure evolution during grain growth on the mechanical properties of polycrystalline nanometals. The stochastic model for grain growth and the stochastic model for changes in mechanical properties of nanomaterials are proposed. The model for the mechanical properties developed is tested on aluminium samples.Many salient features of the mechanical properties of the aluminium samples are revealed. The results show that the different mechanisms of grain growth impart different nature of response to the material mechanical properties. The conventional, homologous and anomalous temperature dependences of the yield stress have also been revealed to be due to different nature of interactions of the microstructures during evolution.

  20. The anomalous physical and chemical properties of gold nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortie, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Although gold is the most inert of all metallic elements, it has been discovered during the last two decades that it has interesting properties as a nano-particle. Some of the properties of interest include its activity as a heterogeneous catalyst, particularly at low temperatures, its optical properties, and the tendency of its nano-particles to adopt non-crystallographic structures. There are a number of curious aspects to catalysis by gold that are attracting academic and industrial investigation and much is still not understood about the mechanism by which they work. For example, apparently similar preparation techniques result in activities of hugely varying magnitude. In the present talk I assess the what is known about gold nano-particles, with particular reference to their physical, electronic, crystallographic and catalytic properties. It is shown that there is much evidence in favour of the belief that it is the unique electronic structure of these particles that imbues them with catalytic activity. If this is true then tighter control of the electronic structure would allow for the design of more specific and more active catalysts

  1. Effect of tocopherols incorporation on physical properties of LDPE,PP and blend film of LDPE/PP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xuntao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of added tocopherols and blending of different polymers on the film physical properties.Tocopherols (3 000 mg/kg were incorporate into low density polyethylene (LDPE,polypropylene (PP and a blend film of LDPE/PP (50/50 by extrusion process.Then films were evaluated to determine tocopherol recovery and physical properties.Results showed that extrusion did not significantly change film thermal properties (Tm,Tc and Tg as compared with synthetic polymer resin pellet (raw material.LDPE and PP did not seem to react with each other to form new polymers under the current extrusion conditions.Addition of tocopherol significantly changed film mechanical properties compared with control.The above results and other data seemed to support that polymer blending is a feasible approach for producing tocopherol containing packaging films.

  2. Rheological and thermo-mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju Gupta; William Simmons; Gregory T. Schueneman; Donald Hylton; Eric A. Mintz

    2017-01-01

    Improving the processability and physical properties of sustainable biobased polymers and biobased fillers is essential to preserve its biodegradability and make them suitable for different end user applications. Herein, we report the use of spray-dried lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystals (L-CNCs), a biobased filler, to modify the rheological and thermos-mechanical...

  3. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mian; Zhang, Erlin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti-Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti-Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti-Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti2Ag was synthesized in Ti-Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti-Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti-Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti2Ag and its distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The physical properties of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Karimov, M.B.; Khuseynov, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors describe physical properties of glycerin. The pure glycerin presents syrup-vivid insipid transparent solution odorless and sweet on taste. The glycerin is very hygroscopic and can absorb from air till 40% moisture against its mass

  5. Mechanical properties of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1977-06-01

    A survey is given of the metallophysical fundamentals of the mechanical properties of ordered two-phase alloys. Alloys of this type have a superlattice structure in a substitution mixed crystal. Ordering is achieved by slow cooling or by annealing below the critical temperature, during which ordering domains (antiphase domains) are formed. At a high degree of ordering, the dislocations are concentrated to form pairs, so-called super-dislocations. The mechanical properties may be selectively changed by varying different parameters (size of the ordering domains, degree of ordering, energy of the antiphase boundaries) by a special composition and heat treatment.(GSC) [de

  6. Skin mechanical properties and modeling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joodaki, Hamed; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of the skin are important for various applications. Numerous tests have been conducted to characterize the mechanical behavior of this tissue, and this article presents a review on different experimental methods used. A discussion on the general mechanical behavior of the skin, including nonlinearity, viscoelasticity, anisotropy, loading history dependency, failure properties, and aging effects, is presented. Finally, commonly used constitutive models for simulating the mechanical response of skin are discussed in the context of representing the empirically observed behavior.

  7. The influence of physical activity during youth on structural and functional properties of the Achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenskjold, A; Kongsgaard, M; Larsen, J O

    2015-01-01

    were either physically active (HAY) or inactive (LAY) in young age. Twelve men in HAY group and eight men in LAY group participated. Structural, functional, and biochemical properties of Achilles tendon were estimated from magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound video recordings, mechanical tests...

  8. Physical and Frictional Properties of NERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and frictional properties of the seeds and husks of New Rice for Africa (NERICA were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 17%, and 20% (w.b. In the study, four varieties of NERICA namely; FARO 44, FARO 51, FARO 52 and FARO 57 were selected to represent the different size ranges common to NERICA. The physical properties of NERICA such as shape, size, volume, moisture contents, density, weights, surface area, aspect ratio and sphericity were obtained through physical measurement of the grains samples of each of the four varieties. Results of the physical measurements indicate that the size ranges for the varieties are as follows: FARO 44; 3.653mm to 3.858mm, FARO 51; 3.685mm to 3.916mm, FARO 52; 3.674mm to 3.863mm and FARO 57; 3.924mm to 4.019mm. Results of the frictional properties, shows that plywood material has the highest value of 28.4(1.36 = 33.0(1.41, 29.9(1.38 = 35.2(1.45 and 30.4(1.28 = 37.6(1.51 at 13%, 17% and 20% (w.b respectively, while plastic material has the lowest coefficient of friction value of 20.8(1.21 = 17.7(1.14, 19.4(1.17 = 21.8(1.24 and 21.3(1.24 = 22.9(1.26 at 13%, 17% and 20% (w.b respectively.

  9. Mechanical properties of chemically modified portuguese pinewood

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Duarte B; Mai, Carsten; Militz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    To turn wood into a construction material with enhanced properties, many methods of chemical modification have been developed in the last few decades. In this work, mechanical properties of pine wood were chemically modified, compared and evaluated. Maritime pine wood (Pinus pinaster) was modified with four chemical processes: 1,3-dimethylol-4,5- dihydroxyethyleneurea, N-methylol melamine formaldehyde, tetra-alkoxysilane and wax. The following mechanical properties were assessed experiment...

  10. Simultaneous Measurement of Multiple Mechanical Properties of Single Cells Using AFM by Indentation and Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Shi, Jialin; Wang, Wenxue; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2017-12-01

    The mechanical properties of cells, which are the main characteristics determining their physical performance and physiological functions, have been actively studied in the fields of cytobiology and biomedical engineering and for the development of medicines. In this study, an indentation-vibration-based method is proposed to simultaneously measure the mechanical properties of cells in situ, including cellular mass (m), elasticity (k), and viscosity (c). The proposed measurement method is implemented based on the principle of forced vibration stimulated by simple harmonic force using an atomic force microscope (AFM) system integrated with a piezoelectric transducer as the substrate vibrator. The corresponding theoretical model containing the three mechanical properties is derived and used to perform simulations and calculations. Living and fixed human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells were subjected to indentation and vibration to measure and compare their mechanical parameters and verify the proposed approach. The results that the fixed sample cells are more viscous and elastic than the living sample cells and the measured mechanical properties of cell are consistent within, but not outside of the central region of the cell, are in accordance with the previous studies. This work provides an approach to simultaneous measurement of the multiple mechanical properties of single cells using an integrated AFM system based on the principle force vibration and thickness-corrected Hertz model. This study should contribute to progress in biomedical engineering, cytobiology, medicine, early diagnosis, specific therapy and cell-powered robots.

  11. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Ueda (Japan); Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan); Natsuki, Jun [Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

  12. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Natsuki, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

  13. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less than 100 micron of whole dust; bulk density; particle density; and ash content. PMID:3709482

  14. 41 CFR 109-1.5110 - Physical inventories of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5110 Physical inventories of... items indicates that this action is necessary for effective property accounting, utilization, or control... property records, and with applicable financial control accounts. (j) The results of physical inventories...

  15. Effects of Static Magnetic Fields on the Physical, Mechanical, and Microstructural Properties of Cement Pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Bernal, Juan J.; Gonzalez-Mota, Rosario; Rosales-Candelas, Iliana; Ortiz-Lozano, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to comprehend the physical, mechanical, and microstructural behavior of cement pastes subjected to static magnetic fields while hydrating and setting. The experimental methodology consisted in exposing fresh cement pastes to static magnetic fields at three different magnetic induction strengths: 19.07, 22.22, and 25.37 Gauss. The microstructural characterization makes evident that there are differences in relation to amount ...

  16. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  17. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  18. Effect of Mechanical Alloying Atmospheres and Oxygen Concentration on Mechanical Properties of ODS Ferritic Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Choi, Byoungkwon; Han, Changhee; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Sukhoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Taekyu

    2013-01-01

    Finely dispersed nano-oxide particles with a high number density in the homogeneous grain matrix are essential to achieve superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and these unique microstructures can be obtained through the mechanical alloying (MA) and hot consolidation process. The microstructure and mechanical property of ODS steel significantly depends on its powder property and the purity after the MA process. These contents should be carefully controlled to improve the mechanical property at elevated temperature. In particular, appropriate the control of oxygen concentration improves the mechanical property of ODS steel at high temperature. An effective method is to control the mechanical alloying atmosphere by high purity inert gas. In the present study, the effects of mechanical alloying atmospheres and oxygen concentration on the mechanical property of ODS steel were investigated. ODS ferritic alloys were fabricated in various atmospheres, and the HIP process was used to investigate the effects of MA atmospheres and oxygen concentration on the microstructure and mechanical property. ODS ferritic alloys milled in an Ar-H 2 mixture, and He is effective to reduce the excess oxygen concentration. The YH 2 addition made an extremely reduced oxygen concentration by the internal oxygen reduction reaction and resulted in a homogeneous microstructure and superior creep strength

  19. New Physical Mechanism for Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artekha, Sergey N.; Belyan, Andrey V.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to electromagnetic phenomena in the atmosphere. The set of experimental data on the thunderstorm activity is analyzed. It helps to identify a possible physical mechanism of lightning flashes. This mechanism can involve the formation of metallic bonds in thunderclouds. The analysis of the problem is performed at a microphysical level within the framework of quantum mechanics. The mechanism of appearance of metallic conductivity includes the resonant tunneling of electrons along resonance-percolation trajectories. Such bonds allow the charges from the vast cloud charged subsystems concentrate quickly in lightning channel. The formation of metal bonds in the thunderstorm cloudiness is described as the second-order phase transition. A successive mechanism for the process of formation and development of the lightning channel is suggested. This mechanism is associated with the change in the orientation of crystals in growing electric field. Possible consequences of the quantum-mechanical mechanism under discussion are compared with the results of observations.

  20. Mechanical properties of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, A.J.; Hand, R.J.; Bingham, P.A.; Hyatt, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of nuclear waste glasses are important as they will determine the degree of cracking that may occur either on cooling or following a handling accident. Recent interest in the vitrification of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) as well as high level radioactive waste (HLW) has led to the development of new waste glass compositions that have not previously been characterised. Therefore the mechanical properties, including Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, hardness, indentation fracture toughness and brittleness of a series of glasses designed to safely incorporate wet ILW have been investigated. The results are presented and compared with the equivalent properties of an inactive simulant of the current UK HLW glass and other nuclear waste glasses from the literature. The higher density glasses tend to have slightly lower hardness and indentation fracture toughness values and slightly higher brittleness values, however, it is shown that the variations in mechanical properties between these different glasses are limited, are well within the range of published values for nuclear waste glasses, and that the surveyed data for all radioactive waste glasses fall within relatively narrow range.

  1. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  2. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  3. Mechanical and electro-mechanical properties of three-dimensional nanoporous graphene-poly(vinylidene fluoride composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional nanoporous graphene monoliths are utilized to prepare graphene-poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. Pre-treatment of the polymer (poly(vinylidene fluoride, PVDF with graphene oxides (GOs facilitates the formation of uniform and thin PVDF films with a typical thickness below 100 nm well coated at the graphene nano-sheets. Besides their excellent compressibility, ductility and mechanical strength, the nanoporous graphene-PVDF nanocomposites are found to possess high sensitivity in strain-dependent electrical conductivity. The improved mechanical and electro-mechanical properties are ascribed to the enhanced crystalline β phase in PVDF which possesses piezoelectricity. The mechanical relaxation analyses on the interfaces between graphene and PVDF reveal that the improved mechanical and electro-mechanical properties could result from the interaction between the –C=O groups in the nanoporous graphene and the –CF2 groups in PVDF, which also explains the important role of GOs in the preparation of the graphene-polymer nanocomposites with superior combined mechanical and electro-mechanical properties.

  4. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  5. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  6. Effects of lipids on enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed to understand effects of lipids, including corn oil (CO), soy lecithin (SL), palmitic acid (PA), stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LA), on the enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of normal corn (NCS), tapioca (TPS), waxy corn (WCS), and high-amylose corn (HA7) starch, and to elucidate mechanisms of interactions between the starches and lipids. After cooking with the lipids (10%, w/w, dsb), NCS, TPS, and HA7 showed significant decreases in enzymatic hydrolysis, and their DSC thermograms displayed amylose-lipid-complex dissociation peaks except with the CO. (13)C NMR spectra of amylodextrin with CO showed downfield changes in the chemical shifts of carbons 1 and 4 of the anhydroglucose unit, indicating helical complex formation. Generally, free fatty acids (FFAs) reduced, but SL increased the peak viscosities of starches. FFAs and SL decreased, but CO increased the gel strength of NCS. These lipids displayed little impacts on the enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of WCS because it lacked amylose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  8. [Comparative evaluation of physical-mechanical properties and surface morphology of the samples of base self cured acrylic resin "Redont-kolir" polymerized in the silicone and alginate matrixes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Determination of advantages of using silicone or alginate impression material as a matrix is decisive for quality of immediate and transitional dentures manufactured by the direct method using self-cured acrylic resins. The aim of this study was a comparative evaluation of physical-mechanical properties and surface morphology of the samples of base self-cured acrylic resin "Redont-kolir" polymerized in the silicone and alginate matrix. The samples were polymerized in the C-silicone - "Zeta plus-putty" ("Zhermack", Italy) and alginate -"Ypeen" ("Spofa Dental", Czech Republic) matrixes under different regimes: 1) in the pneumopolymerizer "Averon" at an air pressure of 3 atm., a temperature of 450C for 15 minutes, and 2) polymerization in water at 450C for 15 minutes. We determined the following physical and mechanical properties: bending load, toughness, bending stress at break, hardness by Heppler, conical point of fluidity and water absorption. Electron microscopy studies of the samples have been conducted on electronic raster microscope JSM-840 ("Jeol", Japan). As a result of studies, it was found that the optimum regime of polymerization for acrylate "Redont-kolir" is in the pneumopolymerizer "Averon" at an air pressure of 3 atm., a temperature of 450 C for 15 minutes. By the results of studying the surface morphology of the samples we can draw a conclusion that the use of an alginate impression material as matrix allows to obtain a qualitatively better surface of denture. But taking into account the technological properties of the alginate impression materials, namely an expressed shrinkage, their use for this purpose must be limited by the time during which the impression matrix remain stable in size, which is specified by manufacturer's recommendations.

  9. Mechanical properties and shape memory effect of thermal-responsive polymer based on PVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liulan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Guo, Yanwei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of content of glutaraldehyde (GA) on the shape memory behavior of a shape memory polymer based on polyvinyl alcohol chemically cross-linked with GA was investigated. Thermal-responsive shape memory composites with three different GA levels, GA-PVA (3 wt%, 5 wt%, 7 wt%), were prepared by particle melting, mold forming and freeze-drying technique. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and shape memory behavior were measured by differential scanning calorimeter, physical bending test and cyclic thermo-mechanical test. The addition of GA to PVA led to a steady shape memory transition temperature and an improved mechanical compressive strength. The composite with 5 wt% of GA exhibited the best shape recoverability. Further increase in the crosslinking agent content of GA would reduce the recovery force and prolong the recovery time due to restriction in the movement of the soft PVA chain segments. These results provide important information for the study on materials in 4D printing.

  10. Physical and structural properties and thermal behaviour of starch-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) blend films for food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Toro, Rodrigo; Contreras, Jessica; Talens Oliag, Pau; Chiralt A.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and physical properties (barrier, mechanical, and optical properties) and thermal behaviour of corn starch-PCL blend films, containing glycerol as plasticizer, obtained by compression moulding, at 160 °C and 130 bars, were studied. The stability on the films properties was also evaluated. Blend films showed phase separation of the polymers in a heterogeneous matrix with starch rich regions and PCL rich regions. Nevertheless, a small miscibility of PCL in the starch phase was detec...

  11. Physical and Degradable Properties of Mulching Films Prepared from Natural Fibers and Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic film in agriculture has the serious drawback of producing vast quantities of waste. In this work, films were prepared from natural fibers and biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for the conventional non-biodegradable plastic film used as mulching material in agricultural production. The physical properties (e.g., mechanical properties, heat preservation, water permeability, and photopermeability and degradation characteristics (evaluated by micro-organic culture testing and soil burial testing of the films were studied in both laboratory and field tests. The experimental results indicated that these fiber/polymer films exhibited favorable physical properties that were sufficient for use in mulching film applications. Moreover, the degradation degree of the three tested films decreased in the following order: fiber/starch (ST film > fiber/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA film > fiber/polyacrylate (PA film. The fiber/starch and fiber/PVA films were made from completely biodegradable materials and demonstrated the potential to substitute non-biodegradable films.

  12. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti–Ag sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mian [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti–Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti–Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti–Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti–Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti{sub 2}Ag was synthesized in Ti–Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti–Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti–Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti–Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3 wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti{sub 2}Ag and its distribution. - Highlights: • Ti–Ag alloy with up to 99% antibacterial rate was developed by powder metallurgy. • The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the

  13. Mechanics of neurulation: From classical to current perspectives on the physical mechanics that shape, fold, and form the neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayraghavan, Deepthi S; Davidson, Lance A

    2017-01-30

    Neural tube defects arise from mechanical failures in the process of neurulation. At the most fundamental level, formation of the neural tube relies on coordinated, complex tissue movements that mechanically transform the flat neural epithelium into a lumenized epithelial tube (Davidson, 2012). The nature of this mechanical transformation has mystified embryologists, geneticists, and clinicians for more than 100 years. Early embryologists pondered the physical mechanisms that guide this transformation. Detailed observations of cell and tissue movements as well as experimental embryological manipulations allowed researchers to generate and test elementary hypotheses of the intrinsic and extrinsic forces acting on the neural tissue. Current research has turned toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying neurulation. Genetic and molecular perturbation have identified a multitude of subcellular components that correlate with cell behaviors and tissue movements during neural tube formation. In this review, we focus on methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied to the study of amphibian neurulation that can be used to determine how molecular and physical mechanisms are integrated and responsible for neurulation. We will describe how qualitative descriptions and quantitative measurements of strain, force generation, and tissue material properties as well as simulations can be used to understand how embryos use morphogenetic programs to drive neurulation. Birth Defects Research 109:153-168, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Variability of mechanical properties of nuclear pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.; Soulat, P.

    1980-01-01

    Causes of variability of mechanical properties nuclear pressure vessel steels are reviewed and discussed. The effects of product shape and size, processing history and heat treatment are investigated. Some quantitative informations are given on the scatter of mechanical properties of typical pressure vessel components. The necessity of using recommended or standardized properties for comparing mechanical properties before and after irradiation in pin pointed. (orig.) [de

  15. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  16. Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Nielsen, C H; Hegnsvad, S

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous...... junction and Achilles-calcaneus osteotendinous junction i.e. in the free Achilles tendon. However, there has been no adequate ultrasound based method for quantifying the mechanical properties of the free human Achilles tendon. This study aimed to: 1) examine the mechanical properties of the free human...

  17. Mechanical Properties of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical properties are very important in the design of machines and the analysis of the behaviour of products during agricultural processing. In this research work, the mechanical properties of Moringa were determined as design parameters for the development of an oil expeller for the crop. The properties were the ...

  18. Fat properties during homogenization, spray-drying, and storage affect the physical properties of dairy powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolles, M L; Lopez, C; Madec, M N; Ehrhardt, J J; Méjean, S; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R

    2009-01-01

    Changes in fat properties were studied before, during, and after the drying process (including during storage) to determine the consequences on powder physical properties. Several methods were combined to characterize changes in fat structure and thermal properties as well as the physical properties of powders. Emulsion droplet size and droplet aggregation depended on the homogenizing pressures and were also affected by spray atomization. Aggregation was usually greater after spray atomization, resulting in greater viscosities. These processes did not have the same consequences on the stability of fat in the powders. The quantification of free fat is a pertinent indicator of fat instability in the powders. Confocal laser scanning microscopy permitted the characterization of the structure of fat in situ in the powders. Powders from unhomogenized emulsions showed greater free fat content. Surface fat was always overrepresented, regardless of the composition and process parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry melting experiments showed that fat was partially crystallized in situ in the powders stored at 20 degrees C, and that it was unstable on a molecular scale. Thermal profiles were also related to the supramolecular structure of fat in the powder particle matrix. Powder physical properties depended on both composition and process conditions. The free fat content seemed to have a greater influence than surface fat on powder physical properties, except for wettability. This study clearly showed that an understanding of fat behavior is essential for controlling and improving the physical properties of fat-filled dairy powders and their overall quality.

  19. Food mechanical properties and dietary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research has benefitted the fields of anthropology and engineering for decades: a classic example being the application of material science to the field of feeding biomechanics. However, after decades of research, discordances have developed in how mechanical properties are defined, measured, calculated, and used due to disharmonies between and within fields. This is highlighted by "toughness," or energy release rate, the comparison of incomparable tests (i.e., the scissors and wedge tests), and the comparison of incomparable metrics (i.e., the stress and displacement-limited indices). Furthermore, while material scientists report on a myriad of mechanical properties, it is common for feeding biomechanics studies to report on just one (energy release rate) or two (energy release rate and Young's modulus), which may or may not be the most appropriate for understanding feeding mechanics. Here, I review portions of materials science important to feeding biomechanists, discussing some of the basic assumptions, tests, and measurements. Next, I provide an overview of what is mechanically important during feeding, and discuss the application of mechanical property tests to feeding biomechanics. I also explain how 1) toughness measures gathered with the scissors, wedge, razor, and/or punch and die tests on non-linearly elastic brittle materials are not mechanical properties, 2) scissors and wedge tests are not comparable and 3) the stress and displacement-limited indices are not comparable. Finally, I discuss what data gathered thus far can be best used for, and discuss the future of the field, urging researchers to challenge underlying assumptions in currently used methods to gain a better understanding between primate masticatory morphology and diet. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Advanced ceramic composite for high energy resistors. Characterization of electrical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokh, Fattahi; Navid, Tagizadegan; Naser, Tabatabaei

    2005-01-01

    Full text : There is a need to characterize and apply advanced materials to improve the performance of components used in pulse power systems. One area for innovation is the use of bulk electrically conductive ceramics for non-inductive, high energy and high power electrical resistors. Standard Ceramics, Inc. has developed a unique silicon carbide structural ceramic composite which exhibits electrical conductivity. The new conductive bulk ceramic material has a controlled microstructure, which results an improved homogeneity, making the material suitable for use as a non-inductive, high energy resistor. The new material has higher density, highee peak of temperature limit and greater physical strength compared with bulk ceramics currently used for pulsed power resistors. This paper describes characterization of the material's physical and electrical properties and relates them to improvements in low-power density, as compared to existing components would be expected and derived from specific properties such as good thermal conductivity, high strength, thermal shock resistance and high temperature capability. The bulk resistor approach that weas proposed offers high reliability through better mechanical properties and simplicity of construction

  1. Thermo-Physical Properties of Selected Inconel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings results of examinations of main thermo-physical properties of selected Inconel alloys, i.e. their heat diffusivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, measured in wide temperature range of 20 – 900 oC. Themathematical relationships of the above properties vs. temperature were obtained for the IN 100 and IN 713C alloys. These data can be used when modelling the IN alloys solidification processes aimed at obtaining required structure and properties as well as when designing optimal work temperature parameters.

  2. Final report for the year 2001 on experimental and theoretical investigations of irradiation effects on physical and mechanical properties of iron and RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N

    2003-08-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on defect accumulation and physical and mechanical properties have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Specimens of pure iron and RAFM (reduced activation ferritic-martensic) steels were irradiated to different dose levels and at different irradiation temperatures. The resulting microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements. Mechanical properties were determined by uniaxial tensile testing. Dislocation-loop interaction, formation of rafts of loops, radiation hardening and formation of 'cleared channels' were studied using different computational techniques. Experiments have shown that nano-voids are formed both in pure iron and F82H steel already at 50 deg. C. In pure iron, the formation of nano-voids is detected already at a dose level of {approx}10{sup -3} dpa. Also in iron, self-interstitial atoms were found to accumulate in the form of glissile and sessile loops; at higher dose levels, these loops led to formation of rafts of loops. Irradiation led to an increase in the yield strength, a sudden drop in the yield stress, and, at higher doses, the initiation of plastic instability immediately beyond the upper yield point. Experimental as well as the results of computer simulations are found to be consistent with the cascade induced source hardening model.

  3. Final report for the year 2001 on experimental and theoretical investigations of irradiation effects on physical and mechanical properties of iron and RAFM steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.

    2003-08-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on defect accumulation and physical and mechanical properties have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Specimens of pure iron and RAFM (reduced activation ferritic-martensic) steels were irradiated to different dose levels and at different irradiation temperatures. The resulting microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements. Mechanical properties were determined by uniaxial tensile testing. Dislocation-loop interaction, formation of rafts of loops, radiation hardening and formation of 'cleared channels' were studied using different computational techniques. Experiments have shown that nano-voids are formed both in pure iron and F82H steel already at 50 deg. C. In pure iron, the formation of nano-voids is detected already at a dose level of ∼10 -3 dpa. Also in iron, self-interstitial atoms were found to accumulate in the form of glissile and sessile loops; at higher dose levels, these loops led to formation of rafts of loops. Irradiation led to an increase in the yield strength, a sudden drop in the yield stress, and, at higher doses, the initiation of plastic instability immediately beyond the upper yield point. Experimental as well as the results of computer simulations are found to be consistent with the cascade induced source hardening model

  4. Physical and mechanical properties of unidirectional plant fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B.; Lilholt, H.

    2003-01-01

    Unidirectional composites were made from filament wound non-treated flax yarns and polypropylene foils. With increasing composite fibre weight fractions from 0.56 to 0.72, porosity fractions increased from 0.04 to 0.08; a theoretical model was fitted to the data in order to describe the composite...... version of the "rule-of-mixtures", supplemented with parameters of composite porosity content and anisotropy of fibre properties, were developed to improve the prediction of composite tensile properties. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Modelling of physical properties - databases, uncertainties and predictive power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    in the estimated/predicted property values, how to assess the quality and reliability of the estimated/predicted property values? The paper will review a class of models for prediction of physical and thermodynamic properties of organic chemicals and their mixtures based on the combined group contribution – atom......Physical and thermodynamic property in the form of raw data or estimated values for pure compounds and mixtures are important pre-requisites for performing tasks such as, process design, simulation and optimization; computer aided molecular/mixture (product) design; and, product-process analysis...

  6. Modeling Instruction in AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Nathan Tillman

    This action research study used data from multiple assessments in Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism to determine the viability of Modeling Instruction as a pedagogy for students in AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism. Modeling Instruction is a guided-inquiry approach to teaching science in which students progress through the Modeling Cycle to develop a fully-constructed model for a scientific concept. AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism are calculus-based physics courses, approximately equivalent to first-year calculus-based physics courses at the collegiate level. Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, students were assessed in Mechanics using the Force Concept Inventory, Mechanics Baseline Test, and 2015 AP Physics C: Mechanics Practice Exam. With the same design, students were assessed in Electricity and Magnetism on the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment, Electricity and Magnetism Conceptual Assessment, and 2015 AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism Practice Exam. In a one-shot case study design, student scores were collected from the 2017 AP Physics C: Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism Exams. Students performed moderately well on the assessments in Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism, demonstrating that Modeling Instruction is a viable pedagogy in AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism.

  7. IMPROVING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPE BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kiernicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The researches on the use of biodiesel and fuel derived from waste plastics are presented in the paper. Biodiesel and fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. FAME is a bio-admixture in the fuel. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of the analyzed components of fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection in diesel engines fuelled by tested fuel blends was set out. The preparation of the fuel mixture was also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels.

  8. Review of research on the mechanical properties of the human tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Rong; Du, Wen; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Yu, Hai-Yang

    2014-01-01

    ‘Bronze teeth' reflect the mechanical properties of natural teeth to a certain extent. Their mechanical properties resemble those of a tough metal, and the gradient of these properties lies in the direction from outside to inside. These attributes confer human teeth with effective mastication ability. Understanding the various mechanical properties of human teeth and dental materials is the basis for the development of restorative materials. In this study, the elastic properties, dynamic mechanical properties (visco-elasticity) and fracture mechanical properties of enamel and dentin were reviewed to provide a more thorough understanding of the mechanical properties of human teeth. PMID:24743065

  9. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1995-01-01

    A composition and method of preparing YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T.sub.c. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  10. Change of mechanical properties of molybdenum after chemical heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, L.P.; Yatsimirskij, V.K.; Kirillova, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Gaseous media (argon, ammonia, nitrogen-hydrogen-ammonia mixture) are studied for their effect on mechanical characteristics of molybdenum at temperatures up to 1000 deg C. It is established that the highest hardening occurs when molybdenum is esposed in the nitrogen-hydrogen medium, while the highest lost of strength takes place in the ammonia medium. An increase of the ammonia concentration in nitrogen-hydrogen-ammonia mixture promotes regular increasing of the deformation rate. With ammonia concentration of 33.3% the gaseous mixture acts the same as pure ammonia. Change of physical-and-mechanical properties of molybdenum under the action of nitrogen-containing gaseous media is associated with formation of molybdenum compounds with nitrogen. During nitriding in ammonia an internal (volume) nitriding proceeds while in the medium of nitrogen-hydrogen mixture surface nitride layers form

  11. Snowmobile impacts on snowpack physical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, Steven R.; Heath, Jared T.; Venable, Niah B. H.; Elder, Kelly J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmobile use is a popular form of winter recreation in Colorado, particularly on public lands. To examine the effects of differing levels of use on snowpack properties, experiments were performed at two different areas, Rabbit Ears Pass near Steamboat Springs and at Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado USA. Differences between no use and varying degrees of snowmobile use (low, medium and high) on shallow (the operational standard of 30 cm) and deeper snowpacks (120 cm) were quantified and statistically assessed using measurements of snow density, temperature, stratigraphy, hardness, and ram resistance from snow pit profiles. A simple model was explored that estimated snow density changes from snowmobile use based on experimental results. Snowpack property changes were more pronounced for thinner snow accumulations. When snowmobile use started in deeper snow conditions, there was less difference in density, hardness, and ram resistance compared to the control case of no snowmobile use. These results have implications for the management of snowmobile use in times and places of shallower snow conditions where underlying natural resources could be affected by denser and harder snowpacks.

  12. A novel method to measure skin mechanical properties with three-dimensional digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Dela Cruz, J; Fthenakis, C; Saliou, C

    2018-06-06

    Measuring skin mechanical properties has been of great interest in the skincare industry. It is a high accuracy and non-invasive optical technique which quantitatively tracks skin movement and deformation under mechanical perturbations. A study was conducted with female subjects (25-65 years old). A refined speckle pattern applied onto the skin surface was used for DIC measurements. A unidirectional force pulled the skin at a constant velocity, while the deformation process was quantified by the DIC. Prior to the DIC measurement, Cutometer ® readings were taken on the same area. The DIC protocol's reproducibility across multiple pattern applications, the measurement's repeatability, and the sensitivity in differentiating skin mechanical properties were investigated. Subjects were clustered with statistical significance according to their skin mechanical properties described by six DIC metrics (μ [major strain], σ [major strain], μ [minor strain], σ [minor strain], μ [displacement], and σ [displacement]). Most measurement random errors are below 6%. This is several folds smaller in magnitude than the difference in the mean response between the clusters. Several Cutometer ® parameters also showed good agreement with μ (displacement). DIC was able to differentiate skins of different mechanical qualities. We also proposed the physical significance of the DIC metrics. Some of the DIC metrics potentially offer new insights into skin mechanical properties that complement those revealed by conventional instruments. Accurate measurements, large measurement areas along with ease of direct visualization are substantial advantages of DIC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationship between nano/micro structure and physical properties of TiO2-sodium caseinate composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Juan Manuel; Altamura, Davide; Candal, Roberto Jorge; Scattarella, Francesco; Siliqi, Dritan; Giannini, Cinzia; Herrera, María Lidia

    2018-03-01

    Films obtained by casting, starting from conventional emulsions (CE), nanoemulsions (NE) or their gels, which led to different structures, with the aim of explore the relationship between structure and physical properties, were prepared. Sodium caseinate was used as the matrix, glycerol as plasticizer, glucono-delta-lactone as acidulant to form the gels, and TiO 2 nanoparticles as reinforcement to improve physical behavior. Structural characterization was performed by SAXS and WAXS (Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, respectively), combined with confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of the lipid phase does not notably modify the mechanical properties of the films compared to solution films. Films from NE were more stable against oil release than those from CE. Incorporation of TiO 2 improved mechanical properties as measured by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) and uniaxial tensile tests. TiO 2 macroscopic spatial distribution homogeneity and the nanostructure character of NE films were confirmed by mapping the q-dependent scattering intensity in scanning SAXS experiments. SAXS microscopies indicated a higher intrinsic homogeneity of NE films compared to CE films, independently of the TiO 2 load. NE-films containing structures with smaller and more homogeneously distributed building blocks showed greater potential for food applications than the films prepared from sodium caseinate solutions, which are the best known films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, U.

    1995-04-25

    A composition and method are disclosed of preparing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T{sub c}. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  15. Sporulation environment influences spore properties in Bacillus: evidence and insights on underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric

    2018-05-17

    Bacterial spores are resistant to physical and chemical insults, which make them a major concern for public health and for industry. Spores help bacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions that vegetative cells cannot tolerate. Spore resistance and dormancy are important properties for applications in medicine, veterinary health, food safety, crop protection, and other domains. The resistance of bacterial spores results from a protective multilayered structure and from the unique composition of the spore core. The mechanisms of sporulation and germination, the first stage after breaking of dormancy, and organization of spore structure have been extensively studied in Bacillus species. This review aims to illustrate how far the structure, composition and properties of spores are shaped by the environmental conditions in which spores form. We look at the physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning how sporulation media and environment deeply affect spore yield, spore properties like resistance to wet heat and physical and chemical agents, germination, and further growth. For example, spore core water content decreases as sporulation temperature increases, and resistance to wet heat increases. Controlling the fate of Bacillus spores is pivotal to controlling bacterial risks and process efficiencies in, for example, the food industry, and better control hinges on better understanding how sporulation conditions influence spore properties.

  16. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. IX. Mechanical Properties of Dust Aggregates Probed by a Solid-projectile Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic characterization of mechanical properties of dust aggregates has been one of the most important problems to quantitatively discuss the dust growth in protoplanetary disks. We experimentally investigate the dynamic properties of dust aggregates by low-speed (≤slant 3.2 m s-1) impacts of solid projectiles. Spherical impactors made of glass, steel, or lead are dropped onto a dust aggregate with a packing fraction of ϕ = 0.35 under vacuum conditions. The impact results in cratering or fragmentation of the dust aggregate, depending on the impact energy. The crater shape can be approximated by a spherical segment and no ejecta are observed. To understand the underlying physics of impacts into dust aggregates, the motion of the solid projectile is acquired by a high-speed camera. Using the obtained position data of the impactor, we analyze the drag-force law and dynamic pressure induced by the impact. We find that there are two characteristic strengths. One is defined by the ratio between impact energy and crater volume and is ≃120 kPa. The other strength indicates the fragmentation threshold of dynamic pressure and is ≃10 kPa. The former characterizes the apparent plastic deformation and is consistent with the drag force responsible for impactor deceleration. The latter corresponds to the dynamic tensile strength to create cracks. Using these results, a simple model for the compaction and fragmentation threshold of dust aggregates is proposed. In addition, the comparison of drag-force laws for dust aggregates and loose granular matter reveals the similarities and differences between the two materials.

  17. Physical-Mechanical characterization of cosmetic formulations and correlation between instrumental measurements and sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, L S; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2017-10-01

    The correct choice of raw materials in the development of cosmetic formulations is essential for obtaining stable and pleasant skin care products. Therefore, rheological, texture and sensory analyses are important to understand the behaviour and stability of the formulations. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop cosmetic formulations containing or not (vehicle) UV filters and chicory root extract, to evaluate their stability as well as to characterize their physical and texture properties and correlate them with the sensory attributes. Four formulations containing organic UV filters and chicory extract, each alone or in combination, were developed and evaluated for 180 days with a cone and plate rheometer, a texture analyzer and consumer's sensorial analysis. Thus, the data obtained were correlated to observe the different influences. The developed formulations remained stable after 180 days regarding macroscopic aspects, organoleptic characteristics and pH values. The addition of the UV filters alone and in combination with the active substance resulted in significant increases in rheology properties, viscosity and consistency. The formulation with the active ingredient showed significant decreases in the texture parameters after 180 days, mainly due to its polysaccharide inulin. All formulations obtained high scores in sensorial parameters. A strong correlation was mainly found between spreadability and work of shear, and between the texture parameters. The raw materials strongly influenced the physical, texture and sensorial parameters. Finally, the UV filters showed a greater influence on the results of the formulations than the chicory root extract. In conclusion, the association of the mentioned methods allows the correct choice of ingredients and their combinations. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Physical fracture properties (fracture surfaces as information sources; crackgrowth and fracture mechanisms; exemples of cracks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, Lucienne.

    1979-06-01

    Fracture surfaces are considered as a useful source of informations: an introduction to fractography is presented; the fracture surface may be observed through X ray microanalysis, and other physical methods such as Auger electron spectroscopy or secundary ion emission. The mechanisms of macroscopic and microscopic crackgrowth and fracture are described, in the case of unstable fracture (cleavage, ductile with shear, intergranular brittleness) and of progressive crack propagation (creep, fatigue). Exemples of cracks are presented in the last chapter [fr

  19. The effects of ZrO2 nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties of high strength self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and coefficient of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ZrO2 nanoparticles have been investigated. The results indicate that the strength and the resistance to water permeability of the specimens are improved by adding ZrO2 nanoparticles in the cement paste up to 4.0 wt. (%. ZrO2 nanoparticles, as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount especially at the early age of hydration, could accelerate C-S-H gel formation and hence increase the strength of the concrete specimens. In addition, ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to act as nanofillers and recover the pore structure of the specimens by decreasing harmful pores. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  20. Replacement of quartz in cementitious composites using PET particles:A statistical analysis of the physical and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Detomi, Anine Cristina; Filho, Sergio Luiz Moni Ribeiro; Panzera, Túlio H C; Schiavon, Marco Antonio; Silva, Vania R V; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the mechanical behavior of cementitious composites (mortar) when quartz inclusions are totally or partially replaced with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles. A full factorial design is performed to identify the effect of the water/cement ratio and the range of quartz particles size used in the replacement on the different mechanical and physical parameters (bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, oxygen permeability, compressive strength, and modulus ...

  1. Physico-mechanical properties of silanized-montmorillonite reinforced chitosan-co-poly(maleic anhydride) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, O. A.; Fajrin, A.; Nauqinida, M.; Suryanti, V.; Pramono, E.

    2017-07-01

    To solve the problems of dependence on petroleum as starting material in the manufacturing of plastics in Indonesia, green plastic from biopolymer like chitosan to be one of promising options and alternative to replace the conventional plastics. However, to overcome the mechanical and physical properties of chitosan, the addition of reinforcement agent was introduced. In this study, silanized-montmorillonite (sMMt) has been prepared as a reinforcement agent in the chitosan-co-poly(maleic anhydride) (referred as Cs-MAH) matrix. Silanizing of montmorillonite is one of strategy to improve the interaction between montmorillonite and chitosan, consequently, the mechanical properties, tensile strength of composites contained 6 phr of sMMt improved 56.5% to chitosan. Moreover, the presence both MAH and sMMt on the comosites also reduced swelling degree and swelling area by 20.6% and 26.7%.

  2. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of kefiran biopolymer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, Iman; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hossein

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effect of different γ-ray dosages (3, 6, and 9 kGy) on the functional properties of kefiran biopolymer was investigated. The obtained results showed that increasing γ-ray dosage brought about an increase in the tensile strength of film specimens up to three-times. However, elongation at break, and tensile energy to break of γ-irradiated kefiran films decreased in the wake of increasing γ-ray dosage. γ-Irradiation could improve surface hydrophobicity, sensitivity of kefiran film specimens to water, and water vapor permeability, but yellowness of films increased, simultaneously. XRD spectrum confirmed increased crystallinity of γ-irradiated films. Melting point of films was constant but glass transition temperature decreased drastically at high γ-ray dosage (9 kGy). ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that γ-ray engendered no changes in chemical functional groups. According to the result, a mechanism was proposed to percept the effects of γ-irradiation on kefiran biopolymer and its role on the functional properties of kefiran film. Hence, the functional properties of kefiran films were depend on the ratio of cross-linkages between polymer chains and produced mono and disaccharide by γ-irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical-mechanical and anatomical characterization in 26-year-old Eucalyptus resinifera wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Israel Luiz de; Longui,Eduardo Luiz; Freitas,Miguel Luiz Menezes; Zanatto,Antonio Carlos Scatena; Zanata,Marcelo; Florsheim,Sandra Monteiro Borges; Bortoletto Jr.,Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to characterize Eucalyptus resinifera wood through physical and mechanical assays and wood anatomy studies, as well as determine the relationships between the properties and anatomy of wood. We used samples collected from the area close to the bark of ten 26-year-old E. resinifera trees. We concluded that the specific gravity (Gb), compression (f c0), and shear parallel to grain (f v0) were ranked in strength classes C30, C40 and C60, respectively, and that volu...

  4. Optimization of mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of wrought Ti-3Cu alloy by heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianmian Bao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous study has shown that Ti-3Cu alloy shows good antibacterial properties (>90% antibacterial rate, but the mechanical properties still need to be improved. In this paper, a series of heat-treatment processes were selected to adjust the microstructure in order to optimize the properties of Ti-3Cu alloy. Microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of wrought Ti-3Cu alloy at different conditions was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical measurements, tensile test, fatigue test and antibacterial test. Heat treatment could significantly improve the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial rate due to the redistribution of copper elements and precipitation of Ti2Cu phase. Solid solution treatment increased the yield strength from 400 to 740 MPa and improved the antibacterial rate from 33% to 65.2% while aging treatment enhanced the yield strength to 800–850 MPa and antibacterial rate (>91.32%. It was demonstrated that homogeneous distribution and fine Ti2Cu phase plays a very important role in mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties.

  5. Optimization of mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of wrought Ti-3Cu alloy by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Mianmian; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lei; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Erlin

    2018-03-01

    Previous study has shown that Ti-3Cu alloy shows good antibacterial properties (>90% antibacterial rate), but the mechanical properties still need to be improved. In this paper, a series of heat-treatment processes were selected to adjust the microstructure in order to optimize the properties of Ti-3Cu alloy. Microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of wrought Ti-3Cu alloy at different conditions was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical measurements, tensile test, fatigue test and antibacterial test. Heat treatment could significantly improve the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial rate due to the redistribution of copper elements and precipitation of Ti 2 Cu phase. Solid solution treatment increased the yield strength from 400 to 740 MPa and improved the antibacterial rate from 33% to 65.2% while aging treatment enhanced the yield strength to 800-850 MPa and antibacterial rate (>91.32%). It was demonstrated that homogeneous distribution and fine Ti 2 Cu phase plays a very important role in mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties.

  6. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  7. The physics of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of Quantum Mechanics aims to give students a good understanding of how quantum mechanics describes the material world. It shows that the theory follows naturally from the use of probability amplitudes to derive probabilities. It stresses that stationary states are unphysical mathematical abstractions that enable us to solve the theory's governing equation, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Every opportunity is taken to illustrate the emergence of the familiarclassical, dynamical world through the quantum interference of stationary states. The text stresses the continuity be

  8. Primary physical mechanism of different magnetic fields action on roots of some plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sheykina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the magnetic field action on biological object is proved now by many experiments it cannot be explained. The counterarguments are the small value of magnetic induction, that is effective for static magnetic field and the small value of ions free path length for ion cyclotron resonance presence.   Objectives of the article were to generalize all the results that had been obtained before in static, alternative and combined magnetic fields and to explain all results by one and the same primary physical mechanism. Materials and methods that were used to obtain experimental results were based on the using of well reproducible magnetic conditions. For this purpose 3 lays µ-metal shield and superconductive shield with warm volume were used. The artificial magnetic field was created in the shield. The objects of the investigation were roots of cress, maize and pea. Their gravitropic reaction was studied. Results and discussion: All experimental results were compared with the theories and calculations maid before and following from the three mechanisms proposed below.  It was shown that there were three physical primary mechanisms that could lead to effect of low frequency alternative and combined magnetic fields and permanent magnetic field on gravitropic reaction in plants. All of them depended on the relative location of roots, gravity and components of permanent and alternative magnetic fields between themselves. The first mechanism is based on the classic model of the rotation of ions in the plane that is perpendicular to the magnetic field direction or precession of magnetic moments round the direction of magnetic field vector. The second mechanism is connected with the piezoelectric properties of starch grain (porous piezoelectricity. This property of starch may create the change in the moving of starch grains in alternative and combined magnetic fields, and even in static one. The third mechanism is caused by the phase

  9. Influence of Surface Coating of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarar, Ecem; Karakas, Gizem; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Malta, Seyda

    Polymer nanocomposites have emerged as promising materials due to improved properties when compared with conventional bulk polymers. Nanofillers are natural or synthetic organic/inorganic particles that are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. Even the addition of trace amounts of nanofillers to polymers may lad to unique combinations of properties. Among variety of inorganic nanofillers, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest due to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as low toxicity, biocompatibility, large magnetization and conductivity, owing to their extremely small size and large specific surface area. In this study, approximately 8-10 nm magnetic nanoparticles coated with either citric acid or oleic acid are synthesized and blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The hydrophobicity/hydrophillicity of the polymer and the surface coating on the iron oxide nanoparticles are exploited to control the dispersion state of nanoparticles, and the effect of dispersion on mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite are investigated via experimental methods such as dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730 and TUBITAK 112M666.

  10. Structure–mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik, E-mail: odas566@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes, E-mail: d.bhattacharyya@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X–ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900 °C and 60 min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01 GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥ 500 °C) temperature and longer residence time (~ 60 min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. - Highlights: • Characterization was done on waste based biochars which included nanoindentation. • Pine saw dust biochar made at 900 °C for 60 min had highest hardness/modulus. • Combination of temperature/residence time affect biochar's mechanical propertie.s • Aromaticity and crystallinity positively affected biochar's mechanical properties.

  11. Structure–mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-01-01

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X–ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900 °C and 60 min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01 GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥ 500 °C) temperature and longer residence time (~ 60 min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. - Highlights: • Characterization was done on waste based biochars which included nanoindentation. • Pine saw dust biochar made at 900 °C for 60 min had highest hardness/modulus. • Combination of temperature/residence time affect biochar's mechanical propertie.s • Aromaticity and crystallinity positively affected biochar's mechanical properties.

  12. Mechanical properties of silk of the Australian golden orb weavers Nephila pilipes and Nephilaplumipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Genevieve G; Nahrung, Helen F; Wiegand, Aaron; Kristoffersen, Joanna; Killen, Peter; Brown, Cameron; Macdonald, Joanne

    2018-02-22

    Silks from orb-weaving spiders are exceptionally tough, producing a model polymer for biomimetic fibre development. The mechanical properties of naturally spun silk threads from two species of Australian orb-weavers, Nephila pilipes and Nephila plumipes , were examined here in relation to overall thread diameter, the size and number of fibres within threads, and spider size. N. pilipes , the larger of the two species, had significantly tougher silk with higher strain capacity than its smaller congener, producing threads with average toughness of 150 MJ m -3 , despite thread diameter, mean fibre diameter and number of fibres per thread not differing significantly between the two species. Within N. pilipes , smaller silk fibres were produced by larger spiders, yielding tougher threads. In contrast, while spider size was correlated with thread diameter in N. plumipes , there were no clear patterns relating to silk toughness, which suggests that the differences in properties between the silk of the two species arise through differing molecular structure. Our results support previous studies that found that the mechanical properties of silk differ between distantly related spider species, and extends on that work to show that the mechanical and physical properties of silk from more closely related species can also differ remarkably. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Influence of CaCO3, Al2O3, and TiO2 microfillers on physico-mechanical properties of Luffa cylindrica/polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Patel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites has gained popularity in many applications due to their environment friendly characteristics over the synthetic fibre based polymer composites. This paper describes the fabrication and physical, mechanical, three-body abrasive wear and water absorption behaviour of Luffa fibre reinforced polyester composites with and without addition of micro-fillers of Al2O3, CaCO3 and TiO2. The ranking of the composite materials has been made by using Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method with output parameters of their physical, mechanical and abrasive wear and water absorption attributes. The addition of microfillers has enhanced greatly the physical and mechanical properties of Luffa-fibre based composites. The addition of microfillers has influenced the physico-mechanical properties of Luffa-fibre based polyester composites in descending order of CaCO3, Al2O3, and TiO2.

  14. Effect of friction stir welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of DSS–Cu joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, V., E-mail: v.shokri@modares.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-02

    Dissimilar joining of copper to duplex stainless steel (DSS) is challenging at high temperatures of fusion welding owing to the large difference in physical properties of the base metals. To reduce negative effects of welding at high temperatures, solid state welding at lower temperatures has been proposed. To study different effects of welding parameters (rotation speed, travel speed and tool offset) on weld zone microstructure and mechanical properties butt joints of a copper alloy and duplex stainless steel (DSS) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW). It has been found that heat input generated by the interaction of different welding conditions has a significant effect on the formation of a brittle intermetallic at the interface and eventually the final mechanical properties. At low heat inputs, mixing of the two sides is insufficient and metallurgical bonding is weak; while at high heat inputs, the thickness of the formed intermetallic is too thick which causes stress concentration at the interface and premature failure. An optimum welding condition was found (rotation speed of 1200 rpm, travel speed of 30 mm/min and tool offset of 0.5 mm) which almost reached the mechanical properties of the Cu-alloy monolayer.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  16. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Seifi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.

  17. Eucalyptus wood and coffee parchment for particleboard production: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Vanoli Scatolino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The wood panel industry is constantly growing, being necessary the innovation in technologies and raw materials to improve the quality of the final product. Considering the shortage and pressure to decrease the dependence of wood, there is an interest in other renewable materials such as agricultural wastes. Among these wastes, coffee parchment is one which deserves notoriety. An alternative use for coffee parchment could be for production of particleboard in association with wood particles. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee parchment for production of particleboard. The following percentages of wastes were used: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in association to eucalyptus wood. The panels were produced with 8% of urea formaldehyde (based on dry weight of particles. The pressing cycle consisted by: pre-pressing of 0.5 MPa for 10 minutes followed by pressing of 4.0 MPa, and temperature of 160° C for 15 minutes. The compaction ratio of particleboards produced using higher quantities of parchment improved the physical properties. The properties of Water Absorption (2 and 24 h and Thickness Swelling (2 h decreased with increasing percentage of coffee parchment. The Thickness Swelling (24 h showed not significant effect with an increase of coffee waste. The Modulus of Elasticity for coffee parchment particleboards was in the range 646.49 ± 112.65 to 402.03 ± 66.24 MPa, while the Modulus of Rupture ranged from 8.18 ± 1.39 to 4.45 ± 0.75 MPa. The results showed that 10% of coffee parchment could be added for production of particleboards.

  18. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  19. Mechanical properties of fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1993-05-01

    Available data on mechanical characteristics of fracture zones are compiled and discussed. The aim is to improve the basis for adequate representation of fracture zones in geomechanical models. The sources of data researched are primarily borehole investigations and case studies in rock engineering, involving observations of fracture zones subjected to artificial load change. Boreholes only yield local information about the components of fracture zones, i.e. intact rock, fractures and various low-strength materials. Difficulties are therefore encountered in evaluating morphological and mechanical properties of fracture zones from borehole data. Although often thought of as macroscopically planar features, available field data consistently show that fracture zones are characterized by geometrical irregularities such as thickness variations, surface undulation and jogs. These irregularities prevail on all scales. As a result, fracture zones are on all scales characterized by large, in-plane variation of strength- and deformational properties. This has important mechanical consequences in terms of non-uniform stress transfer and complex mechanisms of shear deformation. Field evidence for these findings, in particular results from the underground research laboratory in Canada and from studies of induced fault slip in deep mines, is summarized and discussed. 79 refs

  20. Mechanical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of concrete containing self-curing agents are investigated in this paper. In this study, two materials were selected as self-curing agents with different amounts, and the addition of silica fume was studied. The self-curing agents were, pre-soaked lightweight aggregate (Leca; 0.0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of volume of sand; or polyethylene-glycol (Ch.; 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement. To carry out this study the cement content of 300, 400, 500 kg/m3, water/cement ratio of 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 and 0.0%, 15% silica fume of weight of cement as an additive were used in concrete mixes. The mechanical properties were evaluated while the concrete specimens were subjected to air curing regime (in the laboratory environment with 25 °C, 65% R.H. during the experiment. The results show that, the use of self-curing agents in concrete effectively improved the mechanical properties. The concrete used polyethylene-glycol as self-curing agent, attained higher values of mechanical properties than concrete with saturated Leca. In all cases, either 2% Ch. or 15% Leca was the optimum ratio compared with the other ratios. Higher cement content and/or lower water/cement ratio lead(s to more efficient performance of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into self-curing concrete mixture enhanced all mechanical properties, not only due to its pozzolanic reaction, but also due to its ability to retain water inside concrete.

  1. Inner-shell physics after fifty years of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzbacher, E.

    1976-01-01

    A historical view is given of how the development of quantum mechanics has been affected by the information relating to inner shells, gathered by physicists since the early days of atomic physics, and of the impact of quantum mechanics on the physics of inner atomic shells. 25 refs

  2. Mechanism of eutectic formation upon compaction and its effects on tablet properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Mingda; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Morris, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    The unique property of a eutectic mixture is a lower melting temperature than that of any of its pure components. What differentiates a eutectic mixture from a simple physical mixture is less well understood. This impedes the ability to anticipate and/or detect unintentional eutectic formation during pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing and any potential negative impact. In this study, a thermodynamic/heat transfer approach was used to explain the mechanism of eutectic formation upon exposure to a physical stress, i.e. compaction, and a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method was developed to detect and quantify the amount of eutectic formed in the compacts. Furthermore, the mechanism of eutectic formation upon compaction was tested experimentally by correlating the amount of eutectic formed in tablets with the particle size, compaction force, the estimated intimate contact area between the eutectic-forming materials, calculated tablet tensile strength, and tablet porosity. The effect of the presence of eutectics on tablet properties was also investigated. The results show that intimate contact and mutual solubility between eutectic-forming materials are the necessary and sufficient criteria for eutectic formation upon compaction. The systems of acetaminophen (APAP)/caffeine and APAP/propylphenazone were both shown to exhibit eutectic behavior upon compaction and the extent of formation was dependent upon the amount of intimate contact between eutectic-forming materials. Finally, it was found that eutectic had no negative effect on tablet hardness

  3. Physical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-08-01

    The results show that the use of self-curing agent (Ch. in concrete effectively improves the physical properties compared with conventional concrete. On the other hand, up to 15% saturated leca was effective while 20% saturated leca was effective for permeability and mass loss but adversely affects the sorptivity and volumetric water absorption. Self-curing agent Ch. was more effective than self-curing agent leca. In all cases, both 2% Ch. and 15% leca were the optimum values. Higher cement content and/or lower water–cement ratio leads to more effective results of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into concrete mixtures enhances all physical properties.

  4. PVA/Polysaccharides Blended Films: Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio E. F. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and angico gum (AG and/or cashew gum (CG were used to produce films by casting method. Morphological and mechanical properties of these films were studied and compared to the properties of a commercial collagen membrane of bovine origin (MBO. The films presented thickness varying from 70 to 140 μm (PVA/AG and 140 to 200 μm (PVA/CG. Macroscopic analysis showed that a PVA/CG film was very similar to MBO regarding the color and transparency. The higher values of tensile strength (TS and elastic modulus (EM were observed in the film. On the other hand, PVA/CG and PVA/CG-AG presented the highest value of percentage of elongation (E%. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis revealed a positive correlation between TS and EM and a negative correlation between E% and EM. The PVA/CG film presented mechanical properties very similar to MBO, with the advantage of a higher E% (11.96 than MBO (2.94. The properties of the PVA blended films depended on the polysaccharide added in the blend, as well as the acid used as a catalyst. However, all produced films presented interesting mechanical characteristics which enables several biotechnological applications.

  5. Impacts of Hydrate Distribution on the Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Seol, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In general, hydrate makes the sediments hydraulically less conductive, thermally more conductive, and mechanically stronger; yet the dependency of these physical properties on hydrate saturation varies with hydrate distribution and morphology. Hydrate distribution in sediments may cause the bulk physical properties of their host sediments varying several orders of magnitude even with the same amount of hydrate. In natural sediments, hydrate morphology is inherently governed by the burial depth and the grain size of the host sediments. Compare with patchy hydrate, uniformly distributed hydrate is more destructive to fluid flow, yet leads to higher gas and water permeability during hydrate dissociation due to the easiness of forming percolation paths. Water and hydrate have similar thermal conductivity values; the bulk thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments depends critically on gas-phase saturation. 60% of gas saturation may result in evident thermal conductivity drop and hinder further gas production. Sediments with patchy hydrate yield lower stiffness than that with cementing hydrate but higher stiffness than that with pore filling and loading bearing hydrate. Besides hydrate distribution, the stress state and loading history also play an important role in the mechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments.

  6. Mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic intima tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2014-03-03

    Progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary and carotid arteries are the key processes underlying myocardial infarctions and strokes. Biomechanical stress analyses to compute mechanical stresses in a plaque can potentially be used to assess plaque vulnerability. The stress analyses strongly rely on accurate representation of the mechanical properties of the plaque components. In this review, the composition of intima tissue and how this changes during plaque development is discussed from a mechanical perspective. The plaque classification scheme of the American Heart Association is reviewed and plaques originating from different vascular territories are compared. Thereafter, an overview of the experimental studies on tensile and compressive plaque intima properties are presented and the results are linked to the pathology of atherosclerotic plaques. This overview revealed a considerable variation within studies, and an enormous dispersion between studies. Finally, the implications of the dispersion in experimental data on the clinical applications of biomechanical plaque modeling are presented. Suggestions are made on mechanical testing protocol for plaque tissue and on using a standardized plaque classification scheme. This review identifies the current status of knowledge on plaque mechanical properties and the future steps required for a better understanding of the plaque type specific material properties. With this understanding, biomechanical plaque modeling may eventually provide essential support for clinical plaque risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixes of polymeric material II - Evaluation of the physical, mechanical properties and of process in mixtures polyethylene, virgin and recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro R, Luis; Perilla, Jairo E; Huertas, Jairo; Castro German

    1999-01-01

    In this document a summary of the results in the experimental development of the necessary stages to recover hothouse polyethylene is made. Is studied the form that alter the physical properties and of process of the virgin material when is submitted to long periods of exhibition to the environment and the form of variation of these properties when preparing mixtures of polyethylene, virgin and recycled. The results suggest use as maximum of 30% polyethylene recycled in the mixtures to avoid big variations in the properties of the final product

  8. Resistive switching properties and physical mechanism of europium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Zou, Changwei [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang (China); Bao, Dinghua [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    A forming-free resistive switching effect was obtained in Pt/Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt devices in which the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition method. The devices show unipolar resistive switching with excellent switching parameters, such as high resistance ratio (10{sup 7}), stable resistance values (read at 0.2 V), low reset voltage, good endurance, and long retention time (up to 10{sup 4} s). On the basis of the analysis of the current-voltage (I-V) curves and the resistance-temperature dependence, it can be concluded that the dominant conducting mechanisms were ohmic behavior and Schottky emission at low resistance state and high resistance state, respectively. The resistive switching behavior could be explained by the formation and rupture of conductive filament, which is related to the abundant oxygen vacancies generated in the deposition process. This work demonstrates the great potential opportunities of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film in resistive switching memory applications, which might possess distinguished properties. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Theoretical physics IV. Quantum mechanics with problems in MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecker, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Schulz, Beatrix M.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanics 2 is the fourth volume of the new and unique series for theoretical physics with Maple applications. This from basics newly concipated series mediates theoretical physics from contemporary view and in a way referring to a comprehensive lecture experience. Extensively and completely in five consecutively appearing volumes classical mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics 1 and 2, as well as statistical physics and thermodynamics are presented. Additionally for the elegant and extensive presentation on an each added CP applications for MAPLE trademark are contained, the software, which at more and more university is already applied in the lecture. They allow the experimenting with theory - and facilitate the understanding essentially. The present volume mediates extending, more complex contents of quantum mechanics, which are based on volume III of the series

  10. The use of field indentation microprobe in measuring mechanical properties of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Wong, H.; Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    A field indentation microprobe (FIM) was conceived for evaluating the structural integrity of metallic components (including base metal, welds, and heat-affected zones) in situ in a nondestructive manner. The FIM consists of an automated ball indentation (ABI) unit for determining the mechanical properties (yield strength, flow properties, estimates of fracture toughness, etc.) and a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) unit (consisting of ultrasonic transducers and a video camera) for determining the physical properties such as crack size, material pileup around indentation, and residual stress presence and orientation. The laboratory version used in this work performs only ABI testing. ABI tests were performed on stainless steel base metal (type 316L), heat-affected zone, and welds (type 308). Excellent agreement was obtained between yield strength and flow properties (true-stress/true-plastic-strain curve) measured by the ABI tests and those from uniaxial tensile tests conducted on 308 stainless steel welds, thermally aged at 343/degree/C for different times, and on the base material. 4 refs., 17 figs

  11. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  12. Sensitivity analyses of biodiesel thermo-physical properties under diesel engine conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Xinwei; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2016-01-01

    This reported work investigates the sensitivities of spray and soot developments to the change of thermo-physical properties for coconut and soybean methyl esters, using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fuel spray modelling. The choice of test fuels made was due to their contrasting...... saturation-unsaturation compositions. The sensitivity analyses for non-reacting and reacting sprays were carried out against a total of 12 thermo-physical properties, at an ambient temperature of 900 K and density of 22.8 kg/m3. For the sensitivity analyses, all the thermo-physical properties were set...... as the baseline case and each property was individually replaced by that of diesel. The significance of individual thermo-physical property was determined based on the deviations found in predictions such as liquid penetration, ignition delay period and peak soot concentration when compared to those of baseline...

  13. Effect of nickel addition on mechanical properties of powder forged Fe-Cu-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Barla, Nikki

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Cu-C system is very popular in P/M industry for its good compressibility and dimensional stability with high strength. Fe-Cu-C is a structural material and is used where high strength with high hardness is required. The composition of powder metallurgy steel plays a vital role in the microstructure and physical properties of the sintered component. Fe-2Cu-0.7C-Ni alloy with varying nickel composition (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.0%) wt. % was prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) sinter forging process. The present work discuss the effect of varying nickel content on microstructure and mechanical properties.

  14. Quantum mechanics as total physical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the principles of the total physical theory and conclusions of the standard quantum mechanics are not at such an antagonistic variance as it is usually accepted. The axioms, which make it possible to plot the renewed mathematical scheme of the quantum mechanics are formulated within the frames of the algebraic approach. The above scheme includes the standard mathematical apparatus of the quantum mechanics. Simultaneously there exists the mathematical object, which adequately describes the individual experiment. The examples of applying the proposed scheme is presented [ru

  15. Introduction to physics mechanics, hydrodynamics thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Physics: Mechanics , Hydrodynamics, Thermodynamics covers the principles of matter and its motion through space and time, as well as the related concepts of energy and force. This book is composed of eleven chapters, and begins with an introduction to the basic principles of mechanics, hydrodynamics, and thermodynamics. The subsequent chapters deal with the statics of rigid bodies and the dynamics of particles and rigid bodies. These topics are followed by discussions on elasticity, mechanics of fluids, the basic concept of thermodynamic, kinetic theory, and crystal structure o

  16. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present communication, a study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing material in urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer matrix has been reported. Static mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed ...

  17. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetat, J.-P.; Bonard, J.-M.; Thomson, N. H.; Kulik, A. J.; Forró, L.; Benoit, W.; Zuppiroli, L.

    A variety of outstanding experimental results on the elucidation of the elastic properties of carbon nanotubes are fast appearing. These are based mainly on the techniques of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the Young's moduli of single-wall nanotube bundles and multi-walled nanotubes, prepared by a number of methods. These results are confirming the theoretical predictions that carbon nanotubes have high strength plus extraordinary flexibility and resilience. As well as summarising the most notable achievements of theory and experiment in the last few years, this paper explains the properties of nanotubes in the wider context of materials science and highlights the contribution of our research group in this rapidly expanding field. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the structural order of the nanotubes and their mechanical properties will be necessary for the development of carbon-nanotube-based composites. Our research to date illustrates a qualitative relationship between the Young's modulus of a nanotube and the amount of disorder in the atomic structure of the walls. Other exciting results indicate that composites will benefit from the exceptional mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, but that the major outstanding problem of load transfer efficiency must be overcome before suitable engineering materials can be produced.

  18. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  19. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  20. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  1. Relationship between the Physical Properties and Hand of Jean Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the distinctive characteristics of jean fabrics (denim fabrics obtained from jeans and compared the physical properties and the hand. We used 13 kinds of jean fabric from commercial jeans and 26 other fabric types. The physical properties were measured using the Kawabata evaluation system, and the fabric hand was evaluated by 20 subjects using a semantic differential method. To characterise the hand of jean fabrics compared with other fabrics, we used principal component analysis and obtained three principal components. We found that jean fabrics were characterised by the second principal component, which was affected by feelings of thickness and weight. We further characterised the jean fabrics according to ‘softness & smoothness’ and ‘non-fullness’, depending on country of origin and type of manufacturer. The three principal components were analysed using multiple linear regression to characterise the components according to the physical properties. We explained the hand of fabrics including jean fabrics using its association with physical properties.

  2. Data-driven multi-scale multi-physics models to derive process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Kafka, Orion L.; Lian, Yanping; Yu, Cheng; Liu, Zeliang; Yan, Jinhui; Wolff, Sarah; Wu, Hao; Ndip-Agbor, Ebot; Mozaffar, Mojtaba; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses appealing potential for manipulating material compositions, structures and properties in end-use products with arbitrary shapes without the need for specialized tooling. Since the physical process is difficult to experimentally measure, numerical modeling is a powerful tool to understand the underlying physical mechanisms. This paper presents our latest work in this regard based on comprehensive material modeling of process-structure-property relationships for AM materials. The numerous influencing factors that emerge from the AM process motivate the need for novel rapid design and optimization approaches. For this, we propose data-mining as an effective solution. Such methods—used in the process-structure, structure-properties and the design phase that connects them—would allow for a design loop for AM processing and materials. We hope this article will provide a road map to enable AM fundamental understanding for the monitoring and advanced diagnostics of AM processing.

  3. Data-driven multi-scale multi-physics models to derive process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Kafka, Orion L.; Lian, Yanping; Yu, Cheng; Liu, Zeliang; Yan, Jinhui; Wolff, Sarah; Wu, Hao; Ndip-Agbor, Ebot; Mozaffar, Mojtaba; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses appealing potential for manipulating material compositions, structures and properties in end-use products with arbitrary shapes without the need for specialized tooling. Since the physical process is difficult to experimentally measure, numerical modeling is a powerful tool to understand the underlying physical mechanisms. This paper presents our latest work in this regard based on comprehensive material modeling of process-structure-property relationships for AM materials. The numerous influencing factors that emerge from the AM process motivate the need for novel rapid design and optimization approaches. For this, we propose data-mining as an effective solution. Such methods—used in the process-structure, structure-properties and the design phase that connects them—would allow for a design loop for AM processing and materials. We hope this article will provide a road map to enable AM fundamental understanding for the monitoring and advanced diagnostics of AM processing.

  4. Mechanical and physical properties of carbon-graphite fiber-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Susanna; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2007-09-01

    Mechanical properties and quality of fiber/matrix adhesion of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based materials, reinforced with carbon-graphite (CG) fibers that are able to remain in a plastic state until polymerization, were examined. Tubes of cleaned braided CG fibers were treated with a sizing resin. Two resin mixtures, resin A and resin B, stable in the fluid state and containing different cross-linking agents, were reinforced with CG fiber loadings of 24, 36, and 47 wt% (20, 29, and 38 vol.%). In addition, resin B was reinforced with 58 wt% (47 vol.%). After heat-polymerization, flexural strength and modulus were evaluated, both dry and after water storage. Coefficient of thermal expansion, longitudinally and in the transverse direction of the specimens, was determined. Adhesion between fibers and matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties and linear coefficient of thermal expansion were similar for both fiber composites. With increased fiber loading, flexural properties increased. For 47 wt% fibers in polymer A the flexural strength was 547.7 (28.12) MPa and for polymer B 563.3 (89.24) MPa when water saturated. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion was for 47 wt% CG fiber-reinforced polymers; -2.5 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 longitudinally and 62.4 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 in the transverse direction of the specimens. SEM revealed good adhesion between fibers and matrix. More porosity was observed with fiber loading of 58 wt%. The fiber treatment and the developed resin matrices resulted in good adhesion between CG fibers and matrix. The properties observed indicate a potential for implant-retained prostheses.

  5. Thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes and vapor grown carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Hiroaki; Rich, Michael J.; Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by fluorinated single wall carbon nanotubes (FSWCNT) and vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were investigated. A sonication technique using a suspension of FSWCNT and VGCF in acetone was utilized to process nanocomposites in anhydride-cured epoxy. The viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposites were measured with dynamic mechanical analysis. The glass transition temperature decreased approximately 30 deg. C with an addition of 0.14 vol.% (0.2 wt.%) FSWCNT. The depression in T g is attributed to non-stoichiometric balance of the epoxy matrix caused by the fluorine on single wall carbon nanotubes. The correct amount of the anhydride curing agent needed to achieve stoichiometry was experimentally determined by DMA measurements. After adjusting the amount of the anhydride curing agent for stoichiometry, the storage modulus of the epoxy at room temperature increased 0.63 GPa with the addition of only 0.21 vol.% (0.30 wt.%) of FSWCNT, a 20% improvement compared with the anhydride-cured neat epoxy. For VGCF, the storage modulus at room temperature increased 0.48 GPa with the addition of only 0.94 vol.% (1.5 wt.%) and then reached a plateau for larger amounts of VGCF. To understand the influence of VGCF on thermo-physical properties, the microstructure of the nanocomposites was interrogated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This study discusses the chemical effects of fluorine on matrix properties and the effect of stoichiometric balance on the thermo-physical properties of nanocomposites

  6. Dynamic mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of dynamic triaxial tests, measurement of elastic wave velocity and liquefaction tests that aim at getting hold of dynamic mechanical properties. We can get hold of dependency on the shearing strain of the shearing modulus and hysteresis damping constant, the application for the mechanical model etc. by dynamic triaxial tests, the acceptability of maximum shearing modulus obtained from dynamic triaxial tests etc. by measurement of elastic wave velocity and dynamic strength caused by cyclic stress etc. by liquefaction tests. (author)

  7. Molecular mechanisms in compatibility and mechanical properties of Polyacrylamide/Polyvinyl alcohol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Che, Yu; Yang, Mingming; Li, Xinpei; Zhang, Yingfeng

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a computational model based on molecular dynamics technique to investigate the compatibility and mechanical properties of Polyacrylamide (PAM)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blends. Five simulation models of PAM/PVA with different composition ratios (4/0, 3/1, 2/2, 1/3, 0/4) were constructed and simulated by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The interaction mechanisms of molecular chains in PAM/PVA blend system were elaborated from the aspects of the compatibility, mechanical properties, binding energy and pair correlation function, respectively. The computed values of solubility parameters for PAM and PVA indicate PAM has a good miscibility with PVA. The results of the static mechanical analysis, based on the equilibrium structures of blends with differing component ratios, shows us that the elastic coefficient, engineering modulus, and ductility are increased with the addition of PVA content, which is 4/0 PAM/PVAPVAPVAPVAPVA. Moreover, binding energy results indicate that a stronger interaction exists among PVA molecular chains comparing with PAM molecular chains, which is why the mechanical properties of blend system increasing with the addition of PVA content. Finally, the results of pair correlation functions (PCFs) between polar functional groups and its surrounding hydrogen atoms, indicated they interact with each other mainly by hydrogen bonds, and the strength of three types of polar functional groups has the order of O(-OH)>O(-C=O)>N(-NH 2 ). This further elaborates the root reason why the mechanical properties of blend system increase with the addition of PVA content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of the mechanical properties of layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, E.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films for integrated electronic circuitry, packaging and small structures in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) as well as protective coatings require mechanical testing to control fabrication processes, guarantee product quality and establish data bases for engineering purposes. They generally escape classical materials testing owing to their small size in at least one dimension and their incorporation into larger structures. The fact that material properties change in the micro- and nanometer range when sample dimensions reach the scale of defect structures, implies that sample and probe size become part of the property evaluation process. Although research into the mechanical behaviour of thin films and small structures now is established, the fundamentals of mechanical testing continue to be identified while there is a growing need for methods allowing to measure intrinsic material properties. This lecture will focus on the mechanics of thin film and small volume structures and review recently developed testing techniques for measuring materials properties, particularly indentation, bulge and bend testing. The effect of specimen and probe geometry on property evaluation will be discussed. The use of Raman spectroscopy for residual stress measurement will be illustrated. (Author)

  9. The physical properties of peat: a key factor for modern growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C. Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies criteria for assessing the physical properties (water retention characteristics, wettability and physical stability of growing media which influence the availability of air and water to plant roots. The various materials that are currently in use are assessed for these properties. The analysis of physical properties indicates that weakly decomposed (H1–H5, generally referred to as white Sphagnum peat is still indispensable for soil-less horticulture. Whilst a number of materials can be used as peat additives, especially to improve aeration, no alternative products with equivalent physical properties are available at present.

  10. Physical properties of sidewall cores from Decatur, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Kaven, Joern; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.

    2017-10-18

    To better assess the reservoir conditions influencing the induced seismicity hazard near a carbon dioxide sequestration demonstration site in Decatur, Ill., core samples from three deep drill holes were tested to determine a suite of physical properties including bulk density, porosity, permeability, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and failure strength. Representative samples of the shale cap rock, the sandstone reservoir, and the Precambrian basement were selected for comparison. Physical properties were strongly dependent on lithology. Bulk density was inversely related to porosity, with the cap rock and basement samples being both least porous (

  11. Characterization of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Y-Zn Alloys with Respect to Different Content of LPSO Phase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Klaudia; Drozdenko, D.; Daniš, S.; Garces, G.; Máthis, K.; Kim, S.; Dobroň, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 1700396. ISSN 1438-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF16_013/0001794 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : acoustic emission * alloying elements * LPSO phase * magnesium alloys * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2016

  12. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  13. Baseball Physics: A New Mechanics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kasey; Flanagan, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The game of baseball provides an interesting laboratory for experimenting with mechanical phenomena (there are many good examples in The Physics Teacher, available on Professor Alan Nathan's website, and discussed in Physics of Baseball & Softball). We have developed a lab, for an introductory-level physics course, that investigates many of these phenomena. The lab uses inexpensive, readily available equipment such as wooden baseball bats, baseballs, and actual Major League Baseball data. By the end of the lab, students have revisited many concepts they learned earlier in the semester and come away with an understanding of how to put seemingly disparate ideas together to analyze a fun sport.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of bentonite as backfill and sealing material in a final repository of radioactive wastes. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Kessler, J.; Sitz, P.

    1992-11-01

    Results of a literature study concerning the properties and the changes in properties of bentonite backfill are presented on the basis of current concepts envisaged for final disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland. The literature preferentially used in this study is that of NAGRA, international papers and special publications from universities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Mechanical, physico-mineralogical and chemical properties of bentonite and bentonite-water systems are considered as the central point, particularly taking into account the types MX-80 and Montigel which are favoured in the Swiss concept. Technological problems associated with radioactive waste disposal are only touched on or are taken as being understood. Special attention is paid to considering mutual interactions between different complexes of properties, considering certain aspects of longevity and long-term stability, the discussion is focused on potential physical and chemical impacts of the bentonite backfill. Further investigations should consider the interrelations between mechanical and physical properties, diffusion properties and the influence on bentonite of higher temperatures, of water vapor, of iron corrosion products and of the products of interactions in the water-concrete system. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of degraded waste surrogate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    This paper discusses rock mechanics testing of surrogate materials to provide failure criteria for compacted, degraded nuclear waste. This daunting proposition was approached by first assembling all known parameters such as the initial waste inventory and rock mechanics response of the underground setting after the waste is stored. Conservative assumptions allowing for extensive degradation processes helped quantify the lowest possible strength conditions of the future state of the waste. In the larger conceptual setting, computations involve degraded waste behavior in transient pressure gradients as gas exits the waste horizon into a wellbore. Therefore, a defensible evaluation of tensile strength is paramount for successful analyses and intentionally provided maximal failed volumes. The very conservative approach assumes rampant degradation to define waste surrogate composition. Specimens prepared from derivative degradation product were consolidated into simple geometries for rock mechanics testing. Tensile strength thus derived helped convince a skeptical peer review panel that drilling into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would not likely expel appreciable solids via the drill string

  17. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  18. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they appeared in boluses prepared in various

  19. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Agnès Peyron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. METHODS: Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. FINDINGS: Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1 in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2 by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3 median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4 except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5 physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. CONCLUSIONS: Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of