WorldWideScience

Sample records for physical engineering life

  1. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Van, Raan A.F.J.; Smart, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach

  2. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  3. Physics of the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Originally developed for the author's course at Union College, this text is designed for life science students who need to understand the connections of fundamental physics to modern biology and medicine. Almost all areas of modern life sciences integrally involve physics in both experimental techniques and in basic understanding of structure and function. Physics of the Life Sciences is not a watered-down, algebra-based engineering physics book with sections on relevant biomedical topics added as an afterthought. This authoritative and engaging text, which is designed to be covered in a two-semester course, was written with a thoroughgoing commitment to the needs and interests of life science students. Although covering most of the standard topics in introductory physics in a more or less traditional sequence, the author gives added weight and space to concepts and applications of greater relevance to the life sciences. Students benefit from occasional sidebars using calculus to derive fundamental relations,...

  4. The Baccalaureate Origins of Chicana and Chicano Doctorates in the Physical, Life, and Engineering Sciences: 1980-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a national examination of the doctorate production and baccalaureate origins of Chicana and Chicano doctorates in the physical, life, and engineering sciences. Reports some gender differences in doctorate production and baccalaureate origins. Contains 78 references. (DDR)

  5. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...

  6. Ecological aspects in civil engineering and physical planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to aspects of ecology and has been quite purposefully restricted to the aspects of interest in connection with civil engineering and physical planning. The various chapters deal with soil, water bodies, air, plants and plant communities, trees in towns, animal life, noise and health, as well as high-energy radiation and its impact on man and environment. The book is intended to make engineers and other interested readers working in the technical professions familiar with ecologic principles and ecologically minded thinking in order to pave the way for ecology-mindedness in civil engineering and physical planning, hopefully contributing to avoiding mistakes and their harmful consequences. (orig.) [de

  7. Convergence facilitating transdisciplinary integration of life sciences, physical sciences, engineering, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and imple...

  8. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  9. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludo Waltman

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS, particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  10. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  11. VIII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Physicist Engineering is a multidisciplinary profession in which an undergraduate student integrates and applies their knowledge of Physics, Mathematics, and Computing to adapt and innovate all kind of technologies, as well as to development and apply theoretical knowledge to different fields of science and engineering. A Physicist Engineer, supported by a solid preparation in science and engineering is available to study, analyze, identify, and solve problems in different fields of science and technology for industries, hospitals, research laboratories, institutes and governmental organizations focused on metrology, optics, energy, materials, instrumentation of sophisticated equipment. The Physicist Engineering bachelor degree is a national and international reference to encouraging all those students to apply knowledge through active participation in the operation, planning, and management of projects. The technological and scientific impact of a Physicist Engineering undergraduate and graduate students, as well as the tutorial of the research professor that are interested in Physics and Physics Engineering, may be found in a biennial event like the International Conference on Physicist Engineering, through the diffusion of both experimental and theoretical research and teaching. In order to promote and encourage strength academic goals among universities and research institutions, the International Conference on Physics Engineering Committee, integrated by a faculty meeting of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Campus Azcapotzalco, has decided to grant the VIII International Congress of Physics Engineering to the Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, which is going to take place on Mérida, November 7 th to 11 th , 2016. This conference considers different topics as: Renewables Energies Engineering Materials Technology Nanotechnology Medical Physics Education in Physics Engineering Nuclear Engineering High Precision Instrumentation Atmosphere Physics

  12. 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering continues a strong tradition of scientific meetings in the areas of sustainability and engineering within the community of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). The focus of the conference is to review and discuss the current developments, technology improvements, and future research directions that will allow engineers to help create green businesses and industries that are both socially responsible and economically successful.  The symposium covers a variety of relevant topics within life cycle engineering including Businesses and Organizations, Case Studies, End of Life Management, Life Cycle Design, Machine Tool Technologies for Sustainability, Manufacturing Processes, Manufacturing Systems, Methods and Tools for Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Supply Chain Management.

  13. Probabilistic Design and Management of Sustainable Concrete Infrastructure Using Multi-Physics Service Life Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepech, Michael; Geiker, Mette; Michel, Alexander

    This paper looks to address the grand challenge of integrating construction materials engineering research within a multi-scale, inter-disciplinary research and management framework for sustainable concrete infrastructure. The ultimate goal is to drive sustainability-focused innovation and adoption...... cycles in the broader architecture, engineering, construction (AEC) industry. Specifically, a probabilistic design framework for sustainable concrete infrastructure and a multi-physics service life model for reinforced concrete are presented as important points of integration for innovation between...... design, consists of concrete service life models and life cycle assessment (LCA) models. Both types of models (service life and LCA) are formulated stochastically so that the service life and time(s) to repair, as well as total sustainability impact, are described by a probability distribution. A central...

  14. Destructive physical analysis of hollow cathodes from the Deep Space 1 Flight spare ion engine 30,000 hr life test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Destructive physical analysis of the discharge and neutralizer hollow cathode assemblies from the Deep Space 1 Flight Spare 30,000 Hr life test was performed to characterize physical and chemical evidence of operationally induced effects after 30,372 hours of operation with beam extraction. Post-test inspection of the discharge-cathode assembly was subdivided into detailed analyses at the subcomponent level. Detailed materials analysis and optical inspection of the insert, orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, keeper assembly, insulator, and low-voltage propellant isolator were performed. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEW analyses were used to determine the extent and composition of regions of net deposition and erosion of both the discharge and neutralizer inserts. A comparative approach with an un-operated 4:1:1 insert was used to determine the extent of impregnate material depletion as a function of depth from the ID surface and axial position from the orifice plate. Analysis results are compared and contrasted with those obtained from similar analyses on components from shorter term tests, and provide insight regarding the prospect for successful longer-term operation consistent with SOA ion engine program life objectives at NASA.

  15. Engineering a lunar photolithoautotroph to thrive on the moon - life or simulacrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, A. A.

    2018-07-01

    Recent work in developing self-replicating machines has approached the problem as an engineering problem, using engineering materials and methods to implement an engineering analogue of a hitherto uniquely biological function. The question is - can anything be learned that might be relevant to an astrobiological context in which the problem is to determine the general form of biology independent of the Earth. Compared with other non-terrestrial biology disciplines, engineered life is more demanding. Engineering a self-replicating machine tackles real environments unlike artificial life which avoids the problem of physical instantiation altogether by examining software models. Engineering a self-replicating machine is also more demanding than synthetic biology as no library of functional components exists. Everything must be constructed de novo. Biological systems already have the capacity to self-replicate but no engineered machine has yet been constructed with the same ability - this is our primary goal. On the basis of the von Neumann analysis of self-replication, self-replication is a by-product of universal construction capability - a universal constructor is a machine that can construct anything (in a functional sense) given the appropriate instructions (DNA/RNA), energy (ATP) and materials (food). In the biological cell, the universal construction mechanism is the ribosome. The ribosome is a biological assembly line for constructing proteins while DNA constitutes a design specification. For a photoautotroph, the energy source is ambient and the food is inorganic. We submit that engineering a self-replicating machine opens up new areas of astrobiology to be explored in the limits of life.

  16. VII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Physics Engineering career, the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and its Departments organized the "VII International Congress of Physics Engineering". The Congress was held from 24 to 28 November 2014 in Mexico City, Mexico. This congress is the first of its type in Latin America, and because of its international character, it gathers experts on physics engineering from Mexico and all over the globe. Since 1999, this event has shown research, articles, projects, technological developments and vanguard scientists. These activities aim to spread, promote, and share the knowledge of Physics Engineering. The topics of the Congress were: • Renewable energies engineering • Materials technology • Nanotechnology • Medical physics • Educational physics engineering • Nuclear engineering • High precision instrumentation • Atmospheric physics • Optical engineeringPhysics history • Acoustics This event integrates lectures on top trending topics with pre-congress workshops, which are given by recognized scientists with an outstanding academic record. The lectures and workshops allow the exchange of experiences, and create and strengthen research networks. The Congress also encourages professional mobility among all universities and research centres from all countries. CIIF2014 Organizing and Editorial Committee Dr. Ernesto Rodrigo Vázquez Cerón Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco ervc@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Luis Enrique Noreña Franco Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco lnf@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Alberto Rubio Ponce Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco arp@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Óscar Olvera Neria Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco oon@correo.azc.uam.mx Professor Jaime Granados Samaniego Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco jgs@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Roberto Tito Hern

  17. MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the life sciences have embraced simulation as an important tool in biomedical research. Engineers are also using simulation as a powerful step in the design process. In both arenas, Matlab has become the gold standard. It is easy to learn, flexible, and has a large and growing userbase. MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences is a self-guided tour of the basic functionality of MATLAB along with the functions that are most commonly used in biomedical engineering and other life sciences. Although the text is written for undergraduates, graduate students and academics, those

  18. Conference on medical physics and biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid technological development in the world today, the role of physics in modern medicine is of great importance. The frequent use of equipment that produces ionizing radiation further increases the need for radiation protection, complicated equipment requires technical support, the diagnostic and therapeutic methods impose the highest professionals in the field of medical physics. Thus, medical physics and biomedical engineering have become an inseparable part of everyday medical practice. There are a certain number of highly qualified and dedicated professionals in medical physics in Macedonia who committed themselves to work towards resolving medical physics issues. In 2000 they established the first and still only professional Association for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (AMPBE) in Macedonia; a one competent to cope with problems in the fields of medicine, which applies methods of physics and biomedical engineering to medical procedures in order to develop tools essential to the physicians that will ultimately lead to improve the quality of medical practice in general. The First National Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering was organized by the AMPBE in 2007. The idea was to gather all the professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering in one place in order to present their work and increase the collaboration among them. Other involved professions such as medical doctors, radiation technologists, engineers and professors of physics at the University also took part and contributed to the success of the conference. As a result, the Proceedings were published in Macedonian, with summaries in English. In order to further promote the medical physics amongst the scientific community in Macedonia, our society decided to organize The Second Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering in November 2010. Unlike the first, this one was with international participation. This was very suitable

  19. e-Learning in medical physics and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeva, M.; Tabakov, S.; Lewis, C.; Tabakova, V.; Sprawls, P.; Milano, F.; Cvetkov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: e-Learning is among the contemporary methods for high quality knowledge exchange in various areas of medicine. Medical Physics/Engineering is one of the leading areas for creating e-content and practical application of e-Learning methods and curricula. Objectives: The objective of this abstract is to present the various e-Learning resources in the field of Medical Physics/Engineering and introduce some of the leading programs worldwide. Material and methods: e-Learning is applied at various levels in Medical Physics/Engineering. These versatile e-Learning methods use different approaches to deliver both general and high quality professional knowledge at virtually any point, thus increasing both the availability of the knowledge and quality of the results. Results and discussion: Medical Physics/ Engineering was among the first professions to develop and apply e-Learning - the Online Medical Physics resources, e-Encyclopaedia (www.emitel2. eu), EMERALD and EMIT materials and the Medical Physics Dictionary. An indicator for this is the first international prize in the field - EU Leonardo da Vinci Award and the increased popularity at all levels - local and international; students and professionals; medical physicists/engineers and other related specialties. Conclusion: The results so far present a solid background and show a perspective for development. Medical Physics/Engineering needs special forum to discuss regularly these questions and exchange expertise.

  20. IUPESM: the international umbrella organisation for biomedical engineering and medical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    An account of the development, aims and activities of the International Union for Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine (IUPESM) is presented. Associations with the International Council of Science (ICSU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are leading to exciting new projects towards improving global health, healthcare, quality of life and support of health technologies in developing countries. PMID:21614293

  1. Engineering, Life Sciences, and Health/Medicine Synergy in Aerospace Human Systems Integration: The Rosetta Stone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S. (Editor); Doarn, Charles R. (Editor); Shepanek, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    In the realm of aerospace engineering and the physical sciences, we have developed laws of physics based on empirical and research evidence that reliably guide design, research, and development efforts. For instance, an engineer designs a system based on data and experience that can be consistently and repeatedly verified. This reproducibility depends on the consistency and dependability of the materials on which the engineer works and is subject to physics, geometry and convention. In life sciences and medicine, these apply as well, but individuality introduces a host of variables into the mix, resulting in characteristics and outcomes that can be quite broad within a population of individuals. This individuality ranges from differences at the genetic and cellular level to differences in an individuals personality and abilities due to sex and gender, environment, education, etc.

  2. Effective Integration of Life Cycle Engineering in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; Toxopeus, Marten E.; Lutters, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    In practice, applying life cycle engineering in product design and development requires an integrated approach, because of the many stakeholders and variables (e.g. cost, environmental impact, energy, safety, quality) involved in a complete product life cycle. In educating young engineers, the same

  3. Through-life engineering services motivation, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating the latest research and analysis in the area of through-life engineering services (TES), this book utilizes case studies and expert analysis from an international array of practitioners and researchers – who together represent multiple manufacturing sectors: aerospace, railway and automotive – to maximize reader insights into the field of through-life engineering services. As part of the EPSRC Centre in Through-life Engineering Services program to support the academic and industrial community, this book presents an overview of non-destructive testing techniques and applications and provides the reader with the information needed to assess degradation and possible automation of through-life engineering service activities . The latest developments in maintenance-repair-overhaul (MRO) are presented with emphasis on cleaning technologies, repair and overhaul approaches and planning and digital assistance. The impact of these technologies on sustainable enterprises is also analyzed. This book wil...

  4. Tracking and Control of Gas Turbine Engine Component Damage/Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.; Wu, Dong N.; Bryg, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes damage mechanisms and the methods of controlling damages to extend the on-wing life of critical gas turbine engine components. Particularly, two types of damage mechanisms are discussed: creep/rupture and thermo-mechanical fatigue. To control these damages and extend the life of engine hot-section components, we have investigated two methodologies to be implemented as additional control logic for the on-board electronic control unit. This new logic, the life-extending control (LEC), interacts with the engine control and monitoring unit and modifies the fuel flow to reduce component damages in a flight mission. The LEC methodologies were demonstrated in a real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The results show that LEC is not only a new paradigm for engine control design, but also a promising technology for extending the service life of engine components, hence reducing the life cycle cost of the engine.

  5. Modern physics and engineering technology for the world year of physics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangwan

    2005-01-01

    In the course of progress of the modern society, physics as part of fundamental science, and engineering technology, which is on the applied side of the scientific spectrum, have played different roles. However, there are strong correlation and close interactions between them. By examining the relations between physics and nuclear energy, laser technology, and astronautics, the paper shows that modern physics has taken a leading role in opening up new areas of engineering technology. And conversely, while directly raising productivity, engineering technology has also provided new conditions and environment and more powerful means with which the research of physical science has been explored both more vastly and deeply. The paper further stipulates that, while benefiting each other by mutual progress and interpenetration, physics and engineering technology work hand in hand with philosophy and other social sciences, jointly promoting economic and social development. Faced with lofty historical duties in the process of understanding and transforming the world, physicists and engineers are required to posses some common, good qualities. (author)

  6. Physics rationale for the engineering specifications for ZTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimarco, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the physics rationale that established the engineering design of ZTH. The physics criteria are given and the implications regarding the engineering design are presented. Experimental and theoretical background evidence is given in support of the criteria but the justification is left to other reports and peer reviews. The physics criteria discussed here are limited to the ones deemed to be of highest engineering priority. 32 refs., 9 figs

  7. Comparative biomechanics: life's physical world (second edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Why do you switch from walking to running at a specific speed? Why do tall trees rarely blow over in high winds? And why does a spore ejected into air at seventy miles per hour travel only a fraction of an inch? Comparative Biomechanics is the first and only textbook that takes a comprehensive look at the mechanical aspects of life--covering animals and plants, structure and movement, and solids and fluids. An ideal entry point into the ways living creatures interact with their immediate physical world, this revised and updated edition examines how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, considers rules for fluid flow and structural design, and explores how organisms contend with environmental forces. Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mech...

  8. Advances in through-life engineering services

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar; Shaw, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This edited book offers further advances, new perspectives, and developments from world leaders in the field of through-life engineering services (TES). It builds up on the earlier book by the same authors entitled: “Through-life Engineering Services: Motivation, Theory and Practice.” This compendium introduces and discusses further, the developments in workshop-based and 'in situ' maintenance and support of high-value engineering products, as well as the application of drone technology for autonomous and self-healing product support. The links between ‘integrated planning’ and planned obsolescence, risk and cost modelling are also examined. The role of data, information, and knowledge management relative to component and system degradation and failure is also presented. This is supported by consideration of the effects upon the maintenance and support decision by the presence of 'No Fault Found' error signals within system data. Further to this the role of diagnostics and prognostics is also discusse...

  9. International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Katashev, Alexei; Lancere, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics and is dedicated to the 150 anniversary of the Riga Technical University, Latvia. The content includes various hot topics in biomedical engineering and medical physics.

  10. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2013-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  12. Aligning physics and physiology: Engineering antibodies for radionuclide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ting K; Wu, Anna M

    2018-03-14

    The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been used for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance. Although intact antibodies have high potential as imaging and therapeutic agents, challenges include long circulation time in blood, which leads to later imaging time points post-injection and higher blood absorbed dose that may be disadvantageous for RIT. Using engineered fragments may address these challenges, as size reduction and removal of Fc function decreases serum half-life. Radiolabeled fragments and pretargeting strategies can result in high contrast images within hours to days, and a reduction of RIT toxicity in normal tissues. Additionally, fragments can be engineered to direct hepatic or renal clearance, which may be chosen based on the application and disease setting. This review discusses aligning the physical properties of radionuclides (positron, gamma, beta, alpha, and Auger emitters) with antibodies and fragments and highlights recent advances of engineered antibodies and fragments in preclinical and clinical development for imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Modern physics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jasprit

    1999-01-01

    Linking physics fundamentals to modern technology-a highly applied primer for students and engineersReminding us that modern inventions-new materials, information technologies, medical technological breakthroughs-are based on well-established fundamental principles of physics, Jasprit Singh integrates important topics from quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and materials science, as well as the special theory of relativity. He then goes a step farther and applies these fundamentals to the workings of electronic devices-an essential leap for anyone interested in developing n

  14. Engineering and physical sciences in oncology: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael J; Jain, Rakesh K; Langer, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology. Here, we review the advances made at the interface of engineering and physical sciences and oncology in four important areas: the physical microenvironment of the tumour and technological advances in drug delivery; cellular and molecular imaging; and microfluidics and microfabrication. We discussthe research advances, opportunities and challenges for integrating engineering and physical sciences with oncology to develop new methods to study, detect and treat cancer, and we also describe the future outlook for these emerging areas.

  15. Proceedings of European Medical Physics and Engineering Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of papers presented at the at the European Medical Physics and Engineering Conference, which incorporates 11th National Conference of the Bulgarian Society of Biomedical Physics and Engineering (BSBPE) and 6th Conference of the European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (EFOMP). The reports are grouped in following scientific sessions: 1) Radiation therapy; 2) Biomedical engineering; 3) Education and training; 4) Biophysical methods for diagnostics and therapy; 5) Diagnostic and interventional radiology; 6) Modelling and information technology; 7) Dosimetry and standards; 8) Nuclear medicine and 9) Radiation protection. The individual papers are recorded in INIS as separate items

  16. Broadening of nuclear engineering programs: An engineering physics approach at Rensselaer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    With the maturing of nuclear engineering as an academic discipline and the uncertainty surrounding the nuclear industry, attention is being increasingly turned to ways in which the base of traditional nuclear engineering programs in universities can be broadened to make them more attractively useful to a wider class of potential students and employers while maintaining the strengths in mainstream areas of nuclear technology. An approach that seems to provide a natural evolution combining the existing programmatic strengths, infrastructure, and resources with the trending needs of a broad segment of diversified industries is the development and initiation of an engineering physics degree program as an adjunct to an established nuclear engineering curriculum. In line with these developments, a new comprehensive academic program offering baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral degrees in engineering physics has been developed and formally instituted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). It provides a valuable opportunity for students to pursue education and research that cuts across traditional disciplinary lines, leading to a wide variety of career opportunities in industry, government, national research and defense laboratories, and academia

  17. International conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Rieger, Burghard; IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies : Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains thirty revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in an international conference in engineering technologies and physical science and applications. The conference serves as good platforms for the engineering community to meet with each other and to exchange ideas. The conference has also struck a balance between theoretical and application development. The conference is truly international meeting with a high level of participation from many countries. Topics covered include chemical engineering, circuits, communications systems, control theory, engineering mathematics, systems engineering, manufacture engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the state of art of tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical science and applications, and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies and physical science and applications.

  18. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  19. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  20. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  1. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IUPESM World Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, a tri-annual high-level policy meeting dedicated exclusively to furthering the role of biomedical engineering and medical physics in medicine. The book offers papers about emerging issues related to the development and sustainability of the role and impact of medical physicists and biomedical engineers in medicine and healthcare. It provides a unique and important forum to secure a coordinated, multileveled global response to the need, demand, and importance of creating and supporting strong academic and clinical teams of biomedical engineers and medical physicists for the benefit of human health.

  2. Mind Games: Game Engines as an Architecture for Intuitive Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Tomer D; Spelke, Elizabeth; Battaglia, Peter; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops. This hypothesis also explains several 'physics illusions', and helps to inform the development of artificial intelligence (AI) systems with more human-like common sense. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Data-Mining Toolset Developed for Determining Turbine Engine Part Life Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    The current practice in aerospace turbine engine maintenance is to remove components defined as life-limited parts after a fixed time, on the basis of a predetermined number of flight cycles. Under this schedule-based maintenance practice, the worst-case usage scenario is used to determine the usable life of the component. As shown, this practice often requires removing a part before its useful life is fully consumed, thus leading to higher maintenance cost. To address this issue, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in a collaborative effort with Pratt & Whitney, has developed a generic modular toolset that uses data-mining technology to parameterize life usage models for maintenance purposes. The toolset enables a "condition-based" maintenance approach, where parts are removed on the basis of the cumulative history of the severity of operation they have experienced. The toolset uses data-mining technology to tune life-consumption models on the basis of operating and maintenance histories. The flight operating conditions, represented by measured variables within the engine, are correlated with repair records for the engines, generating a relationship between the operating condition of the part and its service life. As shown, with the condition-based maintenance approach, the lifelimited part is in service until its usable life is fully consumed. This approach will lower maintenance costs while maintaining the safety of the propulsion system. The toolset is a modular program that is easily customizable by users. First, appropriate parametric damage accumulation models, which will be functions of engine variables, must be defined. The tool then optimizes the models to match the historical data by computing an effective-cycle metric that reduces the unexplained variability in component life due to each damage mode by accounting for the variability in operational severity. The damage increment due to operating conditions experienced during each flight is used to compute

  4. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  5. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2010-01-01

    Intended for a first course in modern physics, following an introductory course in physics with calculus, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers begins with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, while later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac Equation and Quantum Field Theory, and a robust pedagogy and ancillary package including an accompanying website with computer applets assists students in learning the essential material.

  6. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarek, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  7. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  8. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  9. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  10. International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Usman, Juliana; Mohktar, Mas; Ahmad, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This volumes presents the proceedings of ICIBEL 2015, organized by the Centre for Innovation in Medical Engineering (CIME) under Innovative Technology Research Cluster, University of Malaya. It was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 6-8 December 2015. The ICIBEL 2015 conference promotes the latest researches and developments related to the integration of the Engineering technology in medical fields and life sciences. This includes the latest innovations, research trends and concerns, challenges and adopted solution in the field of medical engineering and life sciences. .

  11. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  12. 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing, etc.

  13. Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of the LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, R P; Gerhard, M A; Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Morris, K R; Peterson, P F; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-25

    The Laser Inertial confinement fusion - Fission Energy (LIFE) engine encompasses the components of a LIFE power plant responsible for converting the thermal energy of fusion and fission reactions into electricity. The design and integration of these components must satisfy a challenging set of requirements driven by nuclear, thermal, geometric, structural, and materials considerations. This paper details a self-consistent configuration for the LIFE engine along with the methods and technologies selected to meet these stringent requirements. Included is discussion of plant layout, coolant flow dynamics, fuel temperatures, expected structural stresses, power cycle efficiencies, and first wall survival threats. Further research and to understand and resolve outstanding issues is also outlined.

  14. Computer-aided engineering in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachy, G.; Hauviller, C.; Messerli, R.; Mottier, M.

    1988-01-01

    Computing, standard tool for a long time in the High Energy Physics community, is being slowly introduced at CERN in the mechanical engineering field. The first major application was structural analysis followed by Computer-Aided Design (CAD). Development work is now progressing towards Computer-Aided Engineering around a powerful data base. This paper gives examples of the power of this approach applied to engineering for accelerators and detectors

  15. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  17. Statistical physics a prelude and fugue for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book, provides a general introduction to the ideas and methods of statistical mechanics with the principal aim of meeting the needs of Master’s students in chemical, mechanical, and materials science engineering. Extensive introductory information is presented on many general physics topics in which students in engineering are inadequately trained, ranging from the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics to basic quantum mechanics, electromagnetic fields in matter, intermolecular forces, and transport phenomena. Since engineers should be able to apply physical concepts, the book also focuses on the practical applications of statistical physics to material science and to cutting-edge technologies, with brief but informative sections on, for example, interfacial properties, disperse systems, nucleation, magnetic materials, superfluidity, and ultralow temperature technologies. The book adopts a graded approach to learning, the opening four basic-level chapters being followed by advanced “starred�...

  18. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  19. Influence of Physical Activity on Students' Physical Self-Concept and Satisfaction with Life: Physical and Non-Physical Education Students' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDINEZHAD, Vali; GOLSANAMLOU, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the physical and non-physical education students' physical self-concept and satisfaction with life. 470 students were selected randomly as two sample groups (physical and non-physical education students). The valid sample of study was 449. The two questionnaires employed here were the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. SPSS 20 was used to produce the Mean; Standard Deviations; Pearson's Pro...

  20. The LAILAPS Search Engine: Relevance Ranking in Life Science Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.

  1. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  2. Optimizing Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences: Placing Physics in Biological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Physics is a critical foundation for today's life sciences and medicine. However, the physics content and ways of thinking identified by life scientists as most important for their fields are often not taught, or underemphasized, in traditional introductory physics courses. Furthermore, such courses rarely give students practice using physics to understand living systems in a substantial way. Consequently, students are unlikely to recognize the value of physics to their chosen fields, or to develop facility in applying physics to biological systems. At Swarthmore, as at several other institutions engaged in reforming this course, we have reorganized the introductory course for life science students around touchstone biological examples, in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding biological phenomena or research techniques, in order to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. We have also focused on the physics topics and approaches most relevant to biology while seeking to develop rigorous qualitative reasoning and quantitative problem solving skills, using established pedagogical best practices. Each unit is motivated by and culminates with students analyzing one or more touchstone examples. For example, in the second semester we emphasize electric potential and potential difference more than electric field, and start from students' typically superficial understanding of the cell membrane potential and of electrical interactions in biochemistry to help them develop a more sophisticated understanding of electric forces, field, and potential, including in the salt water environment of life. Other second semester touchstones include optics of vision and microscopes, circuit models for neural signaling, and magnetotactic bacteria. When possible, we have adapted existing research-based curricular materials to support these examples. This talk will describe the design and development process for this course, give examples of

  3. An Integrated Framework for Life Cycle Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Herrmann, Christoph; Kara, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) was introduced as a concept more than 24 years ago in order to address emerging concerns about environmental sustainability in engineering. A number of methods and tools have been introduced to operationalise the LCE concept, but since then, the scope of sustainability...... has broadened, and as a result, LCE has evolved in parallel with other disciplines with similar aims. Currently, in addition to LCE, there exist a number of concepts such as Industrial Ecology, Cleaner Production, Life Cycle Management (LCM), Industrial Symbiosis, and Circular Economy. As a result......-down and bottom-up approach, the framework establishes a relationship between LCE and the other concepts and positions them relative to the planetary boundaries and the concept of absolute environmental sustainability. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V....

  4. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  5. Physics and engineering of radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection presents an overview of the physics of radiation detection and its applications. It covers the origins and properties of different kinds of ionizing radiation, their detection and measurement, and the procedures used to protect people and the environment from their potentially harmful effects. The second edition is fully revised and provides the latest developments in detector technology and analyses software. Also, more material related to measurements in particle physics and a complete solutions manual have been added.

  6. Comparison of Physics Frameworks for WebGL-Based Game Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogya Resa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new technology called WebGL shows a lot of potentials for developing games. However since this technology is still new, there are still many potentials in the game development area that are not explored yet. This paper tries to uncover the potential of integrating physics frameworks with WebGL technology in a game engine for developing 2D or 3D games. Specifically we integrated three open source physics frameworks: Bullet, Cannon, and JigLib into a WebGL-based game engine. Using experiment, we assessed these frameworks in terms of their correctness or accuracy, performance, completeness and compatibility. The results show that it is possible to integrate open source physics frameworks into a WebGLbased game engine, and Bullet is the best physics framework to be integrated into the WebGL-based game engine.

  7. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e...

  8. Engineering for Life Sciences: A Fruitful Collaboration Enabled by Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Christof M

    2017-02-13

    "… The interaction of engineering and life sciences has a long history that is characterized by a mutual dependency. The role of chemistry in these developments is to connect the engineers' instrumentation with the life scientists' specimens. This very successful partnership will further continue to produce essential and innovative solutions for future challenges …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Christof M. Niemeyer. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Reactor physics for non-nuclear engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    A one-term undergraduate course in reactor physics is described. The instructional format is strongly influenced by its intended audience of non-nuclear engineering students. In contrast to legacy treatments of the subject, the course focuses on the physics of nuclear power reactors with no attempt to include instruction in numerical methods. The multi-physics of power reactors is emphasized highlighting the close interactions between neutronic and thermal phenomena in design and analysis. Consequently, the material's sequencing also differs from traditional treatments, for example treating kinetics before the neutron diffusion is introduced. (author)

  10. Fundamental math and physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Yevick, David

    2014-01-01

    This text summarizes the core undergraduate physics curriculum together with the mathematics frequently encountered in engineering and physics calculations, focusing on content relevant to practical applications.Covers  major undergraduate physics topics including the complete Physics GRE subject examination syllabusOverview of key results in undergraduate applied mathematics and introduces scientific programmingPresents simple, coherent derivations and illustrations of fundamental concepts

  11. Determining the Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Gender, and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Busing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested a positive effect of physical activity on life satisfaction. Little research exists that has investigated the relationship between physical fitness and life satisfaction. For this purpose, this research was done to determine the relationship between physical fitness and life satisfaction in a sample of university men and women. Participants (N = 28, Mage = 22.18 completed multiple indicators of physical fitness including cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, body composition and flexibility, and life satisfaction (SWLS. Descriptive and one-way between-groups ANOVAs were performed to determine gender differences on measures of life satisfaction and measures of fitness. In addition, the relationship between the five health-related components of fitness and life satisfaction were investigated using Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient. Analyses indicated there were no significant correlations between any of the health-related components of fitness and scores on the SWLS. There were significant gender differences on all physical fitness measures, except partial curl-ups, but no significant gender differences on life satisfaction. Our findings suggest that improved physical fitness does not have a relationship with higher life satisfaction measures. Further tests, utilizing larger sample sizes, are recommended.

  12. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D. M.; Jarek, R.; Mariner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  13. Annual conference on engineering and the physical sciences in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1999-01-01

    The venue for the 1998 annual conference on Engineering and the Physical Sciences in Medicine was the Wrest Point Casino Convention Centre, Hobart, from 15 to 19 November. Jointly sponsored by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, the College of Biomedical Engineers and the Society of Medical and Biomedical Engineering, this meeting is a major forum for professionals working in these areas in Australasia. The theme for the conference was Relevance beyond rationalism - charting a course for the future. This reviewer will consider only those presentations concerned with the use of radiation in medicine. (author)

  14. Mathematical physics applied mathematics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kusse, Bruce R

    2006-01-01

    What sets this volume apart from other mathematics texts is its emphasis on mathematical tools commonly used by scientists and engineers to solve real-world problems. Using a unique approach, it covers intermediate and advanced material in a manner appropriate for undergraduate students. Based on author Bruce Kusse's course at the Department of Applied and Engineering Physics at Cornell University, Mathematical Physics begins with essentials such as vector and tensor algebra, curvilinear coordinate systems, complex variables, Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms, differential and integral equations, and solutions to Laplace's equations

  15. Physics and engineering of radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Naeem

    2007-01-01

    Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection presents an overview of basic physics of radiation and its applications and covers the origins and properties of different kinds of ionizing radiation, their detection and measurement, and the procedures used to protect people and the environment from their potentially harmful effects. Covering both the basic physics of radiation and its applications, it will provide an up-to-date and coherent account of the origins and properties of the different kinds of ionizing radiation, and their detection and measurement. This book will illustrate the basic physical principles with an abundance of practical, worked-out examples, numerical problems, real world applications, and data, including biological effects, radon, risk assessment, and statistics.

  16. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials (1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF 4 or ThF 4 or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF 3 or PuF 4 as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. Preliminary design studies

  17. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  18. Life cycle assessment of supercharger for automotive use. Small displacement, high charging pressure engine and environmental load; Jidosha tosaiyo supercharger no life cycle assessment (LCA hyoka). Shohaikiryo kokakyu engine no kankyo eno yasashisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, S; Sonoya, T; Hara, M [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In resent years environmental conservation requires low fuel consumption and low emission engine. And environmental load of every car life stage (production, using, abolition) is considered. Life Cycle Assessment of supercharging small displacement engine is reported, compared with natural aspirated engine as same maximum torque and maximum power as supercharging engine. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  20. Physical activity and quality of life of amputees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rudney; Rizzo, Julia Ghazel; Gutierres Filho, Paulo José Barbosa; Ramos, Valmor; Deans, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity is a positive component of human health. Its effects are associated with improvement in physical, psychological and social aspects of quality of life. Physical activity is therefore an important factor in the rehabilitation of amputees. To analyse the relationship between physical activity and quality of life for amputees in southern Brazil. Descriptive, cross-sectional design with nonrandomized sample. A total of 40 questionnaire instruments were distributed to subjects who met the inclusion criteria, with a response rate of 55% (22 individuals, n = 15 males, n = 7 females). Outcome measurements were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. The sample was characterized by physically active adult male prosthetic users with positive quality of life, and amputation below the right knee caused by mechanical trauma related to traffic accidents with motorcycles. Significant correlations were identified between all domains of quality of life and between level of physical activity and psychological quality of life. No correlation was identified between gender and quality of life variables or physical activity levels. This study showed that in very active amputees of both genders, level of physical activity is not associated with quality of life except for the psychological domain.

  1. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  2. Life on Mars? II. Physical restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Banin, A.

    1995-01-01

    The primary physical factors important to life's evolution on a planet include its temperature, pressure and radiation regimes. Temperature and pressure regulate the presence and duration of liquid water on the surface of Mars. The prolonged presence of liquid water is essential for the evolution and sustained presence of life on a planet. It has been postulated that Mars has always been a cold dry planet; it has also been postulated that early mars possessed a dense atmosphere of CO2 (> or = 1 bar) and sufficient water to cut large channels across its surface. The degree to which either of these postulates is true correlates with the suitability of Mars for life's evolution. Although radiation can destroy living systems, the high fluxes of UV radiation on the martian surface do not necessarily stop the origin and early evolution of life. The probability for life to have arisen and evolved to a significant degree on Mars, based on the postulated ranges of early martian physical factors, is almost solely related to the probability of liquid water existing on the planet for at least hundreds of millions to billions of years.

  3. NASA's Robotics Mining Competition Provides Undergraduates Full Life Cycle Systems Engineering Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette

    2017-01-01

    NASA has held an annual robotic mining competition for teams of university/college students since 2010. This competition is yearlong, suitable for a senior university engineering capstone project. It encompasses the full project life cycle from ideation of a robot design to actual tele-operation of the robot in simulated Mars conditions mining and collecting simulated regolith. A major required element for this competition is a Systems Engineering Paper in which each team describes the systems engineering approaches used on their project. The score for the Systems Engineering Paper contributes 25% towards the team's score for the competition's grand prize. The required use of systems engineering on the project by this competition introduces the students to an intense practical application of systems engineering throughout a full project life cycle.

  4. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  5. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  6. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  7. Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Reimers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity reduces many major mortality risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. All-cause mortality is decreased by about 30% to 35% in physically active as compared to inactive subjects. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the literature on life expectancy in relation to physical activity. A systematic PubMed search on life expectancy in physically active and inactive individuals was performed. In addition, articles comparing life expectancy of athletes compared to that of nonathletes were reviewed. Results of 13 studies describing eight different cohorts suggest that regular physical activity is associated with an increase of life expectancy by 0.4 to 6.9 years. Eleven studies included confounding risk factors for mortality and revealed an increase in life expectancy by 0.4 to 4.2 years with regular physical activity. Eleven case control studies on life expectancy in former athletes revealed consistently greater life expectancy in aerobic endurance athletes but inconsistent results for other athletes. None of these studies considered confounding risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, while regular physical activity increases life expectancy, it remains unclear if high-intensity sports activities further increase life expectancy.

  8. Life science students' attitudes, interest, and performance in introductory physics for life sciences: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Catherine H.; Wisittanawat, Panchompoo; Cai, Ming; Renninger, K. Ann

    2018-06-01

    In response to national calls for improved physical sciences education for students pursuing careers in the life sciences and medicine, reformed introductory physics for life sciences (IPLS) courses are being developed. This exploratory study is among the first to assess the effect of an IPLS course on students' attitudes, interest, and performance. The IPLS course studied was the second semester of introductory physics, following a standard first semester course, allowing the outcomes of the same students in a standard course and in an IPLS course to be compared. In the IPLS course, each physics topic was introduced and elaborated in the context of a life science example, and developing students' skills in applying physics to life science situations was an explicitly stated course goal. Items from the Colorado Learning about Science Survey were used to assess change in students' attitudes toward and their interest in physics. Whereas the same students' attitudes declined during the standard first semester course, we found that students' attitudes toward physics hold steady or improve in the IPLS course. In particular, students with low initial interest in physics displayed greater increases in both attitudes and interest during the IPLS course than in the preceding standard course. We also find that in the IPLS course, students' interest in the life science examples is a better predictor of their performance than their pre-IPLS interest in physics. Our work suggests that the life science examples in the IPLS course can support the development of student interest in physics and positively influence their performance.

  9. Life science students’ attitudes, interest, and performance in introductory physics for life sciences: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Crouch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls for improved physical sciences education for students pursuing careers in the life sciences and medicine, reformed introductory physics for life sciences (IPLS courses are being developed. This exploratory study is among the first to assess the effect of an IPLS course on students’ attitudes, interest, and performance. The IPLS course studied was the second semester of introductory physics, following a standard first semester course, allowing the outcomes of the same students in a standard course and in an IPLS course to be compared. In the IPLS course, each physics topic was introduced and elaborated in the context of a life science example, and developing students’ skills in applying physics to life science situations was an explicitly stated course goal. Items from the Colorado Learning about Science Survey were used to assess change in students’ attitudes toward and their interest in physics. Whereas the same students’ attitudes declined during the standard first semester course, we found that students’ attitudes toward physics hold steady or improve in the IPLS course. In particular, students with low initial interest in physics displayed greater increases in both attitudes and interest during the IPLS course than in the preceding standard course. We also find that in the IPLS course, students’ interest in the life science examples is a better predictor of their performance than their pre-IPLS interest in physics. Our work suggests that the life science examples in the IPLS course can support the development of student interest in physics and positively influence their performance.

  10. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sincovec, R.F.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a record of the research activities of the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division for the period January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1994. This report is the final archival record of the EPM Division. On October 1, 1994, ORELA was transferred to Physics Division and on January 1, 1995, the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division and the Computer Applications Division reorganized to form the Computer Science and Mathematics Division and the Computational Physics and Engineering Division. Earlier reports in this series are identified on the previous pages, along with the progress reports describing ORNL's research in the mathematical sciences prior to 1984 when those activities moved into the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division

  11. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sincovec, R.F.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a record of the research activities of the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division for the period January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1994. This report is the final archival record of the EPM Division. On October 1, 1994, ORELA was transferred to Physics Division and on January 1, 1995, the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division and the Computer Applications Division reorganized to form the Computer Science and Mathematics Division and the Computational Physics and Engineering Division. Earlier reports in this series are identified on the previous pages, along with the progress reports describing ORNL`s research in the mathematical sciences prior to 1984 when those activities moved into the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division.

  12. Quantum mechanics for applied physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fromhold, Albert T

    2011-01-01

    This excellent text, directed to upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering and applied physics, introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, emphasizing those aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics essential to an understanding of solid-state theory. A heavy background in mathematics and physics is not required beyond basic courses in calculus, differential equations, and calculus-based elementary physics.The first three chapters introduce quantum mechanics (using the Schrödinger equations), quantum statistics, and the free-electron theory of metals. Ch

  13. 1st International Symposium ‘Physics, Engineering and Technologies for Bio-Medicine’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium “Physics, Engineering and Technologies for BioMedicine” was held in Moscow at the occasion of the foundation of the new Institute PhysBio at MEPHI (Russia) on October 20-23, 2016. Under the auspices of the Russian Ministry of Science and Education, the Ministry of Health and the State Company Rosatom, the Symposium is organized by the Institute of Engineering Physics for Biomedicine (PhysBio), which has recently been established at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). The PhysBio’s goal is to train highly-skilled personnel through the research and development in engineering physics for biomedicine, including nuclear medicine, material science, laser physics and biophotonic technologies. The Symposium was aimed to meet the leading scientists and experts in nuclear medicine, biophysics, biophotonics, and emerging fields to present their works and to have invited lectures. (paper)

  14. HISTORY OF THE ENGINEERING PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS DIVISION 1955-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    2001-09-14

    A review of division progress reports noting significant events and findings of the Applied Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics, Engineering Physics, and then Engineering Physics and Mathematics divisions from 1955 to 1993 was prepared for use in developing a history of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in celebration of its 50th year. The research resulted in an accumulation of historic material and photographs covering 38 years of effort, and the decision was made to publish a brief history of the division. The history begins with a detailed account of the founding of the Applied Nuclear Physics Division in 1955 and continues through the name change to the Neutron Physics Division in the late 1950s. The material thereafter is presented in decades--the sixties, seventies, and eighties--and ends as we enter the nineties.

  15. Engineering stategies and implications of using higher plants for throttling gas and water exchange in a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Corey, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering stategies for advanced life support systems to be used on Lunar and Mars bases involve a wide spectrum of approaches. These range from purely physical-chemical life support strategies to purely biological approaches. Within the context of biological based systems, a bioengineered system can be devised that would utilize the metabolic mechanisms of plants to control the rates of CO2 uptake and O2 evolution (photosynthesis) and water production (transpiration). Such a mechanism of external engineering control has become known as throttling. Research conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project has demonstrated the potential of throttling these fluxes by changing environmental parameters affecting the plant processes. Among the more effective environmental throttles are: light and CO2 concentration for controllingthe rate of photsynthesis and humidity and CO2 concentration for controlling transpiration. Such a bioengineered strategy implies control mechanisms that in the past have not been widely attributed to life support systems involving biological components and suggests a broad range of applications in advanced life support system design.

  16. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers is intended for a first course in modern physics. Beginning with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac equation and quantum field theory, as well as a robust pedagogy and ancillary package, including an accompanying website with computer applets, assist students in learning the essential material. The applets provide a realistic description of the energy levels and wave functions of electrons in atoms and crystals. The Hartree-Fock and ABINIT applets are valuable tools for studying the properties of atoms and semiconductors.

  17. What is life? Bio-physical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, G P

    2009-01-01

    Life arises and develops in gravitationally bound atomic systems, under certain conditions, in the presence of the inflow of energy. A condition of structural dynamic reactivity to the energy inflow qualifies what are anthropomorphically considered as "alive objects". Alive objects, in this perspective, include such rudimentary animate atomic structures as the retinal molecule C20H28o to the herpes simplex virus C102H152N26o29 to the human being, a twenty-six element atomic structure, which can be quantified further as thermodynamic quasi-closed supramolecular systems, which are part of natural open systems. These systems appear and evolve in periodic conditions near to internal equilibrium. This systems attribute of dynamic life can be understood further by the determination and use of mathematical "state functions", which are functions that quantify the state of a system defined by the ensemble of physical quantities: temperature, pressure, composition, etc., which characterize the system, but neither by its surroundings nor by its history. In this view, the phenomenon of a life is easily understood as a general consequence of the laws of the universe, in particular, the laws of thermodynamics, which in the geocentric perspective translate to a formulation of "hierarchical thermodynamics" and a "principle of substance stability". The formation of living thermodynamic structures, in short, arises on the nanolevel by a constantly varying environment that causes variety of living forms. The definition of a life as the bio-chemical-physical phenomenon can thus be given on the basis of the exact sciences, i. e. chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics, without mention of numerous private attributes of a living substance and without physically baseless models of mathematical modeling, such as Prigoginean thermodynamics.

  18. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J. M.

    2016-01-01

     depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p physical health characteristics...... having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p....... CONCLUSION: Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant...

  19. Support of Study on Engineering Technology from Physics and Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Mynbaev, Djafar K.; Cabo, Candido; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Liou-Mark, Janet

    2008-01-01

    An approach that provides students with an ability to transfer learning in physics and mathematics to the engineering-technology courses through e-teaching and e-learning process is proposed. E-modules of courses in mathematics, physics, computer systems technology, and electrical and telecommunications engineering technology have been developed. These modules being used in the Blackboard and Web-based communications systems create a virtual interdisciplinary learning community, which helps t...

  20. Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puciato D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Puciato,1 Zbigniew Borysiuk,1 Michał Rozpara2 1Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Opole, 2Faculty of Physical Education, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland Objective: Physical activity can be an effective means of prevention and therapy of many psychosomatic disorders. It can also have a significant impact on the quality of life of older working-age people. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships between quality of life and physical activity in older working-age people from Wroclaw, Poland.Materials and methods: The study group comprised 1,013 people, including 565 women and 448 men, aged 55–64 years (59.1±2.9 years. The study took form of a questionnaire survey. The participants assessed their physical activity and quality of life using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (IPAQ-SF and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF, respectively.Results: The highest mean indices of general quality of life, perceived health status, and quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains were shown by respondents whose intensity of physical activity was the highest. Moreover, the odds of high assessment of overall quality of life increased with respondents’ higher levels of physical activity.Conclusion: Quality of life improvement programs should also involve increased physical activity components. Keywords: physical activity, IPAQ-SF, quality of life, WHOQOL-BREF, big city environment

  1. Implementing a Flip-Flop Teaching Model in Thermal Physics for Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emil C. Alcantara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementing flip-flop teaching in a physics classroom allows students to learn concepts outside of the classroom and apply what they learn in the classroom, working with other students and getting immediate feedback from the instructor. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of flip-flop teaching in the performance of engineering students in introductory physics particularly in thermal physics. The study employed descriptive and quasi-experimental method to describe and compare the performance of engineering students in thermal physics when grouped according to sex and types of instruction. Three physics classes consisting of 125 sophomore engineering students at the Batangas State University during the second semester of the SY 2013-2014 were handled by the researcher and selected purposively as participants of the study. It was found out that the variation in the performances of male and female students in the conceptual questions, in the problem solving questions, and overall performance in thermal physics are not significantly different. Male and female students have an overall satisfactory performance in thermal physics. The study also revealed that the variation in the performances of the students in the conceptual questions, in the problem solving questions, and overall performance in thermal physics when grouped according to the types of instruction are not significantly different. Engineering students taught in a traditional physics classroom, in a flipped physics classroom, and in an enhanced-flipped physics classroom are more likely to have similar performances in thermal physics.

  2. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  3. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  4. Weerts to lead Physical Sciences and Engineering directorate | Argonne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Sciences and Engineering directorate By Lynn Tefft Hoff * August 10, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Hendrik Engineering (PSE) directorate at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory. Weerts has , chemistry, materials science and nanotechnology. Weerts joined Argonne in 2005 as director of Argonne's High

  5. Unifying Rigid and Soft Bodies Representation: The Sulfur Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maggiorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are (also real-time interactive graphic simulations: hence, providing a convincing physics simulation for each specific game environment is of paramount importance in the process of achieving a satisfying player experience. While the existing game engines appropriately address many aspects of physics simulation, some others are still in need of improvements. In particular, several specific physics properties of bodies not usually involved in the main game mechanics (e.g., properties useful to represent systems composed by soft bodies, are often poorly rendered by general-purpose engines. This issue may limit game designers when imagining innovative and compelling video games and game mechanics. For this reason, we dug into the problem of appropriately representing soft bodies. Subsequently, we have extended the approach developed for soft bodies to rigid ones, proposing and developing a unified approach in a game engine: Sulfur. To test the engine, we have also designed and developed “Escape from Quaoar,” a prototypal video game whose main game mechanic exploits an elastic rope, and a level editor for the game.

  6. Physical engineering and medical physics on boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    The contents of physical engineering and medical physics that support boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be roughly classified to the four items, (1) neutron irradiation system, (2) development and improvement of dose assessment techniques, (3) development and improvement of dose planning system, and (4) quality assurance and quality control. This paper introduces the BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, with a focus on the basic physics of BNCT, thermal neutron irradiation and epithermal neutron irradiation, heavy water neutron irradiation facilities of KUR, and medical irradiation system of KUR. It also introduces the world's first BNCT clinical cyclotron irradiation system (C-BENS) of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, BNCT dose assessment techniques, dose planning system, and quality assurance and quality control. (A.O.)

  7. Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Blane, David; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate variations in quality of life at older ages we take a life course perspective to analyse long-term effects of physical working conditions upon quality of life after retirement. In doing so, we study to what extent these associations are explained by individuals’ health at older ages. Method We use administrative data and self-administered questionnaire responses from the French GAZEL cohort. Quality of life was assessed with CASP-19 in 2009 and related to three types of physical working conditions during previous working life: (1) ergonomic strain, (2) physical danger and (3) exposures to chemicals. Health was assessed in 2007 with the SF-36 Health Survey. Multiple regressions were calculated in retired men only, controlling for important confounders including social position. Results In contrast to men, few women were exposed to strenuous and dangerous working conditions in this cohort and were not included in subsequent analyses. Negative effects on retired men’s quality of life were found for the physical occupational exposures of ergonomic strain and physical danger, but not for chemical exposures. Effects were attenuated after the introduction of physical and mental health to the models, indicating an indirect effect of physical working conditions upon quality of life via health. Conclusion Adverse physical working conditions have long-term consequences for health and quality of life at older ages. Improvements to physical working conditions may improve individuals’ quality of life over the long term. PMID:23560563

  8. Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta G; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Blane, David; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To investigate variations in quality of life at older ages, we take a life course perspective to analyse long-term effects of physical working conditions upon quality of life after retirement. In doing so, we study to what extent these associations are explained by individuals' health at older ages. We use administrative data and self-administered questionnaire responses from the French GAZEL cohort. Quality of life was assessed with CASP-19 in 2009 and related to three types of physical working conditions during previous working life: (1) ergonomic strain, (2) physical danger and (3) exposures to chemicals. Health was assessed in 2007 with the SF-36 Health Survey. Multiple regressions were calculated in retired men only, controlling for important confounders including social position. In contrast to men, few women were exposed to strenuous and dangerous working conditions in this cohort and were not included in subsequent analyses. Negative effects on retired men's quality of life were found for the physical occupational exposures of ergonomic strain and physical danger, but not for chemical exposures. Effects were attenuated after the introduction of physical and mental health to the models, indicating an indirect effect of physical working conditions upon quality of life via health. Adverse physical working conditions have long-term consequences for health and quality of life at older ages. Improvements to physical working conditions may improve individuals' quality of life over the long term.

  9. The Physical, Chemical and Physiological Limits of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth displays an incredible diversity in form and function, which allows it to survive not only physical extremes, but also periods of time when it is exposed to non-habitable conditions. Extreme physiological adaptations to bridge non-habitable conditions include various dormant states, such as spores or tuns. Here, we advance the hypothesis that if the environmental conditions are different on some other planetary body, a deviating biochemistry would evolve with types of adaptations that would manifest themselves with different physical and chemical limits of life. In this paper, we discuss two specific examples: putative life on a Mars-type planet with a hydrogen peroxide-water solvent and putative life on a Titan-type planetary body with liquid hydrocarbons as a solvent. Both examples would have the result of extending the habitable envelope of life in the universe.

  10. Physical Performance Across the Adult Life Span: Correlates With Age and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine S; Cohen, Harvey J; Pieper, Carl F; Fillenbaum, Gerda G; Kraus, William E; Huffman, Kim M; Cornish, Melissa A; Shiloh, Andrew; Flynn, Christy; Sloane, Richard; Newby, L Kristin; Morey, Miriam C

    2017-04-01

    A number of large-scale population studies have provided valuable information about physical performance in aged individuals; however, there is little information about trajectories of function and associations with age across the adult life span. We developed a mobility-focused physical performance screener designed to be appropriate for the adult life span. The physical performance battery includes measures of mobility, strength, endurance, and balance. Physical activity (PA) was assessed with accelerometry. We examined age-related trends in physical performance and PA, and the relationship between physical performance and PA across the age range (30-90+), by decade, in 775 participants enrolled in the study 2012-2014. Physical performance was worse with increasing age decade. Although men performed better than women across all ages, the decrement by age group was similar between genders. Worsening physical performance was observed as early as the fifth decade for chair stands and balance and in the sixth decade for gait speed and aerobic endurance. The number and strength of significant associations between physical performance and PA increased with greater age: the greatest number of significant associations was seen in the 60-79 age groups, with fewer reported in the 30-59 and 80-90+ age groups. More PA was associated with better physical function. These results emphasize the importance of a life span approach to studies of function and aging. This work points to the need for a physical performance screener that spans across adulthood as a clinical tool for identifying functional decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Course Content for Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerswiet, Jack; Duflou, Joost; Dewulf, Wim

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to create an awareness of Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign in Engineering students. Topics covered in an LCE/EcoDesign course will create an awareness of environmental impacts, especially in other design course projects. This paper suggests that an awareness of product impact...... upon the environment must be created at an early stage in undergraduate education. Deciding what to include in an LCE/EcoDesign Course can be difficult because there are many different views on the subject. However, there are more similarities than differences. All LCE/ EcoDesign Engineering courses...

  12. Mathematical methods in engineering and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    This text is intended for the undergraduate course in math methods, with an audience of physics and engineering majors. As a required course in most departments, the text relies heavily on explained examples, real-world applications and student engagement. Supporting the use of active learning, a strong focus is placed upon physical motivation combined with a versatile coverage of topics that can be used as a reference after students complete the course. Each chapter begins with an overview that includes a list of prerequisite knowledge, a list of skills that will be covered in the chapter, and an outline of the sections. Next comes the motivating exercise, which steps the students through a real-world physical problem that requires the techniques taught in each chapter.

  13. Fullness of life as minimal unit: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning across the life span.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, W.-M.; Eijck, van M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Challenged by a National Science Foundation–funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of

  14. Adaptation to Physical Disabilities: The Role of Meaning in Life and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Psarra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most frequent psychological symptoms in people with physical disabilities, as the acquisition of a physical disability is a stressful situation, demanding an individual’s adjustment to a new distressing reality. While some individuals manage to adapt to their physical disability’s implications, others fail to accept this new situation, manifesting depressive symptoms. One factor that seems to facilitate adaptation process to physical disabilities and thus prevent from depression prevalence is meaning of life. Viktor Frankl has emphasized the importance of experiencing meaning of life in the maintenance of physical and psychological health, especially in painful and distressing situations. The present study focused initially on the assessment of meaning in life and depressive symptomatology in individuals with physical disabilities. Moreover, the relationship of meaning in life and depression with adaptation to physical disability was examined. A sample of 522 participants with various types of physical disabilities completed three questionnaires on depressive symptomatology, meaning in life and adaptation to disability. Our assumptions regarding the negative relationship between meaning of life and depression were confirmed. Additionally, meaning of life was found, as expected, to play in important role in facilitating individuals’ adaptation to their physical disabilities, a finding indicating the great utility of Frankl’s existential theory as a psychotherapeutic tool for people with physical disabilities.

  15. The Caltech physics/engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology Physics/Engineering network (referred to as the ''Caltech network'' in this paper) is a software system which has been developed over the last four years for high-speed data acquisition, graphics, and distributed computer resource communications. This paper presents: a brief history of past and current development of the network software; features currently implemented; current speed performance; and applications of the network to research and education at Caltech and at other institutions

  16. Engineering Mathematics I : Electromagnetics, Fluid Mechanics, Material Physics and Financial Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rančić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances in engineering mathematics with a main focus on the mathematical models, structures, concepts, problems and computational methods and algorithms most relevant for applications in modern technologies and engineering. In particular, it features mathematical methods and models of applied analysis, probability theory, differential equations, tensor analysis and computational modelling used in applications to important problems concerning electromagnetics, antenna technologies, fluid dynamics, material and continuum physics and financial engineering. The individual chapters cover both theory and applications, and include a wealth of figures, schemes, algorithms, tables and results of data analysis and simulation. Presenting new methods and results, reviews of cutting-edge research, and open problems for future research, they equip readers to develop new mathematical methods and concepts of their own, and to further compare and analyse the methods and results discussed. The ...

  17. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  18. The activity of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levedev, L.

    1994-01-01

    Various information about Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) structure and scientific activity are discussed. The four main faculties of MEPhI: the faculty of theoretical and experimental physics, the faculty of technical physics, the faculty of automatics and electronics and the faculty of cybernetics are being written in this report. The information about the research reactors and the scientific research laboratories is also presented. The participation of MEPhI in the state scientific technological programs such as 'High energy physics', 'High-temperature superconductivity', 'Controlled thermonuclear synthesis and plasma processes'. 'Informatization', 'Security of population and industrial objects on account of hazard of natural and technogenic accidents', 'Ecology of Russia', 'Synchrotron radiation and its application', 'Future technologies, machines and productions' and others are presented too. (author)

  19. PHYSICAL DIMENSION OF QUALITY OF LIFE IN OSTOMY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Repić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer of abdominal visceral organs. The basic principle of management is radical surgery treatment, with creation of stoma. Quality of life is of great importance for ostomy patients. Considering the fact that colostomy is mutilizing intervention wich results in irreversible body changes, in most cases as a result of underlying colorectal cancer, patients have to cope with two major issues - life threatening disease and extensive surgical procedure which leads to irreversible changes in all aspects of life. The aim of this study was to assess physical well-beig in patients with ostomy regarding their gender, education level and time after surgery. There were 67 patients of both genders who were followed up at the Specialist Polyclinic after colostomy surgery at the Clinical Center of Vojvodina. The quality of life for patients with colostomy questionnaire by M. Grant was used. Average age of respondents was 65.87 years. Majority of them had colostomy, mainly permanent, mostly due to malignancy. The most dominant physical issues were skin irritation, diarrhea, leakage of feces from pouch and obstipation. There were no statistically significant differences in self-assessment of physical well-being among sexes; gas and diarrhea were more commonly reported in higher education level groups, while patients who had stoma longer than 12 months better perceived their physical strength. The average score of self-assessment of physical well-being was 3.91 (0 was the best, 10 was the worst, better perceived by men and patients who had stoma longer than 12 months. Although self-assessment of physical well-being in ostomy patients was at a satisfactory level, it is necessary to provide continuous patient support in order to overcome physical problems that alter their quality of life.

  20. Introducing the Institute of Physics in Engineering and Medicine (IPEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2014-04-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology is one of three journals owned by the UK based Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), along with Physiological Measurement and Medical Engineering and Physics. IPEM is a charity and journal revenues are a vital part of our income stream. By subscribing to our journals, you are helping to support the work of IPEM, so you may be interested to learn more about who we are and what we do. IPEM aims to advance physics and engineering applied to medicine and biology for the public good. Our membership comprises over 4000 physicists, engineers and technologists working in healthcare, academia and industry. Most of our work depends on these members generously volunteering their expert knowledge and extensive experience to work in the following areas. Promoting research and innovation Along with the scientific journals mentioned above, we also regularly produce scientific reports. There are currently 40 IPEM reports in print, as well as reference books such as The Gamma Camera—A Comprehensive Guide and the recently published Physicists and Physicians: A History of Medical Physics from the Renaissance to Röntgen. Publishing is just one way in which we encourage R&D and increase the uptake of new knowledge and innovations. We also support scientific conferences, such as the International Conference on Medical Physics 50th anniversary meeting, which we hosted in 2013 on behalf of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP). This four-day event explored the contribution that physics and engineering can make to healthcare and showcased the latest developments via 312 international speakers, 212 posters and an exhibition. Our awards, travel bursaries and grants enable us to facilitate, recognize and reward the work of our members. In 2012 we awarded almost #95 000 (around 155 000) this way. Championing the sector IPEM provides a unified voice with which to represent the views of our membership and raise the

  1. Physics and engineering of compact quantum dot-based lasers for biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rafailov, Edik U

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.

  2. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; Pexercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematics in physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, J; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Mathematics in Physics and Engineering describes the analytical and numerical (desk-machine) methods that arise in pure and applied science, including wave equations, Bessel and Legendre functions, and matrices. The manuscript first discusses partial differential equations, as well as the method of separation of variables, three-dimensional wave equation, diffusion or heat flow equation, and wave equation in plane and cylindrical polar coordinates. The text also ponders on Frobenius' and other methods of solution. Discussions focus on hypergeometric equation, Bessel's equation, confluent hyper

  4. Aircraft Engine Life-Consumption Monitoring for Real-Time Reliability Determination, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The object of this research is to develop an in-service life-monitor system for the prediction of the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The...

  5. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  6. Life is physics and chemistry and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2015-04-01

    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Meaning in life and physical health: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekierda, Katarzyna; Banik, Anna; Park, Crystal L; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations between meaning in life and physical health using random-effects models. Conceptualisation of meaning (order in world vs. purpose in life), type of health indicators, participants' health status, and age issues were investigated as moderators. Systematic searches of six databases resulted in inclusion of k = 66 studies (total N = 73,546). Findings indicated that meaning in life and physical health formed weak-to-moderate associations (the overall estimate of the average effect = 0.258). Conceptualisation of meaning, participants' health status, and their age did not moderate these associations. Operationalisation of health moderated the relationship between meaning in life and health. The strongest associations were found for subjective indicators of physical health. Significant albeit weak associations between meaning in life and objective indices of health were found. Furthermore, stronger effects were observed when the measures of meaning combined items referring to meaning in life and meaning-related sense of harmony, peace, and well-being, compared to measures focusing solely on meaning in life. Overall, the results point to the potential role of meaning in life in explaining physical health.

  8. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending August 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This paper contains abstracts on research performed at the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The areas covered are: mathematical science; nuclear-data measurement and evaluation; intelligent systems; nuclear analysis and shielding; and Engineering Physics Information Center

  9. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  10. Physics and information technology an interplay between science and engineering

    CERN Multimedia

    Hagstrom, S B

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade of this century and millennium, the computer and communication revolution has shown its power to transform the society. In this talk I will reflect on my personal experience of witnessing this revolution from an observation post in Silicon Valley. In particular, I will emphasize the role of physics and the interplay between science and engineering in this development. Information technology is often viewed as based on some physics discoveries and inventions such as the transistor and the semiconductor laser. Much of the subsequent development, the integrated circuit being a good example, has been an engineering feat. With shrinking dimensions of the circuits we are approaching the quantum limitations, requiring new types of computer architectures based on fundamental physics concepts. In this context we may ask if we should include the basic concepts of information and information handling as part of physics. Finally I will include some remarks on the views of physics as seen in the eyes of...

  11. Physical activity across the life-course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2018-01-01

    The subjective, lived elements of old age in physical activity promotion are central in defining how older people ascribe meaning to experiences of being active. Many such meanings are developed throughout the life course. From a longitudinal perspective, although continuity theory can be helpful...... be interdependent with how others define them, and how they define others. We offer recommendations about how this shift in perspective can empower older people to be active agents within figurations of physical activity promotion....

  12. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending August 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This paper contains abstracts on research performed at the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The areas covered are: mathematical science; nuclear-data measurement and evaluation; intelligent systems; nuclear analysis and shielding; and Engineering Physics Information Center. (LSP)

  13. Intensity of recreational physical activity throughout life and later life cognitive functioning in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Mary C; Moineddin, Rahim; Morra, Angela; Manson, Judith; Blake, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Long-term physical activity may affect risk of cognitive impairment but few studies have examined later life cognition in relation to intensity of life-long physical activity. We examined the associations between the intensity of long-term recreational physical activity and neuropsychological functioning in 90 healthy postmenopausal women on tests found to be useful in the early identification of dementia. Information was collected about their participation in strenuous and moderate activities between high school and menopause. Summary measures of long-term strenuous and moderate activity were constructed for each participant. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. The six linear regression analyses showed significant positive associations between moderate activity and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R), Digit Span backward, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, and Trail Making Test Part B. Significant negative relationships were found between strenuous activity and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed verbal recall, Complex Figure Test delayed visual memory, WAIS-R Digit Span backward, category fluency, and WAIS-R Digit Symbol. The associations found in the present study suggest that while moderate activity may be protective, long-term strenuous activity before menopause may lower cognitive performance later in life. These results support further investigation of the effects of life-long exercise intensity on cognition in later life.

  14. Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering in Clinical Environment and Legal Surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedec, M.

    2013-01-01

    An application of radiation in medicine is essentially associated with medical physics and biomedical engineering. The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception and the status of clinical medical physicists and biomedical engineers within the current international and Croatian legal framework. The International Labour Organization (ILO) in its International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) notes that medical physicists and biomedical engineers are an integral part of the health workforce, alongside those occupations classified as health professionals. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its basic safety standards for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources also defines medical physicists as health professional. The World Health Organization (WHO) urges member states to include biomedical engineers in assessment, planning, procurement, implementation and management of health technologies, in particular biomedical devices. The Council of the European Union (EU) in its directives defines qualified professionals, especially experts in medical physics, as workers who carry out physical, technical and radiochemical work in regard to dosimetry, radiation protection, quality assurance and quality control, equipment management, etc. According to the U.S. Office of Labor Statistics, biomedical engineer is an occupation with the third-fastest growth rate in the economy, as projected for the period 2010-2020. It is expected that the role and the importance of medical physics and biomedical engineering profession in Croatia, a member state of ILO, WHO, IAEA and EU, will be soon fully regulated in a way comparable to the career paths of other health professionals within a clinical environment, primarily for the benefit of patients and hospital staff, healthcare facilities and healthcare system in general.(author)

  15. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  16. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  17. Ontology modeling in physical asset integrity management

    CERN Document Server

    Yacout, Soumaya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge applications of, and up-to-date research on, ontology engineering techniques in the physical asset integrity domain. Though a survey of state-of-the-art theory and methods on ontology engineering, the authors emphasize essential topics including data integration modeling, knowledge representation, and semantic interpretation. The book also reflects novel topics dealing with the advanced problems of physical asset integrity applications such as heterogeneity, data inconsistency, and interoperability existing in design and utilization. With a distinctive focus on applications relevant in heavy industry, Ontology Modeling in Physical Asset Integrity Management is ideal for practicing industrial and mechanical engineers working in the field, as well as researchers and graduate concerned with ontology engineering in physical systems life cycles. This book also: Introduces practicing engineers, research scientists, and graduate students to ontology engineering as a modeling techniqu...

  18. Unhealthy lifestyles during the life course : association with physical decline in late life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, Saskia M; Visser, Marjolein; Puts, Martine T E; Dik, Miranda G; Schalk, Bianca W M; van Schoor, Natasja M; Schaap, Laura A; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed at examining the association between unhealthy lifestyle in young age, midlife and/or old age and physical decline in old age, and between chronic exposure to an unhealthy lifestyle throughout life and physical decline in old age. METHODS: The study sample

  19. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  20. Engineering sciences research highlights. Fiscal year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, E.F.; Dobratz, B.

    1984-05-01

    The Laboratory's overall mission is sixfold. We are charged with developing nuclear warheads for defense, technology for arms control, and new concepts for defense against nuclear attack; with supporting programs for both nonnuclear defense and energy research and development; and with advancing our knowledge of science and technology so that we can respond to other national needs. Major programs in support of this mission involve nuclear weapons, energy, environmental science, and basic research. Specific areas of investigation include the design, development, and testing of nuclear weapons; nuclear safeguards and security; inertial and magnetic fusion and nuclear, solar, fossil, and geothermal energy; and basic research in physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering, and the computer and life sciences. With the staff and facilities maintained for these and other programs, the Laboratory can respond to specific national needs in virtually all areas of the physical and life sciences. Within the Laboratory's organization, most technical research activities are carried out in three directorates: Engineering Sciences; Physics and Mathematics; and Chemistry, Earth and Life Sciences. The activities highlighted here are examples of unclassified work carried out in the seven divisions that made up the Engineering Sciences Directorate at the end of fiscal year 1983. Brief descriptions of these divisions' goals and capabilities and summaries of selected projects illustrate the diversity of talent, expertise, and facilities maintained within the Engineering Sciences Directorate

  1. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  2. Introductory physics in biological context: An approach to improve introductory physics for life science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Catherine H.; Heller, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    We describe restructuring the introductory physics for life science students (IPLS) course to better support these students in using physics to understand their chosen fields. Our courses teach physics using biologically rich contexts. Specifically, we use examples in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding a biological system to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires selecting the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology while maintaining the fundamental disciplinary structure of physics. In addition to stressing the importance of the fundamental principles of physics, an important goal is developing students' quantitative and problem solving skills. Our guiding pedagogical framework is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively when students can articulate why what they are learning matters to them. In this article, we describe our courses, summarize initial assessment data, and identify needs for future research.

  3. The physics of degradation in engineered materials and devices fundamentals and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Swingler, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation is apparent in all things and is fundamental to both manufactured and natural objects. It is often described by the second law of thermodynamics, where entropy, a measure of disorder, tends to increase with time in a closed system. Things age! This concise reference work brings together experts and key players engaged in the physics of degradation to present the background science, current thinking and developments in understanding, and gives a detailed account of emerging issues across a selection of engineering applications. The work has been put together to equip the upper level undergraduate student, postgraduate student, as well as the professional engineer and scientist, in the importance of physics of degradation. The aim of The Physics of Degradation in Engineered Materials and Devices is to bridge the gap between published textbooks on the fundamental science of degradation phenomena and published research on the engineering science of actual fabricated materials and devices. A history o...

  4. STEMujeres: A case study of the life stories of first-generation Latina engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Karina I.

    Research points to the many obstacles that first-generation, Latina students face when attempting to enter fields in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, STEM. This qualitative, case study examined the personal and educational experiences of first-generation Latina women who successfully navigated the STEM educational pipeline earning bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in various fields of engineering. Three research questions guided the study: (1) How does a first-generation Latina engineer and scientist describe her life experiences as she became interested in STEM? (2) How does she describe her educational experiences as she navigated the educational pipeline in the physics, mathematics, and/or engineering field(s)? (3) How did she respond to challenges, obstacles and microaggressions, if any, while navigating the STEM educational pipeline? The study was designed using a combination of Critical Race Theory frameworks---Chicana feminist theory and racial microaggressions. Through a life history case study approach, the women shared their stories of success. With the participants' help, influential persons in their educational paths were identified and interviewed. Data were analyzed using crystallization and thematic results indicated that all women in this study identified their parents as planting the seed of interest through the introduction of mathematics. The women unknowingly prepared to enter the STEM fields by taking math and science coursework. They were guided to apply to STEM universities and academic programs by others who knew about their interest in math and science including teachers, counselors, and level-up peers---students close in age who were just a step more advanced in the educational pipeline. The women also drew from previous familial struggles to guide their perseverance and motivation toward educational degree completion. The lives of the women where complex and intersected with various forms of racism including

  5. Proceedings of the second conference on medical physics and biomedical engineering of R. Macedonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In the 21st century many branches in medicine can not exist without physicists. Most recent methods in medicine, especially new technologies in cancer diagnostic and treatments, have resulted in a great need for medical physicists in growing number of institutions and hospitals. I There are a certain number of highly qualified and dedicated professionals in medical physics in Macedonia whose work is mainly performed in governmental institutions committed towards medical physics issues. The Association for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (AMPBE) was established in 2000 as the first professional association in Macedonia competent to cope with problems in the fields of medicine, applying methods of physics and biomedical engineering to medical procedures in order to develop tools essential to the physicians that will improve medical care in general. Three years ago the First National Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering was organized by the Association. The idea was to gather all the professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering on one place in order to present their work and increase the collaboration among them. Other involved professions such as medical doctors, radiation technologists, engineers and physics professors from the University also took part and contributed to the success of the conference. As a result the Proceedings were published in Macedonian, with summaries in English.

  6. Proceedings of the second conference on medical physics and biomedical engineering of R. Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 21st century many branches in medicine can not exist without physicists. Most recent methods in medicine, especially new technologies in cancer diagnostic and treatments, have resulted in a great need for medical physicists in growing number of institutions and hospitals. I There are a certain number of highly qualified and dedicated professionals in medical physics in Macedonia whose work is mainly performed in governmental institutions committed towards medical physics issues. The Association for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (AMPBE) was established in 2000 as the first professional association in Macedonia competent to cope with problems in the fields of medicine, applying methods of physics and biomedical engineering to medical procedures in order to develop tools essential to the physicians that will improve medical care in general. Three years ago the First National Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering was organized by the Association. The idea was to gather all the professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering on one place in order to present their work and increase the collaboration among them. Other involved professions such as medical doctors, radiation technologists, engineers and physics professors from the University also took part and contributed to the success of the conference. As a result the Proceedings were published in Macedonian, with summaries in English.

  7. Group Creativity Development by Solving Real-life Project in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, problem and project based learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. Among the diverse pedagogical practices of PBL, there has been an emergence of real-life project for students. Based on literature of creativity...... along with the learning activities etc., which are necessary for group creativity development in engineering students....

  8. Nucleo electric conversion; an approximation from physics engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is carry out some aspects of Civil use in produced Energy conversion from nuclear fi sion in electric energy from one point of view of physical engineering,emphasizing in nuclear power reactors and their fuel oil.

  9. [Physical and mental dimensions of quality of life of frail older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbens, Robbert J J

    2017-09-01

    Frail older people have an increased risk of limitations in performing activities of daily living, hospitalization, nursing home admission, and premature death. In this study we determined the difference in experiencing quality of life between frail and non-frail older people. We also investigated the associations between physical, psychological and social components of frailty and the physical and mental dimensions of quality of life. 374 people of 75 years and older filled in a questionnaire, the Senioren Barometer. This questionnaire contained the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) to assess frailty and the SF-12 for assessing quality of life. The study showed that frail older people on average experience a lower quality of life than non-frail older people. A considerable part of the variance of the physical and mental dimensions of quality of life could be explained by the fifteen components of frailty, after controlling for the background characteristics of the respondents, 33.2% and 36.5%, respectively. The frailty components physical inactivity, physical tiredness, and depressive symptoms were associated with the physical dimension as well as the mental dimension of quality of life. The results confirm the importance of multidimensional assessment of frailty. In addition, they provide a direction to healthcare and welfare professionals in performing interventions with the aim of increasing the quality of life of older people.

  10. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  11. The LAILAPS search engine: a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Spies, Karl; Colmsee, Christian; Flemming, Steffen; Klapperstück, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe

    2010-03-25

    Efficient and effective information retrieval in life sciences is one of the most pressing challenge in bioinformatics. The incredible growth of life science databases to a vast network of interconnected information systems is to the same extent a big challenge and a great chance for life science research. The knowledge found in the Web, in particular in life-science databases, are a valuable major resource. In order to bring it to the scientist desktop, it is essential to have well performing search engines. Thereby, not the response time nor the number of results is important. The most crucial factor for millions of query results is the relevance ranking. In this paper, we present a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases and its implementation in the LAILAPS search engine. Motivated by the observation of user behavior during their inspection of search engine result, we condensed a set of 9 relevance discriminating features. These features are intuitively used by scientists, who briefly screen database entries for potential relevance. The features are both sufficient to estimate the potential relevance, and efficiently quantifiable. The derivation of a relevance prediction function that computes the relevance from this features constitutes a regression problem. To solve this problem, we used artificial neural networks that have been trained with a reference set of relevant database entries for 19 protein queries. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, this concepts are implemented in the LAILAPS search engine. It can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases. LAILAPS is publicly available for SWISSPROT data at http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de.

  12. Promoting Physical Activity through Student Life and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Tyler; Melton, Bridget F.; Langdon, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A physical activity passport (PAP) was developed to increase student's physical activity through the collaboration of student life and academics. The purpose was to measure the effectiveness of the PAP. Design: The research design used was a quantitative, descriptive, quasi-experimental design with experimental and control groups.…

  13. Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Concepts in Chemical Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Schmidt Rivera, Ximena C.; Stamford, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting represents an important professional and research opportunity for chemical engineers, but this is not broadly reflected in chemical engineering curricula worldwide. This paper aims to present the implementation of a coursework that is easy to apply, free of cost,…

  14. Dose-response of women's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Payne, Warren

    2014-02-01

    To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA). 793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders. A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA. Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.

  15. Integration of Engineering Education by High School Teachers to Meet Standards in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Jennifer Anna

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in engineering education at the K-12 level, which has resulted in states adopting engineering standards as a part of their academic science standards. From a national perspective, the basis for research into engineering education at the K-12 level is the belief that it is of benefit to student learning, including to "improve student learning and achievement in science and mathematics; increase awareness of engineering and the work of engineers; boost youth interest in pursuing engineering as a career; and increase the technological literacy of all students" (National Research Council, 2009a, p. 1). The above has led to a need to understand how teachers are currently implementing engineering education in their classrooms. High school physics teachers have a history of implementing engineering design projects in their classrooms, thus providing an appropriate setting to look for evidence of quality engineering education at the high school level. Understanding the characteristics of quality engineering integration can inform curricular and professional development efforts for teachers asked to implement engineering in their classrooms. Thus, the question that guided this study is: How, and to what extent, do physics teachers represent quality engineering in a physics unit focused on engineering? A case study research design was implemented for this project. Three high school physics teachers were participants in this study focused on the integration of engineering education into the physics classroom. The data collected included observations, interviews, and classroom documents that were analyzed using the Framework for Quality K-12 Engineering Education (Moore, Glancy et al., 2013). The results provided information about the areas of the K-12 engineering framework addressed during these engineering design projects, and detailed the quality of these lesson components. The results indicate that all of the design

  16. American Physics and the Origins of Electrical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of electrical engineering (EE) from its roots of academic physics in the 1890s to a discipline with its own priorities and departmental structure. Includes a description of the first EE course offered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). (JN)

  17. Life Science Students' Attitudes, Interest, and Performance in Introductory Physics for Life Sciences: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Catherine H.; Wisittanawat, Panchompoo; Cai, Ming; Renninger, K. Ann

    2018-01-01

    In response to national calls for improved physical sciences education for students pursuing careers in the life sciences and medicine, reformed introductory physics for life sciences (IPLS) courses are being developed. This exploratory study is among the first to assess the effect of an IPLS course on students' attitudes, interest, and…

  18. Review on study of multi-physics in environment engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shanli; Zhao Jian; Sheng Jinchang

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes some problems on multi-field coupling ones between seepage mechanics and other physical and chemical processes (such as temperature field. stress field, solute transport. chemical action and so on) in environment engineering, it explains the research theory of multi-field coupling, it summarizes the abroad and domestic research about the model of multi-field problem and finally it looks into the future of research tendency in environment engineering. (authors)

  19. Seminar Neutronika-2012. Neutron-physical problems of nuclear-power engineering. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On October, 30 - November, 2 in State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky a seminar Neutron-physical problems of nuclear power engineering - Neutronika-2012 took place. On the seminar the following problems were discussed: justification of neutron-physical characteristics of reactor facilities and innovation projects; constant support of neutron-physical calculations of nuclear power installations; numerical simulation during solving reactor physics problems; simulation of neutron-physical processes in reactor facilities by Monte Carlo method; development and verification of programs for reactor facilities neutron-physical calculations; algorithms and programs for solving nonstationary problems of neutron-physical calculation of nuclear reactors; analysis of integral and reactor experiments, experimental database; justification of nuclear and radiation safety of fuel cycle [ru

  20. Analysis of the Impact of Introductory Physics on Engineering Students at Texas A&M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jonathan; Bassichis, William

    Introductory physics forms a major part of the foundational knowledge of engineering majors, independent of discipline and institution. While the content of introductory physics courses is consistent from institution to institution, the manner in which it is taught can vary greatly due to professor, textbook, instructional method, and overall course design. This work attempts to examine variations in student success, as measured by overall academic performance in an engineering major, and matriculation rates, based on the type of introductory physics a student took while enrolled in an engineering degree at Texas A&M University. Specific options for introductory physics at Texas A&M University include two calculus based physics courses, one traditional (UP), and one more mathematically rigorous (DP), transfer credit, and high school (AP or dual) credit. In order to examine the impact of introductory physics on a student's degree progression, data mining analyses are performed on a data set of relatively comprehensive academic records for all students enrolled as an engineering major for a minimum of one academic term. Student data has been collected for years of entering freshman beginning in 1990 and ending in 2010. Correlations will be examined between freshman level courses, including introductory physics, and follow on engineering courses, matriculation rates, and time to graduation.

  1. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Laura Ekstrøm; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    . They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...

  2. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  3. Making perfect life : bio-engineering (in) the 21st century : interim study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van R.; Keulen, van I.; Geesink, I.; Schuiff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reportnumber: PE 438.829; This document is the result of the preparatory phase of the STOA-project "Making perfect life", that defined the project focus. This resulted in the study document Making Perfect Life: Bio-engineering (in) the 21st century. A project plan for the next two phases was

  4. Physical activity predicts quality of life and happiness in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol Ann; Toohey, Monica; Ferguson, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations between physical activity, health-related quality of life and happiness in young people with cerebral palsy. A total of 70 young people with cerebral palsy (45 males, 25 females; mean age 13 years 11 months, SD 2 years 0 month) took part in a cross-sectional, descriptive postal survey assessing physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents), functional ability (Gross Motor Function Classification System), quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0) and happiness (single Likert-scale item). Relationships between physical activity, quality of life and happiness were examined using backward stepwise linear regression. Physical activity significantly predicted physical quality of life (R(2 )= 0.64, β = 6.12, p = 0.02), social quality of life (R(2 )= 0.28, β = 9.27, p happiness (R(2 )= 0.08, β = 0.9, p = 0.04). Physical activity was not associated with emotional or school quality of life. This study found a positive association between physical activity, social and physical quality of life, and happiness in young people with cerebral palsy. Findings underscore the potential benefits of physical activity for the wellbeing of young people with cerebral palsy, in addition to its well-recognised physical and health benefits. Physical activity is a key predictor of quality of life and happiness in young people with cerebral palsy. Physical activity is widely recognised as having physical health benefits for young people with cerebral palsy; however, this study also highlights that it may have important benefits for wellbeing, quality of life and happiness. This emphasises the need for clinical services and intervention studies aimed specifically at increasing physical activity amongst children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

  5. Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, A; Vale, Zita

    2011-01-01

    "Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems" provides an overview and original analysis of new developments and advances in several areas of computational intelligence. Computational Intelligence have become the road-map for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences (such as physics, chemistry and biology) and engineering, environmental, life and social sciences. The contributions are written by international experts, who provide up-to-date aspects of the topics discussed and present recent, original insights into their own experien

  6. Engineering embedded systems physics, programs, circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Hintenaus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like ...

  7. A Life-Long Approach to Physical Activity for Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Macpherson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that engaging in lifelong Physical activity (PA can help delay the onset of many chronic lifestyle related and non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Additionally, growing evidence also documents the importance of PA for brain health, with numerous studies indicating regular engagement in physical activities may be protective against cognitive decline and dementia in late life. Indeed, the link between PA and brain health may be different at each stage of life from childhood, mid-life and late life. Building on this emerging body of multidisciplinary research, this review aims to summarize the current body of evidence linking regular PA and brain health across the lifespan. Specifically, we will focus on the relationship between PA and brain health at three distinct stages of life: childhood and adolescence, mid-life, late life in cognitively healthy adults and later life in adults living with age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD.

  8. IT logistics support life cycle of products in air engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.С. Кулик

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  Questions of increase of efficiency of a supply with information of creation and support in operation of modern aviation engines are considered. The revealed most perspective directions of development of complex systems of support of life cycle aviation technics.

  9. Origins of life: a problem for physics, a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The origins of life stands among the great open scientific questions of our time. While a number of proposals exist for possible starting points in the pathway from non-living to living matter, these have so far not achieved states of complexity that are anywhere near that of even the simplest living systems. A key challenge is identifying the properties of living matter that might distinguish living and non-living physical systems such that we might build new life in the lab. This review is geared towards covering major viewpoints on the origin of life for those new to the origin of life field, with a forward look towards considering what it might take for a physical theory that universally explains the phenomenon of life to arise from the seemingly disconnected array of ideas proposed thus far. The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.

  10. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Andrea); J. Jonker (Joost); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical

  11. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hischier, Roland; Walser, Tobias

    2012-05-15

    The use of engineered nanomaterials offers advantages as well as disadvantages from a sustainability perspective. It is important to identify such points as early as possible in order to be able to build on existing strengths, while counteracting disadvantages. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a suitable method to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. But so far studies applying LCA to the area of nanotechnology have been scarce. One reason might be that the LCA framework has a whole list of issues that need further precision in order to be applicable to nanotechnologies: system boundaries and a functional unit have to be chosen in a way that allows one to do a comparison of equal functionalities; adequate and comprehensive life cycle inventory data for engineered nanomaterials are the key on the level of inventory analysis; and the impact assessment step requires a clear definition of the degree of detail on the level of nanoparticle emissions. The LCA studies existing thus far in the area of nanotechnology have barely begun to cover all these aspects. Thus, in order to improve the current situation, the authors propose to go ahead in each of the LCA stages as far as scientific advances allow. For the inventory modelling this means e.g. that comprehensive, transparently documented and quality ensured data of the most important engineered nanomaterials should be collected and made available in a widely-accepted format. Concerning nanoparticle emissions, as many parameters as possible have to be collected pertaining to the production, use, and the disposal phase of these engineered nanomaterials. Furthermore, on the level of impact assessment, relevant physical characteristics have to be identified for a toxicity assessment of nanoparticles and a consensus has to be found for a limited but sufficient number of independent parameters influencing toxicity to be collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional outlook on life predicts increases in physical activity among initially inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Marcus, Bess H; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical activity level and emotional outlook on life. Emotional outlook on life was significantly and positively related to physical activity participation at the follow-up visit in men but not women. Men who were usually very happy and optimistic at baseline had significantly greater increases in physical activity compared to men who were not happy. Men with a more positive outlook on life (e.g., happier) may be more likely to increase physical activity levels. Physical activity interventions targeting men may be more successful if they first increase happiness.

  13. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Jarek

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  14. Annual technical report - 1987 - Nuclear Engineering Institute - Dept. of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da; Cabral, S.C.; Bastos, M.A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The research reports carried out in the Physics Department of Nuclear Engineering Institute/Brazilian CNEN, in nuclear physics, isotope production and hazards by irradiation using the CV-28 cyclotron capable to accelerate protons, deuterons, helium and alpha particles with maximum energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Nuclear engineering, health physics, and radioactive waste management fellowship program: Summary of program activities: Nuclear engineering and health physics fellowship, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in the nuclear engineering and health physics elements of the fellowship program. Statistics are given on numbers of student applications and new appointments, the degree areas of applicants, GPA and GRE score averages of the fellows, and employment of completed fellows

  16. Benchmark and physics testing of LIFE-4C. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.

    1984-06-01

    LIFE-4C is a steady-state/transient analysis code developed for performance evaluation of carbide [(U,Pu)C and UC] fuel elements in advanced LMFBRs. This paper summarizes selected results obtained during a crucial step in the development of LIFE-4C - benchmark and physics testing

  17. Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity in Early and Late Adulthood in Relation to Later Life Physical Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Pajala, Satu; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Oksa, Heikki; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has beneficial effects on older age physical functioning, but longitudinal studies with follow-ups extending up to decades are few. We investigated the association between leisure-time PA (LTPA) and occupational PA (OPA) from early to late adulthood in relation to later life performance-based physical functioning. The study involved 1260 people aged 60 to 79 years who took part in assessments of physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] test, 10-m maximal walking test, and grip strength test). Participants' data on earlier life LTPA/OPA (age range 25 to 74 years) were received from the previous studies (average follow-up 13.4 years). Logistic, linear, and censored regression models were used to assess the associations between LTPA/OPA earlier in life and subsequent physical functioning. A high level of LTPA earlier in life was associated with a lower risk of having difficulties on the SPPB test (odds ratio [OR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.58) and especially on the chair rise test (OR: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64) in old age. Heavy manual work predicted difficulties on SPPB (OR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.22-2.98) and the chair rise test (OR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) and poorer walking speed (β = .10, P = .005). This study highlights the importance of LTPA on later life functioning, but also indicates the inverse effects that may be caused by heavy manual work.

  18. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  19. Sorption heat engines: simple inanimate negative entropy generators

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Anthonie W. J.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The name 'sorption heat engines' is proposed for simple negative entropy generators that are driven by thermal cycling and work on alternating adsorption and desorption. These generators are in general not explicitly recognized as heat engines. Their mechanism is applicable to the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, geology, and biology, in particular the origin of life. Four kinds of sorption heat engines are distinguished depending on the occurrence of changes in the adsorbent or ads...

  20. The construction of life prediction models for the design of Stirling engine heater components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, A.; Bright, A.; Cronin, M.; Arnold, S.

    1983-01-01

    The service life of Stirling-engine heater structures of Fe-based high-temperature alloys is predicted using a numerical model based on a linear-damage approach and published test data (engine test data for a Co-based alloy and tensile-test results for both the Co-based and the Fe-based alloys). The operating principle of the automotive Stirling engine is reviewed; the economic and technical factors affecting the choice of heater material are surveyed; the test results are summarized in tables and graphs; the engine environment and automotive duty cycle are characterized; and the modeling procedure is explained. It is found that the statistical scatter of the fatigue properties of the heater components needs to be reduced (by decreasing the porosity of the cast material or employing wrought material in fatigue-prone locations) before the accuracy of life predictions can be improved.

  1. Brains--Computers--Machines: Neural Engineering in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2016-01-01

    Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…

  2. Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, John

    2013-01-01

    This book draws together the essential elements of classical electrodynamics, surface wave physics, plasmonic materials, and circuit theory of electrical engineering to provide insight into the essential physics of nanoscale light-matter interaction and to provide design methodology for practical nanoscale plasmonic devices. A chapter on classical and quantal radiation also highlights the similarities (and differences) between the classical fields of Maxwell's equations and the wave functions of Schrodinger's equation. The aim of this chapter is to provide a semiclassical picture of atomic absorption and emission of radiation, lending credence and physical plausibility to the "rules" of standard wave-mechanical calculations.

  3. Engineering support for plant life management: the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.; Hezoucky, F.; Clark, R. C.; )

    2007-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant, PLiM programme is essential. Some countries already have advanced PLiM programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Three projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all three projects contain certain issues of PLiM, there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices for optimization of NPP service life. This particular project deals with different specific issues of PLiM including aspects of ageing phenomena and their monitoring, issues of control and instrumentation, maintenance and operation issues, economic evaluation of PLiM including guidance on its earlier shut down and decommissioning

  4. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Scott Durow, Software Engineer, Oxford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Conducted by Paul

    1998-05-01

    Scott Durow was educated at Bootham School, York. He studied Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry to A-level and went on to Nottingham University to read Medical Physics. After graduating from Nottingham he embarked on his present career as a Software Engineer based in Oxford. He is a musician in his spare time, as a member of a band and playing the French horn.

  5. Mathematical methods in physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    2011-01-01

    Intended for college-level physics, engineering, or mathematics students, this volume offers an algebraically based approach to various topics in applied math. It is accessible to undergraduates with a good course in calculus which includes infinite series and uniform convergence. Exercises follow each chapter to test the student's grasp of the material; however, the author has also included exercises that extend the results to new situations and lay the groundwork for new concepts to be introduced later. A list of references for further reading will be found at the end of each chapter. For t

  6. Physical activity, symptoms, esteem, and life satisfaction during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships among physical activity (PA), symptom reporting, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life (SWL) in 133 women (M age=51.12, S.D.=4.10) of varying menopausal status. Multivariate analyses of co-variance (MANCOVA) revealed that independent of menopausal status, women who were more physically active reported significantly less severe vaso-somatic and general somatic symptoms, and higher levels of physical self-worth (PSW). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that expended MET-h/week, reported symptoms (frequency and severity, respectively), and PSW accounted for significant variance in SWL (R2 model=0.32, for symptom frequency, and 0.33, for symptom severity). Physical activity was significantly related to SWL through the mediation of PSW. However, both reported symptom frequency and severity retained significant association with SWL after controlling for PSW, although the original associations were significantly reduced. Finally, both symptoms and MET-h/week were independent contributors to the variance in PSW (R2 model=0.33 and 0.34). The results suggest that being physically active may reduce perceived severity of menopausal symptoms and enhance psychological well-being, and that the relationship between physical activity and QOL in mid-life women may be mediated by factors such as physical self-perceptions and menopausal symptoms.

  7. Ions for LHC Beam Physics and Engineering Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Stephan; Baggiolini, Vito; Beuret, Andre; Blas, Alfred; Borburgh, Jan; Braun, Hans Heinrich; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Fowler, Tony; Gilardoni, S S; Gourber-Pace, Marine; Hancock, Steven; Hill, Charles E; Hourican, Michael; Jowett, John M; Kahle, Karsten; Kuchler, Detlef; Mahner, Edgar; Manglunki, Django; Martini, Michel; Paoluzzi, Mauro M; Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Pedersen, Flemming; Raich, Uli; Rossi, Carlo; Royer, Jean Pierre; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, Richard; Sermeus, Luc; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, Gerard; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The first phase of the heavy ion physics program at the LHC aims to provide lead-lead collisions at energies of 5.5 TeV per colliding nucleon pair and ion-ion luminosity of 1027 cm-2s-1. The transformation of CERN’s ion injector complex (Linac3-LEIR-PS-SPS) presents a number of beam physics and engineering challenges, which are described in this paper. In the LHC itself, there are fundamental performance limitations due to various beam loss mechanisms. To study these without risk of damage there will be an initial period of operation with a reduced number of nominal intensity bunches. While reducing the work required to commission the LHC with ions in 2008, this will still enable early physics discoveries.

  8. Persistence of physics and engineering students via peer mentoring, active learning, and intentional advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCavit, K.; Zellner, N. E. B.

    2016-11-01

    Albion College, a private, undergraduate-only, liberal arts college in Michigan, USA, has developed and implemented a low-cost peer-mentoring programme that blends personal and academic support to help students achieve academic success in the introductory courses required for the Physics Major or the Dual-Degree Program in Engineering. This enhanced mentoring programme provides much-needed assistance for undergraduate students to master introductory physics and mathematics coursework, to normalise the struggle of learning hard material, and to accept their identity as physics or engineering students (among other goals). Importantly, this programme has increased retention among entering science, technology, engineering and mathematics students at Albion College as they move through the introductory classes, as shown by a 20% increase in retention from first-semester to third-semester physics courses compared to years when this programme was not in place.

  9. Theory of Technical Systems--Educational Tool for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Wolfgang Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Hubka's theory of technical systems (TTS) is briefly outlined. It describes commonalities in all engineering devices, whatever their physical principles of action. This theory is based on a general transformation system (TrfS), which can be used to show engineering in the contexts of society, economics and historic developments. The life cycle of…

  10. A kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation for the turbofan engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life estimation of the prognostics and health management technique is a complicated and difficult research question for maintenance. In this article, we consider the problem of prognostics modeling and estimation of the turbofan engine under complicated circumstances and propose a kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation method for such aircraft engine. We first analyze the output data created by the turbofan engine thermodynamic simulation that is based on the kernel principal component analysis method and then distinguish the qualitative and quantitative relationships between the key factors. Next, we build a degradation model for the engine fault based on the following assumptions: the engine has only had constant failure (i.e. no sudden failure is included, and the engine has a Wiener process, which is a covariate stand for the engine system drift. To predict the remaining useful life of the turbofan engine, we built a health index based on the degradation model and used the method of maximum likelihood and the data from the thermodynamic simulation model to estimate the parameters of this degradation model. Through the data analysis, we obtained a trend model of the regression curve line that fits with the actual statistical data. Based on the predicted health index model and the data trend model, we estimate the remaining useful life of the aircraft engine as the index reaches zero. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this prediction method that we propose. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this proposed method, the precision of the method can reach to 98.9% and the average precision is 95.8%.

  11. Development of life skills through physics content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarči, Tomáš; Raganová, Janka

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with students' life skills which the physics teacher should intentionally develop through physics content. An attention is given not only to the physics content and activities connected with it, but also to the development of responsibility, freedom, ability to make decisions, group cooperation, self-evaluation and experience of success. Three activities implemented in the seventh class of the elementary school are described in the paper. Authors describe reasons for class selection, the physics content and the used methods as well as the skills which they decided to purposely develop. They emphasize the importance of activities requiring students' inquiry-based learning and the need to change organization and philosophy of physics teaching at secondary schools. At the end of the paper authors analyze the achievement of objectives, positives as well as negatives of the implemented approaches and propose changes for a future realization.

  12. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    During a penetration test on the physical security of an organization, if social engineering is used, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not done properly can upset the employees, violate their privacy or damage

  13. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  14. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2013-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly), which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student's ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. Detailed Illustrations and links to reference material online help further comprehension. The

  15. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  16. Outline of scientific and research activities of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, G.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of scientific and research activities carried out in the departments of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The first section lists the principal results achieved in the course of the 6th Five-Year Plan in Physical Electronics, Solid State Engineering, Materials Structure and Properties, Nuclear Physics, Theory and Technology of Nuclear Reactors, Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry. The second part gives a summary of scientific and research work carried out in the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering in the 7th Five-Year Plan in all branches of science represented. The Faculty's achievements in international scientific cooperation are assessed. (author)

  17. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  18. Physical function, pain, quality of life and life satisfaction of amputees from the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Reinhardt, Jan D; Zhang, Xia; Pennycott, Andrew; Zhao, Zhengen; Zeng, Xianmen; Li, Jianan

    2015-05-01

    To examine the development and determinants of long-term outcomes for earthquake victims with amputations, including physical function, pain, quality of life and life satisfaction. Prospective cohort study with 2-3 measurement points. A total of 72 people who underwent amputations following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and resided in Mianzhu County, Sichuan Province, China were enrolled in the study. Of these, 27 people were lost to follow-up. Data on pain (visual analogue scale) and physical function (Barthel Index) were collected at 3 measurement points (2009, 2010 and 2012), and data on quality of life (Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire-11) were collected at 2 measurement points (2010 and 2012). Data were analysed with mixed effects regression. Pain severity declined significantly and physical function increased by 2012. Quality of life and life satisfaction remained relatively stable between 2010 and 2012, while quality of life was significantly lower than reference values from the general population. Illiteracy and lower extremity amputations were associated with lower quality of life and life satisfaction in several domains. While amputees' functioning and pain were improved over time, quality of life and life satisfaction did not change. Illiterate earthquake survivors and those with lower extremity amputations are at particular risk of low quality of life and life satisfaction, and may require additional attention in future earthquake rehabilitation programs.

  19. Perspectives on handedness, life and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Sven

    2003-08-01

    In contrast to motion, matter will be conserved in all eternity. Structure and function will arise by the angular momentum of spinning spherical particles and their composites. Symmetry prevails in physics by equal amounts of left- and right-hand spinning entities, while life is asymmetric in this respect. Very rare deviations from the ubiquitous one-sided handedness in biology will probably explain the inert degradation resistant proteins in 'mad cow' type diseases. Velocities of physical events seems to be a most important feature and will explain for instance brain function and the true nature of neurodegenerative diseases. This biophysics of mind will in turn provide answers to many disputable aspects of physics such as the true nature of waves and gravity. Many current concepts in quantum physics will be invalidated, among them the uncertainty principle, the relativity to a fixed speed of light, the energy equation and the expansion of the Universe. Instead, decay and formation will balance each other in a continuum of matter in an intuitively cyclic Multiverse.

  20. 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 15th ICMBE held from 4th to 7th December 2013, Singapore. Biomedical engineering is applied in most aspects of our healthcare ecosystem. From electronic health records to diagnostic tools to therapeutic, rehabilitative and regenerative treatments, the work of biomedical engineers is evident. Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, life sciences and healthcare. The engineers would use principles from applied science including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering together with physical sciences including physics, chemistry and mathematics to apply them to biology and medicine. Applying such concepts to the human body is very much the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine. The goal is to better understand, replace or fix a target system to ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. With this understanding, the conference proceedings offer a single platform for individuals and organisations working i...

  1. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  2. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  3. Life Cycle Engineering – from methodology to enterprise culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo; Poll, Christian

    2003-01-01

    As part of a sustainable development, the environmental efficiency of industry must increase by a factor four to ten. This engenders attention to the environmental impact of products and technical systems over their entire life cycle. The last decade has seen the development of a number of method......As part of a sustainable development, the environmental efficiency of industry must increase by a factor four to ten. This engenders attention to the environmental impact of products and technical systems over their entire life cycle. The last decade has seen the development of a number...... of methodologies and tools for life cycle assessment and development of more eco-efficient products, from complex to simplified, catering to the needs of especially small and medium-sized enterprizes. The tools and data are in place, but dissemination lacks behind. Propagation of life cycle thinking and life cycle...... engineering to larger parts of industry is attempted by strengthening the market pull through integrated product policy measures, and at the same time pushing through information activities, training and dissemination of tools. Experience hitherto shows that these forces are insufficient and that stronger...

  4. Fundamentals of linear systems for physical scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, N N

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to the advent of inexpensive computing, it is possible to analyze, compute, and develop results that were unthinkable in the '60s. Control systems, telecommunications, robotics, speech, vision, and digital signal processing are but a few examples of computing applications. While there are many excellent resources available that focus on one or two topics, few books cover most of the mathematical techniques required for a broader range of applications. Fundamentals of Linear Systems for Physical Scientists and Engineers is such a resource. The book draws from diverse areas of engineering and the physical sciences to cover the fundamentals of linear systems. Assuming no prior knowledge of complex mathematics on the part of the reader, the author uses his nearly 50 years of teaching experience to address all of the necessary mathematical techniques. Original proofs, hundreds of examples, and proven theorems illustrate and clarify the material. An extensive table provides Lyapunov functions for differentia...

  5. A 2009 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W Howell

    2010-06-01

    A survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce was carried out in 2009 following on from a similar survey in 2006. 621 positions (equivalent to 575 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these 330 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 45 EFT were in radiology physics, 42 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 159 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 29 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 3 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

  6. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th edition - Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Paul A.; Mosca, Gene P.

    For nearly 30 years, Paul Tipler's Physics for Scientists and Engineers has set the standard in the introductory calculus-based physics course for clarity, accuracy, and precision. In this fifth edition, Paul has recruited Gene Mosca to bring his years of teaching experience to bear on the text, to scrutinize every explanation and example from the perspective of the freshman student. The result is a teaching tool that retains its precision and rigor, but offers struggling students the support they need to solve problems strategically and to gain real understanding of physical concepts.

  7. Physical, technical and engineer concept of ultradeep nuclear geoprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaschenko, V.; Vachev, B.; Pisarenko, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents information on the results of works dedicated to theoretical, physical and technical justification of contact thermal melting method of low thermal conductivity substances and to prospects of its practical realization as autonomous geoprobe for penetrating into deep Earth interior. The following problems and tasks were investigated and solved by the authors: 1) Investigation of processes of heat and mass transfer by contact melting in near-bore region due to movement of heat source of arbitrary form. 2) Development of methods and estimate of principal engineer parameters of contact thermal penetrating in low heat conducting environment. 3) Analysis of modern high-temperature materials and element base for construction of autonomous ultra deep thermoprobe. 4) Investigation of ecological consequences of possible emergency in case nuclear thermal heat source loss of sealing. 5) Mathematical problem formulation of ultra deep contact thermal penetrating by melting the environment for heat source of arbitrary form moving under gravity force and propose approach to its solution. 6) Formulation and solution of contact thermal penetration process optimization problem. 7) Development of methods of main engineering parameters of contact thermal melting of low heat conducting substances estimate. 8) Development of base of physical, engineering and technical concept of autonomous geoprobe for ultra deep penetrating into Earth interior. It is important that the results obtained may be used in engineering and constructing development of ultra deep geoprobe and also for calculation of technological apparatus and processes that use contact thermal melting of low thermal conducting materials

  8. Biocybrid systems and the re-engineering of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diana; Ferreira da Rocha, Adson; Hamdan, Camila; Augusto, Leci; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques

    2011-03-01

    The reengineering of life expanded by perceptual experiences in the sense of presence in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality is the theme of our investigation in collaborative practices confirming the artistś creativity close to the inventivity of scientists and mutual capacity for the generation of biocybrid systems. We consider the enactive bodily interfaces for human existence being co-located in the continuum and symbiotic zone between body and flesh - cyberspace and data - and the hybrid properties of physical world. That continuum generates a biocybrid zone (Bio+cyber+hybrid) and the life is reinvented. Results reaffirm the creative reality of coupled body and mutual influences with environment information, enhancing James Gibson's ecological perception theory. The ecosystem life in its dynamical relations between human, animal, plants, landscapes, urban life and objects, bring questions and challenges for artworks and the reengineering of life discussed in our artworks in technoscience. Finally, we describe an implementation in which the immersion experience is enhanced by the datavisualization of biological audio signals and by using wearable miniaturized devices for biofeedback.

  9. Georgia Tech video-based MS program in health physics/radiological engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Kahn, B.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, the health physics/radiation protection field has experienced a significant shortage of qualified professionals. The shortage is expected to continue for foreseeable future given the continued demand by both nuclear and medical facilities and the expected growth in the areas of waste management and environmental remediation. In response to such a shortage, beginning in the fall of 1984, Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) established a video-based instruction program that enables professionals in the nuclear field to earn a master of science degree in health physics/radiological engineering while working at a distant nuclear facility. The admission criteria and curricular requirements for the program are identical to those for the resident (on-campus) students (except that weekly attendance at departmental seminars is excused). The program is designed for students with undergraduate degrees in health physics, engineering, or appropriate sciences such as physics, chemistry, or biology. A total of 50 quarter credit hours is required, so that a student who takes one course per quarter can complete the program in four years

  10. Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D L; Hazi, A U

    2009-05-06

    This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate that made news in 2008. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2008.

  11. Physics and Everyday Life--New Modules to Motivate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The question "how to improve the interest of students to study physics" has been discussed in the author's previous papers too. Within the framework of the project, the author prepared various new interdisciplinary projects to demonstrate how inventions in physics are used in everyday life. Now, about one year later, the author found out…

  12. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  13. Years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Blair, Steven N

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for noncommunicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity in the U.S. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010); National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990-2006); and U.S. Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate to vigorous physical activity); somewhat-active (some moderate to vigorous activity but active (≥ 500 MET minutes/week of moderate to vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Somewhat-active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 years that was ~2.4 years longer than that for the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80 years. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 years and 1.6 years at age 80 years. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat-active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years-of-life-gained estimates were not significantly different from 0 years gained. Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering Asset Management and Infrastructure Sustainability : Proceedings of the 5th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Lin; Tan, Andy; Weijnen, Margot; Lee, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Asset Management 2010 represents state-of-the art trends and developments in the emerging field of engineering asset management as presented at the Fifth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM). The proceedings of the WCEAM 2010 is an excellent reference for practitioners, researchers and students in the multidisciplinary field of asset management, covering topics such as: Asset condition monitoring and intelligent maintenance Asset data warehousing, data mining and fusion Asset performance and level-of-service models Design and life-cycle integrity of physical assets Education and training in asset management Engineering standards in asset management Fault diagnosis and prognostics Financial analysis methods for physical assets Human dimensions in integrated asset management Information quality management Information systems and knowledge management Intelligent sensors and devices Maintenance strategies in asset management Optimisation decisions in asset management Risk management ...

  15. The US Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    that have been incorporated into BIM technologies marketed by competing vendors (e.g., Industry Foundation Class [IFC], Construction Operations...ER D C SR -1 2- 2 The US Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) En gi ne er R es ea rc h an...Information Modeling ( BIM ) US Army Corps of Engineers Directorate of Civil Works Engineering and Construction Branch Washington, DC 20314-1000 Final

  16. LIVIVO - the Vertical Search Engine for Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bernd; Poley, Christoph; Pössel, Jana; Hagelstein, Alexandra; Gübitz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The explosive growth of literature and data in the life sciences challenges researchers to keep track of current advancements in their disciplines. Novel approaches in the life science like the One Health paradigm require integrated methodologies in order to link and connect heterogeneous information from databases and literature resources. Current publications in the life sciences are increasingly characterized by the employment of trans-disciplinary methodologies comprising molecular and cell biology, genetics, genomic, epigenomic, transcriptional and proteomic high throughput technologies with data from humans, plants, and animals. The literature search engine LIVIVO empowers retrieval functionality by incorporating various literature resources from medicine, health, environment, agriculture and nutrition. LIVIVO is developed in-house by ZB MED - Information Centre for Life Sciences. It provides a user-friendly and usability-tested search interface with a corpus of 55 Million citations derived from 50 databases. Standardized application programming interfaces are available for data export and high throughput retrieval. The search functions allow for semantic retrieval with filtering options based on life science entities. The service oriented architecture of LIVIVO uses four different implementation layers to deliver search services. A Knowledge Environment is developed by ZB MED to deal with the heterogeneity of data as an integrative approach to model, store, and link semantic concepts within literature resources and databases. Future work will focus on the exploitation of life science ontologies and on the employment of NLP technologies in order to improve query expansion, filters in faceted search, and concept based relevancy rankings in LIVIVO.

  17. Comparing the Attitudes of Pre-Health Professional and Engineering Students in Introductory Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This talk will discuss using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) to compare student attitudes towards the study of physics of two different groups. Northern Illinois University has two levels of introductory mechanics courses, one geared towards biology majors and pre-health professionals, and one for engineering and physics majors. The course for pre-health professionals is an algebra based course, while the course for engineering and physics majors is a calculus based course. We've adapted the CLASS into a twenty question survey that measures student attitudes towards the practice of and conceptions about physics. The survey is administered as a pre and post assessment to look at student attitudes before and after their first course in physics.

  18. A biotic game design project for integrated life science and engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Nate J; Chung, Alice M; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Rensi, Stefano; Sanchez, Gabriel N; Quake, Stephen R; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2015-03-01

    Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course). We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games.

  19. 21st century: what is life from the perspective of physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskii, Genrikh R

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the biophysical paradigm over 65 years since the publication in 1944 of Erwin Schroedinger's What is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell is reviewed. Based on the advances in molecular genetics, it is argued that all the features characteristic of living systems can also be found in nonliving ones. Ten paradoxes in logic and physics are analyzed that allow defining life in terms of a spatial-temporal hierarchy of structures and combinatory probabilistic logic. From the perspective of physics, life can be defined as resulting from a game involving interactions of matter one part of which acquires the ability to remember the success (or failure) probabilities from the previous rounds of the game, thereby increasing its chances for further survival in the next round. This part of matter is currently called living matter. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. A 2012 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H

    2013-06-01

    A survey of the medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce in Australia and New Zealand was carried out in 2012 following on from similar surveys in 2009 and 2006. 761 positions (equivalent to 736 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these, 428 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 63 EFT were in radiology physics, 49 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 150 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 46 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 6 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

  1. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  2. Ei Compendex: A new database makes life easier for engineers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Library is expanding its range of databases. The latest arrival, called Ei Compendex, is the world's most comprehensive engineering database, which indexes engineering literature published throughout the world. It also offers bibliographic entries for articles published in scientific journals and for conference proceedings and covers an extensive range of subjects from mechanical engineering to the environment, materials science, solid state physics and superconductivity. Moreover, it is the most relevant quality control and engineering management database. Ei Compendex contains over 4.6 million references from over 2600 journals, conference proceedings and technical reports dating from 1966 to the present. Every year, 220,000 new abstracts are added to the database which is also updated on a weekly basis. In the case of articles published in recent years, it provides an electronic link to the full texts of all major publishers. The database also contains the full texts of Elsevier periodicals (over 250...

  3. Quality of life and physical activity in a sample of Brazilian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Hatmann, Angélica C; Martini, Fábio Antônio N; Borges, Marcelo B; Bernardelli, Rinaldo

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the association between physical activity and quality of life in a sample of Brazilian older adults. The Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module and International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered to 1,204 subjects (645 women and 559 men) aged ≥ 60 years. Older adults of both genders who reported to be more physically active attributed higher scores to the sensory ability, autonomy, and intimacy domains, in addition to presenting significantly higher overall quality of life, irrespectively of age, marital status, educational level, and socioeconomic status. Specifically in women, the scores obtained for the social participation domain were significantly higher in the strata of active and very active subjects when compared to sedentary subjects. The results indicate that increases in the levels of physical activity can contribute to improvements in quality of life of older adults.

  4. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  5. The relationship between quality of life and physical fitness in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruzado, D; Cuesta-Vargas, A I; Vera-Garcia, E; Mayoral-Cleries, F

    2018-05-02

    Quality of life of people with severe mental illness may be decrease by the high occurrence of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Physical fitness emerges as a modifying factor in this population through physical activity and this modification could influence in the quality of life of this population. The aim of the present study is to determine the contribution of physical fitness to the quality of life of people with severe mental illness. In the current study, a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist assessed 62 people with severe mental illness. Physical fitness was measured with a range of 11 fitness tests that covered flexibility, strength, balance, and endurance. To assess quality of life the EQ-5D-3 L scale was used, which measures five dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain-discomfort, and anxiety-depression). Significant correlations are presented between the quality of life and primary variables of physical fitness (balance, endurance, and upper limb strength). Endurance explained 22.9% of the variance of the quality of life in people with severe mental illness. Functional reach added another 36.2% variance to the prediction of quality of life. The results of the present study suggest that some variables of physical fitness are associated with quality of life in people with severe mental illness. The improvement in physical fitness of this population should be a primary objective. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02413164 "retrospective registered" Registered Febr 2017.

  6. Mathematics and engineering in real life through mathematical competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, M.

    2018-02-01

    We bring out an experience of organizing mathematical competitions that can be used as a medium to motivate the student and teacher minds in new directions of thinking. This can contribute to fostering research, innovation and provide a hands-on experience of mathematical concepts with the real world. Mathematical competitions can be used to build curiosity and give an understanding of mathematical applications in real life. Participation in the competition has been classified under four broad categories. Student can showcase their findings in various forms of expression like model, poster, soft presentation, animation, live performance, art and poetry. The basic focus of the competition is on using open source computation tools and modern technology, to emphasize the relationship of mathematical concepts with engineering applications in real life.

  7. Physics Competence Assessment in Engineering Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. An

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In designing the undergraduate programmes, a development of objectified procedures to assess students and graduates’ level of skills and learning outcomes aimed at achieving the ultimate goals of training is an important task for Higher Education Institutions (HEI.The purpose of this work is to develop a description of the physics course objectives differentiated according to levels of learning achievements for engineering HEI, as well as the assessment procedures and diagnostic means associated with this description to specify and define the degree of their achievement.The taxonomy of levels to master learning content is proposed and tested. Its aim is to assess rapidly a degree of achieved objectives i.e. meeting requirements for student and graduate’s competences in physics. Classification is given according to which the reproductive activity is a manifestation of the levels of recognition, reproduction and reproductive use of knowledge while the productive activity is an ability to use previously learned information, methods of action for the new scenarios, situations, conditions. The paper presents content of the main features of learning the study materials in physics at each taxonomic level. It offers a developed package of assessment materials based on traditional (tests, training tasks and competence-oriented control methods (professionally oriented and case studies, integrative assignments. The paper proves that when designing the diagnostic means it is expedient to take into consideration the analysis results of the expert assessments that the physics course curricular elements are of significance for fundamental and ideological studies and successful learning of the module of professional disciplines. It also shows that there is a need to use the content of typical tasks in disciplines of professional cycle of the undergraduate programme.The proposed approaches and results can serve as a basis for teaching improvement in physics

  8. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  9. Influence of adapted sports on quality of life and life satisfaction in sport participants and non-sport participants with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2012-10-01

    The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental Physical Proximity in End-of-Life Care in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenburg, Jeannette L; Tibboel, Dick; Ganzevoort, Ruard R; Gischler, Saskia; Hagoort, Jacobus; van Dijk, Monique

    2016-05-01

    Health professionals in PICUs support both child and parents when a child's death is imminent. Parents long to stay connected to their dying child but the high-tech environment and treatment implications make it difficult to stay physically close. This study explores in what sense physical aspects of end-of-life care in the PICU influence the parent-child relationship. Retrospective, qualitative interview study. Level 3 PICU in Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Thirty-six parents of 20 children who had died in this unit 5 years previously. Parents vividly remembered the damage done to the child's physical appearance, an inevitable consequence of medical treatment. They felt frustrated and hurt when they could not hold their child. Yet they felt comforted if facilitated to be physically close to the dying child, like lying with the child in one bed, holding the child in the hour of death, and washing the child after death. End-of-life treatment in the PICU presents both a barrier and an opportunity for parents to stay physically connected to their child. Parents' experiences suggest that aspects of physicality in medical settings deserve more attention. Better understanding of the significance of bodily aspects-other than pain and symptom management-improves end-of-life support and should be part of the humane approach to families.

  11. A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based...

  12. Perceived physical appearance and life satisfaction: a moderated mediation model of self-esteem and life experience of deaf and hearing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Hong, Xiuxiu; Yu, Yanping; Ling, Hong; Tian, Haiping; Yu, Zuwei; Chang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between perceived physical appearance and life satisfaction, and the role of self-esteem as mediator and life experience as moderator of the relationship in deaf and hearing adolescents. 118 Chinese deaf adolescents (55.1% male; mean age = 15.12 years, standard deviation [SD] = 2.13) from 5 special education schools and 132 Chinese hearing adolescents (53.8% male; mean age = 13.11 years, SD = .85) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding perceived physical appearance, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Perceived physical appearance, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with each other. Moreover, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived physical appearance and life satisfaction; however, this indirect link was weaker for deaf adolescents than it was for hearing adolescents. Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed, as are potential interventions that can be applied to increase subjective well-being in deaf adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Life-Cycle Inventory of Manufacturing Prefinished Engineered Wood Flooring in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacturing. However, environmental impacts of manufacturing some wood products—such as prefinished engineered wood flooring—have not been determined. This study examined prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States following the life-cycle inventory...

  14. A biotic game design project for integrated life science and engineering education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate J Cira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course. We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games.

  15. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela de Oliveira Nascimento Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of fibromyalgia (FM is a condition of chronic pain, general, difficult to treat and contributes to the decline of cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the association between physical activity and quality of life of women with FM. Was characterized as cross-sectional study and the population consisted 22 women with FM care in the city of Itabuna - BA. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to criteria to American College of Rheumatology. The data collection instrument was established by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Atividade física e qualidade de vida For data analysis, we used the procedure descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage and inferential (Chi-square test and Fisher's test, significance level of p≤0.05. The average age of respondents was 41.05 (SD = 6.543 years, ranging between 27 and 56 years. In general physical activity, 45.5% were considered physically active. By analyzing the dimensions of physical activity as a means transportation, only 31.8% are active and in the dimension of leisure, only 27.3%. The assessment of the level of quality of life of the subjects revealed that 72.7% had negative quality of life, while only 27.3% reported having a positive quality of life. The present study showed that fibromyalgia affects mainly women and that this syndrome interfere with the patients' quality of life.

  16. Quality of life and physical activity as indicators of health-preserving competence of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Iu.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and physical activity of teachers of physical culture, basic of health, labour, the defense of Motherland and pedagogue-organizers from secondary schools Lviv region (Ukraine were investigated. The 402 persons (age 24-78 years were surveyed with the use of questionnaires MOS SF 36 and IPAQ. The highest quality of life and level of physical activity have teachers of physical culture. It is considered the quality of life of teachers of other subjects similar to persons with chronic diseases. The level of physical activity in leisure time was particularly low for teachers of Basic of Health and pedagogue-organizers. The teachers spent no more than 433 MET-min/ week for moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. The level of physical activity of teachers (besides the physical education teachers was insufficient to improve health and indicate about low level of health-preserving competence.

  17. Nuclear reactor safety: physics and engineering aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to carry out the sort of probabilistic analysis referred to by Farmer (Contemp. Phys.; 22:349(1981)), it is necessary to have a good understanding of the processes involved in both normal and accident conditions in a nuclear reactor. Some of these processes, for a variety of different reactor systems, are considered in sections dealing with the neutron chain reaction, the removal of heat from the reactor, material problems, reliability of protective systems and a number of specific topics of particular interest from the point of view of physics or engineering. (author)

  18. Generomak: Fusion physics, engineering and costing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Sheffield, J.; Dory, R.A.

    1988-06-01

    A generic fusion physics, engineering and economics model (Generomak) was developed as a means of performing consistent analysis of the economic viability of alternative magnetic fusion reactors. The original Generomak model developed at Oak Ridge by Sheffield was expanded for the analyses of the Senior Committee on Environmental Safety and Economics of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM). This report describes the Generomak code as used by ESECOM. The input data used for each of the ten ESECOM fusion plants and the Generomak code output for each case is given. 14 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Changing the Teaching/Learning Procedures in Physics for Agricultural Engineering. A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Angel; Parra, M. Isabel; Cachadina, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The subject "Physical Fundamentals of Engineering" for agricultural engineers in the University of Extremadura has long had high rates of students not attending classes, not presenting for examinations and, finally, failing the subject. During the 2007 and 2008 courses, the teaching/learning procedures were strongly modified. Analysis of the…

  20. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering To Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of systems engineers to use model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to generate self-consistent, up-to-date systems engineering products for project life-cycle and technical reviews is an important aspect for the continued and accelerated acceptance of MBSE. Currently, many review products are generated using labor-intensive, error-prone approaches based on documents, spreadsheets, and chart sets; a promised benefit of MBSE is that users will experience reductions in inconsistencies and errors. This work examines features of SysML that can be used to generate systems engineering products. Model elements, relationships, tables, and diagrams are identified for a large number of the typical systems engineering artifacts. A SysML system model can contain and generate most systems engineering products to a significant extent and this paper provides a guide on how to use MBSE to generate products for project life-cycle and technical reviews. The use of MBSE can reduce the schedule impact usually experienced for review preparation, as in many cases the review products can be auto-generated directly from the system model. These approaches are useful to systems engineers, project managers, review board members, and other key project stakeholders.

  1. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  2. Progress Report. Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Heavy Ion Physics. 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, C.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Poenaru, D.; Pop, A.

    1994-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development activities carried out in the Department of Heavy Ion Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, during the period January 1992 to December 1993 is presented. The main topics concern nuclear structure models and methods, heavy-ion-induced reactions, and general properties of nuclei and nuclear energy levels. Also, works dealing with particle detection, measuring instruments and methods are reported. The report contains two sections. The first covers the research in progress in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, atomic physics, accelerator, instrumentation, methods and computer codes. The second one, the appendix, contains the list of publications of the Department staff in journals and proceedings, books, and preprints, the conference contributions, the academic degrees awarded, the scientific exchanges, and the list of scientific personnel

  3. [Eutrophication control in local area by physic-ecological engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Hua; Xia, Pin-Hua; Wu, Hong; Lin, Tao; Zhang, You-Chun; Li, Cun-Xiong; Chen, Li-Li; Yang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    An integrated physical and ecological engineering experiment for ecological remediation was performed at the Maixi River bay in Baihua Reservoir Guizhou Province, China. The results show that eutrophic parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and chemical oxygen demand from the experimental site (enclosed water) were significantly lower than those of the reference site. The largest differences between the sites were 0.61 mg x L(-1), 0.041 mg x L(-1), 23.06 microg x L(-1), 8.4 mg x L(-1) respectively; experimental site transparency was > 1.50 m which was significantly higher than that of the reference site. The eutrophic index of the experimental site was oligo-trophic and mid-trophic, while the control site was mid-trophic state and eutrophic state. Phytoplankton abundance was 2 125.5 x 10(4) cells x L(-1) in June, 2011 at the control site,but phytoplankton abundance was lower at the experimental site with 33 x 10(4) cells x L(-1). Cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton biomass at both sites, however the experimental site consisted of a higher proportion of diatoms and dinoflagellates. After more than one year of operation, the ecological engineering technology effectively controlled the occurrence of algae blooms, changed phytoplankton community structure, and controlled the negative impacts of eutrophication. Integrating physical and ecological engineering technology could improve water quality for reservoirs on the Guizhou plateau.

  4. Effect of Kettlebell Lifting on Physical Condition of Future Mechanical Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Конох

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to study the effect of exercises with kettlebell lifting elements on the physical condition of future mechanical engineers. Materials and methods. To address the tasks set, the study used the following research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of literary sources; implementation of a pilot program of physical education through kettlebell lifting in higher agricultural educational institutions; methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The paper focuses on the relevant issue of theoretical and methodological support of the process of improving students' physical condition. The study has determined the effect of kettlebell lifting on the physical condition of the future mechanical engineers involved in maintenance and repair of agricultural equipment and machinery. Kettlebell lifting proves to provide good physical training, has a positive effect on the human body, and strengthens health in general. The research conducted gave grounds to determine that the level of the physical condition of the test group students is satisfactory on all indicators. This meets the requirements set before the future specialists. Conclusions. The study of the effectiveness of kettlebell lifting influence on the physical condition of the test group students yielded positive results. As a result, the training improves the performance of the students’ respiratory and cardiovascular systems, decreases their heart rate and blood pressure, enhances economization of the body systems performance at rest and at load, boosts the reserve capacity of these systems, reduces the recovery period after load, and improves the metabolic processes, which contributes to enhancing the organism tolerance to the unfavorable factors of the profession-related activity.

  5. Reforming a large lecture modern physics course for engineering majors using a PER-based design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    We have reformed a large lecture modern physics course for engineering majors by radically changing both the content and the learning techniques implemented in lecture and homework. Traditionally this course has been taught in a manner similar to the equivalent course for physics majors, focusing on mathematical solutions of abstract problems. Based on interviews with physics and engineering professors, we developed a syllabus and learning goals focused on content that was more useful to our actual student population: engineering majors. The content of this course emphasized reasoning development, model building, and connections to real world applications. In addition we implemented a variety of PER-based learning techniques, including peer instruction, collaborative homework sessions, and interactive simulations. We have assessed the effectiveness of reforms in this course using pre/post surveys on both content and beliefs. We have found significant improvements in both content knowledge and beliefs compared with the same course before implementing these reforms and a corresponding course for physics majors.

  6. The fraying web of life and our future engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, Frank G.

    2004-07-01

    Evidence abounds that we are reaching the carrying capacity of the earth -- engaging in deficit spending. The amount of crops, animals, and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds wth the earth can replace by an estimated 20%. Additionally, signs of climate change are precursors of things to come. Global industrialization and the new technologies of the 20th century have helped to stretch the capacities of our finite natural system to precarious levels. Taken together, this evidence reflects a fraying web of life. Sustainable development and natural capitalism work to reverse these trends, however, we are often still wedded to the notion that environmental conservation and economic development are the 'players' in a zero-sum game. Engineering and its technological derivatives can also help remedy the problem. The well being of future generations will depend to a large extent on how we educate our future engineers. These engineers will be a new breed -- developing and using sustainable technology, benign manufacturing processes and an expanded array of environmental assessment tools that will simultaneously support and maintain healthy economies and a healthy environment. The importance of environment and sustainable development cosiderations, the need for their widespread inclusion in engineering education, the impediments to change, and the important role played by ABET will be presented.

  7. Annual Technical Report - Nuclear Engineering Institute/ Dept. of Physics (IEN/DEFI) 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da; Cabral, S.C.; Osso Junior, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The researches carried out by physics department of Nuclear Engineering Institute(IEN)/Brazilian CNEN are presented. The researches in nuclear physics, isotope production and irradiation damages using CV-28 cyclotron which accelerates protons, deuterons, helium and alpha particles with maximum energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively are described. (M.C.K.)

  8. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2008-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly) which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student''s ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. By the author''s design, no problems are included in the text, to allow the students to focus on their science course assignments.- Highly accessible presentation of fundamental mathematical techniques needed in science and engineering courses- Use of proven pedagogical techniques develolped during the author's 40 years of teaching experience- illustrations and links to reference material on World-Wide-Web- Coverage of fairly advanced topics, including vector and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, speci...

  9. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  10. Probabilistic Physics of Failure-based framework for fatigue life prediction of aircraft gas turbine discs under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shun-Peng; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Peng, Weiwen; Wang, Hai-Kun; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic Physics of Failure-based framework for fatigue life prediction of aircraft gas turbine discs operating under uncertainty is developed. The framework incorporates the overall uncertainties appearing in a structural integrity assessment. A comprehensive uncertainty quantification (UQ) procedure is presented to quantify multiple types of uncertainty using multiplicative and additive UQ methods. In addition, the factors that contribute the most to the resulting output uncertainty are investigated and identified for uncertainty reduction in decision-making. A high prediction accuracy of the proposed framework is validated through a comparison of model predictions to the experimental results of GH4133 superalloy and full-scale tests of aero engine high-pressure turbine discs. - Highlights: • A probabilistic PoF-based framework for fatigue life prediction is proposed. • A comprehensive procedure forquantifyingmultiple types of uncertaintyis presented. • The factors that contribute most to the resulting output uncertainty are identified. • The proposed frameworkdemonstrates high prediction accuracybyfull-scale tests.

  11. Benefits of physical exercise training on cognition and quality of life in frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Francis; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Chassé, Kathleen; Dupuis, Gilles; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Bherer, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability associated with increased risks of fall, hospitalization, cognitive deficits, and psychological distress. Studies with healthy senior suggest that physical exercise can help improve cognition and quality of life. Whether frail older adults can show such benefits remains to be documented. A total of 83 participants aged 61-89 years were assigned to an exercise-training group (3 times a week for 12 weeks) or a control group (waiting list). Frailty was determined by a complete geriatric examination using specific criteria. Pre- and post-test measures assessed physical capacity, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Compared with controls, the intervention group showed significant improvement in physical capacity (functional capacities and physical endurance), cognitive performance (executive functions, processing speed, and working memory), and quality of life (global quality of life, leisure activities, physical capacity, social/family relationships, and physical health). Benefits were overall equivalent between frail and nonfrail participants. Physical exercise training leads to improved cognitive functioning and psychological well-being in frail older adults.

  12. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine and IEAust College of Biomedical Engineers; Asia/Pacific Region of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a celebration of the centenary of Rontgen''s discovery of Xrays. It is also the 50th anniversary of the first hospital physicist appointment in New Zealand. The historical element of the programme will complement the emphasis on current applications of the physical and engineering sciences to medicine and an anticipation of future developments. For the first time the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, together with the IEAust College of Biomedical Engineers, are joined by the Asia/Pacific Region of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society to make this a truly international conference. The proceedings include many papers on radiology and radiotherapy

  13. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  14. Research of Simulation in Character Animation Based on Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer 3D character animation essentially is a product, which is combined with computer graphics and robotics, physics, mathematics, and the arts. It is based on computer hardware and graphics algorithms and related sciences rapidly developed new technologies. At present, the mainstream character animation technology is based on the artificial production of key technologies and capture frames based on the motion capture device technology. 3D character animation is widely used not only in the production of film, animation, and other commercial areas but also in virtual reality, computer-aided education, flight simulation, engineering simulation, military simulation, and other fields. In this paper, we try to study physics based character animation to solve these problems such as poor real-time interaction that appears in the character, low utilization rate, and complex production. The paper deeply studied the kinematics, dynamics technology, and production technology based on the motion data. At the same time, it analyzed ODE, PhysX, Bullet, and other variety of mainstream physics engines and studied OBB hierarchy bounding box tree, AABB hierarchical tree, and other collision detection algorithms. Finally, character animation based on ODE is implemented, which is simulation of the motion and collision process of a tricycle.

  15. Correlation of Menopausal Symptoms and Quality of Life with Physical Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rívea Trindade da; Câmara, Saionara Maria Aires da; Moreira, Mayle Andrade; Nascimento, Rafaela Andrade do; Vieira, Mariana Carmem Apolinário; Morais, Maria Socorro Medeiros de; Maciel, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Some studies have investigated the influence of hormonal deficits and menopausal status in muscle disorders of women. However, it has not been investigated the relationship of both climacteric symptoms and the perception of quality of life with physical performance. Objective To evaluate the correlation of menopausal symptoms and quality of life with physical performance in middle-aged women. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from April to November 2013 in the municipality of Parnamirim, in the Brazilian state, Rio Grande do Norte. The sample was composed of 497 women aged 40-65 years. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Utian Quality of Life (UQOL) questionnaire were used to evaluate menopausal symptoms and quality of life respectively. Measures of physical performance included handgrip strength, knee extensor and flexor strengths (using an isometric dynamometer), gait speed, and chair stand test. The correlation between menopausal symptoms and quality of life with physical performance was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient with significance set at p correlation between handgrip strength and somatic MRS score (p = 0.002) and total MRS score (p = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between knee flexor strength and sit-to-stand time and all menopausal symptom areas (p correlation between physical performance of the knee flexors and quality of life items including occupational (p = 0.001), emotional (p = 0.005), and total UQOL (p = 0.01), but a negative correlation with sit-to-stand time and all quality of life domains (p < 0.05). Conclusion A greater intensity of menopausal symptoms and worse quality of life were related with worse physical performance. Thus, preventive measures should be implemented to avoid adverse effects on physical performance at more advanced ages. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. Case study on Integral Life Practice intervention for physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicated significant improvements in physical exercise, psychophysiological coherence, general health, psychological well-being, mental skills, mindfulness, mood, resilience, sense of coherence and spirituality. Findings endorse Integral Life Practice theoretical principles and practical guidelines for implementing ...

  17. Does physical exposure throughout working life influence chair-rise performance in midlife?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to study associations between physical exposures throughout working life and physical function measured as chair-rise performance in midlife. METHODS: The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and measures of physical function. Individual...... and confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance. The associations between exposure and outcome were non-linear.......-years and chair-rise performance (number of chair-rises in 30 s) were analysed in multivariate linear and non-linear regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Mean age among the 5095 participants was 59 years in both genders, and, on average, men achieved 21.58 (SD=5.60) and women 20.38 (SD=5.33) chair...

  18. Genetic and environmental transactions linking cognitive ability, physical fitness, and education in late life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive ability and physical fitness are important to the ability to live independently in late life. Both are also related to level of attained education, with better educated older adults tending to display better cognitive ability and better late-life physical health. Chronic illnesses...

  19. Department of Plasma Physics and Material Engineering - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In April 2009 the Department of Materials Studies was united with the Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, This action followed twenty years of close cooperation in the implementation of high-intensity ion-beam pulses for the implantation of materials. In 2009 the activities of the new Department continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma engineering: · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges at the Plasma-Focus and RPI-IBIS facilities; · Research on plasma technologies, search for new methods of surface engineering; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modelling. In the framework of the EURATOM program. efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostics methods for tokamak-type facilities. Such studies included the elaboration of a special detection system based on a Cherenkov-type detector. Other fusion-oriented efforts were connected with the application of activation methods to the investigation of neutrons from the JET tokamak. Also. solid-state nuclear track detectors of the PM-355 type were used for measurements of energetic protons emitted from ultra-intense laser produced plasmas. In our continuing experimental studies, particular attention was paid to the development and application of optical spectroscopy for diagnostics of high-temperature plasma within the RPI-IBIS device and Plasma-Focus facilities. Fast ions escaping from the plasma were studied with nuclear track detectors, The interaction of plasma-ion streams with different targets was also investigated. A field of research activity was related to plasma technology. Efforts were undertaken to improve the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) deposition of thin superconducting layers. c.g. pure niobium film on the surface of copper resonant cavities of accelerators. The vacuum arc deposition technique was also applied to

  20. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  1. Physical activity history and end-of-life hospital and long-term care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantanen, Taina; Leinonen, Raija

    2009-01-01

    persons aged 66-98 years at death, who, on average 5.8 years prior to death, had participated in an interview about their current and earlier physical activity. Data on the use of care in the last year of life are register-based data and complete. RESULTS: Men needed on average 96 days (SD 7.0) and women.......06-2.43), than for those who had been consistently active from midlife onward, whereas use of hospital care did not correlate with physical activity history. CONCLUSION: People who had been physically active since midlife needed less end-of-life inpatient care but patterns differed between men and women....... had been consistently physically active, whereas use of long-term care did not correlate with physical activity history. Among women, the risk for long-term care was higher for those who had been sedentary (IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21) or only occasionally physically active (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1...

  2. Life Science-Related Physics Laboratory on Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on geometrical optics designed for life science majors in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The thin lens equation is used by the students to calculate the focal length of the lens necessary to correct a myopic condition in an optical bench simulation of a human eye. (Author/MLH)

  3. Caregiver's Burden and Quality of Life: Caring for Physical and Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on the quality of life of caregivers caring for patients with exclusively physical or mental diseases, but little is known about the differences related to the burden experienced. This study had as its subject the burden of caregivers and their quality of life involved in helping patients with diseases (1 physical, (2 mental and (3 both pathological conditions. We interviewed 294 caregivers of outpatients undergoing physiotherapic, psychiatric and neuroriabilitative treatment. The evaluation was carried out with three instruments: an informative questionnaire, the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the Quality of Life Index (QoL -I. Results show that both the burden and the quality of life are significantly worse for caregivers who care for patients with both physical and mental diseases. Caregivers most disadvantaged are those who indicate as a reason of care the sense of duty rather than the affection. Finally, the sons and daughters, differently from the parents, showed a greater burden of required time and a lower quality of life. The investigation of the motivational aspects of the caregivers and the increased knowledge of the differences between the emotional experience of parents and children can contribute to the definition of more specific psycho-educational interventions and support.

  4. Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna Aue

    2013-01-01

    ('Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: the Effect of Physical Exercise') trial is to establish whether aerobic exercise is effective in improving cognition as well as in reducing the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among patients......Exercise is hypothesized to improve cognition, physical performance, functional ability and quality of life, but evidence is scarce. Previous studies were of short duration, often underpowered and involving home-based light exercise programs in patients with undefined dementia. The aim of the ADEX...

  5. A case study of non-traditional students re-entry into college physics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stewart Gordon

    Two groups of students in introductory physics courses of an Access Program for engineering technologies were the subjects of this study. Students with a wide range of academic histories and abilities were enrolled in the program; many of the students were re-entry and academically unprepared for post-secondary education. Five years of historical data were evaluated to use as a benchmark for revised instruction. Data were gathered to describe the pre-course academic state of the students and their academic progress during two physics courses. Additional information was used to search for factors that might constrain academic success and as feedback for the instructional methods. The data were interpreted to regulate constructivist design features for the physics courses. The Engineering Technology Access Program was introduced to meet the demand from non-traditional students for admission to two-year engineering' technology programs, but who did not meet normal academic requirements. The duration of the Access Program was two terms for electronic and computer engineering students and three terms for civil and mechanical engineering students. The sequence of mathematics and physics courses was different for the two groups. The Civil/Mechanical students enrolled in their first mathematics course before undertaking their first physics course. The first mathematics and physics courses for the Electronics students were concurrent. Academic success in the two groups was affected by this difference. Over a five-year period the success rate of students graduating with a technology diploma was approximately twenty-five percent. Results from this study indicate that it was possible to reduce the very high attrition in the combined Access/Technology Programs. While the success rate for the Electronics students increased to 38% the rate for the Civil/Mechanical students increased dramatically to 77%. It is likely that several factors, related to the extra term in the Access

  6. Learning physical biology via modeling and simulation: A new course and textbook for science and engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip

    To a large extent, undergraduate physical-science curricula remain firmly rooted in pencil-and-paper calculation, despite the fact that most research is done with computers. To a large extent, undergraduate life-science curricula remain firmly rooted in descriptive approaches, despite the fact that much current research involves quantitative modeling. Not only does our pedagogy not reflect current reality; it also creates a spurious barrier between the fields, reinforcing the narrow silos that prevent students from connecting them. I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional undergraduate courses: •Basic modeling skills; •Probabilistic modeling skills; •Data analysis methods; •Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python; •Pulling datasets from the Web for analysis; •Data visualization; •Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. Partially supported by the NSF under Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  7. Mathematical methods for mathematicians, physical scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning-Davies, J

    2003-01-01

    This practical introduction encapsulates the entire content of teaching material for UK honours degree courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering, and is also appropriate for post-graduate study. It imparts the necessary mathematics for use of the techniques, with subject-related worked examples throughout. The text is supported by challenging problem exercises (and answers) to test student comprehension. Index notation used in the text simplifies manipulations in the sections on vectors and tensors. Partial differential equations are discussed, and special functions introduced

  8. Students' Attitudes and Enrollment Trends in Physics and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjong, Delphine

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields are critical for meeting ever-increasing demands in the U.S. for STEM and related skills, and for ensuring the global competitiveness of the United States in technological advancement and scientific innovation. Nonetheless, few U.S. students consider a STEM degree after high school and fewer STEM students end up graduating with a STEM degree. In 2012, the United States ranked 35th in math and 27th in science out of 64 participating countries in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Considering the significant role physics and engineering play in technological advancement, this work investigates the attitudes of students and recent enrollment trends in these important subject areas.

  9. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SELF-ESTEEM, AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Suttiwong, Jattuporn; Sullivan, Patricia E; Nilanthi, Deepika L H K

    2016-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve health and quality of life (QOL) of healthy people. However, the association between PA and QOL among people with physical disability (PWPD) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between factors including intensity of PA, activitiy in daily living (ADL), stress, and self-esteem that influences self-reported QOL among PWPD. The relationships were further explored using the in-depth interview method to find out whether the intensity of PA, stress, and self-esteem are related to QOL perception in PWPD. One hundred sixty PWPD aged 18-48 years who studied at a vocational school were enrolled. A mixed method case study was conducted: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview. Five questionnaires, including the Barthel Index, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were distributed. QOL was measured using the WHOQOL_BREF. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors for QOL prediction. For in-depth interview, ten persons from each group (poor-to-fair and good QOL) volunteered to explore further about life satisfaction related to physical disability. One hundred forty-six (91%) subjects completed all questionnaires. One hundred fourteen (77%) reported poor-to-fair QOL. QOL was explained by self-esteem and ADL (adjusted R² 34.7%, p < 0.001) after adjusted for age, stress, and PA. Although PA could not explain QOL in PWPD, good QOL reported high activities (28.40 ± 30.20 MET hour/day) compared to poor and fair QOL (17.94 ± 22.06 and 21.70 ± 17.75 MET hour/day). Those who had good QOL reported that they were proud to be independent and did not feel inferior. PA participation among people with disabilities should therefore be encouraged.

  10. Physics and engineering of medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ever-developing technology of medical imaging has a continuous and significant impact on the practice of medicine as well as on clinical research activity. The information and level of accuracy obtained by an imaging methodology is a complex result of a multidisciplinary effort of physics, engineering, electronics, chemistry and medicine. In this book, the state of the art is described for NMR, ultrasound, X-ray CT, nuclear medicine, positron tomography and other imaging modalities. For every imaging modality, the most important clinical applications are described together with the delineation of problems and future needs. Furthermore, specific sections of the book are devoted to general aspects of medical imaging, such as reconstruction techniques, 2-D and 3-D display, quality control, archiving, market trends and correlative assessment

  11. Physical Functioning, Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Chronic Heart Failure in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Boo, Sunjoo; Yu, Jihyoung; Suh, Soon-Rim; Chun, Kook Jin; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Both the beneficial relationship between exercise and quality of life and the important role played by exercise self-efficacy in maintaining an exercise regimen among individuals with chronic heart failure are well known. However, most nursing interventions for Korean patients with chronic heart failure focus only on providing education related to risk factors and symptoms. Little information is available regarding the influence of physical functions, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life. This study was conducted to examine the impact of physical functioning, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life among individuals with chronic heart failure. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Data were collected from 116 outpatients with chronic heart failure in Korea. Left ventricular ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classifications were chart reviewed. Information pertaining to levels of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions. About 60% of participants were physically inactive, and most showed relatively low exercise self-efficacy. The mean quality-of-life score was 80.09. The significant correlates for quality of life were poverty, functional status, physical inactivity, and exercise self-efficacy. Collectively, these four variables accounted for 50% of the observed total variance in quality of life. Approaches that focus on enhancing exercise self-efficacy may improve patient-centered outcomes in those with chronic heart failure. In light of the low level of exercise self-efficacy reported and the demonstrated ability of this factor to predict quality of life, the development of effective strategies to enhance exercise self-efficacy offers a novel and effective approach to improving

  12. Health-related quality of life, physical activity, and sedentary behavior of adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Famelia, Ruri; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-11-01

    Research suggests that physical activity and sedentary behaviors can impact one's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, little is known about the impact that these behaviors can have on the HRQoL of those with visual impairments. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with HRQoL among a sample of adults with visual impairments. Individuals with visual impairments were invited via email to complete three questionnaires: (a) the international physical activity questionnaire-short form, (b) the Rasch-revised versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument with the Level of Independence subscale, and (c) a demographic questionnaire. Eighty participants (M age   =   47.5) provided usable surveys for analyses. The results demonstrated that physical activity significantly predicted HRQoL (F(2,79) = 3.508, p = .035, R 2 Adjusted =.060), yet, sedentary behavior did not (F(2,79) = 1.546, p = .220, R 2  = .039, R 2 Adjusted =.014). Gender differences were uncovered regarding the relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of physical activity in influencing the HRQoL of adults with visual impairments. This study supports the need for additional intervention research to promote physical activity for those with visual impairments. Implications for Rehabilitations Adults with visual impairments tend to report lower health-related quality of life than peers without visual impairments. Regular participation in leisure-time physical activity, and restricted sedentary time, have been demonstrated to positively influence health-related quality of life for adults without disabilities. In this study, physical activity shows promise as an effective means of improving health-related quality of life for adults with visual impairments.

  13. Physical activity across the life-course: Socio-cultural approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2018-01-01

    The subjective, lived elements of old age in physical activity promotion are central in defining how older people ascribe meaning to experiences of being active. Many such meanings are developed throughout the life course. From a longitudinal perspective, although continuity theory can be helpful...... be interdependent with how others define them, and how they define others. We offer recommendations about how this shift in perspective can empower older people to be active agents within figurations of physical activity promotion....

  14. Physical activity, evaluation of menopause, life satisfaction and influence tactics in marriage of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Domination of the biomedical approach to menopause may imply creation of negative attitudes to the phenomenon, and at the same time negatively affect women’s life satisfaction and behaviour in the family. It is assumed that physical activity may be a defensive factor, as this type of activity may reduce the intensity of menopause symptoms. The aim of the research was to determine the relation between menopause evaluation, life satisfaction and tactics of influence employed in marriage by women who differ in involvement in physical exercise. Participants and procedure The research was conducted among 90 women, at the age of 45-55: 45 physically active women and 45 women who do not engage in any physical activity. The following research methods were used: the Menopause Evaluation Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS and the Questionnaire of Influence in Close Relations of Women and Men. Results Positive evaluation of menopause was related to involvement in physical exercise as well as to a stronger tendency to use positive strategies of exerting influence on one’s spouse. The research also showed a slight correlation between life satisfaction and involvement in physical exercise. Negative evaluation of menopause was related to avoiding physical activity. Conclusions Physical activity is more frequently related to a positive attitude towards menopause and the use of more positive tactics of exerting influence on one’s spouse, and slightly positively conducive to one’s life satisfaction level.

  15. Efficacy-mediated effects of spirituality and physical activity on quality of life: A path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopack James F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been established as an important determinant of quality of life, particularly among older adults. Previous research has suggested that physical activity’s influence on quality of life perceptions is mediated by changes in self-efficacy and health status. In the same vein, spirituality may be a salient quality of life determinant for many individuals. Methods In the current study, we used path analysis to test a model in which physical activity, spirituality, and social support were hypothesized to influence global quality of life in paths mediated by self-efficacy and health status. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 215 adults (male, n = 51; female, n = 164 over the age of 50 (M age = 66.55 years. Results The analysis resulted in a model that provided acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 33.10, df = 16, p  Conclusions These results support previous findings of an efficacy-mediated relationship between physical activity and quality of life, with the exception that self-efficacy in the current study was moderately associated with physical health status (.38 but not mental health status. Our results further suggest that spirituality may influence health and well-being via a similar, efficacy-mediated path, with strongest effects on mental health status. These results suggest that those who are more spiritual and physically active report greater quality of life, and the effects of these factors on quality of life may be partially mediated by perceptions of self-efficacy.

  16. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-02-22

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.

  17. Life explained by heat engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.W.J.; Seckbach, J.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are in essence fuel cells that use organics as reductant and oxygen as oxidant. In engineering, increasing attention is being given to the replacement of the internal combustion engine by the fuel cell. According to the Thermosynthesis theory, a similar replacement of heat engines by

  18. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Both; Christi Noriko Sonoo; Juarez Vieira Nascimento; Hudson de Resende Moreira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL) and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women), corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection....

  19. Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Moufawad el Achkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults.

  20. Engineering and planning for decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    With the publication of NUREG-0586, ''Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities'' in January, 1981 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has put the industry on notice that the termination of operating licenses and the final disposal of physical facilities will require the early consideration of several options and approaches and the preparation of comprehensive engineering and planning documents for the selected option at the end of useful life. This paper opens with a discussion of the options available and the principal aspects of decommissioning. The major emphasis of the composition is the nature of documents, the general approach to be followed, and special considerations to be taken into account when performing the detailed engineering and planning for decommissioning, as the end of life approaches and actual physical disposal is imminent. The author's main point of reference is on-going work by Burns and Roe, with Nuclear Energy Services, under contract to the Department of Energy's Richland Office, to perform the engineering and planning for the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania

  1. Physical activity and quality of life according to students of the University of the Third Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skwiot Marlena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Along with the rising life expectancy, there occurs an increased interest in geriatric care and in assessment of life quality in elderly persons. This study sought to examine the effects of physical activity on the quality of life in students of the University of the Third Age (UTA. Another purpose was to determine correlations between physical activity at a young age and the level of health state and physical activity at the time of the research as well as assessing the effects of socio-demographic factors on the quality of life in elderly individuals. Material and methods: The study included 138 UTA students (113 females and 25 males aged 50 and above from Warminsko-mazurskie region. The questionnaire consisting of two parts was applied as a research tool. The first part included the authors’ own questionnaire with general questions as well as questions regarding physical activity levels at a young age and at the time of the research. The second part was made up of the standardised WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire (shorter version of WHOQOL which was used to assess the subjects’ quality of life. Results: No significant differences between physical activity levels at a young age and at the time of the research were noted (p < 0.05. Self-evaluation of both life quality and heath state was significantly higher in individuals engaged in vigorous and moderate physical activity (p < 0.05 than in the other group. Conclusions: Physical activity of UTA students determines their quality of life and health state. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and a place of living influence the scores regarding the quality of life in WHOQOL-BREF domains.

  2. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, life goals and health-related quality of life among high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvartsen, Julie; Gabrielsen, Leiv Einar; Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Omfjord, Christina Sandvand; Rohde, Gudrun

    2016-08-03

    Two models were developed to increase high school students' participation in physical education (PE): "motion enjoyment" and "sport enjoyment". The first model focuses on increasing knowledge about the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle and thereby promoting a positive attitude towards physical activity, whereas the second model focuses on techniques and practices for enhancing athletic performance. The aims of the present study are to investigate and understand the similarities and differences between students selecting "motion enjoyment" vs. "sport enjoyment" and to examine the extent to which life goals and reported physical activity are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A total of 156 high school students (mean age, 16 years [standard deviation = 0.8], 123 girls and 33 boys) were included in this cross-sectional study. HRQOL and life goals were measured using KIDSCREEN-10 and the Adolescent Life Goal Profile Scale, respectively. Physical activity was measured using a self-reporting questionnaire intended to describe the students' leisure-time activity. Independent sample t-tests, chi-square, one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression analysis were applied. Self-reported physical activity level and HRQOL were higher among students in the "sport enjoyment" program, while the perceived importance of life goals was the same regardless of the preferred PE model. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the perceived importance of relations-oriented life goals (B = -5.61; 95 % confidence interval CI = -10.53 to -0.70; p = .026), perceived importance of generativity-oriented life goals (B = 4.14.; 95 % CI = 0.85 to 7.422; p = .014), perceived attainability of relations-oriented life goals (B = 7.28; 95 % CI = 2.49 to 12.07; p = .003), age (B = -7.29; 95 % CI = -11.38 to -3.20; p = .001) and gender, with boys as the reference group (B = -12.10; 95 % CI

  3. Relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalina, A Z; Lee, V C; Kandiah, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among gastrointestinal cancer survivors attending the oncology outpatient clinic in Hospital Selayang, Malaysia. A total of 70 gastrointestinal cancer survivors with a mean age of 52.54 +/- 14.59 years (95% CI: 47.48 - 57.60) were included in this study. Results showed that 40% of the patients were classified as having low physical activity. The mean Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA) score was 10.27 +/- 7.36 (95% CI: 8.23-12.31) and nearly half the patients (48.6%) were identified as severely malnourished (Stage C). Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GQLFI) score was 103.57 +/- 23.85 (95% CI: 92.94-114.20), and about 24.3% of the patients were classified as having a low quality of life. Pearson's correlation test showed a highly significant negative relationship between nutritional status and quality of life (r = -0.661, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA), the better the quality of life of the survivors (high total mean score of GQLFI). There was a significant negative relationship between physical activity level and nutritional status score (r = -0.309, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA). This study shows a significant relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. Those low in nutritional status have a low quality of life while survivors with higher nutritional status have a better quality of life.

  4. Introduction to Differential Calculus Systematic Studies with Engineering Applications for Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Poddar, Ajay K; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    Enables readers to apply the fundamentals of differential calculus to solve real-life problems in engineering and the physical sciences Introduction to Differential Calculus fully engages readers by presenting the fundamental theories and methods of differential calculus and then showcasing how the discussed concepts can be applied to real-world problems in engineering and the physical sciences. With its easy-to-follow style and accessible explanations, the book sets a solid foundation before advancing to specific calculus methods, demonstrating the connections between differential calculus

  5. Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, John

    2017-01-01

    Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over many orders of magnitude. The frequency range extends from a few tens of Hz for sea communications to hundreds of petaHz (1015 s–1) for X-ray imaging systems. Length scales range from thousands of kilometres to a few hundred picometres. Although the present work does not offer an exhaustive treatise on this vast subject, it does aim to provide advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers from these diverse disciplines the principal tools required to understand and contribute to rapidly advancing developments in light–matter interaction centred at optical frequencies and length scales. Classical electrodynamics, with an emphasis on the macroscopic expressions of Maxwell’s equations, physical optics, and quantum mechanics provide unique perspectives to the interaction of light and matter at these...

  6. Romanian knowledge transfer network in nuclear physics and engineering - REFIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2007-01-01

    According to the requirements of the Romanian Nuclear Programme regarding the education and training of the skilled personnel for the nuclear facilities, a knowledge transfer network named REFIN (in Romanian: Retea Educationala in Fizica si Ingineria Nucleara) was developed since 2005. The knowledge target field is nuclear physics and engineering. The main objective of this network is to develop an effective, flexible and modern educational system in the nuclear physics and engineering area which could meet the requirements of all known types of nuclear facilities and therewith be redundant with the perspectives of the European Research Area (FP7, EURATOM). A global strategy was proposed in order to harmonize the curricula between the network facilities to implement pilot modern teaching programs (courses/modules), to introduce advanced learning methods (as Systematic Approach to Training, e-learning and distance-learning), to strengthen and better use the existing research infrastructures of the research institutes in network. The education and training strategy is divided into several topics: university engineering , master, post-graduate, Ph.D. degree, post-doctoral activity, training for industry, improvement. For the first time in our country, a modular scheme is used allowing staff with different technical background to participate at different levels. In this respect, the European system with transferable credits (ECTS) is used. Based on this strategy, courses in 'Radioactive Waste Management' and 'Numerical and Experimental Methods in Reactor Physics' for both MS students and for industry. This way the training activity which a student attends will allow him or her to be involved, depending on specific professional needs, into a flexible educational scheme. This scheme will ensure competence and enhancement and also the possibility of qualification development and a better mobility on labour market. This kind of activity is already in progress in the

  7. Reduction of physical activity in daily life and its determinants in smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Bisca, Gianna; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Zabatiero, Juliana; Proença, Mahara; Kovelis, Demétria; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In smokers without airflow obstruction, detailed, objective and controlled quantification of the level of physical inactivity in daily life has never been performed. This study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in daily life in adult smokers without airflow obstruction in comparison with matched non-smokers, and to investigate the determinants for daily physical activity in smokers. Sixty smokers (aged 50 (39-54) years) and 50 non-smokers (aged 48 (40-53) years) matched for gender, age, anthropometric characteristics, educational level, employment status and seasons of the year assessment period were cross-sectionally assessed regarding their daily physical activity with a step counter, besides assessment of lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, self-reported comorbidities carbon monoxide level, nicotine dependence and smoking habits. When compared with non-smokers, smokers walked less in daily life (7923 ± 3558 vs 9553 ± 3637 steps/day, respectively), presented worse lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Multiple regression analyses identified functional exercise capacity, Borg fatigue, self-reported motivation/physical activity behaviour and cardiac disease as significant determinants of number of steps/day in smokers (partial r(2)  = 0.10, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.05; b = 15, -997, 1207 and -2330 steps/day, respectively; overall fit of the model R(2)  = 0.38; P smokers without airflow obstruction presented reduced level of daily physical activity. Functional exercise capacity, extended fatigue sensation, aspects of motivation/physical activity behaviour and self-reported cardiac disease are significant determinants of physical activity in daily life in smokers. © 2014 The Authors. Respirology © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. 10 years of engineering and physics achievements by the Large Helical Device project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; Imagawa, S.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Mutoh, T.; Mito, T.; Chikaraishi, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Ida, K.; Igami, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kasahara, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Maekawa, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Morisaki, T.; Morita, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews 10 years of engineering and physics achievements by the Large Helical Device (LHD) project with emphasis on the latest results. The LHD is the largest magnetic confinement device among diversified helical systems and employs the world's largest superconducting coils. The cryogenic system has been operated for 50,000 h in total without any serious trouble and routinely provides a confining magnetic field up to 2.96 T in steady state. The heating capability to date is 23 MW of NBI, 2.9 MW of ICRF and 2.1 MW of ECH. Negative-ion-based ion sources with the accelerating voltage of 180 keV are used for a tangential NBI with the power of 16 MW. The ICRF system has full steady-state operational capability with 1.6 MW. In these 10 years, operational experience as well as a physics database have been accumulated and the advantages of stable and steady-state features have been demonstrated by the combination of advanced engineering and the intrinsic physical advantage of helical systems in LHD. Highlighted physical achievements are high beta (5% at the magnetic field of 0.425 T), high density (1.1 x 10 21 m -3 at the central temperature of 0.4 keV), high ion temperature (T i of 5.2 keV at 1.5 x 10 19 m -3 ), and steady-state operation (3200 s with 490 kW). These physical parameters have elucidated the potential of net-current free helical plasmas for an attractive fusion reactor. It also should be pointed out that a major part of these engineering and physics achievements is complementary to the tokamak approach and even contributes directly to ITER.

  9. Physics of Acoustic Radiation from Jet Engine Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Envia, Edmane; Chien, Eugene W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of acoustic radiation from a jet engine inlet are performed using advanced computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithms and high-quality numerical boundary treatments. As a model of modern commercial jet engine inlets, the inlet geometry of the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) is used. Fan noise consists of tones and broadband sound. This investigation considers the radiation of tones associated with upstream propagating duct modes. The primary objective is to identify the dominant physical processes that determine the directivity of the radiated sound. Two such processes have been identified. They are acoustic diffraction and refraction. Diffraction is the natural tendency for an acoustic wave to follow a curved solid surface as it propagates. Refraction is the turning of the direction of propagation of sound waves by mean flow gradients. Parametric studies on the changes in the directivity of radiated sound due to variations in forward flight Mach number and duct mode frequency, azimuthal mode number, and radial mode number are carried out. It is found there is a significant difference in directivity for the radiation of the same duct mode from an engine inlet when operating in static condition and in forward flight. It will be shown that the large change in directivity is the result of the combined effects of diffraction and refraction.

  10. Development of dielectric sensor to monitor the engine lubricating oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashanmugam Vasanthan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day practice of following fixed schedules of oil change intervals could result in loss for the equipment owner, as the oil is not utilized up-to its maximum useful life. Similarly, the extended use of engine oil beyond maximum useful life is of high risk, which could lead irreversible and catastrophic damages to engine parts. Engine oil condition indicates the condition of engine parts, in any application. Therefore, monitoring the condition of the oil in real time is of paramount importance. Researchers had established that the engine oil degradation correlates with change in dielectric property of the engine oil. The important factor to realize the on-line real time monitoring of the changes in dielectric property of the engine oil is, the cost of dielectric sensor within affordable limit for an operator. Current work aims at developing such a low cost affordable dielectric sensor and engine oil samples (SAE 15W40 grade were collected from durability test engines used in engine test rig and on-road vehicles. These samples were tested for physical and chemical properties. Any changes in the properties, of engine oil monitored, indicate that it undergoes degradation due to usage. A prototype of capacitive type sensor was developed and validated with reference fluids. The dielectric values measured using proto type sensor in the used oil samples show a correlation with change in physical properties. This trend and thresholds of dielectric provides effective plat form to monitor the engine oil degradation. The sensor could be coupled to a suitable warning device by incorporating specific algorithms.

  11. Analysis of the physical aspects of quality of life of kidney recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elza Oliveira de Mendonça

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify the main factors of the physical domain modified after kidney transplantation and analyze the influence of those aspects in the perception of Overall quality of life (QOL. METHOD Longitudinal study, conducted with 63 chronic kidney patients, evaluated before and after kidney transplant, using the quality of life scale proposed by the World Health Organization. RESULTS We observed significant improvement in the physical aspects of QOL after kidney transplantation. Significant correlations were observed between physical aspects and the Overall QOL. CONCLUSION The kidney transplant generated improvement in all physical aspects of QOL. The factors that showed stronger correlation with the Overall QOL before the transplant were the capacity to work and pain. After the transplant, the perception of need for treatment was the factor that showed stronger correlation with the Overall QOL.

  12. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This report provides an archival record of the activities of the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division during the period June 30, 1985 through September 30, 1987. Work in Mathematical Sciences continues to include applied mathematics research, statistics research, and computer science. Nuclear-data measurements and evaluations continue for fusion reactors, fission reactors, and other nuclear systems. Also discussed are long-standing studies of fission-reactor shields through experiments and related analysis, of accelerator shielding, and of fusion-reactor neutronics. Work in Machine Intelligence continues to feature the development of an autonomous robot. The last descriptive part of this report reflects the work in our Engineering Physics Information Center, which again concentrates primarily upon radiation-shielding methods and related data.

  13. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report provides an archival record of the activities of the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division during the period June 30, 1985 through September 30, 1987. Work in Mathematical Sciences continues to include applied mathematics research, statistics research, and computer science. Nuclear-data measurements and evaluations continue for fusion reactors, fission reactors, and other nuclear systems. Also discussed are long-standing studies of fission-reactor shields through experiments and related analysis, of accelerator shielding, and of fusion-reactor neutronics. Work in Machine Intelligence continues to feature the development of an autonomous robot. The last descriptive part of this report reflects the work in our Engineering Physics Information Center, which again concentrates primarily upon radiation-shielding methods and related data

  14. Motivational factors associated with physical activity and quality of life in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2017-12-01

    There has been increasing interest for investigating the role of motivation in physical activity among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Autonomous motivation has been suggested to have a potentially important role in adoption and maintenance of physical activity. However, the knowledge about factors that facilitate autonomous motivation among people with SMI is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with motivation for physical activity as well as the relationships between motivation, physical activity and health-related quality of life in individuals with SMI that were currently physically active. A cross-sectional design was used, and 88 participants were recruited from a public health network promoting physical activity for people with SMI. They answered a questionnaire package consisting of scales measuring psychological need support - psychological need satisfaction - and motivation for physical activity, physical activity and health-related quality of life. The majority of participants reported to be in regular physical activity. Associations between variables were tested according to the self-determination theory process model. Structural equation modelling yielded good fit of the process model to the data. Specifically, a need-supportive environment was positively associated with psychological need satisfaction, while psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous motivation and mental health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Physical activity was positively associated with autonomous motivation and physical health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with amotivation. This study indicates that individuals with SMI can be regularly physically active when provided with suitable opportunities. Furthermore, the present results suggest that it is vital for health-care practitioners to emphasise creating a need

  15. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  16. The physical work environment and end-user requirements: Investigating marine engineering officers' operational demands and ship design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica

    2016-08-12

    Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by implementing a user-centric perspective. Three focus groups, each consisting of three marine engineers participated in this study. Focus groups were divided into two sessions: first, to investigate the end-user's operational requirements and their relationship with ship physical design and layout. Second, criteria formulated from group discussions were applied to a ship design case study. All focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Design choices made in a ships general arrangement were described to inherently influence how individuals and teams are able to function within the system. Participants detailed logistical relationships between key areas, stressing that the work environment and physical linkages must allow for flexibility of work organization and task execution. Traditional engine control paradigms do not allow effective mitigation of traditional engine department challenges. The influence of technology and modernization of ship systems can facilitate improvement of physical environments and work organization if effectively utilized.

  17. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, And Life Satisfaction Of Medical, Engineering, And Social Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sabahat; Munaf, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing higher education is not an easy task as it requires hard work, dedication, and motivation. Although there are many rewards involved in growing up academically, nevertheless, it contains a few hazards too. For instance, suicidal ideation is associated with presence of depression, anxiety, and stress with low level of satisfaction with life in students finding difficulty in handling educational demands of higher education. Therefore, the present study focused on the query that whether there is any difference or not among medical, engineering, and social sciences students of city of Karachi, Pakistan in the level of suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction. Using comparative group design, total 300 students (150 males and 150 females) with age range of 19-26 were selected from faculties of medical, engineering, and social sciences of different universities of Karachi, Pakistan, through purposive sampling. Respondent Profile Form, The Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered to assess suicidal ideation; depression, anxiety, stress; and life satisfaction, respectively, of the students. Scores were analysed through ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey's HSD) test using SPSS. Social sciences and engineering students were significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and stress than medical students [F (2, 297) =8.701, p=.000] whereas insignificant differences in the level of suicidal ideation [F (2, 297) =1.914, p=.149] and life satisfaction [F (2, 297) = .726, p = .485] among these students were found. With the help of these findings, it would be easier to counsel students of different disciplines in time on the lines of suggested preventive measures.

  18. The use of physics engines in quantifying breakwater damage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2013-07-08

    Full Text Available for present purposes is PhysX™ (NVIDIA, 2012). The components of a physics engine are object representation, collision detection, collision processing, and particle kinematics. Each body is represented by a tetrahedral mesh model. It is important... Techniques SIGGRAPH ’08., 2008. Munjiza, A., 2004. The Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method. Wiley. Munjiza, A., 2011. Computational mechanics of discontinua. John Wiley and Sons. NVIDIA, 2012. PhysX. [Online] Available at: HYPERLINK "file...

  19. B. F. Skinner and technology's nation: Technocracy, social engineering, and the good life in 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed and promoted a technology of behavior as the basis for widespread social reform over much of his career. In 1948, he published his behaviorally engineered vision of the good life in his utopian novel Walden Two (Skinner, 1948). Skinner's efforts were part of a much larger social engineering tradition that received one of its fullest expressions in the Technocracy Movement of the 1930s. Fifteen years before Skinner's Walden Two , at the height of the Technocracy Movement's public visibility in the United States, technocrat Harold Loeb (1933/1996) published his utopia, Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like . In this article, I place the socially engineered visions of the good life promoted by the Technocracy Movement and by Skinner on an intellectual and ideological continuum to amplify and explore American attitudes toward psychology, technology, and social engineering during the middle decades of the 20th century. I argue that responses to both reveal the possibilities and limits of the social engineering enterprise, and suggest that historians of technology might consider how the history of psychology and other psy-disciplines can deepen conceptualizations of the relationships among the psychological, the social, and the technological in this period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. THE SOCIAL POSITION AS AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION OF ENGINEERS' QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE SOCIETY OF POST-SOCIALIST TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Mirkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life may be analyzed from different perspectives. In compliance with that, it may be assumed that the social position of the profession has significant impact on quality of life. The paper presents the analysis of the research which aim was to examine the three dimensions of the social position of the engineering profession in the society of post-socialist transformation: material status, social power, and social reputation. We compared the results of the current study with the results of the research that we had conducted in the period when socialist relations still exist in organizations. Moreover, we studied how the engineers perceive these three aspects of the social position of their profession. The first research was conducted in 1998 and the second in 2015. 200 engineers were questioned in 146 companies. The results indicate that the dimensions of social position, such as the material standard and the social influence of engineers in Serbia today are a little more favorable than they used to be at the end of the 90s. Finally, a majority of the engineers from our research believe that their expectations regarding the engineering profession have not been fulfilled and in future, their quality of life may be enhanced in terms of social importance and recognition.

  1. The Design and Semi-Physical Simulation Test of Fault-Tolerant Controller for Aero Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-11-01

    A new fault-tolerant control method for aero engine is proposed, which can accurately diagnose the sensor fault by Kalman filter banks and reconstruct the signal by real-time on-board adaptive model combing with a simplified real-time model and an improved Kalman filter. In order to verify the feasibility of the method proposed, a semi-physical simulation experiment has been carried out. Besides the real I/O interfaces, controller hardware and the virtual plant model, semi-physical simulation system also contains real fuel system. Compared with the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, semi-physical simulation system has a higher degree of confidence. In order to meet the needs of semi-physical simulation, a rapid prototyping controller with fault-tolerant control ability based on NI CompactRIO platform is designed and verified on the semi-physical simulation test platform. The result shows that the controller can realize the aero engine control safely and reliably with little influence on controller performance in the event of fault on sensor.

  2. Strategies and applications for incorporating physical and chemical signal gradients in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory; Detamore, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field-biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering-by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell-protein-biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue-like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery

  3. Physical Activity as a Determinant of Quality of Life in Working-Age People in Wrocław, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Puciato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity can greatly contribute to the improvement of physical fitness and performance, reduction of the incidence risk of some occupational diseases, and as a consequence, to a general improvement of quality of life in terms of health status. The aim of the article was to assess relationships between the quality of life and physical activity of a working-age population. The study material comprised 4460 residents of the city of Wrocław, Poland (2129 men, 2331 women aged 18–64 years. The study was a questionnaire survey using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF and The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. The highest levels of overall quality of life and its four particular domains (physical, psychological, social, and environmental, as well as perceived health conditions were found among the most physically active respondents. Furthermore, the odds of high assessment of perceived overall quality of life were shown to increase with the increasing levels of physical activity. Activities aimed at the improvement of the quality of life of working-age people should involve programs enhancing the development of physical activity.

  4. Open educational resources, cultural artifacts, conception’s physics teachers for engineering analysis of two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jardey Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research attempts to answer questions such as: What are the concepts of physics teachers who work in the engineering faculty on the use of Open Educational Resources (OER?  This article focuses on revealing the conceptions of physics teachers working in the engineering faculty in relation to OER. Methodologically the project has a qualitative and a quantitative component; This article is the result of a qualitative and interpretive phase from extensive interviews with active teachers, who run courses in physics in engineering careers in higher education institutions public or private; interviews were conducted from elicitadoras situations that emerge from the categories that emerged from the literature review (cultural artifact, Learning environment, social-scientific, technical and technological. The interpretation of the interviews suggests that there conceptions of laboratory reality and its relationship with models, they do consider that this reality may be far from the models when experiments are discussed through simulations (which can be misleading. Conclusions point out that mathematics is the most important in the construction and reconstruction of physical models, although not unanimously mediation; infers that can be incorporated as complementary elements OER mediation possible a spectrum of educational options in teaching physics.

  5. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults.Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test.Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life.If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy

  6. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy, focusing on

  7. Reactor physics computations for nuclear engineering undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The undergraduate program in nuclear engineering at the University of Cincinnati provides three-quarters of nuclear reactor theory that concentrate on physical principles, with calculations limited to those that can be conveniently completed on programmable calculators. An additional one-quarter course is designed to introduce the student to realistic core physics calculational methods, which necessarily requires a computer. Such calculations can be conveniently demonstrated and completed with the modern microcomputer. The one-quarter reactor computations course includes a one-group, one-dimensional diffusion code to introduce the concepts of inner and outer iterations, a cell spectrum code based on integral transport theory to generate cell-homogenized few-group cross sections, and a multigroup diffusion code to determine multiplication factors and power distributions in one-dimensional systems. Problem assignments include the determination of multiplication factors and flux distributions for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores under various operating conditions, such as cold clean, hot clean, hot clean at full power, hot full power with xenon and samarium, and a boron concentration search. Moderator and Doppler coefficients can also be evaluated and examined

  8. Engineering and physical sciences in medicine and health conference. Programme Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Topics on the agenda of the 1996 Annual Scientific Meting for engineers and physical scientists in medicine and health include: medical radiation safety, dosimetry, non-ionizing radiation, radiotherapy treatment planning, medical devices, diagnostic imaging and quality assurance, radiation protection, transport of radioactive materials and management of radioactive wastes

  9. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings ...

  10. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Kramer, K.J.; Abbott, R.P.; Morris, K.R.; DeMuth, J.; Divol, L.; El-Dasher, B.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G.; Reyes, S.; Moses, G.A.; Fratoni, M.; Flowers, D.; Aceves, S.; Rhodes, M.; Kane, J.; Scott, H.; Kramer, R.; Pantano, C.; Scullard, C.; Sawicki, R.; Wilks, S.; Mehl, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  11. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  12. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, life goals and health-related quality of life among high school students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sigvartsen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two models were developed to increase high school students’ participation in physical education (PE: “motion enjoyment” and “sport enjoyment”. The first model focuses on increasing knowledge about the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle and thereby promoting a positive attitude towards physical activity, whereas the second model focuses on techniques and practices for enhancing athletic performance. The aims of the present study are to investigate and understand the similarities and differences between students selecting “motion enjoyment” vs. “sport enjoyment” and to examine the extent to which life goals and reported physical activity are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Method A total of 156 high school students (mean age, 16 years [standard deviation = 0.8], 123 girls and 33 boys were included in this cross-sectional study. HRQOL and life goals were measured using KIDSCREEN-10 and the Adolescent Life Goal Profile Scale, respectively. Physical activity was measured using a self-reporting questionnaire intended to describe the students’ leisure-time activity. Independent sample t-tests, chi-square, one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression analysis were applied. Results Self-reported physical activity level and HRQOL were higher among students in the “sport enjoyment” program, while the perceived importance of life goals was the same regardless of the preferred PE model. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the perceived importance of relations-oriented life goals (B = −5.61; 95 % confidence interval CI = −10.53 to −0.70; p = .026, perceived importance of generativity-oriented life goals (B = 4.14.; 95 % CI = 0.85 to 7.422; p = .014, perceived attainability of relations-oriented life goals (B = 7.28; 95 % CI = 2.49 to 12.07; p = .003, age (B = −7.29; 95 % CI = −11.38 to −3.20; p

  13. Relationship Between Physical Frailty and Low-Grade Inflammation in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Matheus H. L.; Collard, Rose M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Naude, Petrus J. W.; Risselada, Roelof; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    ObjectivesTo determine whether physical frailty is associated with low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression, because late-life depression is associated with physical frailty and low-grade inflammation. DesignBaseline data of a cohort study. SettingPrimary care and specialized mental

  14. Relationship between physical frailty and low-grade inflammation in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, M.H.; Collard, R.M.; Comijs, H.C.; Naude, P.J.; Risselada, R.; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether physical frailty is associated with low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression, because late-life depression is associated with physical frailty and low-grade inflammation. Design Baseline data of a cohort study. Setting Primary care and specialized mental

  15. Quality of working life issues of employees with a chronic physical disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Merel; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2015-01-01

    To assess issues that contribute to the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of employees with a chronic physical disease. A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Experiences and perceptions during the working life of employees with a chronic physical

  16. Hydrate-Bearing Clayey Sediments: Morphology, Physical Properties, Production and Engineering/Geological Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Fine-grained sediments host more than 90 percent of global gas hydrate accumulation. However, hydrate formation in clay-dominated sediments is less understood and characterized than other types of hydrate occurrence. There is an inadequate understanding of hydrate formation mechanisms, segregation structures, hydrate lens topology, system connectivity, and physical macro-scale properties of clay-dominated hydrate-bearing sediments. This situation hinders further analyses of the global carbon budget as well as engineering challenges/solutions related to hydrate instability and production. This project studies hydrate-bearing clay-dominated sediments with emphasis on the enhanced fundamental understanding of hydrate formation and resulting morphology, the development laboratory techniques to emulate natural hydrate formations, the assessment of analytical tools to predict physical properties, the evaluation of engineering and geological implications, and the advanced understanding of gas production potential from finegrained sediments.

  17. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenik, Jeroen; Kruisdijk, Frank; Tenback, Diederik; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Taal, Erik; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Beekman, Aartjan; Tak, Erwin; Hendriksen, Ingrid; van Harten, Peter

    2017-08-18

    Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness and knowledge of the determinants of behavioural change is lacking. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and quality of life, and explore modifiable psychological determinants of change in physical activity in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness. In 184 inpatients, physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (ActiGraph GTX+). Quality of life was assessed by EuroQol-5D and WHOQol-Bref. Attitude and perceived self-efficacy towards physical activity were collected using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and the Multidimensional Self Efficacy Questionnaire, respectively. Patient and disease characteristics were derived retrospectively from electronic patient records. Associations and potential predictors were analysed using hierarchical regression. Physical activity was positively related with and a predictor of all quality of life outcomes except on the environmental domain, independent of patient and disease characteristics. However, non-linear relationships showed that most improvement in quality of life lies in the change from sedentary to light activity. Attitude and self-efficacy were not related to physical activity. Physical activity is positively associated with quality of life, especially for patients in the lower spectrum of physical activity. An association between attitude and self-efficacy and physical activity was absent. Therefore, results suggest the need of alternative, more integrated and (peer-)supported interventions to structurally improve physical activity in this inpatient population. Slight changes from sedentary

  18. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inact...

  19. A Differentiable Physics Engine for Deep Learning in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Degrave, Jonas; Hermans, Michiel; Dambre, Joni; wyffels, Francis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important fields in robotics is the optimization of controllers. Currently, robots are treated as a black box in this optimization process, which is the reason why derivative-free optimization methods such as evolutionary algorithms or reinforcement learning are omnipresent. We propose an implementation of a modern physics engine, which has the ability to differentiate control parameters. This has been implemented on both CPU and GPU. We show how this speeds up the optimizatio...

  20. Factors Determining Physical and Mental Quality of Life of Living Kidney Donors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K-H; Yeh, L-C; Huang, H-L; Chiang, Y-J; Lin, M-H; Hsieh, C-Y; Weng, L-C

    2016-04-01

    Living-donor kidney transplantation has a positive influence on recipients' life expectancy and improves quality of life for patients with end-stage renal disease compared with dialysis patients. Evaluation of the physical and mental quality of life for donors can promote positive perceptions about donation and help potential donors in their decision-making process. The aim of this study was to explore the predictive factors of quality of life for living kidney donors. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used, and the study was conducted from January to July 2013. The donors were a convenience sample of 34 participants who had undergone kidney transplant surgery >1 year earlier. The results showed that kidney donors had a low to moderate physical and mental quality of life. Multiple regression analysis revealed that financial concerns and anxiety explained 27.8% of the total variance of quality of life in the physical component. Anxiety and paid work explained 61.4% of the total variance of quality of life in the mental component. After renal transplantation, living kidney donors experienced low to moderate quality of life. Because donors are family members (siblings, sons or daughters, spouses, or parents), monthly family income is a significant issue that influences both the decision to donate and quality of life after transplantation. Our findings suggest that pre-transplantation assessment must include social workers as part of the health care team to evaluate the impact of a donor's financial status on post-transplantation quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in physical activity, physical fitness, self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy program in outpatients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Adriaens, An; Pieters, Guido; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the current study was to explore the associations between changes in the number of binges, physical activity participation, physical fitness, physical self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral program in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). In total 34 (31 women) outpatients with BED (38.5±10.7 years) completed a 6-month 1-day per week group-based program. Participants completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire, the Physical Self Perception Profile and performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Except for physical activity at work, physical strength and self-worth perception, all parameters significantly improved after 6 months. The effect sizes ranged from -0.33 for the number of binges to 1.67 for participation in sports activities. Significant increases in leisure time physical activity were associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life, perceived sports competence and physical fitness and in perceived body attractiveness. The significant reduction in the number of binges was associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life. Future research should focus on detailing which techniques can stimulate physical activity participation in patients with BED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of life and physical activity in long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer survivors - systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyl, Ruth Elisa; Xie, Kun; Koch-Gallenkamp, Lena; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker

    2018-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of long-term (≥5 years post diagnosis) colorectal cancer survivors, long-term quality of life of these patients is highly relevant. Several studies have reported a positive association between physical activity and quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors, however, so far no systematic review has been published which focuses on long-term colorectal cancer survivors. A systematic review was conducted using the databases PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and CINAHL. Studies which investigated associations between physical activity and quality of life in long-term colorectal cancer survivors were included. Ten articles based on seven studies were identified. Long-term colorectal cancer survivors who were physically active reported better quality of life than long-term survivors who were not physically active. Both, moderate to vigorous physical activity and lower levels like light physical activity were associated with higher quality of life. Most studies assessed the association between physical activity and quality of life cross-sectionally but one prospective study which measured physical activity and quality of life at three different points in time also found associations between physical activity and quality of life. The association between physical activity and quality of life seemed to be stronger among women than among men. The findings of this systematic review support an association between physical activity and quality of life in long-term colorectal cancer survivors. However, the evidence is limited as most studies were based on cross-sectional and observational design.

  3. XVI 'Jacques-Louis Lions' Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Roldán, Teo; Torrens, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents lecture notes from the XVI ‘Jacques-Louis Lions’ Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering, held in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain) in September 2014. The subjects covered include: numerical analysis of isogeometric methods, convolution quadrature for wave simulations, mathematical methods in image processing and computer vision, modeling and optimization techniques in food processes, bio-processes and bio-systems, and GPU computing for numerical simulation. The book is highly recommended to graduate students in Engineering or Science who want to focus on numerical simulation, either as a research topic or in the field of industrial applications. It can also benefit senior researchers and technicians working in industry who are interested in the use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques in the fields addressed here. Moreover, the book can be used as a textbook for master courses in Mathematics, Physics, or Engineering.

  4. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age: a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-25

    It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p life satisfaction (both p life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.

  5. Comparisons between physics-based, engineering, and statistical learning models for outdoor sound propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Carl R; Reznicek, Nathan J; Wilson, D Keith; Pettit, Chris L; Nykaza, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Many outdoor sound propagation models exist, ranging from highly complex physics-based simulations to simplified engineering calculations, and more recently, highly flexible statistical learning methods. Several engineering and statistical learning models are evaluated by using a particular physics-based model, namely, a Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE), as a benchmark. Narrowband transmission loss values predicted with the CNPE, based upon a simulated data set of meteorological, boundary, and source conditions, act as simulated observations. In the simulated data set sound propagation conditions span from downward refracting to upward refracting, for acoustically hard and soft boundaries, and low frequencies. Engineering models used in the comparisons include the ISO 9613-2 method, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 propagation models. Statistical learning methods used in the comparisons include bagged decision tree regression, random forest regression, boosting regression, and artificial neural network models. Computed skill scores are relative to sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a rigid ground. Overall skill scores for the engineering noise models are 0.6%, -7.1%, and 83.8% for the ISO 9613-2, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 models, respectively. Overall skill scores for the statistical learning models are 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.6%, and 99.6% for bagged decision tree, random forest, boosting, and artificial neural network regression models, respectively.

  6. Career-Life Balance for Women of Color: Experiences in Science and Engineering Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel; Ko, Lily; Hodari, Apriel; Ong, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation recently recognized that career-life balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) may present some unique challenges for women of color compared with their White and/or male counterparts, thus negatively impacting retention and advancement for a minority demographic that has long been…

  7. A search engine for the engineering and equipment data management system (EDMS) at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, A; Amerigo, S M; Petit, S; Pettersson, T; Suwalska, A

    2008-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, located in Geneva -Switzerland, is currently building the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), a 27 km particle accelerator. The equipment life-cycle management of this project is provided by the Engineering and Equipment Data Management System (EDMS) Service. Using an Oracle database, it supports the management and follow-up of different kinds of documentation through the whole life cycle of the LHC project: design, manufacturing, installation, commissioning data etc... The equipment data collection phase is now slowing down and the project is getting closer to the 'As-Built' phase: the phase of the project consuming and exploring the large volumes of data stored since 1996. Searching through millions of items of information (documents, equipment parts, operations...) multiplied by dozens of points of view (operators, maintainers...) requires an efficient and flexible search engine. This paper describes the process followed by the team to implement the search engine for the LHC As-built project in the EDMS Service. The emphasis is put on the design decision to decouple the search engine from any user interface, potentially enabling other systems to also use it. Projections, algorithms, and the planned implementation are described in this paper. The implementation of the first version started in early 2007

  8. Multi-objective optimization of Stirling engine using Finite Physical Dimensions Thermodynamics (FPDT) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijie; Grosu, Lavinia; Queiros-Conde, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A gamma Stirling engine has been optimized using FPDT method by multi-objective criteria. • Genetic algorithm and decision making methods were used to get Pareto frontier and optimum points. • It shows: total thermal conductance, hot temperature, stroke and diameter ratios can be improved. - Abstract: In this paper, a solar energy powered gamma type SE has been optimized using Finite Physical Dimensions Thermodynamics (FPDT) method by multi-objective criteria. Genetic algorithm was used to get the Pareto frontier, and optimum points were obtained using the decision making methods of LINMAP and TOPSIS. The optimization results have been compared with those obtained using the ecological method. It was shown that the multi-objective optimization in this paper has a better balance among the optimizing criteria (maximum mechanical power, maximum thermal efficiency and minimum entropy generation flow). The effects of the hot source temperature and the total thermal conductance of the engine on the Pareto frontier have been also studied. This sensibility study shows that an increase in the hot reservoir temperature can increase the output mechanical power, the thermal efficiency of the engine, but also the entropy generation rate. In addition to this, an increase of the total thermal conductance of the engine can strongly increase the output mechanical power and only slightly increase the thermal efficiency. These results allow us to improve the engine performance after some modifications as geometrical dimensions (diameter, stroke, heat exchange surface, etc.) and physical parameters (temperature, thermal conductivity).

  9. Physical activities practicing among scholar professors: focus on their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the practice of physical activity among scholar professors focusing on their quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 121 professors at one of the campuses of a state university in the State of Paraná, using a questionnaire created by Baecke and adapted for the study. Results: The analyzed group presented a level of inadequate physical activity of 54.4%, with mean body mass of 26.20, considered overweight. Conclusion: The study indicated that professors do not practice physical activity at the level recommended by the World Health Organization; therefore, they are, for the most part, sedentary and have complaints of anxiety. It is advisable to carry out actions aimed at the health of the professors, directed to the modification in the lifestyle, with regular practice of physical activities and balanced diet, for the improvement of the quality of life.

  10. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interrelationship among physical activity, quality of life, clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of complexities surround the health and well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes. These difficulties relate to self-care efforts and outcomes, and several other factors play regulatory functions. This study was carried out to investigate the inter-relationship among physical activity, quality of life, and clinical and ...

  12. The use of physical and virtual manipulatives in an undergraduate mechanical engineering (Dynamics) course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Edward A.

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is a national focus. Engineering education, as part of STEM education, needs to adapt to meet the needs of the nation in a rapidly changing world. Using computer-based visualization tools and corresponding 3D printed physical objects may help nontraditional students succeed in engineering classes. This dissertation investigated how adding physical or virtual learning objects (called manipulatives) to courses that require mental visualization of mechanical systems can aid student performance. Dynamics is one such course, and tends to be taught using lecture and textbooks with static diagrams of moving systems. Students often fail to solve the problems correctly and an inability to mentally visualize the system can contribute to student difficulties. This study found no differences between treatment groups on quantitative measures of spatial ability and conceptual knowledge. There were differences between treatments on measures of mechanical reasoning ability, in favor of the use of physical and virtual manipulatives over static diagrams alone. There were no major differences in student performance between the use of physical and virtual manipulatives. Students used the physical and virtual manipulatives to test their theories about how the machines worked, however their actual time handling the manipulatives was extremely limited relative to the amount of time they spent working on the problems. Students used the physical and virtual manipulatives as visual aids when communicating about the problem with their partners, and this behavior was also seen with Traditional group students who had to use the static diagrams and gesture instead. The explanations students gave for how the machines worked provided evidence of mental simulation; however, their causal chain analyses were often flawed, probably due to attempts to decrease cognitive load. Student opinions about the static diagrams and dynamic

  13. Nonlinear physics with Maple for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enns, Richard H

    1997-01-01

    Philosophy of the Text This text has been designed to be an introductory survey of the basic concepts and applied mathematical methods of nonlinear science. Students in engineer­ ing, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computing science, and biology should be able to successfully use this text. In an effort to provide the students with a cutting edge approach to one of the most dynamic, often subtle, complex, and still rapidly evolving, areas of modern research-nonlinear physics-we have made extensive use of the symbolic, numeric, and plotting capabilities of Maple V Release 4 applied to examples from these disciplines. No prior knowledge of Maple or computer programming is assumed, the reader being gently introduced to Maple as an auxiliary tool as the concepts of nonlinear science are developed. The diskette which accompanies the text gives a wide variety of illustrative nonlinear examples solved with Maple. An accompanying laboratory manual of experimental activities keyed to the text allows the student the...

  14. Replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The DOE-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the replacement of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of this project is to replace the existing Health Physics Instrumentation Laboratory (HPIL) with a new facility to provide a safe environment for maintaining and calibrating radiation detection instruments used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The existing HPIL facility provides portable health physics monitoring instrumentation and direct reading dosimetry procurement, maintenance and calibration of radiation detection instruments, and research and development support-services to the INEL and others. However, the existing facility was not originally designed for laboratory activities and does not provide an adequate, safe environment for calibration activities. The EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and evaluated reasonable alternatives, including the no action alternative in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508). Based on the environmental analysis in the attached EA, the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and 40 CFR Parts 1508.18 and 1508.27. The selected action (the proposed alternative) is composed of the following elements, each described or evaluated in the attached EA on the pages referenced. The proposed action is expected to begin in 1997 and will be completed within three years: design and construction of a new facility at the Central Facility Area of the INEL; operation of the facility, including instrument receipt, inspections and repairs, precision testing and calibration, and storage and issuance. The selected action will result in no significant environmental impacts

  15. Complex dynamics of our economic life on different scales: insights from search engine query data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Reith, Daniel; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-12-28

    Search engine query data deliver insight into the behaviour of individuals who are the smallest possible scale of our economic life. Individuals are submitting several hundred million search engine queries around the world each day. We study weekly search volume data for various search terms from 2004 to 2010 that are offered by the search engine Google for scientific use, providing information about our economic life on an aggregated collective level. We ask the question whether there is a link between search volume data and financial market fluctuations on a weekly time scale. Both collective 'swarm intelligence' of Internet users and the group of financial market participants can be regarded as a complex system of many interacting subunits that react quickly to external changes. We find clear evidence that weekly transaction volumes of S&P 500 companies are correlated with weekly search volume of corresponding company names. Furthermore, we apply a recently introduced method for quantifying complex correlations in time series with which we find a clear tendency that search volume time series and transaction volume time series show recurring patterns.

  16. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  17. Understanding determinants of nutrition, physical activity and quality of life among older adults: the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and physical activity are major determinants of health and quality of life; however, there exists little research focusing on determinants of these behaviours in older adults. This is important, since just as these behaviours vary according to subpopulation, it is likely that the determinants also vary. An understanding of the modifiable determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults to take into account the specific life-stage context is required in order to develop effective interventions to promote health and well-being and prevent chronic disease and improve quality of life. Methods The aim of this work is to identify how intrapersonal, social and environmental factors influence nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults living in urban and rural areas. This study is a cohort study of adults aged 55-65 years across urban and rural Victoria, Australia. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline in 2010 and will complete follow-up questionnaires in 2012 and 2014. Self-report questionnaires will be used to assess outcomes such as food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, anthropometry and quality of life. Explanatory variables include socioeconomic position, and measures of the three levels of influence on older adults’ nutrition and physical activity behaviours (intrapersonal, social and perceived environmental influences. Discussion Obesity and its determinant behaviours, physical inactivity and poor diet are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of the quality of life among the ageing population. There is a critical need for a better understanding of the determinants of nutrition and physical activity in this important target group. This research will provide evidence for the development of effective policies and programs to promote and support increased physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among older

  18. Far from Equilibrium Percolation, Stochastic and Shape Resonances in the Physics of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bianconi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Key physical concepts, relevant for the cross-fertilization between condensed matter physics and the physics of life seen as a collective phenomenon in a system out-of-equilibrium, are discussed. The onset of life can be driven by: (a the critical fluctuations at the protonic percolation threshold in membrane transport; (b the stochastic resonance in biological systems, a mechanism that can exploit external and self-generated noise in order to gain efficiency in signal processing; and (c the shape resonance (or Fano resonance or Feshbach resonance in the association and dissociation processes of bio-molecules (a quantum mechanism that could play a key role to establish a macroscopic quantum coherence in the cell.

  19. Modeling quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases: the role of pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, physical disability, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Go, Dong Jin; Lee, Kwang-Min; Noh, Hae Lim; Park, Seung-Hee; Song, Yeong Wook

    2018-06-01

    To examine factors in the fear-avoidance model, such as pain, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, physical disability, and depression and their relationships with physical and psychological quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. The data were obtained from 360 patients with rheumatic diseases who completed self-report measures assessing study variables. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized relationships among factors specified in the fear-avoidance model predicting physical and psychological quality of life. Final models fit the data well, explaining 96% and 82% of the variance in physical and psychological quality of life, respectively. Higher pain catastrophizing was related to stronger fear-avoidance beliefs that had a direct negative association with physical disability and depression, which, in turn, negatively affected physical quality of life. Pain severity was also directly related to physical disability. Physical disability also affected physical quality of life indirectly through depression. The hypothesized relationships specified in the model were also confirmed for psychological quality of life. However, physical disability had an indirect association with psychological quality of life via depression. The current results underscore the significant role of cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors in perceived physical disability and their mediated detrimental effect on physical and psychological quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. Implications for rehabilitation The fear-avoidance model is applicable to the prediction of quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. As pain-catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs are important factors linked to physical disability and depression, intervening these cognitive factors is necessary to improve physical function and depression in patients with rheumatic diseases. Considering the strong association between depression and

  20. Engineering Physics Division progress report for period ending November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    Research and other activities of the Engineering Physics Division (formerly Neutron Physics Division) of ORNL during the period February 28, 1977 to November 30, 1978, are reported. The format is that of abstracts and summaries of prepared papers. Work is summarized in the following general areas: measurements of neutron cross sections and related quantities; cross-section theory, evaluations, and evaluation techniques; cross-section processing, testing, and sensitivity analyses; integral experiments and their analyses; development of methods for shield and reactor analyses; analyses for specific systems or applications (liquid-metal fast breeder reactor program, gas-cooled reactor program, alternate fuel cycle program, magnetic fusion energy program, high-energy physics program, accelerator breeding studies, miscellaneous studies); and information analysis and distribution. Overviews of each of these areas are included

  1. Individual aircraft life monitoring: An engineering approach for fatigue damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui JIAO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual aircraft life monitoring is required to ensure safety and economy of aircraft structure, and fatigue damage evaluation based on collected operational data of aircraft is an integral part of it. To improve the accuracy and facilitate the application, this paper proposes an engineering approach to evaluate fatigue damage and predict fatigue life for critical structures in fatigue monitoring. In this approach, traditional nominal stress method is applied to back calculate the S-N curve parameters of the realistic structure details based on full-scale fatigue test data. Then the S-N curve and Miner’s rule are adopted in damage estimation and fatigue life analysis for critical locations under individual load spectra. The relationship between relative small crack length and fatigue life can also be predicted with this approach. Specimens of 7B04-T74 aluminum alloy and TA15M titanium alloy are fatigue tested under two types of load spectra, and there is a good agreement between the experimental results and analysis results. Furthermore, the issue concerning scatter factor in individual aircraft damage estimation is also discussed. Keywords: Fatigue damage, Fatigue monitoring, Fatigue test, Scatter factor, S-N curve

  2. Engineers and the Web: An analysis of real life gaps in information usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Engineers face a wide range of gaps when trying to identify, acquire, and utilize information from the Web. To be able to avoid creating such gaps, it is essential to understand them in detail. This paper reports the results of a study of the real life gaps in information usage processes of 17

  3. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  4. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): physical self-concept, pain, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesberger, G; Müller, E; Würth, S

    2015-08-01

    Physical self-concept in the elderly is assumed to be structured in terms of different domains and to contribute substantially to life satisfaction. However, little is known about the role of the physical self-concept in older persons that are engaged in physical activity while suffering from typical age-related impairments or chronic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the structure of physical self-concept in a group of older persons with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), its development throughout a 12-week skiing intervention, and its importance to life satisfaction. Factor analyses of the present data reveal that the physical self-concept consists of four dimensions addressing strength, flexibility/coordination, endurance, and sportiness. One higher order factor extracted by hierarchical factor analyses reflects a global physical self-concept. The 12-week skiing intervention had no substantial impact in terms of an improvement of self-concept. Life satisfaction is best predicted by positive changes in the subjective ratings between pre- and post-test (i.e., global physical self-concept, flexibility and coordination, and perceived sportiness) and not by objective physical performance (isokinetic strength, endurance, or coordination). Results support the assumption that physical self-concept of older people with TKA is only marginally sensitive to a 12-week skiing intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evolution of the ageing process, quality of life and physical fitness in western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro Jesús; Chiva, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    It is predicted that life expectancy will raise sharply in future stages, especially in western countries. In fact, life expectancy of developed countries is currently over the age of 70. Aging implies a series of physical, psychological, cognitive and social changes that condition one's self-concept, creating adaptive strategies and the knowledge to maintain one's well-being in spite of the changes. Albeit aging is a natural and inevitable process, the benefits of physical fitnes...

  6. Progress report on research and development in 1991, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Engineering, KfK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Progress report on research and development in 1991 Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Engineering. The Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Engineering is concerned with research work in the field of nuclear engineering related to the safety of fast and thermal reactors as well as with specific problems of fusion reactor technology. Under the project of nuclear safety research, the Institute works on concepts designed to drastically improve reactor safety. Apart from that, methods to estimate and minimize the radiological consequences of reactor accidents are developed. Under the fusion technology project, the Institute deals with neutron physics and technological questions of the breeding blanket. Basic research covers technico-physical questions of the interaction between light ion radiation of a high energy density and matter. In addition and to a small extent, questions of employing hydrogen in the transport area are studied. For all these tasks it is indispensable to use up-to-date data processing methods and equipment, from the highest capacity computer to the integrated minicomputer system. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Aging plant life management - the requirements defined to date by the KTA nuclear engineering codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, I.

    1996-01-01

    German nuclear engineering codes so far do not enclose a specific aging plant life management programme. However, the existing codes and standards do contain a number of applicable requirements and principles of relevance to objectives and principles of such programmes, as they also cover aging-induced effects on power plants. The major principles relating to preventive safety engineering and quality assurance are laid down in the publications KTA 1401, 1404, 1201, 1202, and KTA 3211. (DG) [de

  8. Self-reported fatigue and physical function in late mid-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boter, Han; Mänty, Minna; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between the 5 subscales of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and physical function in late mid-life. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A population-based sample of adults who participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank...... population cohort (n = 4,964; age 49-63 years). Methods: Self-reported fatigue was measured using the MFI-20 comprising: general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. Handgrip strength and chair rise tests were used as measures of physical function. Multiple...... logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between handgrip strength and the chair rise test with the MFI-20 subscales, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: After adjustments for potential confounders, handgrip strength was associated with physical fatigue (adjusted odds...

  9. The quantum rules how the laws of physics explain love, success, and everyday life

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Kunal K

    2015-01-01

    A New York Times Best Seller! Here is a book to lead you through the fascinating intersections of life and physics with humor and intelligence. Find out how the laws of physics define every aspect of our lives and society, from human nature and relationships to geopolitical issues like financial markets, globalization and immigration. The Quantum Rules is a different kind of physics book, as easy to read as a novel and directly relevant for everyday life issues that affect us all. It is not meant to dazzle you with unproven speculations that have no bearing on your life. Rather, The Quantum Rules will familiarize you with the important and established laws at the heart of physics, in a way never done before – by showing how the defining patterns of our lives, our behavior and our society already follow similar rules. Never took an interest in science before? No problem! you will still understand everything and find plenty to relate to. A scientist or a science junkie? You will find a different perspective on...

  10. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs

  11. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  12. Integrating RAMS engineering and management with the safety life cycle of IEC 61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann; Rausand, Marvin; Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) engineering and management. The new approach covers all phases of the new product development process and is aimed at producers of complex products like safety instrumented systems (SIS). The article discusses main RAMS requirements to a SIS and presents these requirements in a holistic perspective. The approach is based on a new life cycle model for product development and integrates this model into the safety life cycle of IEC 61508. A high integrity pressure protection system (HIPPS) for an offshore oil and gas application is used to illustrate the approach.

  13. With a Little Help from my Friends : the role of peer groups in a physics engineering programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the importance of informal study groups for the academic achievement and social and emotional wellbeing of physics engineering students at one university in Sweden. It is based on interviews with 26 physics engineering students in different phases of their education and 9 staff members - teachers and study advisors. While the programme structure and pedagogy assumes individual study, many students in fact cope with the demanding programme by using peer learning and peer s...

  14. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  15. SmartSIM - a virtual reality simulator for laparoscopy training using a generic physics engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib Amjad; Kamal, Nabeel; Hameed, Asad; Mahmood, Amama; Zainab, Rida; Sadia, Bushra; Mansoor, Shamyl Bin; Hasan, Osman

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) training simulators have started playing a vital role in enhancing surgical skills, such as hand-eye coordination in laparoscopy, and practicing surgical scenarios that cannot be easily created using physical models. We describe a new VR simulator for basic training in laparoscopy, i.e. SmartSIM, which has been developed using a generic open-source physics engine called the simulation open framework architecture (SOFA). This paper describes the systems perspective of SmartSIM including design details of both hardware and software components, while highlighting the critical design decisions. Some of the distinguishing features of SmartSIM include: (i) an easy-to-fabricate custom-built hardware interface; (ii) use of a generic physics engine to facilitate wider accessibility of our work and flexibility in terms of using various graphical modelling algorithms and their implementations; and (iii) an intelligent and smart evaluation mechanism that facilitates unsupervised and independent learning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Methods and applications of statistics in engineering, quality control, and the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Second Edition (ESS2e), this volume presents a concise, well-rounded focus on the statistical concepts and applications that are essential for understanding gathered data in the fields of engineering, quality control, and the physical sciences. The book successfully upholds the goals of ESS2e by combining both previously-published and newly developed contributions written by over 100 leading academics, researchers, and practitioner in a comprehensive, approachable format. The result is a succinct reference that unveils modern, cutting-edge approaches to acquiring and analyzing data across diverse subject areas within these three disciplines, including operations research, chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, electrical engineering, and quality assurance. In addition, techniques related to survey methodology, computational statistics, and operations research are discussed, where applicable. Topics of coverage include: optimal and stochastic control, arti...

  17. Methodical Approach to Assessment of Quality of Labour Life of Industrial Employees Using Example of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatin Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is presentation of results of study of factors of influence upon quality of labour life of industrial employees and justification of a scorecard of its assessment at the micro-economic level with the use of statistical methods of study. The article proves that the quality of labour life is based on enterprise capabilities, which depend on economic results, identified by the use of financial, material and human resources, effectiveness of the innovation and investment activity. The article reveals main factors that influence the quality of labour life of industrial employees using example of engineering enterprises: labour remuneration, social provisions, possibility to develop personnel, progressive state of fixed assets, financial sustainability of the enterprise, and effectiveness of investing into innovation activity. The article proves expediency of use of statistical methods of study for assessment of quality of labour life of employees, namely: multi-dimensional factor analysis, neural networks and folded additive technique. Their use helped to reveal indicators that are the most sensitive to managerial impact for ensuring quality of labour life. The article justifies stages of methodical approach to assessment of the quality of labour life of industrial employees, which was applied at engineering enterprises, which proves its significance and theoretical substantiation.

  18. Influence of childhood scleroderma on physical function and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baildam, Eileen M; Ennis, Holly; Foster, Helen E; Shaw, Lindsay; Chieng, Alice S E; Kelly, Jane; Herrick, Ariane L; Richards, Helen L

    2011-01-01

    there have been few studies of quality of life in childhood scleroderma and these focused predominantly on self-perception and the influence of skin lesions. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe the influence of childhood scleroderma on physical function and quality of life in relation to clinical and demographic measures. children with either localized scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) attending pediatric rheumatology clinics, together with their parents or guardians, were asked to complete a set of 4 validated measures. Clinical and demographic data were provided by consultant pediatric rheumatologists. in total, 28 children and their parents/guardians participated in the study (68% female, median age 13 yrs; 86% localized scleroderma, 14% SSc). The median Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) score was 0.1 (range 0-3, 0 indicating no impairment), the median Child Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) score was 5 (range 0-30, 0 indicating no impairment), and the median Child Quality of Life Questionnaire (CQOL) function score was 26 (range 0-105, 0 indicating no impairment). Family activity, measured by the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50), was also moderately impaired by scleroderma, with a median score of 83 (0-100, 100 indicating no impairment). scleroderma had only a moderate effect on quality of life and physical function as measured by the 4 validated instruments. Although a small number of children reported greater impairment, this is an encouraging finding, given its potential disfiguring and debilitating effects.

  19. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance

  20. Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in a population of community dwelling elderly patients with impaired mobility, physical disability and/ or multi morbidity: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nienke; Staal, Bart; van Ravensburg, Dorine; Hobbelen, Hans; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Nijhuis-van der Sande, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis focusing on elderly patients with mobility problems, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life. A broad systematic

  1. Ethanol Research : Alternative Fuels & Life-Cycle Engineering Program : November 29, 2006 to November 28, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    This report presents the results of the successful ethanol fuel demonstration program conducted from September 2007 to September 2010. This project was a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Alternative Fuels and Life Cycle Engineering...

  2. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  3. Physics and engineering of medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ever-growing development in the technology of Medical Imaging has a continuous and significant impact in the practice of Medicine as well as in the clinical research activity. The information and accuracy obtained by whatever imaging methodology is a complex result of a multidisciplinary effort of several sciences, such as Physics, Engineering, Electronics, Chemistry and Medicine. In this book, the state-of-the-art is described of the technology at the base of NMR, Ultrasound, X-ray CT, Nuclear Medicine, Positron Tomography and other Imaging Modalities such as Thermography or Biomagnetism, considering both the research and industrial point of view. For every imaging modality the most important clinical applications are described, together with the delineation of problems and future needs. Furthermore, specific sections of the book are devoted to general aspects of Medical Imaging, such as Reconstruction Techniques, 2-D and 3-D Display, Quality Control, Archiving, Market Trends and Correlative Assessment. (Auth.)

  4. Reverse engineering life: physical and chemical mimetics for controlled stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuse, Gary R; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to manipulate stem cells in order to induce differentiation along a desired developmental pathway has improved immeasurably in recent years. That is in part because we have a better understanding of the intracellular and extracellular signals that regulate differentiation. However, there has also been a realization that stem cell differentiation is not regulated only by chemical signals but also by the physical milieu in which a particular stem cell exists. In this regard we are challenged to mimic both chemical and physical environments. Herein we describe a method to induce stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes using a combination of chemical and physical cues. This method can be applied to produce differentiated cells for research and potentially for cell-based therapy of cardiomyopathies.

  5. Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique S. M. ten Haaf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male, with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests, handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L. Protein intake distribution was calculated for each participant as a coefficient of variance (CV = SD of grams of protein intake per main meal divided by the average total amount of proteins (grams of the main meals. Based on the CV, participants were divided into tertiles and classified as spread, intermediate or pulse. The average total protein intake was 1.08 ± 0.29 g/kg/day. Total protein intake was not associated with outcome measures using multivariate regression analyses. Individuals with a spread protein diet during the main meals (CV < 0.43 had higher gait speed compared to those with an intermediate diet (CV 0.43–0.62 (β = −0.42, p = 0.035, whereas a spread and pulse protein diet were not associated with SPPB total score, chair rise, grip strength and Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY. The interaction of higher physical activity and higher total protein intake was significantly associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.71, p = 0.049. While this interaction was not associated with SPPB or grip strength, the association with quality of life emphasizes the need for a higher total protein intake together with an active lifestyle in the elderly.

  6. Stirling engine with hydraulic power output for powering artificial hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.P.; Noble, J.E.; Emigh, S.G.; White, M.A.; Griffith, W.R.; Perrone, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The DWDL heart power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has already been achieved with an engine module; animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. The present System 5 can reliably meet near-term thousand-hour animal in-vivo test goals as far as the durability and efficacy of the power source are concerned. Carefully planned development of System 6 has produced major reductions in size and required input power. Research engine tests have provided the basis for achieving performance goals and the approach for further improvement is well established. The near term goal is 33 W heat input with 16 W input projected for normal physical activity. The goal of reduction of engine module volume to 0.9 liter has been achieved. Demonstrated reliability of 292 d for the engine and 35 d for the full system, as well as effectiveness of the artificial heart power source in short-term in-vivo tests indicate that life-limiting problems are now blood pump reliability and the machine-animal interface

  7. Physical activity, social network type, and depressive symptoms in late life: an analysis of data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    To clarify whether physical activity among older Americans is associated with depressive symptoms, beyond the effects of social network type, physical health, and sociodemographic characteristics. The analysis used data from a sub-sample, aged 65–85, from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (N=1349). Hierarchical regressions examined the respective effects of selected network types and extent of engagement in physical activity on depressive symptoms, controlling for physical health and sociodemographic background. The findings showed that physical activity was correlated inversely with late life depressive symptoms. However, when interaction terms for the selected social network types and the extent of physical activity were also considered, the main effect of social network on depressive symptoms increased, while that of physical activity was eliminated. The results show that older American adults embedded in family network types are at risk of limited physical activity. However, interventions aimed to increase their engagement in physical activity might help to reduce depressive symptoms within this group.

  8. Physically - engineering problems of the Salaspils Nuclear reactor: Solutions and their topicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozgirs, Z.V.

    2005-01-01

    The paper generalizes technical solutions of physically-engineering problems of the Salaspils nuclear research reactor, experience of its modernization and exploitation. New equipment and the related technical solutions have been tested at the Salaspils reactor during its operation time and are now recommended for further use at nuclear reactors. (author)

  9. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Frail Institutionalized Older Persons A Comprehensive Review on Physical Exercise, Physical Fitness, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality-of-Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study

  11. Adventures from Justin's Life: Engaging Your Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, James A.; Herron, Sherry S.

    2018-03-01

    Many teachers have had students ask the proverbial question, "When will I ever use this in my life?" In the sciences, especially physics, teachers seem to battle this torrent of indifference continually. Although many areas of our students' lives can distract them from their academic pursuits, we as teachers must be introspective in order to prevent our teaching style from becoming one of our students' potential distractions. For example, a problem source with teaching physics may be an inability to successfully pique students' interest in our lessons. According to Barrett, student engagement is critical in order for learning to occur. Student engagement is so crucially important that researchers from across the globe attempt to assist teachers in the careful construction of pedagogical "hooks" whereby they can actively engage their students. A student who is not academically engaged may find little use for what is presented and may be bored stiff during the lesson. Regardless of your theoretical perspectives on learning, constructivists to traditionalists alike have no excuse to be boring, and therefore should engage their students before presenting physics concepts.

  12. Usage of Parameterized Fatigue Spectra and Physics-Based Systems Engineering Models for Wind Turbine Component Sizing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Taylor; Guo, Yi; Veers, Paul; Dykes, Katherine; Damiani, Rick

    2016-01-26

    Software models that use design-level input variables and physics-based engineering analysis for estimating the mass and geometrical properties of components in large-scale machinery can be very useful for analyzing design trade-offs in complex systems. This study uses DriveSE, an OpenMDAO-based drivetrain model that uses stress and deflection criteria to size drivetrain components within a geared, upwind wind turbine. Because a full lifetime fatigue load spectrum can only be defined using computationally-expensive simulations in programs such as FAST, a parameterized fatigue loads spectrum that depends on wind conditions, rotor diameter, and turbine design life has been implemented. The parameterized fatigue spectrum is only used in this paper to demonstrate the proposed fatigue analysis approach. This paper details a three-part investigation of the parameterized approach and a comparison of the DriveSE model with and without fatigue analysis on the main shaft system. It compares loads from three turbines of varying size and determines if and when fatigue governs drivetrain sizing compared to extreme load-driven design. It also investigates the model's sensitivity to shaft material parameters. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate how fatigue considerations in addition to extreme loads can be brought into a system engineering optimization.

  13. Department of Plasma Physics and Material Engineering - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In 2010 the activities of the Department continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma engineering: · · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges in the Plasma-Focus (PF), RPI-IBIS, and Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD) facilities; · Research on plasma technologies; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modeling. In the frame of the EURATOM program, efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostics methods for tokamak-type facilities. In 2010 Cherenkov detectors were applied in the ISTTOK and TORE SUPRA facilities to detect energetic electrons (of energy > 60 keV), to determine their spatial and temporal behavior and to estimate their energy spectra. Attention was also paid to measurements of hard X rays emitted from ISTTOK and to their correlations with run-away electrons. The new data on fast electrons, collected within the TORE-SUPRA machine in 2010, confirmed the appearance of intense electron streams (possible ripple-born and runaway ones), which have a similar character to the electron signals recorded by means of other diagnostic techniques. Other fusion-oriented efforts are connected with the application of solid-state nuclear track detectors to detect fast alpha particles in tokamak experiments. As for experimental studies, particular attention was paid to the investigation of fast ion- and electron-beams emitted from high-current plasma discharges in PF and RPI facilities. Ion streams from discharges were studied by means of nuclear track detector, corpuscular diagnostic techniques, and particularly of a miniature Thompson-type mass-spectrometer. A field of research activity was related to plasma technology. Efforts were undertaken to improve the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) deposition of thin superconducting layers, e.g. pure niobium film on the surface of copper resonant cavities

  14. Overt and subtle discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in an obese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallares, Alejandro; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-10-27

    Obesity represents a serious health issue affecting millions of people in Western industrialized countries. The severity of the medical problems it causes is paralleled by the fact that obesity has become a social stigma that affects the psychological health-related quality of life of individuals with weight problems. Our study, with 111 obese patients of a Spanish hospital, focused specifically on how overt and subtle discrimination is related to subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) and physical health-related quality of life. It was shown that overt (r = -.28, p life satisfaction) and subtle discrimination (r = -.28, p life satisfaction) were negatively linked with subjective well-being, and that there was a negative correlation between overt discrimination and physical health-related quality of life (r = -.26, p quality of life and subjective well-being using the Baron and Kenny procedure. Finally, it is discussed the relationship between discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in obese people.

  15. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  16. From Finite Time to Finite Physical Dimensions Thermodynamics: The Carnot Engine and Onsager's Relations Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidt, Michel; Costea, Monica

    2018-04-01

    Many works have been devoted to finite time thermodynamics since the Curzon and Ahlborn [1] contribution, which is generally considered as its origin. Nevertheless, previous works in this domain have been revealed [2], [3], and recently, results of the attempt to correlate Finite Time Thermodynamics with Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics according to Onsager's theory were reported [4]. The aim of the present paper is to extend and improve the approach relative to thermodynamic optimization of generic objective functions of a Carnot engine with linear response regime presented in [4]. The case study of the Carnot engine is revisited within the steady state hypothesis, when non-adiabaticity of the system is considered, and heat loss is accounted for by an overall heat leak between the engine heat reservoirs. The optimization is focused on the main objective functions connected to engineering conditions, namely maximum efficiency or power output, except the one relative to entropy that is more fundamental. Results given in reference [4] relative to the maximum power output and minimum entropy production as objective function are reconsidered and clarified, and the change from finite time to finite physical dimension was shown to be done by the heat flow rate at the source. Our modeling has led to new results of the Carnot engine optimization and proved that the primary interest for an engineer is mainly connected to what we called Finite Physical Dimensions Optimal Thermodynamics.

  17. Chance, necessity and the origins of life: a physical sciences perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    Earth's 4.5-billion-year history has witnessed a complex sequence of high-probability chemical and physical processes, as well as `frozen accidents'. Most models of life's origins similarly invoke a sequence of chemical reactions and molecular self-assemblies in which both necessity and chance play important roles. Recent research adds two important insights into this discussion. First, in the context of chemical reactions, chance versus necessity is an inherently false dichotomy-a range of probabilities exists for many natural events. Second, given the combinatorial richness of early Earth's chemical and physical environments, events in molecular evolution that are unlikely at limited laboratory scales of space and time may, nevertheless, be inevitable on an Earth-like planet at time scales of a billion years. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  18. Surface engineering and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.

    2007-01-01

    Surface engineering addresses the modification of the microstructure and/or composition of the surface of components by mechanical, physical or chemical methods that may imply adding a material in order to change the surface properties of said components. One of its most important consequences is the significant increase of the useful life of a variety of components in a large number of industrial applications. Moreover, it contributes to energy savings by increasing efficiencies as it allows higher combustion temperatures, by allowing the use of lighter components and by significant friction reduction. In this paper, surface engineering is introduced, as well as its different modalities, examples of industrial applications and positive and negative environmental impacts. (Author) 29 refs

  19. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Both

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  20. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide an archival record of the activities of the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division during the period September 1, 1989 through March 31, 1991. Earlier reports in this series are identified on the previous pages, along with the progress reports describing ORNL's research on the mathematical sciences prior to 1984 when those activities moved into the division. As in previous reports, our research is described through abstracts of journal articles, technical reports, and presentations. Summary lists of publications and presentations, staff additions and departures, scientific and professional activities of division staff, and technical conferences organized and sponsored by the division are included as appendices. The report is organized following the division of our research among four sections and information centers. These research areas are: Mathematical Sciences; Nuclear Data Measurement and Evaluations; Intelligent Systems; Nuclear Analysis and Shielding; and Engineering Physics Information Center

  1. Engineering Physics Division progress report for period ending November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Separate abstracts are included for sections concerning measurement of nuclear cross sections and related quantities; nuclear cross-section evaluations and theory; nuclear cross-section processing, testing, and sensitivity analysis; engineering physics division integral experiments and their analyses; development of methods for shield and reactor analysis; analyses for specific systems or applications; energy model validation; systems reliability and operations research; and information analysis and distribution.

  2. Engineering Physics Division progress report for period ending November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Separate abstracts are included for sections concerning measurement of nuclear cross sections and related quantities; nuclear cross-section evaluations and theory; nuclear cross-section processing, testing, and sensitivity analysis; engineering physics division integral experiments and their analyses; development of methods for shield and reactor analysis; analyses for specific systems or applications; energy model validation; systems reliability and operations research; and information analysis and distribution

  3. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  4. Synthetic Biology: Engineering Living Systems from Biophysical Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bryan A; Kim, Kyung; Medley, J Kyle; Sauro, Herbert M

    2017-03-28

    Synthetic biology was founded as a biophysical discipline that sought explanations for the origins of life from chemical and physical first principles. Modern synthetic biology has been reinvented as an engineering discipline to design new organisms as well as to better understand fundamental biological mechanisms. However, success is still largely limited to the laboratory and transformative applications of synthetic biology are still in their infancy. Here, we review six principles of living systems and how they compare and contrast with engineered systems. We cite specific examples from the synthetic biology literature that illustrate these principles and speculate on their implications for further study. To fully realize the promise of synthetic biology, we must be aware of life's unique properties. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical activity and life satisfaction in adolescence: The mediating role of initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Skagseth, Inga Fjelltveit

    2008-01-01

    Background: The ability to take initiative is considered an important developmental task in adolescence. Organised leisure time activities have been suggested as especially conducive contexts for initiative development. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity, initiative, and life satisfaction in adolescence. The self-determination theory was used to identify factors that facilitate intrinsic motivation, initiative, and life...

  6. How life stressors influence modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, and physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-06-29

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.

  7. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adventures from Justin's Life: Engaging Your Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, James A., Jr.; Herron, Sherry S.

    2018-01-01

    Many teachers have had students ask the proverbial question, "When will I ever use this in my life?" In the sciences, especially physics, teachers seem to battle this torrent of indifference continually. Although many areas of our students' lives can distract them from their academic pursuits, we as teachers must be introspective in…

  9. Engineering and physics considerations for a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor (LTPHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on pulsed, high-β, linear theta-pinch magnetic confinement is considered. A preliminary design which incorporates key physics, engineering and economic considerations is presented. An extensive presentation of the system energy balance is made, and this energy balance is evaluated parametrically. The feasibility of end-loss reduction is addressed

  10. Physical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Etienne; Petit, Luc; Mitescu, Catalin D

    2015-01-01

    This new edition is an enriched version of the textbook of fluid dynamics published more than 10 years ago. It retains the same physically oriented pedagogical perspective. This book emphasizes, as in the first edition, experimental inductive approaches and relies on the study of the mechanisms at play and on dimensional analysis rather than more formal approaches found in many classical textbooks in the field. The need for a completely new version also originated from the increase, over the last few decades, of the cross-overs between the mechanical and physical approaches, as is visible in international meetings and joint projects. Hydrodynamics is more widely linked today to other fields of experimental sciences: materials, environment, life sciences and earth sciences, as well as engineering sciences.

  11. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: 21st century: what is life from the perspective of physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanitskii, Genrikh R.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of the biophysical paradigm over 65 years since the publication in 1944 of Erwin Schrödinger's What is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell is reviewed. Based on the advances in molecular genetics, it is argued that all the features characteristic of living systems can also be found in nonliving ones. Ten paradoxes in logic and physics are analyzed that allow defining life in terms of a spatial-temporal hierarchy of structures and combinatory probabilistic logic. From the perspective of physics, life can be defined as resulting from a game involving interactions of matter one part of which acquires the ability to remember the success (or failure) probabilities from the previous rounds of the game, thereby increasing its chances for further survival in the next round. This part of matter is currently called living matter.

  12. Experimentally Validated Combustion and Piston Fatigue Life Evaluation Procedures for the Bi-Fuel Engines, Using an Integral-Type Fatigue Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariyat

    Full Text Available Abstract A relatively complete procedure for high cycle fatigue life assessment of the engine components is outlined in the present paper. The piston is examined as a typical component of the engine. In this regard, combustion process and transient heat transfer simulations, determination of the instantaneous variations of the pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, kinematic and dynamic analyses of the moving parts of the engine, thermoelastic stress analyses, and fatigue life analyses are accomplished. Results of the simulation are compared with the test data to verify the results. The heat transfer results are validated by the experimental results measured by the Templugs. The nonlinear multipoint contact constraints are modeled accurately. Results of the more accurate available fatigue criteria are compared with those of a fatigue criterion recently proposed by the first author. These results are also evaluated by comparing them with the experimental durability tests. The presented procedure may be used, e.g., to decide whether it is suitable to convert a gasoline-based engine to a bi-fuel one. Results of the various thermomechanical fatigue analyses performed reveal that the piston life decreases considerably when natural gas is used instead of gasoline.

  13. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Jeroen; Kruisdijk, Frank; Tenback, Diederik; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Taal, Erik; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Beekman, Aartjan; Tak, Erwin; Hendriksen, Ingrid; van Harten, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term

  14. Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Hansen, Anders V.; Bjørnbak-Hansen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests...... grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.......The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from...

  15. Association between health-related quality of life, physical fitness, and physical activity in older adults recently discharged from hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Sylliaas, Hilde; Mowe, Morten; Bergland, Astrid

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical fitness, and physical activity in older patients after recent discharge from hospital. One hundred fifteen independent-living older adults (ages 70-92 years) were included. HRQOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), and physical fitness (Senior Fitness Test) were measured 2-4 weeks after discharge. Higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness were correlated with higher self-reported HRQOL. Although cause and effect cannot be determined from this study, the results suggest that a particular focus on the value of physical activity and physical fitness while in hospital and when discharged from hospital may be important to encourage patients to actively preserve independence and HRQOL. It may be especially important to target those with lower levels of physical activity, poorer physical fitness, and multiple comorbidities.

  16. A Numerical Model for Estimation of Service Life of Tribological Systems of the Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gavrilov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, develops and applies approach of the interaction of rough surfaces for one of the tasks of simulation of tribological systems of the piston engine. In this paper we described the general approach to building a model of interaction between rough surfaces, leading to the analysis of the Markov process. Given the initial data and the method of calculating the trajectory of movable elements on the lubricating layer, we determined the tribological parameters defining the service life of tribological systems of the piston engine on the example of crankshaft bearings.

  17. Physical therapy in palliative care: From symptom control to quality of life: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing movement potential, within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Physical therapists practice in a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based settings such as hospice and palliative care centers where as part of a multidisciplinary team of care, they address the physical and functional dimensions of the patients′ suffering. Physiotherapy treatment methods like therapeutic exercise, electrical modalities, thermal modalities, actinotherapy, mechanical modalities, manual physical therapy and assistive devices are useful for a range of life-threatening and life-limiting conditions like cancer and cancer-associated conditions; HIV; neurodegenerative disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis; respiratory disorders like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; and altered mental states. The professional armamentarium is still expanding with inclusion of other miscellaneous techniques which were also proven to be effective in improving quality of life in these patients. Considering the scope of physiotherapy in India, and in palliative care, professionals in a multidisciplinary palliative care team need to understand and mutually involve toward policy changes to successfully implement physical therapeutic palliative care delivery.

  18. NASA Applications and Lessons Learned in Reliability Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Fuller, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986, communities across NASA have been developing and extensively using quantitative reliability and risk assessment methods in their decision making process. This paper discusses several reliability engineering applications that NASA has used over the year to support the design, development, and operation of critical space flight hardware. Specifically, the paper discusses several reliability engineering applications used by NASA in areas such as risk management, inspection policies, components upgrades, reliability growth, integrated failure analysis, and physics based probabilistic engineering analysis. In each of these areas, the paper provides a brief discussion of a case study to demonstrate the value added and the criticality of reliability engineering in supporting NASA project and program decisions to fly safely. Examples of these case studies discussed are reliability based life limit extension of Shuttle Space Main Engine (SSME) hardware, Reliability based inspection policies for Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) turbine disc, probabilistic structural engineering analysis for reliability prediction of the SSME alternate turbo-pump development, impact of ET foam reliability on the Space Shuttle System risk, and reliability based Space Shuttle upgrade for safety. Special attention is given in this paper to the physics based probabilistic engineering analysis applications and their critical role in evaluating the reliability of NASA development hardware including their potential use in a research and technology development environment.

  19. Quality of Life in Adolescent’s Idiopathic Scoliosis before and after Physical Therapy: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkurta Rrecaj-Malaj

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS accounts for 80% of all types of diagnosed scoliosis, occurring in 2%-3% of growing age population. This disorder is quite complicated and physical therapy is important factor in the treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effi cacy of physical therapy in quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This research was conducted in 56 consecutive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients (32 females and 24 males, aged 10-17 years, Cobb angle 10º-45º, at Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK, Prishtina, Kosovo, during the period 2016-2017. The physical therapy protocol, including combined Schroth and Pilates exercise were performed during 3 months. The evaluation of Quality of Life (QoL is done by SRS-22r questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the treatment. Results displayed that supervised combined Schroth and Pilates exercises have provided benefi t to the standard of care by improving QoL before and after physical therapy in all components: the mean for function has improved from 3.15 to 3.45, pain from 3.23 to 5.54, self-image from 3.36 to 5.46, mental health from 3.01 to 3.35, and in overall QoL was improved from 3.30 to 3.68. Quality of life was signifi cantly better after physical therapy (p<0.05. The study shows that physical therapy in scoliosis patients achieves good results in daily living life.

  20. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs.

  1. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide an archival record of the activities of the Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division during the period September 1, 1989 through March 31, 1991. Earlier reports in this series are identified on the previous pages, along with the progress reports describing ORNL's research on the mathematical sciences prior to 1984 when those activities moved into the division. As in previous reports, our research is described through abstracts of journal articles, technical reports, and presentations. Summary lists of publications and presentations, staff additions and departures, scientific and professional activities of division staff, and technical conferences organized and sponsored by the division are included as appendices. The report is organized following the division of our research among four sections and information centers. These research areas are: Mathematical Sciences; Nuclear Data Measurement and Evaluations; Intelligent Systems; Nuclear Analysis and Shielding; and Engineering Physics Information Center.

  2. TU-C-BRF-01: Innovation in Medical Physics and Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R; Pelc, N; Jaffray, D; Mackie, T

    2014-01-01

    We seek to heighten the awareness of the role of research and innovation that leads to clinical advances in the field of medical physics and engineering. Marie Curie (discovery and use of radium) and Harold Johns (Co-60 tele-therapy) in radiotherapy, and pioneers in imaging (Allan Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield for the CT and Paul Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield for MRI, etc.) were scientists often struggling against great odds. Examples of more recent innovations that are clearly benefitting our patients include IMRT, Image Guided Radiation Therapy and Surgery, Particle Therapy, Quantitative imaging, amongst others.We would also like to highlight the fact that not all of the discovery and engineering that we benefit from in today’s world, was performed at research institutions alone. Rather, companies often tread new ground at financial and reputational risk. Indeed the strength of the private sector is needed in order to bring about new advances to our practice. The keys to long term success in research and development may very well include more public and private research spending. But, when more investigators are funded, we also need to recognize that there needs to be a willingness on the part of the funding institutions, academic centers and investigators to risk failure for the greater potential achievements in innovation and research. The speakers will provide examples and insight into the fields of innovation and research in medical physics from their own first hand experiences. Learning Objectives: To obtain an understanding of the importance of research and development towards advances in physics in medicine. To raise awareness of the role of interdisciplinary collaborations in translational research and innovation. To highlight the importance of entrepreneurships and industrial-institutional research partnerships in fostering new ideas and their commercial success. To recognize and account for the risk of failure for the greater potential achievements in

  3. TU-C-BRF-01: Innovation in Medical Physics and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pelc, N [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    We seek to heighten the awareness of the role of research and innovation that leads to clinical advances in the field of medical physics and engineering. Marie Curie (discovery and use of radium) and Harold Johns (Co-60 tele-therapy) in radiotherapy, and pioneers in imaging (Allan Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield for the CT and Paul Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield for MRI, etc.) were scientists often struggling against great odds. Examples of more recent innovations that are clearly benefitting our patients include IMRT, Image Guided Radiation Therapy and Surgery, Particle Therapy, Quantitative imaging, amongst others.We would also like to highlight the fact that not all of the discovery and engineering that we benefit from in today’s world, was performed at research institutions alone. Rather, companies often tread new ground at financial and reputational risk. Indeed the strength of the private sector is needed in order to bring about new advances to our practice. The keys to long term success in research and development may very well include more public and private research spending. But, when more investigators are funded, we also need to recognize that there needs to be a willingness on the part of the funding institutions, academic centers and investigators to risk failure for the greater potential achievements in innovation and research. The speakers will provide examples and insight into the fields of innovation and research in medical physics from their own first hand experiences. Learning Objectives: To obtain an understanding of the importance of research and development towards advances in physics in medicine. To raise awareness of the role of interdisciplinary collaborations in translational research and innovation. To highlight the importance of entrepreneurships and industrial-institutional research partnerships in fostering new ideas and their commercial success. To recognize and account for the risk of failure for the greater potential achievements in

  4. Chaotic harmony a dialog about physics, complexity and life

    CERN Document Server

    Sanayei, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This fascinating book written by Ali Sanayei and Otto E. Rössler is not a classic scientific publication, but a vivid dialogue on science, philosophy and  the interdisciplinary intersections of science and technology with biographic elements. Chaotic Harmony: A Dialog about Physics, Complexity and Life represents a discussion between Otto Rössler and his colleague and student, focusing on the different areas of science and highlights their mutual relations. The book's concept of interdisciplinary dialogue is  unusual nowadays although it has a long tradition in science. It provides insight not only into interesting topics that are often closely linked, but also into the mind of a prominent scientist in the field of physics, chaos and complexity in general. It allows a deep look into the fascinating process of scientific development and discovery and provides a very interesting background of known and unknown facts in the areas of complex processes in physics, cosmology, biology, brains and systems in gen...

  5. Fissile fuel breeding and minor actinide transmutation in the life engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Suemer; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Ahmed, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    Progress on The National Ignition Facility (NIF) brings fusion a viable energy source in foreseeable future. Energy multiplication in a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor could lead earlier market penetration of fusion energy for commercial utilization. Originally, scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have worked out a hybrid reactor design concept; the so-called Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) engine, which has consisted of a spherical fusion chamber of ∼5 m diameter, surrounded by a multi-layered blanket with a beryllium multiplier zone after the first wall. However, earlier work had indicated extreme power peaks at immediate vicinity of the first wall of a hybrid assembly, if a beryllium multiplier is used. Hence, in the current work, the beryllium multiplier zone has been removed in order to mitigate fission power peaks at the vicinity of the first wall as a result of neutron moderation on beryllium. Furthermore, minor actinides (MA) will cause significant neutron multiplication under fusion neutron irradiation so that an extra beryllium multiplier will not be needed. Present work has made following modifications on the LLNL design of the original (LIFE) engine: ·Omission of beryllium multiplier. ·TRISO fuel has been suspended as micro-size particles in Flibe coolant in lieu of being dissolved in uranium salt or imbedded carbon matrix in macro-size pebbles. ·Carbide fuel is used. ·Fissionable fuel charge is kept lower than in the LLNL (LIFE) engine. The modified (LIFE) engine is kept similar to the LLNL design to a great degree in order to allow mutual feedback between two geographically separated teams towards a more advanced and improved design under consideration of totally independent views. The first wall is made of ODS (2 cm) and followed by a Li 17 Pb 83 zone (2 cm), acting as neutron multiplier, tritium breeding and front coolant zone. It is separated by an ODS layer (2 cm) from the Flibe molten salt

  6. The Mental Health Impact of Physical Appearance Concerns in the Context of Other Life Domains Among Australian Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Lyons, Anthony; van der Rest, Brittany

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have identified gay men as a high-risk population for body image disturbances. However, little research has examined the mental health impact of gay men's physical appearance concerns in the context of other major life domains. The present study addressed this gap by investigating how mental health outcomes (satisfaction with life, self-esteem, positive well-being, and psychological distress) were associated with satisfaction with and importance of physical appearance, work, family relationships, friendships, health and fitness, and sex life among Australian gay men aged 18-39. The possible moderating role of intimate relationship status was also examined. Results from an online survey revealed that greater satisfaction with physical appearance, work, family, and friendships all had similar positive associations with mental health. However, more importance placed on physical appearance was more consistently associated with poorer mental health compared with the subjective importance of other domains. Findings also indicated the associations between physical appearance satisfaction and life satisfaction, and between physical appearance importance and positive well-being, were weaker for those in relationships. Thus, physical appearance matters in gay men's lives, but was only one factor when considered in the broader context of other life areas that contributed to overall well-being. These findings suggest the need for a nuanced and contextualized understanding of how physical appearance concerns fit into gay men's lives.

  7. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Effect of self-efficacy and physical activity goal achievement on arthritis pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittle, Keegan P; De Gucht, Véronique; Hurkmans, Emalie J; Vlieland, Thea P M Vliet; Peeters, André J; Ronday, H Karel; Maes, Stan

    2011-11-01

    To examine physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals in relation to self-reported pain and quality of life among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At baseline, 271 patients with RA were asked to specify a physical activity goal, and filled in questionnaires assessing physical activity, motivation, and self-efficacy for physical activity, arthritis pain, and quality of life. Six months later, patients indicated to what extent they had achieved their baseline physical activity goal and completed the same set of questionnaires. These data were used to construct multiple mediation models that placed physical activity and physical activity goal achievement as mediators between self-efficacy and motivation on one hand, and arthritis pain and quality of life on the other. A total of 106 patients with RA completed both questionnaires. Self-efficacy at baseline predicted subsequent level of physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals. Goal achievement had a direct effect upon quality of life outcomes. Bootstrapping confidence intervals revealed indirect effects of self-efficacy upon arthritis pain and quality of life through goal achievement, but not through physical activity. Higher levels of self-efficacy for physical activity increase the likelihood that patients will achieve their physical activity goals. Achievement of physical activity goals seems to be related to lower self-reported arthritis pain, and higher levels of quality of life. In practice, clinicians can foster self-efficacy and goal achievement by assisting patients in setting realistic and attainable exercise goals, developing action plans, and by providing feedback on goal progress. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  10. Improving quality of life and physical health in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Medici, Clara Reece; Juel, Anette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QoL) and poor physical health, which is explained, in part, by unhealthy lifestyle, tobacco smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. AIM: To measure QoL and physical health in patients with schizophrenia and to quantify...... associations between QoL and physical health. METHODS: This was a naturalistic longitudinal 30-month follow-up study including individual guidance, group sessions and treatment as usual. RESULTS: We included 190 patients. QoL was low among newly diagnosed patients. Higher body mass index was significantly...... associated with lower QoL. Newly diagnosed male patients showed lower QoL compared with females. Newly diagnosed patients experienced worsened health during the study period. In contrast, long-term schizophrenic patients started with worse physical health but improved with regard to weight, waist...

  11. Physical activity is related to quality of life in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Polly S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL in clinical populations, but less is known whether this relationship exists in older men and women who are healthy. Thus, this study determined if physical activity was related to HRQL in apparently healthy, older subjects. Methods Measures were obtained from 112 male and female volunteers (70 ± 8 years, mean ± SD recruited from media advertisements and flyers around the Norman, Oklahoma area. Data was collected using a medical history questionnaire, HRQL from the Medical Outcomes Survey short form-36 questionnaire, and physical activity level from the Johnson Space Center physical activity scale. Subjects were separated into either a higher physically active group (n = 62 or a lower physically active group (n = 50 according to the physical activity scale. Results The HRQL scores in all eight domains were significantly higher (p 0.05 between the two groups. Conclusion Healthy older adults who regularly participated in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for more than one hour per week had higher HRQL measures in both physical and mental domains than those who were less physically active. Therefore, incorporating more physical activity into the lifestyles of sedentary or slightly active older individuals may improve their HRQL.

  12. Specialists training on nuclear materials control, accounting and physical protection in the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, V.V.; Pogozhin, N.S.; Kryuchkov, E.F.; Glebov, V.B.; Geraskin, N.I.

    1998-01-01

    Educational program to train specialists on non-proliferation problems and nuclear materials control, accounting and physical protection systems (NMCA and PP) at the Science Master's level was developed and is being realized in Moscow Sate Institute of Engineering and Physics at the support of the USA Ministry of Energy. The program is intended to train students who already got the Bachelor's degree on physical and technical subjects. The United methodological base of the program comprises lecture courses, practice in laboratories and computer programs. The educational program contains the following parts for training the students. 1) Deep scientific and technical knowledge. 2) System approach to designing and analysis of the NMCA and PP systems. 3) Knowledge of scientific and technical principles, means, devices and procedures used in the NMCA and PP systems. 4) Judicial, international and economical aspects of nuclear materials management. 5) Application of computer and information technologies for nuclear materials control and accounting. 6) Extensive practice in laboratories, using the most up-to-date equipment and devices used in the worldwide practice of NM control

  13. Engineering Physics Division progress report for period ending November 30, 1978. [ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maienschein, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    Research and other activities of the Engineering Physics Division (formerly Neutron Physics Division) of ORNL during the period February 28, 1977 to November 30, 1978, are reported. The format is that of abstracts and summaries of prepared papers. Work is summarized in the following general areas: measurements of neutron cross sections and related quantities; cross-section theory, evaluations, and evaluation techniques; cross-section processing, testing, and sensitivity analyses; integral experiments and their analyses; development of methods for shield and reactor analyses; analyses for specific systems or applications (liquid-metal fast breeder reactor program, gas-cooled reactor program, alternate fuel cycle program, magnetic fusion energy program, high-energy physics program, accelerator breeding studies, miscellaneous studies); and information analysis and distribution. Overviews of each of these areas are included. (RWR)

  14. The use of physical activity, sport and outdoor life as tools of psychosocial intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Andersson, Eva; Best, James

    2018-01-01

    The core values in the Nordic welfare model are health equality and social inclusion. Individuals with mental disorders and/or a history of substance use disorder are often excluded from the core value of equality. Psychosocial interventions such as physical activity and outdoor life can have...... several benefits for those suffering from mental disorders. Firstly, such interventions can have therapeutic effects. Secondly, they show benefits for somatic health and the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Finally, they can provide an environment for experiencing self-efficacy, lead to improved...... quality of life, and promote the development and building of social relationships. This paper provides a critical review of current evidence for physical activity and outdoor life as psychosocial interventions in psychiatric and substance misuse treatment, with specific examples from Norway, Sweden...

  15. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  16. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in setting school curricula, are now

  17. A life-style physical activity intervention and the antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joanna E; Ring, Chris; Bosch, Jos A; Eves, Francis; Drayson, Mark T; Calver, Rebecca; Say, Vanessa; Allen, Daniel; Burns, Victoria E

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether a life-style physical activity intervention improved antibody response to a pneumococcal vaccination in sedentary middle-aged women. Eighty-nine sedentary women completed a 16-week exercise (physical activity consultation, pedometer, telephone/e-mail prompts; n = 44) or control (advisory leaflet; n = 45) intervention. Pneumococcal vaccination was administered at 12 weeks, and antibody titers (11 of the 23 contained in the pneumococcal vaccine) were determined before vaccination and 4 weeks and 6 months later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness, body composition, and psychological factors were measured before and after the intervention. The intervention group displayed a greater increase in walking behavior (from mean [standard deviation] = 82.16 [90.90] to 251.87 [202.13]) compared with the control condition (111.67 [94.64] to 165.16 [117.22]; time by group interaction: F(1,68) = 11.25, p = .001, η(2) = 0.14). Quality of life also improved in the intervention group (from 19.37 [3.22] to 16.70 [4.29]) compared with the control condition (19.97 [4.22] to 19.48 [5.37]; time by group interaction: F(1,66) = 4.44, p = .039, η(2) = 0.06). However, no significant effects of the intervention on antibody response were found (time by group η(2) for each of the 11 pneumococcal strains ranged from 0.001 to 0.018; p values all >.264). Participation in a life-style physical activity intervention increased subjective and objective physical activity levels and quality of life but did not affect antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination.

  18. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-10-01

    Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  19. Microscopy with femtosecond laser pulses: applications in engineering, physics and biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, W.; Dorn, P.; Liu, X.; Vretenar, N.; Stock, R.

    2003-01-01

    The combination of microscopy and femtosecond laser illumination turns out to be very attractive and useful for imaging in engineering, physics and biomedicine. The high laser intensity and low average power allow for the generation of nonlinear imaging signals that contain information complementary to classical imaging modes. The current state-of-the-art is reviewed and nonlinear current imaging and imaging of ballistic electron transport in Au-films is discussed in detail

  20. The theatrical life of things: Plautus and the physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sharrock

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the semiotics of props and other physical items in Plautus’ Curculio. The play is over-determined with props: a candle, a door, fragrant wine, water, a ring, which comes in twice (and has a twin, a letter to go with it, a seal with represented elephant-slaying sword, a missing eye, a bad gut, animal names, like the wolfy banker Lyco, and the weevil-parasite Curculio, and a property manager who comes out for a little chat with the audience about the real-life Rome they can see around them. I am particularly concerned with the most powerfully metatheatrical and metapoetic elements, including the preternaturally quiet door, and the ring which has a life of its own weaving through the play and indeed through the comic tradition.

  1. Evaluating physical protection systems of licensed nuclear facilities using systems engineered inspection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.T.; Olson, A.W.; Rogue, F.; Scala, S.; Richard, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) have applied a systems engineering approach to provide the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) with improved methods and guidance for evaluating the physical protection systems of licensed nuclear facilities

  2. Consideration of Learning Orientations as an Application of Achievement Goals in Evaluating Life Science Majors in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics…

  3. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-01-01

    The world's first master's degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5-1/2 year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2-1/2 years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program's specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training

  4. Physical activity and negative affective reactivity in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Weiss, Jordan; Beauchamp, Mark R; Mogle, Jacqueline; Almeida, David M

    2017-12-01

    The results from experimental studies indicate that physically active individuals remain calmer and report less anxiety after the induction of a standardized stressor. The current study extends this research to real life, and examines whether daily physical activity attenuates negative affect that occurs in response to naturally occurring daily stressors. The current study used data from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences, a sub-study of the second wave of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS-II) of 2,022 individuals aged 33-84 questioned nightly for eight consecutive days about their general affect and affective responses to stressful events and their engagement in physical activity. Results indicated that while negative affect is significantly elevated on days with stressful events compared to days free of events in all individuals, these effects are attenuated in those who remain physically active when compared to those who were underactive. This was also true for any day participants were physically active. Importantly, negative affect in response to any specific stressor was reduced the closer in time that the stressor occurred to the bout of exercise in underactive participants, while, in active participants, negative affect in response to any stressor remained low throughout the entire day that participants reported that they were active. Given the significant mental and physical health implications of elevated affective reactivity observed in previous studies, the current study sheds further light on the importance of remaining physically active in times of stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Sallis, James F; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Kiser, Elizabeth J; Ray, Chester A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Ding, Ding; Matthews, Stephen A; Bopp, Melissa; George, Daniel R; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-08-14

    High rates of physical inactivity compromise the health status of populations globally. Social networks have been shown to influence physical activity (PA), but little is known about how best to engineer social networks to sustain PA. To improve procedures for building networks that shape PA as a normative behavior, there is a need for more specific hypotheses about how social variables influence PA. There is also a need to integrate concepts from network science with ecological concepts that often guide the design of in-person and electronically-mediated interventions. Therefore, this paper: (1) proposes a conceptual model that integrates principles from network science and ecology across in-person and electronically-mediated intervention modes; and (2) illustrates the application of this model to the design and evaluation of a social network intervention for PA. A conceptual model for engineering social networks was developed based on a scoping literature review of modifiable social influences on PA. The model guided the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial in which 308 sedentary adults were randomly assigned to three groups: WalkLink+: prompted and provided feedback on participants' online and in-person social-network interactions to expand networks for PA, plus provided evidence-based online walking program and weekly walking tips; WalkLink: evidence-based online walking program and weekly tips only; Minimal Treatment Control: weekly tips only. The effects of these treatment conditions were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured PA. Secondary outcomes included objectively-measured aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and neighborhood walkability; and self-reported measures of the physical environment, social network environment, and social network interactions. The differential effects of the three treatment conditions on primary and secondary

  6. HT-7U superconducting tokamak: Physics design, engineering progress and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yuanxi

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting tokamak research program begun in China in ASIPP since 1994. The program is included in existent superconducting tokamak HT-7 and the next new superconducting tokamak HT-7U which is one of national key research projects in China. With the elongation cross-section, divertor and higher plasma parameter the main objectives of HT-7U are widely investigation both of the physics and technology for steady state advanced tokamak as well as the investigation of power and particle handle under steady-state operation condition. The physics and engineering design have been completed and significant progresses on R and D and fabrication have been achieved. HT-7U will begin assembly at 2003 and possible to get first plasma around 2004. (author)

  7. Using Model-Based System Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This is the presentation for the AIAA Space conference in September 2017. It highlights key information from Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews paper.

  8. Engineering High Assurance Distributed Cyber Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    engineering ( MDE ), Model- centric software engineering (MCSE), and others have attempted to leverage and integrate techniques for requirements...Part I: Principles of Software Engineering.” IBM Syst. J. 38, 2-3, pp.289-295, June 1999. [2] Xie, T, “Software Engineering Conferences”, web page

  9. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  10. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  11. Advances in therapeutic Fc engineering - modulation of IgG associated effector functions and serum half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG antibodies have become a major option in cancer therapy especially for the patients with advanced or metastatic cancers. Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are achieved through both its antigen binding fragment (Fab and crystallizable fragment (Fc. Fab can specifically recognize tumor associated antigen (TAA and thus modulate TAA-linked downstream signaling pathways that may lead to inhibition of tumor growth, induction of tumor apoptosis and differentiation. The Fc region can further improve mAbs’ efficacy by mediating effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and antibody dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP. Moreover, Fc is the region interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in a pH-dependent manner that can slow down IgG’s degradation and extend its serum half-life. Loss of the antibody Fc region dramatically shortens its serum half-life and weakens its anti-cancer effects. Given the essential roles that the Fc region plays in the modulation of the efficacy of mAb in cancer treatment, Fc engineering has been extensively studied in the past years. This review focuses on the recent advances in therapeutic Fc engineering that modulates its related effector functions and serum half-life. We also discuss the progress made in aglycosylated mAb development that may substantially reduce cost of manufacture but maintain similar efficacies as conventional glycosylated mAb. Finally, we highlight several Fc engineering based mAbs under clinical trials.

  12. Intermediate physics for medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2015-01-01

    This classic text has been used in over 20 countries by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, neuroscience, and biomedical engineering. It bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and the application of physics to the life and biomedical sciences. Extensively revised and updated, the fifth edition incorporates new developments at the interface between physics and biomedicine. New coverage includes cyclotrons, photodynamic therapy, color vision, x-ray crystallography, the electron microscope, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, nanomedicine, and other topics highlighted in the National Research Council report BIO2010. As with the previous edition, the first half of the text is primarily biological physics, emphasizing the use of ideas from physics to understand biology and physiology, and the second half is primarily medical physics, describing the use of physics in medicine for diagnosis (mainly imaging) and therapy. Among the m...

  13. Assessing the Value-Added by the Environmental Testing Process with the Aide of Physics/Engineering of Failure Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, S.; Gibbel, M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Code QT Test Effectiveness Program is funding a series of applied research activities focused on utilizing the principles of physics and engineering of failure and those of engineering economics to assess and improve the value-added by the various validation and verification activities to organizations.

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Students in Life and Physical Science Research Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyo, Claire P.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study involved interviews of 32 faculty principle investigators at three research institutions and explored how they view the role of students within physical and life science labs. We used socialization theory and student engagement literature to analyze faculty views, which can contribute to student investment in STEM fields.…

  15. Physical activity is related to quality of life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Luke S; Longfors, Jessica; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Schank, Bob; Nickel, Kevin J; Montgomery, Polly S; Gardner, Andrew W

    2006-06-30

    Physical activity is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in clinical populations, but less is known whether this relationship exists in older men and women who are healthy. Thus, this study determined if physical activity was related to HRQL in apparently healthy, older subjects. Measures were obtained from 112 male and female volunteers (70 +/- 8 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from media advertisements and flyers around the Norman, Oklahoma area. Data was collected using a medical history questionnaire, HRQL from the Medical Outcomes Survey short form-36 questionnaire, and physical activity level from the Johnson Space Center physical activity scale. Subjects were separated into either a higher physically active group (n = 62) or a lower physically active group (n = 50) according to the physical activity scale. The HRQL scores in all eight domains were significantly higher (p social functioning (92 +/- 18 vs. 83 +/- 19, p = 0.040). General health, role-emotional, and mental health were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Healthy older adults who regularly participated in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for more than one hour per week had higher HRQL measures in both physical and mental domains than those who were less physically active. Therefore, incorporating more physical activity into the lifestyles of sedentary or slightly active older individuals may improve their HRQL.

  16. Numerical simulations of coupled problems in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents and discusses mathematical models, numerical methods and computational techniques used for solving coupled problems in science and engineering. It takes a step forward in the formulation and solution of real-life problems with a multidisciplinary vision, accounting for all of the complex couplings involved in the physical description. Simulation of multifaceted physics problems is a common task in applied research and industry. Often a suitable solver is built by connecting together several single-aspect solvers into a network. In this book, research in various fields was selected for consideration: adaptive methodology for multi-physics solvers, multi-physics phenomena and coupled-field solutions, leading to computationally intensive structural analysis. The strategies which are used to keep these problems computationally affordable are of special interest, and make this an essential book.

  17. Effects of a Physical Exercise Program (PEP-Aut on Autistic Children’s Stereotyped Behavior, Metabolic and Physical Activity Profiles, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has shown positive effects on symptomatology and on the reduction of comorbidities in population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate exercise intervention model for children with ASD. The physical exercise program for children with autism (PEP-Aut protocol designed allow us to (i examine the multivariate associations between ASD symptoms, metabolic profile, physical activity level, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of children with ASD; (ii assess the effects of a 40-week exercise program on all these aspects of children with ASD. The impact of the exercise program will be assessed based on the sequence of the two phases. Phase 1 is a 12-week cross-sectional study assessing the symptomatology, metabolic profile, physical fitness and physical activity levels, socioeconomic status profile, and health-related quality of life of participants. This phase is the baseline of the following phase. Phase 2 is a 48-week intervention study with a 40-week intervention with exercise that will take place in a specialized center for children with ASD in the city of Maceió-Alagoas, Brazil. The primary outcomes will be change in the symptomatic profile and the level of physical activity of children. Secondary outcomes will be anthropometric and metabolic profiles, aerobic function, grip strength, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life. The study will provide critical information on the efficacy of exercise for children with ASD and help guide design and delivery of future programs.

  18. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  19. Associations of Smoking, Physical Inactivity, Heavy Drinking, and Obesity with Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy among US Adults with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Gottesman, Irving I; Thompson, William W

    2018-03-01

    To examine associations between four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity) and three health indices (health-related quality of life, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) among US adults with depression. Data were obtained from the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) health preference scores were estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's healthy days measures. Depression scores were estimated using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Life expectancy estimates were obtained from US life tables, and QALE was estimated from a weighted combination of the EQ-5D scores and the life expectancy estimates. Outcomes were summarized by depression status for the four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity). For depressed adults, current smokers and the physically inactive had significantly lower EQ-5D scores (0.040 and 0.171, respectively), shorter life expectancy (12.9 and 10.8 years, respectively), and substantially less QALE (8.6 and 10.9 years, respectively). For nondepressed adults, estimated effects were similar but smaller. Heavy alcohol drinking among depressed adults, paradoxically, was associated with higher EQ-5D scores but shorter life expectancy. Obesity was strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores but only weakly associated with shorter life expectancy. Among depressed adults, physical inactivity and smoking were strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, life expectancy, and QALE, whereas obesity and heavy drinking were only weakly associated with these indices. These results suggest that reducing physical inactivity and smoking would improve health more among depressed adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.

  1. A life-style physical activity intervention and the antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, J.E.; Ring, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Eves, F.; Drayson, M.T.; Calver, R.; Say, V.; Allen, D.; Burns, V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether a life-style physical activity intervention improved antibody response to a pneumococcal vaccination in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: Eighty-nine sedentary women completed a 16-week exercise (physical activity consultation, pedometer, telephone/e-mail prompts; n

  2. Software and Network Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The series "Studies in Computational Intelligence" (SCI) publishes new developments and advances in the various areas of computational intelligence – quickly and with a high quality. The intent is to cover the theory, applications, and design methods of computational intelligence, as embedded in the fields of engineering, computer science, physics and life science, as well as the methodologies behind them. The series contains monographs, lecture notes and edited volumes in computational intelligence spanning the areas of neural networks, connectionist systems, genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, cellular automata, self-organizing systems, soft computing, fuzzy systems, and hybrid intelligent systems. Critical to both contributors and readers are the short publication time and world-wide distribution - this permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results.   The purpose of the first ACIS International Symposium on Software and Network Engineering held on Decembe...

  3. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  4. World Congress on Engineering 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Gi-Chul; Gelman, Len

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed, revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers who participated in the World Congress on Engineering 2015, held in London, UK, 1-3 July, 2015. This large international conference covered advances in engineering technologies and the physical sciences, with contributions on subjects including mechanical engineering, bioengineering, internet engineering, image engineering, wireless networks, knowledge engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. This book offers a snapshot of the state-of-the-art, highlighting tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical sciences and their applications, and will serve as an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working in many different disciplines of physical sciences and engineering.

  5. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  6. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  7. Mean Value Engine Modelling of an SI Engine with EGR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Føns, Michael; Müller, Martin; Chevalier, Alain

    1999-01-01

    Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are simplified, dynamic engine models what are physically based. Such models are useful for control studies, for engine control system analysis and for model based engine control systems. Very few published MVEMs have included the effects of Exhaust Gas...... Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this paper is to present a modified MVEM which includes EGR in a physical way. It has been tested using newly developed, very fast manifold pressure, manifold temperature, port and EGR mass flow sensors. Reasonable agreement has been obtained on an experimental engine...

  8. Challenges in examining area effects across the life course on physical capability in mid-life: Findings from the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Emily T.; Southall, Humphrey; Aucott, Paula; Tilling, Kate; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    A major limitation of past work linking area socioeconomic conditions to health in mid-life has been the reliance on single point in time measurement of area. Using the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, this study for the first time linked place of residence at three major life periods of childhood (1950), young adulthood (1972), and mid-life (1999) to area-socioeconomic data from the nearest census years. Using objective measures of physical capability as the outcome, the purpos...

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  10. Modeling the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in menopausal-aged women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadivala, Zeinab; Kousha, Ahmad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Tallebian, Hossein

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of the present study was (a) to assess the relationship between physical activity and the intensity and duration of menopausal symptoms, (b) to investigate the relationship between physical activity and the four domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and (c) to assess the relationship between physical activity and chronic diseases. This descriptive-analytical study that was conducted in Tabriz City, Iran. Data were collected in 2012 by personal home-based interviews, using structured questionnaires. All participants (n= 273), who were middle-aged (age range of 40-60 yr) were recruited from two of the 25 urban health service centers' clients, by clustered random sampling allocation. There was a positive significant relationship between Psychological, Social, and Environmental domains of HRQOL with physical activity (Pphysical activity. Diabetic (Pphysical activity would be effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms as well as improving healthy aging and also physical activity promotion as a part of healthy life style promotion programs needs to be improved in communities where women are physically inactive. In addition, women need to be informed about importance of physical activity on their life which it leads to feel healthy aging and pre and post- menopausal stages.

  11. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  12. Inorganic scintillators for detector systems physical principles and crystal engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, Paul; Korzhik, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    This second edition features new chapters highlighting advances in our understanding of the behavior and properties of scintillators, and the discovery of new families of materials with light yield and excellent energy resolution very close to the theoretical limit. The book focuses on the discovery of next-generation scintillation materials and on a deeper understanding of fundamental processes. Such novel materials with high light yield as well as significant advances in crystal engineering offer exciting new perspectives. Most promising is the application of scintillators for precise time tagging of events, at the level of 100 ps or higher, heralding a new era in medical applications and particle physics. Since the discovery of the Higgs Boson with a clear signature in the lead tungstate scintillating blocks of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter detector, the current trend in particle physics is toward very high luminosity colliders, in which timing performance will ultimately be essential to mitigating...

  13. Life cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in eastern U.S. with comparison to solid strip wood flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacture. Our study followed the life cycle inventory approach for prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern US and compared the results with those of solid strip wood flooring. Our study surveyed five engineered wood flooring manufacturers in the eastern US....

  14. Towards a Sustainable Approach to Nanotechnology by Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…

  15. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  16. Zooming into daily life: within-person associations between physical activity and affect in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Petra; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud; Reuter, Merle; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect in daily life is linked to poorer mental and physical health. Activity could serve as an effective, low-cost intervention to improve affect. However, few prior studies have assessed physical activity and affect in everyday life, limiting the ecological validity of prior findings. This study investigates whether daily activity is associated with negative and positive evening affect in young adults. Young adults (N = 189, Mdn = 23.00) participated in an intensive longitudinal study over 10 consecutive days. Participants wore accelerometers to objectively assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity continuously throughout the day and reported their affect in time-stamped online evening diaries before going to sleep. On days when participants engaged in more activity than usual, they reported not only less depressed and angry evening affect but also more vigour and serenity in the evening. Young adults showed both less negative and more positive affect on days with more activity. Physical activity is a promising health promotion strategy for physical and mental well-being.

  17. Transforming Introductory Physics for Life Scientists: Researching the consequences for students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpen, Chandra

    2011-10-01

    In response to policy documents calling for dramatic changes in pre-medical and biology education [1-3], the physics and biology education research groups at the University of Maryland are rethinking how to teach physics to life science majors. As an interdisciplinary team, we are drastically reconsidering the physics topics relevant for these courses. We are designing new in-class tasks to engage students in using physical principles to explain aspects of biological phenomena where the physical principles are of consequence to the biological systems. We will present examples of such tasks as well as preliminary data on how students engage in these tasks. Lastly, we will share some barriers encountered in pursuing meaningful interdisciplinary education.[4pt] Co-authors: Edward F. Redish and Julia Svaboda [4pt] [1] National Research Council, Bio2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (NAP, 2003).[0pt] [2] AAMC-HHMI committee, Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (AAMC, 2009).[0pt] [3] American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action (AAAS, 2009).

  18. Economic stress and low leisure-time physical activity: Two life course hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindström

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and low leisure-time physical activity (LTPA in adulthood from two life course perspectives. The public health survey in Scania in the southernmost part of Sweden in 2012 is a cross-sectional study based on a stratified random sample with 28,029 respondents aged 18–80 (51.7% response rate. Associations between childhood and adult economic stress, and low LTPA were analyzed with logistic regressions. A 14.8% prevalence of men and 13.5% of women had low LTPA (sedentary lifestyle. Low LTPA was associated with higher age, being born abroad, low socioeconomic status, low trust, smoking, poor self-rated health, and economic stress in childhood and adulthood. The odds ratios of low LTPA increased with more accumulated economic stress across the life course in a dose-response relationship. There was no specific critical period (childhood or adulthood, because economic stress in childhood and adulthood were both associated with low LTPA but the associations were attenuated after the introduction of smoking and self-rated health. The accumulation hypothesis was supported because the odds ratios of low LTPA indicated a graded response to life course economic stress. The critical period hypothesis was thus not supported. Economic stress across the life course seems to be associated with low LTPA in adulthood. Keywords: Economic stress, Leisure-time physical activity, Accumulation, Critical period, Social capital, Sweden

  19. The relationship between physical and psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C C H M; van Son, M A C; de Jongh, M A C; Lansink, K W W; de Vries, J; Verhofstad, M H J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first goal was to investigate which variables were associated with the remaining physical limitations of severely injured patients after the initial rehabilitation phase. Second, we investigated whether physical limitations were attributable to the association between psychological complaints and quality of life in this patient group. Patients who were 18 years or older and who had an injury severity score (ISS)>15 completed a set of questionnaires at one time-point after their rehabilitation phase (15-53 months after their trauma). The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire was used to determine physical limitations. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dutch Impact of Event Scale and the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were used to determine psychological complaints, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument-BREF was used to measure general Quality of Life (QOL). Differences in physical limitations were investigated for several trauma- and patient-related variables using non-parametric independent-sample Mann-Whitney U tests. Multiple linear regression was performed to investigate whether the decreased QOL of severely injured patients with psychological complaints could be explained by their physical limitations. Older patients, patients with physical complaints before the injury, patients with higher ISS scores, and patients who had an injury of the spine or of the lower extremities reported significantly more physical problems. Additionally, patients with a low education level, patients who were living alone, and those who were unemployed reported significantly more long-term physical problems. Severely injured patients without psychological complaints reported significantly less physical limitations than those with psychological complaints. The SMFA factor of Lower extremity dysfunction was a confounder of the association between psychological complaints

  20. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1), urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2), ecological resilience (FC3), and free-plague environments (FC4). Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.

  1. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1, urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2, ecological resilience (FC3, and free-plague environments (FC4. Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.

  2. Living in a physical world VIII. Gravity and life in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-07-31

    Jul 31, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 3. Living in a physical world VIII. Gravity and life in water. Steven Vogel. Series Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2006 pp 309-322. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/031/03/0309-0322 ...

  3. Quality of working life issues of employees with a chronic physical disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Merel; de Boer, Angela G E M; Tamminga, Sietske J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2015-03-01

    To assess issues that contribute to the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of employees with a chronic physical disease. A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Experiences and perceptions during the working life of employees with a chronic physical disease were extracted and synthesized into issues that contributed to their QWL. We organized these synthesized QWL issues into higher order themes and categories with qualitative data analysis software. From a total of 4,044 articles identified by the search, 61 articles were included. Data extraction and data synthesis resulted in an overview of 73 QWL issues that were classified into 30 themes. The following five categories of themes were identified: (1) job characteristics with issues such as job flexibility and work-site access; (2) the social structure and environment containing issues about disclosure, discrimination, misunderstanding, and awareness by employers or colleagues; (3) organizational characteristics with issues such as requesting work accommodations; (4) individual work perceptions including issues about enjoyment and evaluating work or life priorities; and (5) effect of the disease and treatment including issues about cognitive and physical health and work ability. This systematic review offers an extensive overview of issues that might contribute to the QWL of employees with a chronic physical disease. This overview may function as a starting point for occupational support, such as monitoring and evaluating the QWL of employees with a chronic physical disease during return-to-work and work continuation processes.

  4. Engineering Physics Division integral experiments and their analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Integral experiments are performed as part of the Engineering Physics Division's on-going research in the development and application of radiation shielding methods. Integral experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) under the Division's Magnetic Fusion program are designed to provide data against which ORNL and all other organizations involved in shielding calculations for fusion devices can test their calculational methods and interaction data. The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) continues to be the primary source of integral data for fission reactor shielding design. The experiments performed at the TSF during the last few years have been sponsored by the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) program. During this report period final documentation was also prepared for the remaining LMFBR shielding experiments, including an examination of streaming through annular slits and measurement of secondary gamma-ray production in reinforced concrete

  5. Prognostics and health management of engineering systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Choi, Joo-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the methods for predicting the future behavior of a system’s health and the remaining useful life to determine an appropriate maintenance schedule. The authors introduce the history, industrial applications, algorithms, and benefits and challenges of PHM (Prognostics and Health Management) to help readers understand this highly interdisciplinary engineering approach that incorporates sensing technologies, physics of failure, machine learning, modern statistics, and reliability engineering. It is ideal for beginners because it introduces various prognostics algorithms and explains their attributes, pros and cons in terms of model definition, model parameter estimation, and ability to handle noise and bias in data, allowing readers to select the appropriate methods for their fields of application. Among the many topics discussed in-depth are: • Prognostics tutorials using least-squares • Bayesian inference and parameter estimation • Physics-based prognostics algorithms including non...

  6. Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemin, Anne; Boini, Stéphanie; Bertrais, Sandrine; Tessier, Sabrina; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Guillemin, Francis; Briançon, Serge

    2005-08-01

    There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in the general population. We investigated the relationships of meeting public health recommendations (PHR) for moderate and vigorous physical activity with HRQoL in French adult subjects. LTPA and HRQoL were assessed in 1998 in 2333 men and 3321 women from the SU.VI.MAX. cohort using the French versions of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire, respectively. Relationship between LTPA and HRQoL was assessed using analysis of variance. Results from multivariate analysis showed that meeting physical activity recommended levels was associated with higher HRQoL scores (except in Bodily pain dimension for women): differences in mean HRQoL scores between subjects meeting or not PHR ranged from 2.4 (Mental health) to 4.5 (Vitality) and from 2.2 (Bodily pain) to 5.7 (Vitality) for women and men, respectively. Subjects meeting PHR for physical activity had better HRQoL than those who did not. Our data suggest that 30' of moderate LTPA per day on a regular basis may be beneficial on HRQoL. Higher intensity LTPA is associated with greater HRQoL. This emphasizes the importance to promote at least moderate physical activity.

  7. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  8. Faculty of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Prague - 25 years of existence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, I.; Marsak, Z.

    1980-03-01

    A collection is presented of articles on the occasion of the 25th anniversary fo the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering. The list is shown of the departments including their subject matter and the teaching, socio-political and research and scientific activities of the Faculty are described. (M.S.)

  9. Engineering Technical Review Planning Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    The general topics covered in the engineering technical planning briefing are 1) overviews of NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and Engineering, 2) the NASA Systems Engineering(SE) Engine and its implementation , 3) the NASA Project Life Cycle, 4) MSFC Technical Management Branch Services in relation to the SE Engine and the Project Life Cycle , 5) Technical Reviews, 6) NASA Human Factor Design Guidance , and 7) the MSFC Human Factors Team. The engineering technical review portion of the presentation is the primary focus of the overall presentation and will address the definition of a design review, execution guidance, the essential stages of a technical review, and the overall review planning life cycle. Examples of a technical review plan content, review approaches, review schedules, and the review process will be provided and discussed. The human factors portion of the presentation will focus on the NASA guidance for human factors. Human factors definition, categories, design guidance, and human factor specialist roles will be addressed. In addition, the NASA Systems Engineering Engine description, definition, and application will be reviewed as background leading into the NASA Project Life Cycle Overview and technical review planning discussion.

  10. A comparison study of different physical treatments on cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Ali; Pramanik, Sumit; Ataollahi, Forough; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Abdul Khalil, Alizan; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-01-01

    Native cartilage matrix derived (CMD) scaffolds from various animal and human sources have drawn attention in cartilage tissue engineering due to the demonstrable presence of bioactive components. Different chemical and physical treatments have been employed to enhance the micro-architecture of CMD scaffolds. In this study we have assessed the typical effects of physical cross-linking methods, namely ultraviolet (UV) light, dehydrothermal (DHT) treatment, and combinations of them on bovine articular CMD porous scaffolds with three different matrix concentrations (5%, 15% and 30%) to assess the relative strengths of each treatment. Our findings suggest that UV and UV–DHT treatments on 15% CMD scaffolds can yield architecturally optimal scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. (paper)

  11. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Methods Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49–63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Results Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. PMID:28819019

  12. The impact of the quality of life perception on the self-esteem of physically active adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the impact of the quality of life perception on the self-esteem of physically active adults. A total of 63 male and female swimming practitioners (38.13 ± 11.72 were evaluated. A socio-demographic questionnaire, WHOQOL-Bref Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used as tools. For data analysis the descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Mann-Whitney U Test, Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient, and the Univariate Multiple Regression were used. No significant differences were found either for the quality of life or the self-esteem between sexes; there was a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 among the physical (r = 0.37, psychological (r = 0.36 and environmental (r = 0.30 domains with self-esteem. The regression model explained 20% of the self-esteem variability, with moderate and significant pathways of the physical (β = 0.23 and psychological (β = 0.23 domains, whereas the environmental domain did not show a significant predictive relation (p = 0.988 with self-esteem. It is concluded that a higher quality of life perception may result in a higher self-esteem for physically active adults.

  13. The relationship between physical activity and quality of life of people in age 25–30, 35–40 and 45-50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Krajewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between physical activity and quality of life of the respondents. Methods: There was a study conducted on 150 people divided into three age groups: 25-30, 35-40 and 45-50 years old. The study was conducted by using its own questionnaire. The evaluated factors were health status, material status, life satisfaction, attitudes to drugs and drug use, ways of spending free time, the ratio of physical activity or cultivated forms of activity. In order to carry out the correlation analysis between the subjective assessment of quality of life and physical activity there were numerical indicators of quality of life and physical activity introduced.  Results: The correlation between these indicators for all examined and for different age groups was assessed. The most evident correlation appeared in the oldest group. Conclusions: The examined are aware that taking up physical activity regularly is conducive to improving their well-being, physical condition and appearance. The subjective evaluation of the level of general fitness and the frequency of doing physical activity tend to fall with age. Physical activity influences not only the physical and psychological health, but also indirectly conditions the capability of succeeding in other areas of life.

  14. Final Physics Report for the Engineering Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, I. B.

    1956-01-01

    This report is a summary of the physics design work performed on the Engineering Test Reactor. The ETR presents computational difficulties not found in other reactors because of the large number of experimental holes in the core. The physics of the ETR depends strongly upon the contents of the in-core experimental facilities. In order to properly evaluate the reactor' taking into account the experiments in the core, multi-region, two-dimensional calculations are required. These calculations require the use of a large computer such as the Remington Rand Univac and are complex and expensive enough to warrant a five-stage program: 1. In the early stages of design, only preliminary two-dimensional calculations were performed .in order to obtain a rough idea of the general behavior of the reactor and its critical mass with tentative experiments in place. 2. A large amount of work was carried out in which the reactor was approximated as one with a uniform homogeneous core. With this model, detailed studies were carried out to investigate the feasibility and to obtain general design data on such points as the design and properties of the gray and black control rods, the design of the beryllium reflector, gamma and neutron heating, the use of burnable poisons, etc. In performing these calculations, use was made of the IBM 650 PROD code obtained from KAPL. 3. With stages 1 and 2 carried out, two-dimensional calculations of the core at start-up conditions were performed on the Univac computer. 4. Detailed two-dimensional calculations of the properties of the ETR with a proposed first set of experiments in place were carried out. 5. A series of nuclear tests were performed at the reactivity measurements facility at the MTR site in order to confirm the validity of the analytical techniques in physics analysis. In performing the two-dimensional Univac calculations, the MUG code developed by KAPL and the Cuthill code developed at the David Taylor Model Basin were utilized. In

  15. Dynamical and quasi-static multi-physical models of a diesel internal combustion engine using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrein, L.; Bouscayrol, A.; Cheng, Y.; El Fassi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) dynamical and static models. • Organization of ICE model using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. • Description of the distribution of the chemical, thermal and mechanical power. • Implementation of the ICE model in a global vehicle model. - Abstract: In the simulation of new vehicles, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is generally modeled by a static map. This model yields the mechanical power and the fuel consumption. But some studies require the heat energy from the ICE to be considered (i.e. waste heat recovery, thermal regulation of the cabin). A dynamical multi-physical model of a diesel engine is developed to consider its heat energy. This model is organized using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) in order to be interconnected to other various models of vehicle subsystems. An experimental validation is provided. Moreover a multi-physical quasi-static model is also derived. According to different modeling aims, a comparison of the dynamical and the quasi-static model is discussed in the case of the simulation of a thermal vehicle. These multi-physical models with different simulation time consumption provide good basis for studying the effects of the thermal energy on the vehicle behaviors, including the possibilities of waste heat recovery

  16. Renewable energy technology from underpinning physics to engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infield, D G

    2008-01-01

    The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) in it's submission to the DTI's 2006 Energy Review reminded us that the 'UK has abundant wind, wave and tidal resources available; its mild climate lends itself to bio-energy production, and solar radiation levels are sufficient to sustain a viable solar industry'. These technologies are at different stages of development but they all draw on basic and applied Science and Engineering. The paper will briefly review the renewable energy technologies and their potential for contributing to a sustainable energy supply. Three research topics will be highlighted that bridge the gap between the physics underpinning the energy conversion, and the engineering aspects of development and deployment; all three are highly relevant to the Government's programme on micro-generation. Two are these are taken from field of thin film photovoltaics (PV), one related to novel device development and the other to a measurement technique for assessing the manufacturing quality of PV modules and their performance. The third topic concerns the development of small building integrated wind turbines and examines the complex flow associated with such applications. The paper will conclude by listing key research challenges that are central to the search for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy generation

  17. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  18. Development of a testlet generator in re-engineering the Indonesian physics national-exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindyarto, Budi Naini; Mardapi, Djemari; Bastari

    2017-08-01

    The Indonesian Physics national-exams are end-of-course summative assessments that could be utilized to support the assessment for learning in physics educations. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a testlet generator based on a re-engineering of Indonesian physics national exams. The exam problems were dissected and decomposed into testlets revealing the deeper understanding of the underlying physical concepts by inserting a qualitative question and its scientific reasoning question. A template-based generator was built to facilitate teachers in generating testlet variants that would be more conform to students' scientific attitude development than their original simple multiple-choice formats. The testlet generator was built using open source software technologies and was evaluated focusing on the black-box testing by exploring the generator's execution, inputs and outputs. The results showed the correctly-performed functionalities of the developed testlet generator in validating inputs, generating testlet variants, and accommodating polytomous item characteristics.

  19. Boris Novozhilov: Life and contribution to the physics of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2018-04-01

    Professor Boris Novozhilov (1930-2017) passed away on February 19th, 2017 in Moscow. The present paper provides brief account of his life and contributions to the physics of combustion. From extensive scientific legacy left by Boris, several major achievements are discussed here: Zeldovich-Novozhilov (ZN) theory of unsteady solid propellant combustion, contributions to thermal explosion theory, the theory of spin combustion, discovery of propellant combustion transition to chaotic regimes through Feigenbaum period bifurcation scenario.

  20. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: efficacy, esteem, and affective influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Marquez, David X; Hu, Liang; Jerome, Gerald J; Diener, Ed

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been effective in enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults over relatively short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of physical activity and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the mediating effects of psychological variables on the relationship between physical activity and global QOL (satisfaction with life) in older adults over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 174, M age = 66.7 years) completed a battery of psychosocial measures at 1 and 5 years following enrollment in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Panel analysis conducted within a covariance modeling framework indicated that physical activity was related to self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and positive affect at 1 year, and in turn, greater levels of self-efficacy and positive affect were associated with higher levels of QOL. Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over the 4-year period were related to increases in physical self-esteem and positive affect, but only positive affect directly influenced improvements in QOL. The findings lend support to the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term effects on well-being.

  1. The research of the differences between physical activity and life quality in senior high school students (Manisa City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande TAVAZAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available I nactive life style is one of the problems of today‟s health issues and has seri ous damage in health which threatens and risks human life. That‟s why „„living by raising life quality‟‟is considered to be a key for a healthy life. The way to handle that key is to make the regular physical activity a permanent part of life. Especially t he progress in technology brings the young generation an inactive life style.This study is made to form permanent solutions for suggestions by investigatingthe differences between physical activity and life quality. It is applied in 2013 - 2014 education yea rs, in Manisa city YunusEmre township senior high schools institutes, on 833 male and female students.The personal information form formed by the researchers and Life Quality SF - 36 Short form is applied on the participants in order to search the difference s of physical activity and life quality. Some statistical differences appeared and some did not in the participants‟ age, sex, sporting or not, having a sports license variables and SF - 36 sub dimensions. It is recommended that, in order to gain regular phy sical activity practice, especially in senior - high schools, gymnastics lessons should be increased and be lectured actively to raise the life quality.

  2. Physics and engineering assessments of spherical torus component test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.-K.M.; Neumeyer, C.A.; Kessel, C.; Rutherford, P.; Mikkelsen, D.; Bell, R.; Menard, J.; Gates, D.; Schmidt, J.; Synakowski, E.; Grisham, L.; Fogarty, P.J.; Strickler, D.J.; Burgess, T.W.; Tsai, J.; Nelson, B.E.; Sabbagh, S.; Mitarai, O.; Cheng, E.T.; El-Guebaly, L.

    2005-01-01

    A broadly based study of the fusion engineering and plasma science conditions of a Component Test Facility (CTF), using the Spherical Torus or Spherical Tokamak (ST) configuration, have been carried out. The chamber systems testing conditions in a CTF are characterized by high fusion neutron fluxes Γ n > 4.4x10 13 n/s/cm 2 , over size scales > 10 5 cm 2 and depth scales > 50 cm, delivering > 3 accumulated displacement per atom (dpa) per year. The desired chamber conditions can be provided by a CTF with R 0 1.2 m, A = 1.5, elongation ∼ 3.2, I p ∼ 9 MA, B T ∼ 2.5 T, producing a driven fusion burn using 36 MW of combined neutral beam and RF power. Relatively robust ST plasma conditions are adequate, which have been shown achievable [4] without active feedback manipulation of the MHD modes. The ST CTF will test the single-turn, copper alloy center leg for the toroidal field coil without an induction solenoid and neutron shielding, and require physics data on solenoid-free plasma current initiation, ramp-up, and sustainment to multiple MA level. A new systems code that combines the key required plasma and engineering science conditions of CTF has been prepared and utilized as part of this study. The results show high potential for a family of lowercost CTF devices to suit a variety of fusion engineering science test missions. (author)

  3. Physical functioning and life style of 50-65 years’ age hee teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Baskevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study life style of 50-65 years’ age university teachers depending on their physical functioning and its connection with behavior habits. Material: questioning of 150 respondents was fulfilled by specially prepared questionnaire. Anthropometric testing was conducted. Results: it was found that most of the questioned spend time watching TV or reading and pay very little attention to physical functioning. We also found that most of respondents deal with household chores but want to do something outdoors (practice public activity. There is a trend to avoid smoking among them. Only 5.0% are cigarette smokers. The rest have never smoked or gave up smoking more than 10 years ago. Among the partners of the questioned there are a lot of smokers (16.2%. Most of the questioned have friends and relatives, who can help to achieve the highest level of physical functioning. 18.9% of partners of the questioned regularly practice sports. Some useful for health habits are observed in life situations of all respondents. Conclusions: the received data witness about purposefulness of seeking of effective ways of pre retirement age HEE teachers’ involvement in active recreational functioning. We have also found that there are time reserves for this purpose.

  4. The influence of physical activity on life quality formation of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Pavlova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the relationship between various parameters of life quality and physical activity level of older Ukrainian citizens. Material & Methods: 150 female aged 65,2±4,3 years were interviewed with MOS SF 36 and IPAQ questionnaire. Results: it is shown the values of scales Emotional role functioning (44,0 points, General Health (51,4 points and Bodily Pain (52,2 points can be considered as critical. Conclusions: statistically significant correlation between the numbers of metabolic equivalents used on physical activity during work (study, duration of active recreation was found.

  5. Full-participation of students with physical disabilities in science and engineering laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannis, Hervens; Joseph, James; Goldberg, Mary; Seelman, Katherine; Schmeler, Mark; Cooper, Rory A

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a literature review identifying barriers and facilitators students with physical disabilities (SwD-P) may encounter in science and engineering (S&E) laboratories. Publications were identified from 1991 to 2015 in ERIC, web of science via web of knowledge, CINAHL, SCOPUS, IEEEXplore, engineering village, business source complete and PubMed databases using search terms and synonyms for accommodations, advanced manufacturing, additive manufacturing, assistive technology (AT), barriers, engineering, facilitators, instructor, laboratory, STEM education, science, students with disabilities and technology. Twenty-two of the 233 publications that met the review's inclusion criteria were examined. Barriers and facilitators were grouped based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health framework (ICF). None of the studies directly found barriers or facilitators to SwD-P in science or engineering laboratories within postsecondary environments. The literature is not clear on the issues specifically related to SwD-P. Given these findings, further research (e.g., surveys or interviews) should be conducted to identify more details to obtain more substantial information on the barriers that may prevent SwD-P from fully participating in S&E instructional laboratories. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with disabilities remain underrepresented going into STEM careers. A need exist to help uncover barriers students with disabilities encounter in STEM laboratory. Environments. Accommodations and strategies that facilitate participation in STEM laboratory environments are promising for students with disabilities.

  6. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  7. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.

    1993-05-01

    In this report, our research is described through abstracts of journal articles, technical reports, and presentations organized into sections following the five major operating units in the division: Mathematical Sciences, Intelligent Systems, Nuclear Data and Measurement Analysis, Nuclear Analysis and Shielding, and the Engineering Physics Information Centers. Each section begins with an introduction highlighting honors, awards, and significant research accomplishments in that unit during the reporting period.

  8. Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.

    1993-05-01

    In this report, our research is described through abstracts of journal articles, technical reports, and presentations organized into sections following the five major operating units in the division: Mathematical Sciences, Intelligent Systems, Nuclear Data and Measurement Analysis, Nuclear Analysis and Shielding, and the Engineering Physics Information Centers. Each section begins with an introduction highlighting honors, awards, and significant research accomplishments in that unit during the reporting period

  9. Virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of mechanical engineering students on basic physics concept of material measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.

  10. NASA-HBCU Space Science and Engineering Research Forum Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Y.D.; Freeman, Y.B.; George, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) forum are presented. A wide range of research topics from plant science to space science and related academic areas was covered. The sessions were divided into the following subject areas: Life science; Mathematical modeling, image processing, pattern recognition, and algorithms; Microgravity processing, space utilization and application; Physical science and chemistry; Research and training programs; Space science (astronomy, planetary science, asteroids, moon); Space technology (engineering, structures and systems for application in space); Space technology (physics of materials and systems for space applications); and Technology (materials, techniques, measurements)

  11. Collaborative Model-based Systems Engineering for Cyber-Physical Systems, with a Building Automation Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, John; Gamble, Carl; Payne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to the model-based engineering of cyber-physical systems that permits the coupling of diverse discrete-event and continuous-time models and their simulators. A case study in the building automation domain demonstrates how such co-models and co-simulation can promote early...

  12. Critical review on the physical and mechanical factors involved in tissue engineering of cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, Carrie; Sugaya, Kiminobu

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects often progress to osteoarthritis, which negatively impacts quality of life for millions of people worldwide and leads to high healthcare expenditures. Tissue engineering approaches to osteoarthritis have concentrated on proliferation and differentiation of stem cells by activation and suppression of signaling pathways, and by using a variety of scaffolding techniques. Recent studies indicate a key role of environmental factors in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to mature cartilage-producing chondrocytes. Therapeutic approaches that consider environmental regulation could optimize chondrogenesis protocols for regeneration of articular cartilage. This review focuses on the effect of scaffold structure and composition, mechanical stress and hypoxia in modulating mesenchymal stem cell fate and the current use of these environmental factors in tissue engineering research.

  13. Engineering safe and secure cyber-physical systems the specification PEARL approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gumzej, Roman

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of holistic design and development of cyber physical systems to achieve their safe and secure operation. It shows that by following the standards for embedded system’s safety and using appropriate hardware and software components inherently safe system’s architectures can be devised and certified. While the standards already enable testing and certification of inherently safe and sound hardware, this is still not the case with software. The book demonstrates that Specification PEARL(SPEARL) addresses this issue and proposes appropriate solutions from the viewpoints of software engineering as well as concrete program components. By doing so it reduces the complexity of cyber physical systems design in an innovative way. Three ultimate goals are being followed in the course of defining this new PEARL standard, namely: 1. simplicity over complexity, 2. inherent real-time ability, and 3. conformity to safety integrity and security capability levels.

  14. Systems engineering and integration as a foundation for mission engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Beam, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper investigates the emerging term mission engineering through the framework of systems engineering and systems integration. Systems engineering concepts, processes, and methodologies are extrapolated for use in conjunction with a systems integration, life-cycle based framework to effect mission engineering. The specific systems engineering concepts of measures of effectiveness, performance and suitability are recommended as fou...

  15. [Impact of physical disability and concomitant emotional disturbances on post-stroke quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, N; Trabelsi, S; Turki, M; Mâalej Bouali, M; Zouari, L; Dammak, M; Ben Thabet, J; Mhiri, C; Mâalej, M

    2017-10-01

    The physical and/or psycho-cognitive changes after stroke may lead to a decline in the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The aims of our study were to evaluate the QOL of stroke survivors and to investigate its relationships with the physical disability degree and the emotional disorders (anxiety and depression). We conducted a cross-sectional study, which included 147 patients, followed for stroke that had occurred over the past year, in the outpatient neurology department at the university hospital Habib Bourguiba of Sfax (Tunisia). For each patient, we collected socio-demographic characteristics and clinical and therapeutic data. The quality of life of our patients was assessed using the SF-36 scale. The HAD scale was used to screen for anxiety and depression, whereas the modified Rankin scale was used to measure the degree of disability. The average age of our patients was 60.58 years. The overall mean score of the SF-36 ranged from 20.81 to 89.81 with an average of 55.27. Impaired QOL was found in 68% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that only two dimensions of the SF-36 were not altered: physical pain and life and relationship with others. The physical component was slightly more altered than the mental component (41.4 and 42.9 respectively). A minimal disability was found in 32% of patients, while a moderate and severe disability was found in 19% and 21.1% of patients. Anxiety was detected in 55.1% of patients and depression in 67.3% of them. Impaired mental component QOL was significantly correlated with the presence of anxiety (P=0.008) and depression (Pnegative impact on all areas of QOL except that of life and relationships with others. It appears from our study that among the important effects of stroke is the constant deterioration of QOL in its various dimensions. The occurrence of emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression and the degree of physical disability seem to be predictors of QOL impairment

  16. A new course and textbook on Physical Models of Living Systems, for science and engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip

    2015-03-01

    I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses: Basic modeling skills Probabilistic modeling skills Data analysis methods Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. These basic skills, which are relevant to nearly any field of science or engineering, are presented in the context of case studies from living systems, including: Virus dynamics Bacterial genetics and evolution of drug resistance Statistical inference Superresolution microscopy Synthetic biology Naturally evolved cellular circuits. Work supported by NSF Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  17. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Boekhorst, S; Depla, M F I A; Francke, A L; Twisk, J W R; Zwijsen, S A; Hertogh, C M P M

    2013-04-01

    As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better quality of life scores for mood, behavioral and societal dimensions than residents with physical restraints. Quality of life was assessed longitudinally, with three measurements in six psychogeriatric nursing homes of residents with surveillance technology (n = 170) and residents with physical restraints (n = 22). QUALIDEM subscales were used to measure five dimensions of quality of life. Multilevel longitudinal univariate and multivariate regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Because physical restraints were almost exclusively used in residents with low activities of daily living (ADL) independency (18 of the 22), we restricted the regression analyses to residents with a Barthel Index score ≤ 5 (overall n = 53). Univariate results showed that highly ADL-dependent residents with surveillance technology had significantly more positive affect than highly ADL-dependent residents with physical restraints. However, this difference proved to be no longer significant after adjustment for the confounders: age, sex and stage of dementia. Quality of life of highly ADL-dependent nursing-home residents with dementia seems to be unrelated to the use of surveillance technology as opposed to physical restraints. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Educational level, coping, and psychological and physical aspects of quality of life in heart transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burker, Eileen J; Madan, Alok; Evon, Donna; Finkel, Jerry B; Mill, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether demographic factors and coping strategies are related to quality of life in heart transplant candidates. Participants were 50 inpatients being evaluated for heart transplant. Coping was measured using the COPE Inventory (1) (J Pers Soc Psychol, 56, 1989, 267). Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 (2) (Health Survey: Manual and Interpretation Guide, Quality Metric Inc, Lincoln, RI, 2000). Higher education and less seeking of social support were independently associated with better physical functioning. Higher use of denial was associated with poorer mental health functioning. In patients with significant physical limitations, years of education appears to be protective. Less seeking of social support was associated with better physical functioning perhaps because individuals who feel better physically do not feel the need to elicit support. Alternatively, the tendency to not seek assistance could stem from personality characteristics such as avoidance or optimism. Denial was associated with worse mental health functioning. Denying the existence of a stressor may be a high risk coping strategy for patients who are pre-transplant and even more dangerous for those who are post-transplant given the need to be alert to symptoms. Proactive identification of patients at risk for poorer quality of life will allow for more timely psychosocial interventions, which could impact post-transplant outcomes.

  19. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g. manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  20. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-07-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often led to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative