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Sample records for physical demands job

  1. Retention in physically demanding jobs of individuals with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt Hansen, Bjarke; Kirkeskov, Lilli; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    is associated with physical and mental well-being, so, patients may benefit from an early additional occupational medicine intervention. For individuals with physically demanding jobs it can be especially challenging to retain their jobs. The aim of the 'GoBack trial' is to develop and evaluate the efficacy...... and feasibility of an occupational medicine intervention for individuals with low back pain in physically demanding jobs. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a randomised controlled trial enrolling 300 participants with difficulty in maintaining physically demanding jobs due to low back pain for a current period of 2...... intervention model for individuals with low back pain in physically demanding jobs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02015572 ) on 29 November 2013....

  2. Does job burnout mediate negative effects of job demands on mental and physical health in a group of teachers? Testing the energetic process of Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated by job burnout - effects of job demands on mental and physical health problems. The Job Demands-Resources model was the theoretical framework of the study. Three job demands were taken into account - interpersonal conflicts at work, organizational constraints and workload. Indicators of mental and physical health problems included depression and physical symptoms, respectively. Three hundred and sixteen Polish teachers from 8 schools participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested with the use of tools measuring job demands (Interpersonal Conflicts at Work, Organizational Constraints, Quantitative Workload), job burnout (the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), depression (the Beck Hopelessness Scale), and physical symptoms (the Physical Symptoms Inventory). The regression analysis with bootstrapping, using the PROCESS macros of Hayes was applied. The results support the hypotheses partially. The indirect effect and to some extent the direct effect of job demands turned out to be statistically important. The negative impact of 3 job demands on mental (hypothesis 1 - H1) and physical (hypothesis 2 - H2) health were mediated by the increasing job burnout. Only organizational constraints were directly associated with mental (and not physical) health. The results partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the low well-being of teachers in the workplace. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    ) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. METHODS/DESIGN: A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work......BACKGROUND: A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job...... groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers...

  4. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  5. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar; van der Klink, Jac; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Data for 2964 Norwegian nurses were collected in the period 2008-2010. At baseline, psychological job demands were measured with the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Health-related functioning was assessed by the Mental Composite Score and the Physical Composite Score of the SF-12 Health Survey (2nd version). Sickness absence (no = 0, yes = 1) was self-reported at 1-year follow-up. Interaction and mediation analyses were conducted stratified by tenure (6 years) as a registered nurse. A total of 2180 nurses (74%) with complete data were eligible for analysis. A significant three-way interaction between job demands, control and support was found in newly licensed nurses (tenure sickness absence at 1-year follow-up. This association was substantially weakened when Mental Composite Score and Physical Composite Score were introduced as mediator variables, indicating a partial mediation effect that was particularly pronounced in newly licensed nurses. Psychological job demands did not modify the effect of health-related functioning on sickness absence. Both mental and physical health-related functioning mediated between psychological job demands and sickness absence. Nurse managers should pay attention to health-related functioning, because poor health-related functioning may predict sickness absence, especially in newly licensed nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J

    2002-06-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.

  7. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  8. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high......A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  9. Behaving safely under pressure: The effects of job demands, resources, and safety climate on employee physical and psychosocial safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that employees who experience high job demands are more inclined to show unsafe behaviors in the workplace. In this paper, we examine why some employees behave safely when faced with these demands while others do not. We add to the literature by incorporating both physical and psychosocial safety climate in the job demands and resources (JD-R) model and extending it to include physical and psychosocial variants of safety behavior. Using a sample of 6230 health care employees nested within 52 organizations, we examined the relationship between job demands and (a) resources, (b) safety climate, and (c) safety behavior. We conducted multilevel analyses to test our hypotheses. Job demands (i.e., work pressure), job resources (i.e., job autonomy, supervisor support, and co-worker support) and safety climate (both physical and psychosocial safety climate) are directly associated with, respectively, lower and higher physical and psychosocial safety behavior. We also found some evidence that safety climate buffers the negative impact of job demands (i.e., work-family conflict and job insecurity) on safety behavior and strengthens the positive impact of job resources (i.e., co-worker support) on safety behavior. Regardless of whether the focus is physical or psychological safety, our results show that strengthening the safety climate within an organization can increase employees' safety behavior. Practical implication: An organization's safety climate is an optimal target of intervention to prevent and ameliorate negative physical and psychological health and safety outcomes, especially in times of uncertainty and change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  10. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  11. [Application of job demands-resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.

  12. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225

  13. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi; Christensen, Jeanette R; Faber, Anne; Overgaard, Kristian; Ektor-Andersen, John; Mortensen, Ole S; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-03-09

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills) and physical work demands

  14. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  15. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly demanding work situations. The aim of this study was to use the job demands-resources (JD-R model) to investigate whether job crafting buffers the negative impacts of four types of job demands (workload, emotional dissonance, work contents, and physical demands) on burnout and work engagement. A questionnaire study was designed to examine the buffering role of job crafting among 470 Finnish dentists. All in all, 11 out of 16 possible interaction effects of job demands and job crafting on employee well-being were significant. Job crafting particularly buffered the negative effects of job demands on burnout (7/8 significant interactions) and to a somewhat lesser extent also on work engagement (4/8 significant interactions). Applying job crafting techniques appeared to be particularly effective in mitigating the negative effects of quantitative workload (4/4 significant interactions). By demonstrating that job crafting can also buffer the negative impacts of high job demands on employee well-being, this study contributed to the JD-R model as it suggests that job crafting may even be possible under high work demands, and not only in resourceful jobs, as most previous studies have indicated. In addition to the top-down initiatives for improving employee well-being, bottom-up approaches such as job crafting may also be efficient in preventing burnout and enhancing work engagement.

  16. Expert ratings of job demand and job control as predictors of injury and musculoskeletal disorder risk in a manufacturing cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    To examine associations between workplace injury and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk and expert ratings of job-level psychosocial demand and job control, adjusting for job-level physical demand. Among a cohort of 9260 aluminium manufacturing workers in jobs for which expert ratings of job-level physical and psychological demand and control were obtained during the 2 years following rating obtainment, multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of minor injury and minor MSD, serious injury and MSD, minor MSD only and serious MSD only by tertile of demand and control, adjusting for physical demand as well as other recognised risk factors. Compared with workers in jobs rated as having low psychological demand, workers in jobs with high psychological demand had 49% greater risk of serious injury and serious MSD requiring medical treatment, work restrictions or lost work time (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.01). Workers in jobs rated as having low control displayed increased risk for minor injury and minor MSD (RR=1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.87) compared with those in jobs rated as having high control. Using expert ratings of job-level exposures, this study provides evidence that psychological job demand and job control contribute independently to injury and MSD risk in a blue-collar manufacturing cohort, and emphasises the importance of monitoring psychosocial workplace exposures in addition to physical workplace exposures to promote worker health and safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  18. Determinants of Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intent in Home Health Workers: The Role of Job Demands and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Lee, Ahyoung A; Zadrozny, Michelle; Bae, Sung-Heui; Kim, Miyong T; Marti, Nathan C

    2017-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the impact of job demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor/organization/society) on home health workers' employee outcomes (job satisfaction and turnover intent). Using data from the National Home Health Aide Survey (N = 3,354), multivariate models of job satisfaction and turnover intent were explored. In both models, the negative impact of demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and the positive impact of resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor and organization) were observed. The overall findings suggest that physical injury and discrimination should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to improve home health workers' safety and well-being. Attention also needs to be paid to ways to bolster work-related efficacy and to promote an organizational culture of appreciation and respect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  20. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    OpenAIRE

    Adrianna Potocka; Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with...

  1. Job demands, job resources and safety outcomes: The roles of emotional exhaustion and safety compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Li; Yao, Xiang; Li, YongJuan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model in explaining the relationship of job demands and resources with safety outcomes (i.e., workplace injuries and near-misses). We collected self-reported data from 670 crude oil production workers from three sub-companies of a major oilfield company in China. The results of a structural equation analysis indicated that job demands (psychological and physical demands) and job resources (decision latitude, supervisor support and coworker support) could affect emotional exhaustion and safety compliance, and thus influence the occurrence of injuries and near-misses. The implications of the present findings regarding both the JD-R model and occupational safety research were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje

    2013-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

  3. Department of Defense Physical Strength and Job Performance Survey: Report on the Ability of First-Term Enlisted Personnel to Perform Physically Demanding Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Barrie

    2002-01-01

    ... to perform physically demanding tasks. Within each service, 10 occupational specialties with moderate to high strength requirements were identified as the target populations for the DOD Physical Strength mid Job Performance Survey...

  4. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  5. Resource scarcity, effort, and performance in physically demanding jobs: An evolutionary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Based on evolutionary theory, we predicted that cues of resource scarcity in the environment (e.g., news of droughts or food shortages) lead people to reduce their effort and performance in physically demanding work. We tested this prediction in a 2-wave field survey among employees and replicated it experimentally in the lab. In Study 1, employees who perceived resources in the environment to be scarce reported exerting less effort when their jobs involved much (but not little) physical work. In Study 2, participants who read that resources in the environment were scarce performed worse on a task demanding more (carrying books) but not less (transcribing book titles) physical work. This result was found even though better performance increased participants' chances of additional remuneration, and even though scarcity cues did not affect individuals' actual ability to meet their energy needs. We discuss implications for managing effort and performance, and the potential of evolutionary psychology to explain core organizational phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Job Demand and Job Resources related to the turnover intention of public health nurses: An analysis using a Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Aya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the job demands and job resources of public health nurses based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, and to build a model that can estimate turnover intention based on job demands and job resources.Method By adding 12 items to the existing questionnaire, the author created a questionnaire consisting of 10 factors and 167 items, and used statistical analysis to examine job demands and job resources in relation to turnover intention.Results Out of 2,668 questionnaires sent, 1993 (72.5%) were returned. Considering sex-based differences in occupational stress, I analyzed women's answers in 1766 (66.2%) mails among the 1798 valid responses. The average age of respondents was 41.0±9.8 years, and the mean service duration was 17.0±10.0 years. For public health nurses, there was a turnover intention of 9.2%. The "job demands" section consisted of 29 items and 10 factors, while the "job resources" section consisted of 54 items and 22 factors. The result of examining the structure of job demands and job resources, leading to turnover intention was supported by the JD-R model. Turnover intention was strong and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) is low in those who had many job demands and few job resources (experiencing 'burn-out'). Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention was weak in those who had many job resources. This explained approximately 60% of the dispersion to "burn-out", and approximately 40% to "work engagement", with four factors: work suitability, work significance, positive work self-balance, and growth opportunity of job resources.Conclusion This study revealed that turnover intention is strong in those who are burned out because of many job demands. Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention is weak in those with many job resources. This suggests that suitable staffing and organized efforts to raise awareness of job significance are effective in reducing

  7. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  8. Railing for safety: job demands, job control, and safety citizenship role definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes

  10. Accumulative job demands and support for strength use: Fine-tuning the job demands-resources model using conservation of resources theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Bakker, Arnold B; Nishii, Lisa H

    2016-01-01

    Absenteeism associated with accumulated job demands is a ubiquitous problem. We build on prior research on the benefits of counteracting job demands with resources by focusing on a still untapped resource for buffering job demands-that of strengths use. We test the idea that employees who are actively encouraged to utilize their personal strengths on the job are better positioned to cope with job demands. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we hypothesized that job demands can accumulate and together have an exacerbating effect on company registered absenteeism. In addition, using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that perceived organizational support for strengths use can buffer the impact of separate and combined job demands (workload and emotional demands) on absenteeism. Our sample consisted of 832 employees from 96 departments (response rate = 40.3%) of a Dutch mental health care organization. Results of multilevel analyses indicated that high levels of workload strengthen the positive relationship between emotional demands and absenteeism and that support for strength use interacted with workload and emotional job demands in the predicted way. Moreover, workload, emotional job demands, and strengths use interacted to predict absenteeism. Strengths use support reduced the level of absenteeism of employees who experienced both high workload and high emotional demands. We conclude that providing strengths use support to employees offers organizations a tool to reduce absenteeism, even when it is difficult to redesign job demands. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Towards a Job Demands-Resources Health Model: Empirical Testing with Generalizable Indicators of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Comprehensive Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J.; Füllemann, Désirée; Bauer, Georg F.

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model commonly have a heterogeneous focus concerning the variables they investigate?selective job demands and resources as well as burnout and work engagement. The present study applies the rationale of the JD-R model to expand the relevant outcomes of job demands and job resources by linking the JD-R model to the logic of a generic health development framework predicting more broadly positive and negative health. The resulting JD-R health model ...

  12. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  13. Job demands and resources of workers in a South African agricultural organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe

    2015-03-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Adapted Job Demands and Resources Scale (AJDRS as well as to establish prevalent job demands and resources of employees in an agricultural organisation. Demographic differences were also investigated. Motivation of the study: The agricultural sector of any national economy plays a very important role in the overall welfare of the country. Identifying the prevalent job demands and resources in an agricultural organisation is therefore of paramount importance since the negative consequences of employees experiencing very demanding jobs with few resources have been well documented in stress literature. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 443 employees in an agricultural organisation. The AJDRS was used to measure the research variables. Main findings: The findings of this research show evidence for the factorial validity and reliability of the AJDRS. Statistical differences were found with regard to the job demands and resources experienced by employees in different positions. Practical/managerial implications: Interventions to improve the perceived job demands and resources in the organisation should focus on physical resources (equipment. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the job demands and resources that are prevalent in an agricultural organisation in South Africa.

  14. Safety behavior: Job demands, job resources, and perceived management commitment to safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansez, Isabelle; Chmiel, Nik

    2010-07-01

    The job demands-resources model posits that job demands and resources influence outcomes through job strain and work engagement processes. We test whether the model can be extended to effort-related "routine" safety violations and "situational" safety violations provoked by the organization. In addition we test more directly the involvement of job strain than previous studies which have used burnout measures. Structural equation modeling provided, for the first time, evidence of predicted relationships between job strain and "routine" violations and work engagement with "routine" and "situational" violations, thereby supporting the extension of the job demands-resources model to safety behaviors. In addition our results showed that a key safety-specific construct 'perceived management commitment to safety' added to the explanatory power of the job demands-resources model. A predicted path from job resources to perceived management commitment to safety was highly significant, supporting the view that job resources can influence safety behavior through both general motivational involvement in work (work engagement) and through safety-specific processes.

  15. Influence of job demands and job control on work-life balance among Taiwanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lee-Peng; Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Lin, Bo-Yen; Kuar, Lok-Sin

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the job demands and job control of nurses were related to their work-life balance. The inability to achieve work-life balance is one of the major reasons for the declining retention rate among nurses. Job demands and job control are two major work domain factors that can have a significant influence on the work-life balance of nurses. The study measured the job demands, job control and work-life balance of 2040 nurses in eight private hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. Job demands and job control significantly predicted all the dimensions of work-life balance. Job demands increased the level of work-life imbalance among nurses. While job control showed positive effects on work/personal life enhancement, it was found to increase both work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. Reducing the level of job demands (particularly for psychological demands) between family and career development and maintaining a proper level of job control are essential to the work-life balance of nurses. Flexible work practices and team-based management could be considered by nursing management to lessen job demand pressure and to facilitate job engagement and participation among nurses, thus promoting a better balance between work and personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performa...

  17. Job demands, job resources, and job performance in japanese workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, pjob performance while supervisor support (β=-0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees.

  18. Religiousness in times of job insecurity: job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.; van Emmerik, H.; De Cuyper, N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  19. Religiousness in times of job insecurity : job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.H.J.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.; Cuyper, De N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  20. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  1. Job demands, job resources, and self-regulatory behavior : exploring the issue of match

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Industrial and Organizational psychology, several job stress models have been developed that aim to explain the relation between job demands, job resources, and job strain. One of these job stress models is the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model. The aim of this thesis

  2. The job demands-resources model of burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Nachreiner, F.; Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    The job demands - resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources, that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working

  3. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Flexible Competence: The Mediating Role of Teachers’ Profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Béatrice; Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Building upon previous research that focused on the relationships between job demands, job resources, and employee psychological well-being, this longitudinal research makes a unique contribution by relating job demands and job resources to teachers’ professional development (TPD) at work and

  4. Job demand and job resources as predictors of absence duration and frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Boer, de E.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    This study among 214 nutrition production employees uses the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model to predict future company registered absenteeism. According to this model, job demands are primarily responsible for health impairment, whereas job resources lead primarily to increased motivation and

  5. Job-demand for Learning, Job-related Learning and Need for Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, Mark; Casimir, G.

    2007-01-01

    Individual learning is important, as it is both a precursor and an outcome of learning in organisations. Job-related learning is driven by external factors (e.g., the demands of the job) and internal factors (i.e., the personality of the individual). The study examined whether need for achievement moderates the relationship between job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 153 full-time, white-collar employees from a range of industries. Hierarchical regression...

  6. Job-demand for learning and job-related learning: the mediating effect of job performance improvement initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, M; Bartram, T

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether job-performance-improvementinitiatives mediate the relationship between individuals’ job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 115 full-time\\ud employees in a diverse range of occupations. A partial least squares analysis revealed that job-performance-improvement-initiatives mediate partially the effects of job-demand for learning on job-related learning. Several implications\\ud for future research and policy are drawn from the findi...

  7. Towards a Job Demands-Resources Health Model: Empirical Testing with Generalizable Indicators of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Comprehensive Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Füllemann, Désirée; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model commonly have a heterogeneous focus concerning the variables they investigate-selective job demands and resources as well as burnout and work engagement. The present study applies the rationale of the JD-R model to expand the relevant outcomes of job demands and job resources by linking the JD-R model to the logic of a generic health development framework predicting more broadly positive and negative health. The resulting JD-R health model was operationalized and tested with a generalizable set of job characteristics and positive and negative health outcomes among a heterogeneous sample of 2,159 employees. Applying a theory-driven and a data-driven approach, measures which were generally relevant for all employees were selected. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the model fitted the data. Multiple group analyses indicated invariance across six organizations, gender, job positions, and three times of measurement. Initial evidence was found for the validity of an expanded JD-R health model. Thereby this study contributes to the current research on job characteristics and health by combining the core idea of the JD-R model with the broader concepts of salutogenic and pathogenic health development processes as well as both positive and negative health outcomes.

  8. Towards a Job Demands-Resources Health Model: Empirical Testing with Generalizable Indicators of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Comprehensive Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brauchli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model commonly have a heterogeneous focus concerning the variables they investigate—selective job demands and resources as well as burnout and work engagement. The present study applies the rationale of the JD-R model to expand the relevant outcomes of job demands and job resources by linking the JD-R model to the logic of a generic health development framework predicting more broadly positive and negative health. The resulting JD-R health model was operationalized and tested with a generalizable set of job characteristics and positive and negative health outcomes among a heterogeneous sample of 2,159 employees. Applying a theory-driven and a data-driven approach, measures which were generally relevant for all employees were selected. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the model fitted the data. Multiple group analyses indicated invariance across six organizations, gender, job positions, and three times of measurement. Initial evidence was found for the validity of an expanded JD-R health model. Thereby this study contributes to the current research on job characteristics and health by combining the core idea of the JD-R model with the broader concepts of salutogenic and pathogenic health development processes as well as both positive and negative health outcomes.

  9. [Job Demands-Resources, exhaustion and work engagement in a long-term care institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, P M; Neri, L; Campanini, P; Francioli, L; Camerino, D; Punzi, S; Fichera, G P; Costa, G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at testing the main hypotheses of the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) in a sample of employees (n = 205, mainly healthcare workers) of a long-term care institution located in Northern Italy. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that almost all job demands considered were significantly associated with higher general psycho-physical exhaustion (beta ranging from 0.14 to 0.29), whereas more unfavourable scores in all job resources were associated with lower work engagement (from -0.27 to -0.51). However, also significant cross-over associations were observed, mainly between job resources and exhaustion, with effect sizes comparable with those found for the relationships between job demands and exhaustion. Hence, our study only partially supports the JD-R model. Implications of results for work-related stress management are finally discussed.

  10. Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Work Engagement, and Their Relationships: An Analysis Across Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Elst, Tinne Vander; Baillien, Elfi; Sercu, Maarten; Schouteden, Martijn; De Witte, Hans; Godderis, Lode

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in the importance of job demands and resources and the validity of the Job Demands Resources Model across sectors. We used one-way analyses of variance to examine mean differences, and multi-group Structural Equation Modeling analyses to test the strength of the relationships among job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement across the health care, industry, service, and public sector. The four sectors differed in the experience of job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement, but they did not vary in how (strongly) job demands and resources associated with burnout and work engagement. More attention is needed to decrease burnout and increase work engagement, particularly in industry, service, and the public sector. The Job Demands-Resources model may be helpful in this regard, as it is valid across sectors.

  11. The job demands-resources model of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, E; Bakker, A B; Nachreiner, F; Schaufeli, W B

    2001-06-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.

  12. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-03-15

    Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.

  13. Accumulative job demands and support for strength use : Fine-tuning the job demands-resources model using conservation of resources theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkom, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Nishii, L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Absenteeism associated with accumulated job demands is a ubiquitous problem. We build on prior research on the benefits of counteracting job demands with resources by focusing on a still untapped resource for buffering job demands—that of strengths use. We test the idea that employees who are

  14. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. AIM: To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. METHODS: Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experienc...

  15. PENGARUH JOB DEMANDS, JOB RESOURCES DAN PERSONAL RESOURCES TERHADAP WORK ENGAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Restu Ayu; M. Syamsul Maarif; Anggraini Sukmawati

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the influence of job demands, job resources and personal resources toward work engagement, define the best predictors of work engagement and the influence of work engagement towards turnover intention. Structural equation modeling was used in this research to estimate the influence of variables simultaneously. This research was conducted to 116 samples of manufacturing employees. The results showed that job demands have direct effect to work engagem...

  16. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. The moderating role of personal resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual’s physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. Methods We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n=9434). Results The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. Conclusions In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. PMID:28851776

  18. The application of subjective job task analysis techniques in physically demanding occupations: evidence for the presence of self-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Bates, Benjamin; Billing, Daniel C; Caputi, Peter; Carstairs, Greg L; Linnane, Denise; Middleton, Kane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task. This may indicate self-serving bias in which participants that are more actively involved in a task had an inflated perception of that task's importance. These results have important implications for the conduct of job task analyses, especially the use of subjective methodologies in the development of scientifically defensible physical employment standards. Practitioner Summary: To examine the presence of systematic bias in subjective job task analysis methodologies, a survey was conducted on a sample of Royal Australian Navy personnel. The relationship between job task descriptions and participant's demographic and job profile characteristics revealed the presence of self-serving bias affecting perceptions of task importance.

  19. Testing and extending the triple match principle in the nursing profession: a generational perspective on job demands, job resources and strain at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle

    2014-02-01

    The Triple Match Principle offers insight into the interactive interplay between job demands and job resources in the prediction of work-related strain. The aim of this article was to examine the interplay among job demands, job resources and strain in the nursing profession (the Triple Match Principle) and to gain insight into potential generational differences by investigating generation as a moderator of that interplay. No research has been done to evaluate generational differences in the Triple Match Principle. In a context of nursing shortages, it seems important to examine the relevance of the Triple Match Principle with respect to different generations of nurses. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1254 public healthcare sector nurses in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire in the autumn of 2010. The questionnaire was used to assess cognitive, emotional and physical job demands and resources; psychological distress; psychosomatic complaints; and turnover intention. The results supported the Triple Match Principle and showed that job resources were more likely to buffer the effect of job demands on strain as the degree of match in qualitative dimension among demands, resources and strain increased (33·3% of triple-match interactions, 22·22% of double-match interactions and 16·67% non-match interactions were significant). Moreover, generation played a key role in this interplay, as it increased the number of significant qualitative interactions among job demands, job resources and strain. The results underscore the necessity of providing adequate job resources tailored to the specific job demands nurses face, to counteract the negative effects of those demands. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Identifying the critical physical demanding tasks of paramedic work: Towards the development of a physical employment standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Steven L; Sinden, Kathryn E; MacPhee, Renee S

    2017-11-01

    Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks. These outcomes are essential to inform the design and development of an evidence-based PES for the paramedic sector. Physical demands of paramedic work were documented and described using a direct observation-based task analysis technique. Five paramedic's were trained to document the physical demands of their work, then applied their training to observe more than 90 calls over the course of 20 full 12-h work shifts. Physical demands data were then listed in a survey, administered service-wide, where 155 frontline paramedics identified critically demanding tasks and rank-ordered physical demands from not physically demanding to very strongly demanding. Critically important and physically demanding tasks were identified such as: transferring a patient; loading or unloading a stretcher in to or out of the ambulance; performing CPR; and, raising and lowering a stretcher. It is important that a paramedic-based PES evaluate a candidate's physical capabilities to perform the critical and physically demanding tasks identified in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Job demands, job resources, and work engagement of Japanese employees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Shimazu, Akihito; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko

    2013-05-01

    Research on the prospective association of job demands and job resources with work engagement is still limited in Asian countries, such as Japan. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands and extrinsic effort) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), based on the job demands-control (JD-C) [or demand-control-support (DCS)] model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, with work engagement among Japanese employees. The participants included 423 males and 672 females from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ), the nine-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), and demographic characteristics, were administered at baseline (August 2009). At one-year follow-up (August 2010), the UWES-9 was used again to assess work engagement. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and work engagement at baseline, higher psychological demands and decision latitude were positively and significantly associated with greater work engagement at follow-up (β = 0.054, p = 0.020 for psychological demands and β = 0.061, p = 0.020 for decision latitude). Having higher psychological demands and decision latitude may enhance work engagement among Japanese employees.

  2. Nurses' exhaustion: the role of flow at work between job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the job demands-resources model, this study aimed to detect the mediating role of flow at work between job demands and job resources on one side, and exhaustion on the other. In a historical period where it is necessary to reduce the abandonment of nursing profession, flow is a useful tool to investigate the factors that can promote work motivation and prevent psychological distress. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital, and 279 nurses completed a questionnaire. Analyses conducted are descriptive statistics, alphas, correlations and a structural equations model that considers the mediating role of flow at work. Findings show both the central role of job resources in determining flow at work, and the mediating role of flow at work in decreasing exhaustion, starting from job resources, and in decreasing the effect of job demands on exhaustion. Moreover, flow at work directly decreases exhaustion. Results show the relevance of containing job demands and provide job resources to promote positive experiences at work. To promote flow at work, organizations should offer specific resources, such as supervisors' support, job autonomy, and psychological support to manage the emotional charge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Retention of women accountants: The interaction of job demands and job resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Most CEOs in South Africa are chartered accountants (CAs. Retaining women CAs might therefore lead to an increase in women in leadership. The Job Demands-Resources model presents a framework to investigate organisational job-related factors that promote or deter voluntary turnover of women CAs. Research purpose: The primary objective was to investigate which organisational factors promote or reduce the risk of turnover intentions for South African women CAs. The secondary objective was to investigate the moderating potential of job resources on the relationship between job demands and turnover intentions. Motivation for the study: There is a fair amount of research on the problems associated with the retention of women CAs in public practice but very little is known about how those problems interact with each other, and whether there are factors that could buffer them. Research design, approach, and method: The study consisted of a sample (n = 851 of women CAs in public practice firms nationally in South Africa. We used structural equation modelling together with moderated regression analysis. Main findings: Job demands promote turnover intentions, whereas job resources have a negative effect on turnover intentions. Counter-intuitively a negative direct effect was found between job insecurity and turnover intentions. Statistical support was found for the moderating role of all job resources, except financial advancement, on the relationship between work–family conflict and turnover intentions; and growth opportunities, on the relationship between job insecurity and turnover intentions. Practical/managerial implications: No job resource measured could buffer the impact of job overload on turnover intentions. Contribution: This is the first study to investigate factors that may retain women CAs in public practice audit, tax, and advisory firms (Big Four Accountancy Firms using the JD-R model. Few studies have investigated the

  4. The moderating role of personal resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-08-28

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual's physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n = 9434). The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Workplace bullying: A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja van den Broeck

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators’ and actors’ reports of workplace bullying. Motivation for the study: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands- Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data. Research design, approach and method: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749. Main findings: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators’ reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators’ reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets’ reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims. Contribution/value-add: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators’ and targets’ reports of workplace bullying. The findings also underline the complex and multi-causal nature of workplace bullying.

  6. BEYOND JOB POSITIONS. A SOCIAL RESPONSE TO THE CHANGES IN JOB DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pirog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the recent changes in the job market and discuss the process this triggered in the social politics of the welfare states. We examine the economic reasons for the changes in job demand and furthermore explore the associated changes in the social structures. New forms of employment and gratification demand a restructurization in the social politics in order to elasticise the job supply. The mismatch between the demand and supply on the job market may result in unemployment, work outside the norms of the law and a growing deficit of social security. This in turn leads to the situation where the sale of own work force doesn't always result in a dignified life standard. As a result, new ways to support people outside the regular job market need to be found. These new solution are essential in the modern society where the distribution of work is an important issue shaping the social bonds and individual identities.

  7. Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study with three aims: (i) to investigate whether emotional, quantitative and physical demands have a causal, negative impact on nurses' health; (ii) to examine whether work-home interference can explain this effect, by playing a mediating role; and (iii) to test the so-called loss spiral hypothesis claiming that nurses' health problems lead to even higher job demands and more work-home interference over time. While many scholars have thought in terms of the stressor-->work-home interference-->strain model, the validity of a model that includes opposite pathways needs to be tested. A questionnaire was completed twice, with a 1-year time interval by 753 (63.4%) Registered Nurses working in hospitals, 183 (15.4%) working in nursing homes, and 251 (21.1%) working in home care institutions. The first measurement took place between October 2002 and June 2003. Our findings strongly support the idea of cross-lagged, reciprocal relationships between job demands and general health over time. The reciprocal model with work-home interference as an intervening variable (including reciprocal relationships between job demands, work-home interference and general health) showed a good fit to the data, and proved to be superior to both the causality and reversed causation models. The higher nurses' job demands, the higher is their level of work-home interference and the more likely is a general health deterioration over time, in turn giving rise to higher job demands and work-home interference, which may even aggravate the nurses' general health, and so on.

  8. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was

  9. The Job Demands-Resources Model in China: Validation and Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model assumes that employee health and well-being result from the interplay between job demands and job resources. Based on its openheuristic nature, the JD-R model can be applied to various occupational settings, irrespective of the particular demands and resources

  10. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether

  11. Occupational stress in (inter)action: the interplay between job demands and job resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, van N.; Jonge, de J.; Landsbergis, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses theoretical issues involving different interaction effects between job demands and job resources, accompanied by a thorough empirical test of interaction terms in the demand-control (DC) model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to employee health and

  12. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years....... In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low...

  13. The Physical Demands and Ergonomics of Working with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne; King, Phyllis; Scheuer, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the physical demands and ergonomic concerns within child care settings. Discusses problem areas and ergonomic recommendations for room design and staff training. Presents important implications for writing job descriptions, determining essential job functions, orienting and training staff, and committing to improving the child care work…

  14. How job demands affect an intimate partner: a test of the spillover-crossover model in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how job demands affect an intimate partner's well-being. We hypothesized that job demands have a negative influence on partner well-being through the experience of work-family conflict (WFC) and an impaired quality of the relationship (reduced social support and increased social undermining towards the partner). The participants of this study were 99 couples of dual-earner parents in Japan. Consistent with hypotheses, men's job demands (i.e. overload and emotional demands) were positively related to their own reports of WFC, and indirectly to women's ratings of men's WFC. Consequently, women's ratings of men's WFC were negatively related to the quality of the relationship (i.e. decreased social support from and increased social undermining by men), which, in turn, led to women's ill-health (i.e. depressive symptoms and physical complaints). We found similar findings for the model starting with women's job demands; gender did not affect the strength of the relationships in the model. These findings suggest that high job demands initiate a process of work-family conflict and poor relationship quality, which may eventually affect the intimate partner's well-being in an unfavorable way.

  15. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  16. Identifying Challenging Job and Environmental Demands of Older Nurses Within the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosaiye, Isaiah Oluremi; Hadjri, Karim; Liyanage, Champika Lasanthi

    2016-04-01

    To explore the existing theoretical contexts of the job and environmental demands of the nursing profession in the National Health Service (NHS) and to investigate how these job and environmental demands impact on the personal constructs of older nurses within the NHS. Nursing is the single most widely practiced profession in the healthcare sector in the United Kingdom. However, nurses contend with challenging job and environmental demands on a daily basis, which deplete them of personal constructs (or resources) required to stay in the profession. A multilevel exploratory qualitative research design was employed. Ten managers were interviewed for the preliminary study, based on which the three characteristics of an age-friendly NHS workplace were established: health, retirement, and flexibility. Then an in-depth literature review revealed that the most adversely affected job within the NHS was the nursing profession. Finally, a focus group study was undertaken with six older nurses working in the NHS. The most compelling finding of this study is that older nurses would generally not want to stay on the job if they had to work in the ward area. The physical, cognitive, and sensory constructs of older nurses are negatively affected by the job and environmental demands of the ward areas. Understanding how these job and environmental demands of the workplace affect an older nurse's personal constructs may help support a better design of nurse work and the wards and help extend the working lives of older nurses in the NHS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons’ staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. Results: The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = −0.375, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff. PMID:28546980

  18. Interpersonal interactions, job demands and work-related outcomes in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Caroline A; Nadkarni, Anagha

    2012-04-01

    Objectives  The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between job demands of pharmacists and resources in the form of interpersonal interactions and its association with work-related outcomes such as organizational and professional commitment, job burnout, professional identity and job satisfaction. The job demands-resources (JD-R) model served as the theoretical framework. Methods  Subjects for the study were drawn from the Pharmacy Manpower Project Database (n = 1874). A 14-page mail-in survey measured hospital pharmacists' responses on the frequency of occurrence of various job-related scenarios as well as work-related outcomes. The study design was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Responses were collected on a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics, reliability analyses and correlational and multiple regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Key findings  The 566 pharmacists (30% response rate) who responded to the survey indicated that high-demand/pleasant encounters and low-demand/pleasant encounters occurred more frequently in the workplace. The strongest correlations were found between high-demand/unpleasant encounters and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses indicated that when controlling for demographic factors high-demand/unpleasant encounters were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and positively related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Low-demand/pleasant encounters were positively related to frequency and intensity of personal accomplishment. Low-demand/unpleasant encounters were significantly and negatively related to professional commitment, job satisfaction and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion, while high-demand/pleasant encounters were also related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion Conclusion  Support was found for the JD-R model and the proposed interaction effects

  19. The role of workaholism in the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Monica; Bakker, Arnold B; Ghislieri, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    The present study tries to gain more insight in workaholism by investigating its antecedents and consequences using the job demands-resources model. We hypothesized that job demands would be positively related to workaholism, particularly when job resources are low. In addition, we hypothesized that workaholism would be positively related to negative outcomes in three important life domains: health, family, and work. The research involved 617 Italian workers (employees and self-employed). To test the hypotheses we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) and moderated structural equation modeling (MSEM) using Mplus 6. The results of SEM showed a good model where workload, cognitive demands, emotional demands, and customer-related social stressors were positively related to workaholism and work-family conflict (WFC) (partial mediation). Additionally, workaholism was indirectly related to exhaustion and intentions to change jobs through WFC. Moreover, MSEM analyses confirmed that job resources (job security and opportunities for development) buffered the relationship between job demands and workaholism. Particularly, the interaction effects were statistically significant in five out of eight combinations. These findings suggest that workaholism is a function of a suboptimal work environment and predicts unfavorable employee outcomes. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  20. Scheduling Non-Preemptible Jobs to Minimize Peak Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Yaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids. Demand-side scheduling can reduce these peaks by taking advantage of the fact that there is often flexibility in job start times. We focus attention on the case where the jobs are non-preemptible, meaning once started, they run to completion. The associated optimization problem is called the peak demand minimization problem, and has been previously shown to be NP-hard. Our results include an optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm, a polynomial-time approximation algorithm, as well as an effective heuristic that can also be used in an online setting of the problem. Simulation results show that these methods can reduce peak demand by up to 50% versus on-demand scheduling for household power jobs.

  1. Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Verbeke, W.

    2004-01-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was used to examine the relationship between job characteristics, burnout, and (other-ratings of) performance (N = 146). We hypothesized that job demands (e.g., work pressure and emotional demands) would be the most important antecedents of the exhaustion

  2. Spanish version of Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; González-Fernández, Marcos-David; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.

  3. Job-demand for learning and job-related learning: the moderating effect of need for achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, M; Casimir, G

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research is to examine whether need for achievement moderates the relationship between job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained from 153 participants full-time. The scales for job-demand for learning and job-related learning were developed for this research, whilst the scale for need for achievement was obtained from an external source. Hierarchical regression analysis was used in testing the hypothesized mod...

  4. Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeJoo; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Yeon Jin; Bae, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    We used the job-demand-control model to answer our two research questions concerning the effects of working conditions on self-rated health and gender differences and the association between these working conditions and health among Korean manual workers. Since a disproportionate representation of women in nonstandard work positions is found in many countries, including Korea, it is important to examine how working conditions explain gender inequality in health. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and analyzed a total sample of 1,482 men and 1,350 women using logistic regression. We found that job control was positively related to self-rated health, while both physical and mental job demands were negatively related to self-rated health. We also found significant interaction effects of job demands, control, and gender on health. Particularly, female workers' health was more vulnerable to mentally demanding job conditions. We discussed theoretical and practice implications based on these findings.

  5. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  6. Explaining worker strain and learning: how important are emotional job demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W; Schreurs, Paul J G

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the added value of emotional job demands in explaining worker well-being, relative to the effects of task characteristics, such as quantitative job demands, job control, and coworker support. Emotional job demands were expected to account for an additional proportion of the variance in well-being. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 11,361 female Dutch home care employees. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that low control, low support and high quantitative demands were generally associated with lower well-being (as measured in terms of emotional exhaustion, dedication, professional accomplishment and learning). Moreover, high emotional demands were in three out of four cases significantly associated with adverse well-being, in these cases accounting for an additional 1-6% of the variance in the outcome variables. In three out of eight cases the main effects of emotional demands on well-being were qualified by support and control, such that high control and high support either buffered the adverse effects of high emotional demands on well-being or increased the positive effects thereof. All in all, high emotional demands are as important a risk factor for worker well-being as well-established concepts like low job control and high quantitative job demands.

  7. Emotional job demands and the role of matching job resources: a cross-sectional survey study among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jan; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Peeters, Maria C W; Noordam, Hanneke

    2008-10-01

    Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. To test the moderating role of matching (i.e. emotional) and non-matching (i.e. cognitive) job resources in the relation between emotional job demands and employee health/well-being (i.e. emotional exhaustion, employee creativity, and work motivation). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. A large organization for residential elderly care with eight locations in an urban area in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed to 1259 health care workers, of which 826 people returned the questionnaire (66% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate multiple regression analysis (LISREL 8.54) with cross-validation was conducted. Findings showed that emotional job resources moderated the relation between emotional job demands and health/well-being outcomes. Firstly, emotional job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, both emotional job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and positive well-being outcomes (i.e. employee creativity and work motivation). Finally, cross-validation showed that parameter estimates did not vary across subsamples. Job resources could compensate for resources lost through meeting the requirements of emotional job demands, thereby reducing stress-reactions and increasing well-being. Providing health care workers with more, preferably matching, job resources could make emotional job demands less stressful, and even stimulating and challenging. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the interplay of emotional job demands and (matching) job resources more profoundly.

  8. The Job Demands-Resources Model: An Analysis of Additive and Joint Effects of Demands and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…

  9. Overcoming job demands to deliver high quality care in a hospital setting across Europe: The role of teamwork and positivity

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery Anthony; Panagopoulou Efharis; Costa Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals deal on a daily basis with several job demands – emotional, cognitive, organizational and physical. They must also ensure high quality care to their patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of job demands on quality of care and to investigate team (backup behaviors) and individual (positivity ratio) processes that help to shield that impact. Data was collected from 2,890 doctors and nurses in 9 European countries by means of questionnaires. Job demand...

  10. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  11. Burnout among psychosocial oncologists in Israel: The direct and indirect effects of job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri; Rasmussen, Victoria; Turnell, Adrienne; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-12-19

    Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. This study aimed to assess burnout among Israeli psychosocial oncologists in relation to the Job Demands-Resources model and the coping strategies model. Participants included 85 of 128 listed psychosocial oncologists currently working with cancer patients. They completed a questionnaire assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, job demands, job resources, work engagement, overcommitment, and perceived value of work. The mean level of burnout was low, whereas 16.3% experienced high levels of emotional exhaustion and only 2.4% experienced high levels of depersonalization. According to mediation analysis, overcommitment, partially mediated job demands-burnout associations, and work engagement mediated the perceived value-burnout association. Job resources and burnout were not related, either directly or indirectly. Significance of results The study extended the Job Demands-Resources model to include perceived value as an additional resource, and work-engagement and overcommitment as coping strategies. Two distinct patterns of associations were found between work characteristics and burnout: the positive-protective pattern (perceived value and work engagement) and the negative pattern (job demands and overcommitment). These two patterns should be considered for further research and for implementing preventive interventions to reduce burnout in the workplace setting.

  12. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, Judith K.

    2006-01-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in

  13. The Job Demands-Resources Model in China: Validation and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model assumes that employee health and well-being result from the interplay between job demands and job resources. Based on its openheuristic nature, the JD-R model can be applied to various occupational settings, irrespective of the particular demands and resources involved. However, the model has been developed and tested in western countries so that it is still an open question whether it can be applied in the Chinese work context. The objective of this dis...

  14. Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    2001-01-01

    Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped

  15. Job demands, job resources and work engagement of academic staff in South African higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rothmann

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the work engagement of academics in selected South African higher education institutions as well as the impact of job demands and job resources on their work engagement. Stratified random samples (N = 471 were drawn from academic staff in three higher education institutions in South Africa. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and the Job Demands-Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. The results confirmed a two-factor structure of work engagement, consisting of vigour and dedication. Six reliable factors were extracted on the JDRS, namely organisational support, growth opportunities, social support, overload, advancement and job insecurity. Job resources (including organisational support and growth opportunities predicted 26% of the variance in vigour and 38% of the variance in dedication. Job demands (overload impacted on dedication of academics at low and moderate levels of organisational support.

  16. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of Job Demands and Job Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Feij, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high

  17. Exploring the Factor Structure of the Job Demands-Resources Measure With Patient Violence on Direct Care Workers in the Home Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Ha Do; Harrington, Donna; Storr, Carla L; Lipscomb, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Workplace violence research in health care settings using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework is hindered by the lack of comprehensive examination of the factor structure of the JD-R measure when it includes patient violence. Is patient violence a component of job demands or its own factor as an occupational outcome? Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted using a sample of direct care workers in the home setting (n = 961). The overall 2-construct JD-R structure persisted. Patient violence was not identified as a separate factor from job demands; rather, two demand factors emerged: violence/emotional and workload/physical demands. Although the three-factor model fits the data, the two-factor model with patient violence being a component of job demands is a parsimonious and effective measurement framework.

  18. Self-Efficacy and Workaholism as Initiators of the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Depolo, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate school principals' well-being by using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework. It aims at making a significant contribution to the development of this model by considering not only job demands and job resources, but also the role of personal resources and personal demands as…

  19. Perseverative Cognition as an Explanatory Mechanism in the Relation Between Job Demands and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Geurts, Sabine A E; Garefelt, Johanna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal three-wave study was to examine (i) reciprocal associations among job demands, work-related perseverative cognition (PC), and sleep quality; (ii) PC as a mediator in-between job demands and sleep quality; and (iii) continuous high job demands in relation to sleep quality and work-related PC over time. A representative sample of the Swedish working population was approached in 2010, 2012, and 2014, and 2316 respondents were included in this longitudinal full-panel survey study. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the temporal relations between job demands, work-related PC, and sleep quality. Additionally, a subsample (N = 1149) consisting of individuals who reported the same level of exposure to job demands during all three waves (i.e. stable high, stable moderate, or stable low job demands) was examined in relation to PC and sleep quality over time. Analyses showed that job demands, PC, and poor sleep quality were positively and reciprocally related. Work-related PC mediated the normal and reversed, direct across-wave relations between job demands and sleep quality. Individuals with continuous high job demands reported significantly lower sleep quality and higher work-related PC, compared to individuals with continuous moderate/low job demands. This study substantiated reciprocal relations between job demands, work-related PC, and sleep quality and supported work-related PC as an underlying mechanism of the reciprocal job demands-sleep relationship. Moreover, this study showed that chronically high job demands are a risk factor for low sleep quality.

  20. Safety at work: a meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrgang, Jennifer D; Morgeson, Frederick P; Hofmann, David A

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we develop and meta-analytically test the relationship between job demands and resources and burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes in the workplace. In a meta-analysis of 203 independent samples (N = 186,440), we found support for a health impairment process and for a motivational process as mechanisms through which job demands and resources relate to safety outcomes. In particular, we found that job demands such as risks and hazards and complexity impair employees' health and positively relate to burnout. Likewise, we found support for job resources such as knowledge, autonomy, and a supportive environment motivating employees and positively relating to engagement. Job demands were found to hinder an employee with a negative relationship to engagement, whereas job resources were found to negatively relate to burnout. Finally, we found that burnout was negatively related to working safely but that engagement motivated employees and was positively related to working safely. Across industries, risks and hazards was the most consistent job demand and a supportive environment was the most consistent job resource in terms of explaining variance in burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. The type of job demand that explained the most variance differed by industry, whereas a supportive environment remained consistent in explaining the most variance in all industries.

  1. A Comparison of Subjective and Objective Job Demands and Fit with Personal Resources as Predictors of Retirement Timing in a National U.S. Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnega, Amanda; Helppie-McFall, Brooke; Hudomiet, Peter; Willis, Robert J; Fisher, Gwenith G

    2017-12-19

    Population aging and attendant pressures on public budgets have spurred considerable interest in understanding factors that influence retirement timing. A range of sociodemographic and economic characteristics predict both earlier and later retirement. Less is known about the role of job characteristics on the work choices of older workers. Researchers are increasingly using the subjective ratings of job characteristics available in the Health and Retirement Study in conjunction with more objective measures of job characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database. Employing a theoretically-informed model of job demands-personal resources fit, we constructed mismatch measures between resources and job demands (both subjectively and objectively assessed) in physical, emotional, and cognitive domains. When we matched comparable measures across the two data sources in the domains of physical, emotional, and cognitive job demands, we found that both sources of information held predictive power in relation to retirement timing. Physical and emotional but not cognitive mismatch were associated with earlier retirement. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research.

  2. Work demands, job insecurity and sickness absence from work. how productive is the new, flexible labour force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rennie M; Strazdins, Lyndall; Broom, Dorothy H; Rodgers, Bryan; Berry, Helen L

    2006-06-01

    We investigate one aspect of productivity--sickness absence--and ask whether job insecurity and high work demands are associated with increased sickness absence and, if so, whether mental or physical health mediates this association. We further investigate if having control at work modifies these associations. We used cross-sectional survey data from 2,248 employees aged 40-44 years living in two cities of south-eastern Australia. Logistic regressions were used to compare the associations between job insecurity and demands among those with short (1-3 days) or long-term (> 3 days) sickness absence with those who had no sickness absence in the last four weeks. The mediating effects of mental and physical health were assessed by evaluating changes in the magnitude of the association between these work conditions and sickness absence. High job insecurity (OR = 3.28; 95% CI 1.54-6.95) and high work demands (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.30) were significantly associated with long-term, but not with short-term, sickness absence. These associations were unaffected by job control. Depression and anxiety explained 61% of the association between high work demands and long-term sickness absence and 30% of the association between job insecurity and long-term sickness absence. Difficult working conditions may reduce productivity by contributing to longer absences from work. Reforms intended to improve economic performance should address any potential health costs of insecurity or intensification, which could inadvertently decrease productivity, possibly through their impact on mental health.

  3. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M

    2009-09-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems.

  4. The role of matching job resources in different demanding work situations : a vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.; Jonge, de J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines human service employees' beliefs about the availability, relevance, and use of specific types of job resources (i.e. cognitive, emotional, and physical) in similar types of demanding situations at work. To gain a better understanding of these intra-psychic processes assumed to

  5. Motivational Incongruence and Well-Being at the Workplace: Person-Job Fit, Job Burnout and Physical Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brandstätter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Person-environment fit has been identified as a key prerequisite for employee well-being. We investigated to what extent a misfit between motivational needs and supplies at the workplace affects two key health outcomes: burnout and physical symptoms. Individual needs (implicit affiliation and power motives and environment supplies (motive specific job characteristics were assessed in an online survey of full time employees (n = 97, using a picture story exercise measuring implicit motives and a scale listing affiliation and power related job characteristics. Outcomes were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a checklist of physical symptoms. We conducted polynomial regressions with response surface analysis. Results reveal that motivational incongruence with respect to the affiliation motive was related to high job burnout, while motivational incongruence concerning the power motive predicted increased physical symptoms. This was true for both those with a strong affiliation or power motive and low corresponding job characteristics and those with a weak affiliation or power motive and job characteristics demanding the respective motive. Results hint at potential interventions towards preventing or remedying a lack of needs-supply fit and reducing the risk of impairments of well-being.

  6. Motivational Incongruence and Well-Being at the Workplace: Person-Job Fit, Job Burnout, and Physical Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Job, Veronika; Schulze, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Person-environment fit has been identified as a key prerequisite for employee well-being. We investigated to what extent a misfit between motivational needs and supplies at the workplace affects two key health outcomes: burnout and physical symptoms. Individual needs (implicit affiliation and power motives) and environment supplies (motive specific job characteristics) were assessed in an online survey of full time employees (n = 97), using a picture story exercise measuring implicit motives and a scale listing affiliation and power related job characteristics. Outcomes were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a checklist of physical symptoms. We conducted polynomial regressions with response surface analysis. Results reveal that motivational incongruence with respect to the affiliation motive was related to high job burnout, while motivational incongruence concerning the power motive predicted increased physical symptoms. This was true for both those with a strong affiliation or power motive and low corresponding job characteristics and those with a weak affiliation or power motive and job characteristics demanding the respective motive. Results hint at potential interventions toward preventing or remedying a lack of needs-supply fit and reducing the risk of impairments of well-being.

  7. The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model: an experimental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model [Karasek, R. A. 1979. "Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign." Administration Science Quarterly 24: 285-307] proposes positive effects of high job demands and high job control on performance. We conducted a 2 (demands: high vs. low) × 2 (control: high vs. low) experimental office workplace simulation to examine this hypothesis. Since performance during a work simulation is confounded by the boundaries of the demands and control manipulations (e.g. time limits), we used a post-test, in which participants continued working at their task, but without any manipulation of demands and control. This post-test allowed for examining active learning (transfer) effects in an unconfounded fashion. Our results revealed that high demands had a positive effect on quantitative performance, without affecting task accuracy. In contrast, high control resulted in a speed-accuracy tradeoff, that is participants in the high control conditions worked slower but with greater accuracy than participants in the low control conditions.

  8. Job demands and job strain as risk factors for employee wellbeing in elderly care: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo

    2015-02-01

    The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Job Demands and Job Resources in Human Service Managerial Work An External Assessment ThroughWork Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Corin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managers’ psychosocial working conditions are important for managerial sustainability in the public sector. The job demands-resources (JD-R model is a widely applied and well-recognized framework for measuring psychosocial working conditions. However, there is still a need for methodological contributions including more objective as well as qualitative ways to assess these conditions. In this study, job demands and job resources as well as the balance between them was qualitatively and externally assessed for first-line human service managers using a work content analysis method. Conditions and actions were focused upon with an external perspective. Special attention was paid to concrete examples and consequences of work characteristics with predefined criteria and cut-off points to guide the assessments. The results reveal an imbalance for human service managers between high levels of job demands and the lack of job resources available to meet these demands. Work overload, conflicting and unclear goals and tasks, emotional demands, restricted control, and lack of supervisory and organizational support generally characterized the managerial assignment. The analysis provided concrete explanations of the current work strain in this group of employees, thereby giving both short-term and long-term possibilities for improvement of managerial work and sustainability.

  10. Relationship between musculoskeletal disorders, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorour, Amany Sobhy; El-Maksoud, Mona M Abd

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent one of the most common occupational problems in nursing. MSDs can negatively impact one's quality of life. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between MSDs, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses. The researchers hypothesized that increased job demands were associated with more MSDs and consequently higher levels of burnout. The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 58 nurses working in the emergency departments of Zagazig University Hospital and Al-Ahrar, Hospital Egypt from October to December 2010, using a cross-sectional analytic design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results revealed that 32.8% of the nurses were overweight and 17.2% were obese. The most common sites of pain were the neck (67.2%), shoulder (65.5%), and lower back (63.8%). Lower back pain was the most common site affected (72.4%) with a mean 5.1 on a scale ranging from 0 to 13. A positive correlation existed between the scores of job demand and burnout (r = 0.340, p burnout whereas the job demand score was the independent predictor of the number of MSDs. This study documents an increased prevalence of MSDs among emergency nurses, as predicted by increased job demand and associated with a higher level of burnout. Hence, it is important for hospital and nursing administrators to address the factors contributing to job stress and burnout, with emphasis on job satisfaction and work organization to alleviate the burden of psychosocial factors in this setting.

  11. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vantilborgh

    Full Text Available While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

  12. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

  13. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  14. Joint effects of job demands and job resources on vocational teachers’ innovative work behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messmann, G.; Stoffers, J.M.M.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, R.H.; Stoffers, J.; Mulder, R.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE - The purpose of this paper is to investigate interactions of job demands and job resources in the facilitation of innovative work behavior (IWB). In particular, the paper aims at researching interactive effects of psychological empowerment and participative safety and their potential to

  15. Buffering Effect of Job Resources in the Relationship between Job Demands and Work-to-Private-Life Interference: A Study among Health-Care Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aims at investigating whether and how (1) job demands and job resources are associated with work-to-private-life interference (WLI) and (2) job resources moderate the relationship between job demands and WLI. Methods: Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire from three hospitals in Italy. The sample consisted of 889 health-care workers. Results: All job demands (i.e., quantitative demands, disproportionate patient expectations, and verbal aggressi...

  16. Job Demand and Control Interventions: A Stakeholder-Centered Best-Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews on Workplace Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Williams-Whitt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical and psychological job demands in combination with the degree of control a worker has over task completion, play an important role in reducing stress. Occupational stress is an important, modifiable factor affecting work disability. However, the effectiveness of reducing job demands or increasing job control remains unclear, particularly for outcomes of interest to employers, such as absenteeism or productivity. Objective: This systematic review reports on job demand and control interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes. Methods: A stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis was conducted with researcher and stakeholder collaboration throughout. Databases and grey literature were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, TRIP, health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC, and Institute for Work and Health. Articles were assessed independently by two researchers for inclusion criteria and methodological quality. Differences were resolved through consensus. Results: The search resulted in 3363 unique titles. After review of abstracts, 115 articles were retained for full-text review. 11 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. The best level of evidence we found indicates that multimodal job demand reductions for either at-work or off-work workers will reduce disability-related absenteeism. Conclusion: In general, the impacts of interventions that aim to reduce job demands or increase job control can be positive for the organization in terms of reducing absenteeism, increasing productivity and cost-effectiveness. However, more high quality research is needed to further assess the relationships and quantify effect sizes for the interventions and outcomes reviewed in this study.

  17. Job demand and control interventions: a stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews on workplace disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, K; White, M I; Wagner, S L; Schultz, I Z; Koehn, C; Dionne, C E; Koehoorn, M; Harder, H; Pasca, R; Warje, O; Hsu, V; McGuire, L; Schulz, W; Kube, D; Hook, A; Wright, M D

    2015-04-01

    Physical and psychological job demands in combination with the degree of control a worker has over task completion, play an important role in reducing stress. Occupational stress is an important, modifiable factor affecting work disability. However, the effectiveness of reducing job demands or increasing job control remains unclear, particularly for outcomes of interest to employers, such as absenteeism or productivity. This systematic review reports on job demand and control interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes. A stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis was conducted with researcher and stakeholder collaboration throughout. Databases and grey literature were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, TRIP, health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC), and Institute for Work and Health. Articles were assessed independently by two researchers for inclusion criteria and methodological quality. Differences were resolved through consensus. The search resulted in 3363 unique titles. After review of abstracts, 115 articles were retained for full-text review. 11 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. The best level of evidence we found indicates that multimodal job demand reductions for either at-work or off-work workers will reduce disability-related absenteeism. In general, the impacts of interventions that aim to reduce job demands or increase job control can be positive for the organization in terms of reducing absenteeism, increasing productivity and cost-effectiveness. However, more high quality research is needed to further assess the relationships and quantify effect sizes for the interventions and outcomes reviewed in this study.

  18. A Work Psychological Model that Works: Expanding the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xanthopoulou, D.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the current thesis was to test and expand the recently developed Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The advantage of this model is that it recognizes the uniqueness of each work environment, which has its own specific job demands and job resources. According to the JD-R model,

  19. Volunteers in Circles of Support and Accountability Job Demands, Job Resources, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höing, Mechtild; Bogaerts, Stefan; Vogelvang, Bas

    2017-09-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), volunteers support a medium- to high-risk sex offender in his process toward desistance by developing a long-term empathic relationship. More knowledge is needed about the impact of this work on volunteers themselves. In a sample of 40 Dutch CoSA volunteers-at the time constituting 37% of the national population of 108 then active CoSA volunteers-we measured outcome in terms of volunteer satisfaction, determination to continue, compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary stress, vicarious growth, civic capacities, and professional skills. We explored theoretically derived predictors of positive and negative outcome, and conceptualized them within the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R). Volunteers reported mainly positive effects, especially high levels of volunteer satisfaction, compassion satisfaction, and determination to continue. Results indicated that job demands and most of the internal job resources were of minor importance. External job resources, especially social support and connectedness, were associated with positive outcome. Connectedness mediated the effect of social support on compassion satisfaction.

  20. Interaction effects among multiple job demands: an examination of healthcare workers across different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmieson, Nerina L; Tucker, Michelle K; Walsh, Alexandra J

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous exposure to time, cognitive, and emotional demands is a feature of the work environment for healthcare workers, yet effects of these common stressors in combination are not well established. Survey data were collected from 125 hospital employees (Sample 1, Study 1), 93 ambulance service employees (Sample 2, Study 1), and 380 aged care/disability workers (Study 2). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted. In Sample 1, high cognitive demand exacerbated high emotional demand on psychological strain and job burnout, whereas the negative effect of high emotional demand was not present at low cognitive demand. In Sample 2, a similar pattern between emotional demand and time demand on stress-remedial intentions was observed. In Study 2, emotional demand × time demand and time demand × cognitive demand interactions again revealed that high levels of two demands were stress-exacerbating and low levels of one demand neutralized the other. A three-way interaction on job satisfaction showed the negative impact of emotional demand was exacerbated when both time and cognitive demands were high, creating a "triple disadvantage" of job demands. The results demonstrate that reducing some job demands helps attenuate the stressful effects of other job demands on different employee outcomes.

  1. The association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity adjusted for individual attributes: evidence from a Japanese occupational cohort survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity, adjusting for individual time-invariant attributes. We used data from a Japanese occupational cohort survey, which included 31 025 observations of 9871 individuals. Focusing on the evolution of job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity within the same individual over time, we employed fixed-effects logistic models to examine the association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity. We compared the results with those in pooled cross-sectional models and fixed-effects ordered logistic models. Fixed-effects models showed that the odds ratio (OR) of physical inactivity were 22% higher for those with high strain jobs [high demands/low control; OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.43] and 17% higher for those with active jobs (high demands/high control; OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34) than those with low strain jobs (low demands/high control). The models also showed that the odds of physical inactivity were 28% higher for those with high effort/low reward jobs (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) and 24% higher for those with high effort/high reward jobs (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43) than those with low effort/high reward jobs. Fixed-effects ordered logistic models led to similar results. Job stress, especially high job strain and effort-reward imbalance, was modestly associated with higher risks of physical inactivity, even after controlling for individual time-invariant attributes.

  2. The moderating role of job resources in the relationship between job demands and interleukin-6 in an Italian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alessandra; Dal Corso, Laura; Girardi, Damiano; De Carlo, Alessandro; Comar, Manola

    2018-02-01

    In this study we examined the association between job demands (JD), job resources (JR), and serum levels of a possible biomarker of stress, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). According to the buffer hypothesis of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, we expected that job resources-defined as job autonomy and social support from supervisor-might buffer the relationship between job demands, defined as emotional demands and interpersonal conflict with colleagues, and IL-6. Data from 119 employees in an Italian public healthcare organization (acute care hospital) were analyzed using multiple regression. In predicting IL-6, the interactions between emotional demands and JR and between interpersonal conflict with colleagues and job autonomy (but not social support) were significant, after controlling for the effect of age and gender. The association between JD and IL-6 was stronger for individuals with low levels of JR, so that levels of IL-6 were highest when JD were high and JR were low. Overall, these results are consistent with the buffer hypothesis of the JD-R model and also extend previous research, showing that the exposure to stressful situations at work, measured as high JD and low JR, is associated with higher levels of IL-6 in hospital employees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Career Technical Education: Keeping Adult Learners Competitive for High-Demand Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…

  4. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-01-01

    Background The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among...

  5. A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model using a categorical estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Pienaar, Jaco

    2012-10-01

    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model was conducted with alternative methods, in a sample of 15,633 working adults aggregated from various economic sectors. The proposed model is in line with job demands-resources theory and assumes two psychological processes at work which are collectively coined "the dual process." The first process, the energetic, presents that job demands lead to ill-health outcomes due to burnout. The second process, the motivational, indicates that job resources lead to organizational commitment due to work engagement. Structural equation modelling analyses were implemented with a categorical estimator. Mediation analyses of each of the processes included bootstrapped indirect effects and kappa-squared values to apply qualitative labels to effect sizes. The relationship between job resources and organizational commitment was mediated by engagement with a large effect. The relationship between job demands and ill-health was mediated by burnout with a medium effect. The implications of the results for theory and practice were discussed.

  6. The Work-Family Interface as a Mediator between Job Demands and Employee Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jade S; Heneghan, Camille J; Bailey, Sarah F; Barber, Larissa K

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, we draw from the job demands-resource model and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between job demands, the work-family interface and worker behaviours. Data collected from an online survey of workers revealed that hindrance demands indirectly increase interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family and family interference with work. Challenge demands indirectly predict interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family. Finally, hindrance demands indirectly decreased individual-directed organizational citizenship behaviours through work-to-family enrichment. Taken together, these results stress the relevance of job demand management and resource drain/acquisition to counterproductive and extra-role behaviours. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  8. Family nursing hospital training and the outcome on job demands, control and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Juliusdottir, Sigrun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a family systems nursing hospital training educational program (ETI program) on nurses' and midwives' perception of job demands, control, and/or support. Of the nurses and midwives who were working in the Women's and Children's Services Division at The National University Hospital in Iceland, 479 participated in the study on three time periods from 2009 to 2011. Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorize participants into four job types (Karasek and Theorell, 1990). These four job types are high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control), and active (high demand, high control). However, when the data were evaluated based on the proportion of job characteristics as reported by the nurses and the midwives, no significant difference was found over time (2009 to 2011) (χ(2)=5.203, p=.518). However, based on the results from the independent t-tests at time 1, a significant difference was found amongst the high strain job group regarding perceived support from administrators and colleagues among the nurses and midwives who had taken the ETI program compared to those who had not taken the program (χ(2)=2.218, p=.034). This indicates that the health care professionals who characterized their job to be of high demand but with low control evaluated the support from their administrators and colleagues to be significantly higher if they had taken the ETI program than did the nurses and midwives who did not take the ETI program. These findings are promising because they might, in the long run, increase the nurses' and midwives' autonomy and control over their own work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scoping the common antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction for nurses (2000-2013) using the job demands-resources model of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To identify core antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction, and to explore the potential of stress interventions to improve job satisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction for nurses is strongly associated with increased job stress. Stress management strategies might have the potential to improve job satisfaction. Comparative scoping review of studies (2000-2013) and location of their outcomes within the 'job demands-job resources' (JD-R) model of stress to identify commonalities and trends. Many, but not all, antecedents of both phenomena appeared consistently suggesting they are common mediators. Others were more variable but the appearance of 'emotional demands' as a common antecedent in later studies suggests an evolving influence of the changing work environment. The occurrence of 'shift work' as a common issue in later studies points to further implications for nurses' psychosocial well-being. Job satisfaction problems in nursing might be co-responsive to stress management intervention. Improving the buffering effectiveness of increased resilience and of prominent perceived job resource issues are urgently required. Participatory, psychosocial methods have the potential to raise job resources but will require high-level collaboration by stakeholders, and participative leadership and facilitation by managers to enable better decision-latitude, support for action planning and responsive changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Work-family conflict in Japan: how job and home demands affect psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC), respectively. Structural equation modeling showed that, as expected, home demands were partially related to psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through FWC. In contrast, job demands were only directly related to psychological distress. The differences between the roles of FWC and WFC are discussed using identity theory.

  11. How job demands, resources, and burnout predict objective performance: a constructive replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Van Emmerik, Hetty; Van Riet, Pim

    2008-07-01

    The present study uses the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) to examine how job characteristics and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) contribute to explaining variance in objective team performance. A central assumption in the model is that working characteristics evoke two psychologically different processes. In the first process, job demands lead to constant psychological overtaxing and in the long run to exhaustion. In the second process, a lack of job resources precludes actual goal accomplishment, leading to cynicism. In the present study these two processes were used to predict objective team performance. A total of 176 employees from a temporary employment agency completed questionnaires on job characteristics and burnout. These self-reports were linked to information from the company's management information system about teams' (N=71) objective sales performance (actual sales divided by the stated objectives) during the 3 months after the questionnaire data collection period. The results of structural equation modeling analyses did not support the hypothesis that exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and performance, but confirmed that cynicism mediates the relationship between job resources and performance suggesting that work conditions influence performance particularly through the attitudinal component of burnout.

  12. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection. Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI. Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS. Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions. Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  13. Explaining Employees' Evaluations of Organizational Change with the Job-Demands Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Departing from the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were…

  14. Beyond the job demand control (-support) model : explaining stress reactions in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisanti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been identified as having a risk of experiencing stress and burnout. The nature and organization of the job make nursing inherently difficult. Research highlights that occupational stress is largely dependent on psychosocial job characteristics, such as job demands and job resources. The

  15. The job demands-resources model : state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to give a state-of-the art overview of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model Design/methodology/approach - The strengths and weaknesses of the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being

  16. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L. Parker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies, compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries. Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands. This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.

  17. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M; Lentink, Corine R

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees' use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.

  18. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Job Demands-Resources model: Further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime A. Tremblay

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model as a theoretical framework, the present study examined the role of compassion satisfaction, conceptualised as a personal resource, in buffering the relationship between job demands and job strain. Motivation for the study: Accordingly, four demanding aspects of the job (i.e. role overload, insufficiency, ambiguity and conflict and one personal resource (i.e. compassion satisfaction were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high job demands and (low personal resources produces the highest levels of anxiety and depression as indicators of job strain. Research design, approach and method: Hypotheses were tested amongst 122 military chaplains. Main findings: Results showed that compassion satisfaction partially moderated the relationship between job demands and job strain. More specifically, when compassion satisfaction was high, the effect of role overload on job strain was significantly reduced. However, the relationships between the other three role stressors and job strain were not offset by compassion satisfaction. Practical/managerial implications: The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for the JD-R model are discussed. Contribution/value-add: Despite the limitations of this study, the present findings still have important implications for future research and practice. Our findings highlight the fact that the empowerment of employees’ personal resources, as outlined in the JD-R model, may not only be of value for employees to thrive, but may also be particularly beneficial in terms of compassion satisfaction being viewed as a protective factor to adverse working conditions.

  20. The Job Demands-Job Control Model and absence behaviour : results of a 3-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.G.W.; Nijhuis, F.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results of earlier studies only marginally supported the relevance of Karasek's Job Demands-Job Control Model for absence behaviour. Since longitudinal studies with respect to these relations were largely lacking, a four-wave panel study was carried out using data from 1755 male employees

  1. How job demands affect absenteeism? The mediating role of work-family conflict and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial factors (such as job demands and work-family conflict) produce absenteeism in the workplace, using the health impairment process of the job demands-resources model. According to this model, job demands lead to burnout (often measured with the emotional exhaustion component), which in turn could lead to outcomes (such as absenteeism). Work-family conflict (WFC) was also studied, because of contradictory results collected in the existing literature on absenteeism in the workplace, regarding the role of WFC in causing absenteeism. Data were collected on 245 workers using both subjective (questionnaire on psychological risk factors and work-related health) and objective data (sickness leave frequency records). To test the hypothesis that job demands and WFC contribute to absenteeism in the workplace, a subsequent mediation analysis was used, which analysed both (a) the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion and (b) the separate roles played by the mediators proposed (WFC and emotional exhaustion). Job demands affect absenteeism through the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and absenteeism, while WFC does not. In conclusion, subsequent mediation highlights the role of emotional exhaustion in causing absenteeism; in fact, when emotional exhaustion is included in the analysis, job demands are associated with higher levels of absenteeism. The results of this study suggest that without the concurrent contribution of emotional exhaustion, WFC does not influence absenteeism in the workplace. Our findings are useful for organizations that aim to reduce absenteeism.

  2. Determinants of nurses' job satisfaction: the role of work-family conflict, job demand, emotional charge and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara; Ghislieri, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a research model explaining the causal relationship between certain antecedents (job and emotional charge, supportive management and colleagues), work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction. Many research projects in health organizations have highlighted the link between high WFC and lower levels of job satisfaction. The study of these variables is important in understanding the processes of professional nurse retention. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 351 professional nurses working in a major North Italian hospital. The questionnaire measures six variables: WFC, job satisfaction, job demand, emotional charge, supportive management and supportive colleagues. The data confirmed the connection between WFC and job satisfaction, and showed the importance of some WFC predictors, such as supportive management, emotional charge and job demand, not only for their connections with WFC but also for their direct associations with job satisfaction. WFC, in health organizations, can contribute to a decrease of nurses' job satisfaction. Nursing management could achieve its aim of reducing WFC through the improvement of support from nurse coordinators, the specific organization of work models, ad hoc family-friendly policies and individual counselling programmes for nurses.

  3. A multigroup analysis of the job demands-resources model in four home care organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Taris, A.W. (Toon); Schaufeli, W.B.; Schreurs, Paul J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was tested in a study among 3,092 employees working in 1 of 4 different home care organizations. The central assumption in the model is that burnout develops when certain job demands are high and when job resources are limited because such negative working

  4. Relationship between job demand and burnout in nurses: does it depend on work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationships among job demands, control, social support, burnout and engagement in nurses. Burnout is a prevalent phenomenon among nurses because of the interaction between high demands and low resources, according to the job demands-resources model. A descriptive, correlational design was used in a stratified random sample of 100 nurses recruited from two Spanish hospitals. Job demand, social support, control, engagement, and burnout were measured. Data were analysed by hierarchical regression analysis. Social support is a significant predictor of nurses' engagement and demands is a predictor of nurses' burnout. Work engagement moderates the relationship between job demands and burnout. The process that leads to burnout and the process that leads to engagement are not isolated processes; engagement acts as a moderator of burnout. The prevailing paradigm in combating burnout in nursing can be changed and could be based on the enhancement of nurses' strengths through increasing engagement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.H.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Houtman, I.L.H.; Bongers, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results

  6. Understanding well-being and learning of Nigerian nurses: a job demand control support model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Yvonne; van Ruysseveldt, Joris; van Dam, Karen; Mistiaen, Wilhelm; Nikolova, Irina

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether Nigerian nurses' emotional exhaustion and active learning were predicted by job demands, control and social support. Limited research has been conducted concerning nurses' work stress in developing countries, such as Nigeria. Accordingly, it is not clear whether work interventions for improving nurses' well-being in these countries can be based on work stress models that are developed in Western countries, such as the job demand control support model, as well as on empirical findings of job demand control support research. Nurses from Nurses Across the Borders Nigeria were invited to complete an online questionnaire containing validated scales; 210 questionnaires were fully completed and analysed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Emotional exhaustion was higher for nurses who experienced high demands and low supervisor support. Active learning occurred when nurses worked under conditions of high control and high supervisor support. The findings suggest that the job demand control support model is applicable in a Nigerian nursing situation; the model indicates which occupational stressors contribute to poor well-being in Nigerian nurses and which work characteristics may boost nurses' active learning. Job (re)design interventions can enhance nurses' well-being and learning by guarding nurses' job demands, and stimulating job control and supervisor support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A hard day's night : a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, Annet H.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.; Taris, Toon W.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Beckers, Debby G. J.; Houtman, Irene L. D.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a

  8. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H. de; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a

  9. A hard day's night: A longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H.de; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a

  10. The benefits of sustained leisure-time physical activity on job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Telama, R; Hirvensalo, M; Hintsanen, M; Hintsa, T; Pulkki-Råback, L; Viikari, J S A

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on job strain have not been assessed in a large prospective population-based cohort study. To examine the relationship between the LTPA and the prevalence of job strain. The participants were 861 full-time employees (406 men and 455 women), aged 24-39 years in 2001, from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. LTPA was assessed using a self-report questionnaire in 1992 and in 2001. The participants were grouped into four categories according to tertiles of LTPA index at two time points: persistently active, increasingly active, decreasingly active and persistently inactive. Job strain was measured in 2001 by indicators of job demands and job control. Baseline LTPA was inversely associated with job strain (P leisure may help young adults to cope with job strain. A long-term benefit of LTPA may play a role in the development of mental well-being.

  11. Managing job stress in nursing: what kind of resources do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tooren, Marieke; de Jonge, Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate the functionality of different kinds of job resources for managing job stress in nursing. There is increasing recognition that healthcare staff, and especially nurses, are at high risk for burnout and physical complaints. Several researchers have proposed that job resources moderate the relationship between job demands and job-related outcomes, particularly when there is a match between the type of demands, resources, and outcomes. Based on the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Model, cross-sectional survey data were collected between November 2006 and February 2007 by a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. The final sample consisted of 69 nurses from a Dutch nursing home (response rate 59.4%). Data were analyzed by hierarchical regression analyses. High physical demands had adverse effects on both physical complaints and emotional exhaustion (i.e. burnout), unless employees had high physical resources. A similar pattern was found for high physical demands and emotional resources in predicting emotional exhaustion. The likelihood of finding theoretically-valid moderating effects was related to the degree of match between demands, resources, and outcomes. Job resources do not randomly moderate the relationship between job demands and job-related outcomes. Both physical and emotional resources seem to be important stress buffers for human service employees such as nurses, and their moderating effects underline the importance of specific job resources in healthcare work. Job redesign in nursing homes should therefore primarily focus on matching job resources to job demands in order to diminish poor health and ill-being.

  12. Job demands and decision control predicted return to work: the rapid-RTW cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveraaen, Lise Aasen; Skarpaas, Lisebet Skeie; Aas, Randi Wågø

    2017-02-02

    In order to help workers with long-term sickness absence return to work (RTW), it is important to understand factors that either impede or facilitate employee's reintegration into the labour force. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the impact of psychological work characteristics on time-to first RTW in sick listed employees in Norway. The study was designed as a cohort study of 543 employees participating in 50 different RTW programmes. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used to gather information on the psychological work conditions. The participants were followed for up to 18 months after they started treatment in the RTW programme. Survival analyses were used to investigate the association between psychological work conditions and time-to first RTW. Having high psychological job demands (HR = .654; 95% CI: .513-.832) and low decision control (HR = 1.297; 95% CI: 1.010-1.666) were both independent predictors of delayed RTW. Employees in low-strain jobs (low demands/high control) (HR = 1.811; 95% CI: 1.287-2.549) and passive jobs (low demands/low control) (HR = 1.599; 95% CI: 1.107-2.309), returned to work earlier compared to employees in high-strain jobs (high demands/low control). No difference was found for active jobs (high demands/high control). This study revealed that high psychological demands, low control, and being in a high strain job reduced the probability of early RTW in sick listed employees. RTW programmes should therefore increase the focus on these issues.

  13. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Theorell, Töres; Suominen, Sakari; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Siegrist, Johannes; Sabia, Séverine; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Nielsen, Martin L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Lunau, Thorsten; Leineweber, Constanze; Kumari, Meena; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Joensuu, Matti; Houtman, Irene L.; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; De Bacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Burr, Hermann; Borritz, Marianne; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Alfredsson, Lars; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23144364

  14. Work-family conflict in Japan: how job and home demands affect psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict

  15. Work-family conflict in Japan: How job and home demands affect psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shimazu (Akihito); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva); M.C.W. Peeters (Maria)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family

  16. Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction in Airport Security Officers - Work-Family Conflict as Mediator in the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners' job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and using work-family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD-R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. Personality and leader effectiveness: a moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Yee; Ang, Soon; Chan, Kim-Yin

    2008-07-01

    The trait theory of leadership is advanced by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) leadership self-efficacy (LSE = leader's perceived capabilities to perform leader roles) in linking neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness and (b) the moderating role of job demands and job autonomy in influencing the mediation. Using K. J. Preacher, D. D. Rucker, and A. F. Hayes' (2007) moderated mediation framework, the authors tested the model (over a 2-year period) with matched data from 394 military leaders and their supervisors. Results showed that LSE mediated the relationships for neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that LSE mediated the relationships for (a) all 3 personality variables for only those leaders with low job demands; (b) neuroticism and conscientiousness for only those leaders with high job autonomy; and (c) extraversion, regardless of a leader's level of job autonomy. Results underscore the importance of accounting for leaders' situational contexts when examining the relationships between personality, LSE, and effectiveness.

  18. Daily job demands and employee work engagement: The role of daily transformational leadership behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2018-07-01

    Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Life on the line: Job demands, perceived co-worker support for safety, and hazardous work events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Hershcovis, M Sandy; Walls, Melanie

    2010-10-01

    The present study of 334 United Kingdom trackside workers tested an interaction hypothesis. We hypothesized, drawing on the job demands-resources framework, that perceived support for safety (from senior managers, supervisors, and coworkers) as job resources would weaken the relationship between higher job demands and more frequent hazardous work events. Consistent with social impact theory, we predicted that perceived coworker support for safety would be particularly influential when trackside workers faced higher job demands. Moderated multiple regression showed that, of all three sources of perceived support for safety, perceived coworker support for safety was most important for keeping employees safe in the face of high job demands. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. A matter of match? an experiment on choosing specific job resources in different demanding work situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.; Jonge, de J.; Dormann, C.

    2012-01-01

    Though research on the demand-induced strain compensation (DISC) model has suggested that the type of job resources people employ to deal with job demands may have serious implications for job stress theory and practice, not much is known about the choices people make regarding the investment of job

  1. A matter of match? An experiment on choosing specific job resources in different demanding work situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tooren, M.; de Jonge, J.; Dormann, C.

    2012-01-01

    Though research on the demand-induced strain compensation (DISC) model has suggested that the type of job resources people employ to deal with job demands may have serious implications for job stress theory and practice, not much is known about the choices people make regarding the investment of job

  2. An evaluation of methods assessing the physical demands of manual lifting in scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van der A.J.; Mathiassen, S.E.; Windhorst, J.; Burdorf, A.

    2005-01-01

    Four methods assessing the physical demands of manual lifting were compared. The scaffolding job was evaluated and three distinct scaffolding tasks were ranked using: (1) the revised NIOSH lifting equation (NIOSH method), (2) lifting guidelines for the Dutch construction industry (Arbouw method),

  3. Examining the relationship between psychosocial working conditions, physical work demands, and leisure time physical activity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Smith, Peter M

    2011-10-01

    To examine the effects of psychosocial working conditions and physical work demands on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Using path analysis, direct and indirect effects of self-reported working conditions on LTPA levels were assessed in a representative sample of 4167 workers from the 2000 to 2001 Canadian National Population Health Survey. Higher levels of skill discretion and decision latitude were associated with higher LTPA. Physical work demands had opposite effects among men versus women, and skill discretion had a stronger effect among women than among men. Job security had a stronger effect on older workers and those without children younger than 13 years. The results support the influence of the work environment on LTPA and suggest that certain work conditions should be targeted in future interventions seeking to impact participation in physical activity.

  4. Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Helms, Michael J; Plassman, Brenda L

    2008-05-06

    To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans. Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA). Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education, higher levels of GI and HC were independently associated with higher TICS-m performance, whereas higher PA was independently associated with lower performance. There was an interaction of GI and intelligence, indicating that individuals at the lower range of intellectual aptitude in early adulthood derived greater cognitive benefit from intellectually demanding work. Intellectually demanding work was associated with greater benefit to cognitive performance in later life independent of related factors like education and intelligence. The fact that individuals with lower intellectual aptitude demonstrated a stronger positive association between work and higher cognitive performance during retirement suggests that behavior may enhance intellectual reserve, perhaps even years after peak intellectual activity.

  5. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one’s interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n=3114, mean age=58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach’s alpha (0.78–0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFIjob demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants’ job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants’ expectations for job control explored. (149/150 limit) PMID:20582720

  6. Transitioning Towards New Ways of Working: Do Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, and Engagement Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenbergen, Elianne F; van der Ven, Cilia; Peeters, Maria C W; Taris, Toon W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a mandatory transition to New Ways of Working (NWW) on employees' job demands (i.e., mental demands, workload, and task ambiguity), job resources (i.e., autonomy, supervisor support, coworker support, and possibilities for development), and their levels of burnout and work engagement. Additionally, it was investigated whether the effects of the transition depended on employees' personal resources (Psychological Capital-PsyCap). Design/methodology/approach We investigated an organization in transition. In three waves (one before and two after the transition), data were collected via online surveys among 126 employees of a large Dutch provider of financial services. Findings NWW were beneficial in reducing mental demands and workload and did not harm the relationships with supervisor and coworkers. However, autonomy and possibilities for professional development decreased. Burnout and work engagement remained stable over time. The effects of the transition did not depend on employees' PsyCap. Implications NWW have received a very positive popular press. Scientific evidence for its beneficial and/or adverse effects on worker well-being can help organizations making an informed decision when considering NWW. Moreover, this can help to develop targeted interventions that alleviate the negative consequences (e.g., paying extra attention to professional development). Originality/value This is one of the first longitudinal studies in which employees were followed who transitioned to NWW. Building on the Job Demands-Resources model, this study provides a comprehensive picture of the effects of NWW.

  7. Job demands and decision control predicted return to work: the rapid-RTW cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Aasen Haveraaen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to help workers with long-term sickness absence return to work (RTW, it is important to understand factors that either impede or facilitate employee’s reintegration into the labour force. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the impact of psychological work characteristics on time-to first RTW in sick listed employees in Norway. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study of 543 employees participating in 50 different RTW programmes. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ was used to gather information on the psychological work conditions. The participants were followed for up to 18 months after they started treatment in the RTW programme. Survival analyses were used to investigate the association between psychological work conditions and time-to first RTW. Results Having high psychological job demands (HR = .654; 95% CI: .513–.832 and low decision control (HR = 1.297; 95% CI: 1.010–1.666 were both independent predictors of delayed RTW. Employees in low-strain jobs (low demands/high control (HR = 1.811; 95% CI: 1.287–2.549 and passive jobs (low demands/low control (HR = 1.599; 95% CI: 1.107–2.309, returned to work earlier compared to employees in high-strain jobs (high demands/low control. No difference was found for active jobs (high demands/high control. Conclusion This study revealed that high psychological demands, low control, and being in a high strain job reduced the probability of early RTW in sick listed employees. RTW programmes should therefore increase the focus on these issues.

  8. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick......, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object...... of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...

  9. Emotional job resources and emotional support seeking as moderators of the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion : A two-wave panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ven, B.; van den Tooren, M.; Vlerick, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion was investigated, as was the moderating role of emotional job resources and emotional support seeking on this relation. We hypothesized a positive lagged effect of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion,

  10. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongkyoo Choi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ. Material and Methods: A random population sample (N = 682 of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1; dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2; and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3, dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Results: Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37–49% vs. 7–13%. When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60–0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied, although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87–0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied. The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied was considerably lower (4–7% than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. Conclusions: The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain.

  11. How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, W.B.; Bakker, A.B.; Rhenen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e.,

  12. Work orientations in the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Fried, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to examine the role of instrumental vs intrinsic work orientations in the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Design/methodology – Using a sample of 123 employees, the authors investigated longitudinally whether an instrumental work orientation moderates the motivational

  13. Job demands, resources and mental health in UK prison officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, G; Clements, A J; Hart, J

    2017-08-01

    Research findings indicate that working as a prison officer can be highly stressful, but the aspects of work that predict their mental health status are largely unknown. To examine, using elements of the demands-resources model, the extent to which work pressure and several potential resources (i.e. control, support from managers and co-workers, role clarity, effective working relationships and positive change management) predict mental health in a sample of UK prison officers. The Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used to measure job demands and resources. Mental health was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28. The effects of demands and resources on mental health were examined via linear regression analysis with GHQ score as the outcome. The study sample comprised 1267 prison officers (86% male). Seventy-four per cent met 'caseness' criteria for mental health problems. Job demands, poor interpersonal relationships, role ambiguity and, to a lesser extent, low job control and poor management of change were key predictors of mental health status. The findings of this study can help occupational health practitioners and psychologists develop structured interventions to improve well-being among prison officers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Job demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-07-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001-2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011-2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The job demands and resources decision making (JD-R-DM) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, H.J.; Demerouti, E.; Bipp, T.; Le Blanc, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effects of nurses’ daily job characteristics (i.e., job demands and resources) and general work engagement on their daily decision making (i.e., analytical and intuitive) and consequently their daily performance (i.e., task and contextual). Participants completed a baseline

  16. [Neuroticism, work demands, work-family conflict and job stress consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Bogusława Halina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress), as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences.

  17. Job Supply and Demand for University Graduates in Spain: A (Relative) Mismatch Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, Marti; Duch, Nestor; Alvarez, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of job supply by Spanish firms and the demand for work, and the mismatch that occurs between these two variables. Data are taken for the year 2006, with particular attention to jobs offered by firms that require people with university degrees or other higher education qualifications. Demand and supply are broken…

  18. The Role of Career Competencies in the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of career competencies as a mediator in the Job Demands - Resources model. Structural equation modeling with data from 305 young employed persons aged 16-30 years showed that career competencies are positively related to job resources and work engagement, but not to

  19. Burnout in medical residents: a study based on the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Sykioti, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the burnout rates among medical residents in the largest Greek hospital in 2012 and identify factors associated with it, based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R). Job demands were examined via a 17-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (emotional demands, intellectual demands, workload, and home-work demands' interface) and job resources were measured via a 14-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (autonomy, opportunities for professional development, support from colleagues, and supervisor's support). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. Of the 290 eligible residents, 90.7% responded. In total 14.4% of the residents were found to experience burnout. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each increased point in the JD-R questionnaire score regarding home-work interface was associated with an increase in the odds of burnout by 25.5%. Conversely, each increased point for autonomy, opportunities in professional development, and each extra resident per specialist were associated with a decrease in the odds of burnout by 37.1%, 39.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. Burnout among medical residents is associated with home-work interface, autonomy, professional development, and resident to specialist ratio.

  20. A Novel Framework Based on the Improved Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model to Understand the Impact of Job Characteristics on Job Burnout from the View of Emotion Regulation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Naiding; Lu, Jintao; Ye, Jinfu

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that individual job characteristics have a significant impact on job burnout, and the process is subject to the regulation of demographic variables. However, the influence path of job characteristics on job burnout is still a "black box". On the basis of a systematic literature review by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "Job burnout", "Emotion regulation", "Personality traits", and "Psychological stress", in this study, an improved mine rescue workers-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model was put forward. Then, a novel analysis framework, to explore the impact of job characteristics on job burnout from the view of emotion regulation theory, was proposed combining the personality trait theory. This study argues that job burnout is influenced by job demands through expressive suppression and by job resources through cognitive reappraisal respectively. Further more, job demands and job resources have the opposite effects on job burnout through the "loss-path" caused by job pressure and the "gain-path" arised from job motivation, respectively. Extrovert personality traits can affect the way the individual processes the information of work environment and then how individual further adopts emotion regulation strategies, finally resulting in indirectly affecting the influence path of mine rescue workers' job characteristics on job burnout. This present study can help managers to realize the importance of employees' psychological stress and job burnout problems. The obtained conclusions provide significant decision-making references for managers in intervening job burnout, managing emotional stress and mental health of employees.

  1. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.; De Goede, M.P.M.; Van Doornen, L.J.P.; Van de Schoot, R.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related

  2. The role of career competencies in the Job Demands: Resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of career competencies as a mediator in the Job Demands — Resources model. Structural equation modeling with data from 305 young employed persons aged 16–30 years showed that career competencies are positively related to job resources and work engagement, but not to

  3. Engaging leadership in the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers would reduce employee’s levels of burnout and increase their levels

  4. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) : an instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karasek, R.; Brisson, C.; Kawakami, N; Houtman, I.; Bongers, P.; Amick, B

    1998-01-01

    This article consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part 2 reports the cross-national validity, for men and women, of the JCQ

  5. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ). A random population sample (N = 682) of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1); dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2); and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3), dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37-49% vs. 7-13%). When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60-0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied), although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87-0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied). The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied) was considerably lower (4-7%) than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied) and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  7. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  8. Neuroticism, work demands, work-family conflict and job stress consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Halina Lachowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. Material and Methods: The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress, as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. Results: The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. Conclusions: The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences. Med Pr 2014;65(3:387–398

  9. Do Job Demands of Chinese Manufacturing Employees Predict Positive or Negative Outcomes? A Test of Competing Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janelle H; Sinclair, Robert R; Shi, Junqi; Wang, Mo

    2015-12-01

    Karasek's job demands-control (JDC) model posits that job control can buffer against the harmful effects of demands experienced by employees. A large volume of JDC research has obtained support for the main effects of demands and control, but not the interactive effects. Recent research on the challenge-hindrance stressors framework, however, found that work stressors may not always be deleterious, suggesting alternative hypotheses about the effects of demands and control. The present study therefore examined competing hypotheses concerning the effects of job demands on occupational health outcomes. Using a sample of 316 employees in a Chinese manufacturing company, we found that, consistent with the challenge-hindrance framework, production demands were challenge stressors associated with favourable outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction and psychological well-being). In addition, results showed that the interactive role of job control depended on the nature of outcome variables. Future recommendations and implications of findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Associations among job demands and resources, work engagement, and psychological distress: fixed-effects model analysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2018-05-25

    We examined the associations among job demands and resources, work engagement, and psychological distress, adjusted for time-invariant individual attributes. We used data from a Japanese occupational cohort survey, which included 18,702 observations of 7,843 individuals. We investigated how work engagement, measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, was associated with key aspects of job demands and resources, using fixed-effects regression models. We further estimated the fixed-effects models to assess how work engagement moderated the association between each job characteristic and psychological distress as measured by Kessler 6 scores. The fixed-effects models showed that work engagement was positively associated with job resources, as did pooled cross-sectional and prospective cohort models. Specifically, the standardized regression coefficients (β) were 0.148 and 0.120 for extrinsic reward and decision latitude, respectively, compared to -0.159 and 0.020 for role ambiguity and workload and time pressure, respectively (p job demands and resources, which is in line with the theoretical prediction of the job demands-resources model, even after controlling for time-invariant individual attributes. Work engagement moderated the association between selected aspects of job demands and resources and psychological distress.

  11. How are changes in exposure to job demands and job resources related to burnout and engagement? A longitudinal study among Chinese nurses and police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Taris, Toon W

    2017-12-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine the across-time relationships between job demands and job resources on the one hand and employee well-being (burnout and work engagement) on the other. On the basis of the job demands-resources model and conservation of resources (COR) theory, increases in demands and decreases in resources across time were expected to result in unfavorable changes in well-being across time. The results of a 2-wave study among 172 nurses and 273 police officers showed several common patterns across both samples: (a) participants who experienced an increase of demands showed a significant increase in burnout, whereas participants who reported having low resources at both measurement times also showed a significant increase in burnout; (b) participants who experienced decreasing resources reported a significant increase in burnout and a significant decrease in engagement; (c) participants who were exposed to chronic low job resources in a highly demanding environment showed a significant increase in burnout; and (d) participants who were exposed to decreased job resources in a highly demanding environment showed a significant increase in burnout. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Income inequality as a moderator of the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence, in particular in men: an international comparison of 23 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether more sickness absence is reported in countries with higher income inequality than elsewhere, and whether the level of income inequality moderates the association between psycho-social job demands and sickness absence. Our analysis is based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey that compared 23 European countries. We performed multi-level regression analysis. On the macro-level of analysis we included the Gini-Index as measure of inequality. On the micro-level of analysis we followed the Karasek-Theorell model and included three scales for psychological job demands, physical job demands, and decision latitude in the model. The model was stratified by sex. We found that, in countries with high income inequality, workers report significantly more sickness absence than workers in countries with low income inequality. In addition we found that the level of income inequality moderates the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence. High psychological job demands are significantly more strongly related to more days of sickness absence in countries with low income inequality than in countries with high income inequality. As the nature and causal pathways of cross-level interaction effects still cannot be fully explained, we argue that future research should aim to explore such causal pathways. In accordance with WHO recommendations we argue that inequalities should be reduced. In addition we state that, particularly in countries with low levels of income inequality, policies should aim to reduce psychological job demands.

  13. A critical review of the Job demands-Resources model: Implications for improving work and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, W.B.; Taris, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R model) became highly popular among researchers. The current version of the model proposes that high job demands lead to strain and health impairment (the health impairment process), and that high resources lead to increased motivation and higher productivity

  14. Impact of job characteristics on psychological health of Chinese single working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.

  15. Job attributes, job satisfaction and the return to health after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Robert, Nicholas; Bradley, Cathy J

    2014-02-01

    As detection and treatment of cancer has advanced, the number of working age women with breast cancer has increased. This study provides new information on the intersection of breast cancer treatment and job tasks and how, together, they impact employed and newly diagnosed women. The sample comprised 493 employed women within 2 months of initiating treatment. Job satisfaction and demands were assessed by a pre-diagnosis recall along with measures of mental and physical health and assessed again 9 months after initiating treatment. Using seemingly unrelated regression, we tested the effect of job tasks and satisfaction on mental and physical health 9 months post-treatment initiation, controlling for pre-diagnosis health status, patient characteristics, and job tasks. Physical job demands prior to diagnosis were not significantly associated with mental or physical health 9 months after treatment initiation. Employment in cognitively demanding and less satisfying jobs was associated with decreases in mental health and increases in problems with work or daily activities 9 months post-treatment initiation (pWomen who received five or more cycles of chemotherapy reported lower vitality, social functioning, and worse measures of physical health compared with those who did not receive chemotherapy (pjobs may impede mental health recovery, particularly in patients who receive longer chemotherapy regimens. Such information may be used by patients and clinicians in deciding when to undergo chemotherapy and whether job tasks can be restructured to hasten recovery. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Using the Job Demands-Resources model to investigate risk perception, safety climate and job satisfaction in safety critical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle

    2011-10-01

    Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Burnout: Job Resources and Job Demands Associated With Low Personal Accomplishment in United States Radiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Jeffrey P; Smith, Stacy E

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to identify job resources and job demands associated with measures of personal accomplishment (PA) in radiology residents in the United States. A 34-item online survey was administered between May and June 2017 to U.S. radiology residents and included the 8 Likert-type PA questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, 19 visual analog scale job demands-resources questions, and 7 demographic questions. Multiple linear regression was calculated to predict PA based on job demands-resources. Effects of binomial demographic factors on PA scores were compared with independent-samples t tests. Effects of categorical demographic factors on PA scores were compared with one-way between-subjects analysis of variance tests. A linear regression was calculated to evaluate the relationship of age on PA scores. "The skills and knowledge that I am building are important and helpful to society" (P = 2 × 10 -16 ), "I have good social support from my co-residents" (P = 4 × 10 -5 ), and "I regularly receive adequate constructive feedback" (P = 4 × 10 -6 ) all positively correlated with PA. PA scores were significantly lower for individuals who were single vs those married or partnered (P = .01). Radiology residents score higher in the PA domain of burnout when they receive adequate constructive feedback, have good co-resident social support, and feel that the skills and knowledge they are building are important to society. Improving constructive feedback mechanisms, enabling resident-only social time, and supporting opportunities that reinforce the importance of their contributions may therefore improve radiology residents' sense of PA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  19. Comparison of two self-reported measures of physical work demands in hospital personnel: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jette N

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a frequent health complaint among health care personnel. Several work tasks and working postures are associated with an increased risk of LBP. The aim of this study was to compare two self-reported measures of physical demands and their association with LBP (the daily number of patient handling tasks and Hollmann's physical load index. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 535 hospital employees in a psychiatric and an orthopedic ward in a Danish hospital. Of these 411 (77% filled in and returned the questionnaire. Only the 373 respondents who had non-missing values on both measures of physical demands were included in the analyses. The distribution of physical demands in different job groups and wards are presented, variance analysis models are employed, and logistic regression analysis is used to analyze the association between measures of physical demands and LBP. Results In combination, hospital ward and job category explained 56.6% and 23.3% of the variance in the self-reported physical demands measured as the daily number of patient handling tasks and as the score on the physical load index, respectively. When comparing the 6% with the highest exposure the prevalence odds ratio (POR for LBP was 5.38 (95% CI 2.03–14.29 in the group performing more than 10 patient handling tasks per day and 2.29 (95% CI 0.93–5.66 in the group with the highest score on the physical load index. Conclusion In specialized hospital wards the daily number of patient handling tasks seems to be a more feasible measure of exposure when assessing the risk of LBP compared to more advanced measures of physical load on the lower lumbar spine.

  20. Job demands-resources predicting burnout and work engagement among Belgian home health care nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Cavents, Carolien; Daneels, Katrien; Johannik, Kristien; Baillien, Elfi; Van den Broeck, Anja; Godderis, Lode

    A better knowledge of the job aspects that may predict home health care nurses' burnout and work engagement is important in view of stress prevention and health promotion. The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands and resources relate to burnout and work engagement but has not previously been tested in the specific context of home health care nursing. The present study offers a comprehensive test of the Job-Demands Resources model in home health care nursing. We investigate the main and interaction effects of distinctive job demands (workload, emotional demands and aggression) and resources (autonomy, social support and learning opportunities) on burnout and work engagement. Analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data from 675 Belgian home health care nurses, who participated in a voluntary and anonymous survey. The results show that workload and emotional demands were positively associated with burnout, whereas aggression was unrelated to burnout. All job resources were associated with higher levels of work engagement and lower levels of burnout. In addition, social support buffered the positive relationship between workload and burnout. Home health care organizations should invest in dealing with workload and emotional demands and stimulating the job resources under study to reduce the risk of burnout and increase their nurses' work engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protecting workers in the home care industry: workers' experienced job demands, resource gaps, and benefits following a socially supportive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Linda; Parker, Kelsey N; Thompson, Sharon V; Bettencourt, Katrina M; Haque, Afsara; Luther Rhoten, Kristy; Wright, Rob R; Hess, Jennifer A; Olson, Ryan

    2018-05-02

    The Community of Practice and Safety Support (COMPASS) program is a peer-led group intervention for home care workers. In a randomized controlled trial, COMPASS significantly improved workers' professional support networks and safety and health behaviors. However, quantitative findings failed to capture workers' complex emotional, physical, and social experiences with job demands, resource limitations, and the intervention itself. Therefore, we conducted qualitative follow-up interviews with a sample of participants (n = 28) in the program. Results provided examples of unique physical and psychological demands, revealed stressful resource limitations (e.g., safety equipment access), and elucidated COMPASS's role as a valuable resource.

  2. How job and family demands impact change in perceived stress: A dyadic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieślak, Roman

    2018-01-07

    The aim of this two-wave study has been to test the spillover and crossover of job and family demands on changes in perceived stress at work and in the family. Specifically, we proposed that demands from one domain (work or family) spilled over to another domain through interrrole conflict (work-family/family-work conflict) and context-specific self-efficacy. Additionally, we hypothesized that changes in perceived stress were impacted not only by a person's own demands through interrole conflict but also by the demands of one's significant other, in the process of crossover. The study was of dyadic design and it was conducted online, among 130 heterosexual couples, at 2 time points separated by 3 months interval. Hypotheses were verified by means of the path analysis. No support was found for the spillover of job and family demands on changes in perceived stress through interrole conflict and self-efficacy, neither for women nor for men. With regard to the crossover, no support was found for the actor effects, i.e., a person's demands did not impact changes in one's own work- and family-related perceived stress but partial support was found for the partner effects, i.e., women's job demands were associated with men's changes in work and family-related stress through women's work-family conflict, and men's family demands were associated with women's change in family-related perceived stress through men's family-work conflict. The study is a longitudinal test of the Spillover-Crossover model and Work-Home Resources model demonstrating that job and family demands are transmitted across domains and across partners in the intimate relationships through the interrole conflict but the nature of this crossover is different for men and women. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(2)199-215. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  4. The Job Demands?Resources model: Challenges for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Demerouti (Eva); A.B. Bakke (Arnold B.)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD-R model, which incorporates many possible working

  5. Inbound Call Centers and Emotional Dissonance in the Job Demands - Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Monica; Emanuel, Federica; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G

    2016-01-01

    Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression) and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support, and job autonomy) on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service (CA) and information service. The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the CA and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling. Analyses showed that CA agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. RESULTS also showed, only for the CA group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort. This study's findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities. Suggestions for organizations and practitioners emerged in order to identify practical implications useful both to support

  6. Income inequality as a moderator of the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence, in particular in men: an international comparison of 23 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Muckenhuber

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether more sickness absence is reported in countries with higher income inequality than elsewhere, and whether the level of income inequality moderates the association between psycho-social job demands and sickness absence. METHODS: Our analysis is based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey that compared 23 European countries. We performed multi-level regression analysis. On the macro-level of analysis we included the Gini-Index as measure of inequality. On the micro-level of analysis we followed the Karasek-Theorell model and included three scales for psychological job demands, physical job demands, and decision latitude in the model. The model was stratified by sex. RESULTS: We found that, in countries with high income inequality, workers report significantly more sickness absence than workers in countries with low income inequality. In addition we found that the level of income inequality moderates the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence. High psychological job demands are significantly more strongly related to more days of sickness absence in countries with low income inequality than in countries with high income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: As the nature and causal pathways of cross-level interaction effects still cannot be fully explained, we argue that future research should aim to explore such causal pathways. In accordance with WHO recommendations we argue that inequalities should be reduced. In addition we state that, particularly in countries with low levels of income inequality, policies should aim to reduce psychological job demands.

  7. Burnout in Medical Residents: A Study Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Zis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the burnout rates among medical residents in the largest Greek hospital in 2012 and identify factors associated with it, based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R. Method. Job demands were examined via a 17-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (emotional demands, intellectual demands, workload, and home-work demands’ interface and job resources were measured via a 14-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (autonomy, opportunities for professional development, support from colleagues, and supervisor’s support. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure burnout. Results. Of the 290 eligible residents, 90.7% responded. In total 14.4% of the residents were found to experience burnout. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each increased point in the JD-R questionnaire score regarding home-work interface was associated with an increase in the odds of burnout by 25.5%. Conversely, each increased point for autonomy, opportunities in professional development, and each extra resident per specialist were associated with a decrease in the odds of burnout by 37.1%, 39.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. Conclusions. Burnout among medical residents is associated with home-work interface, autonomy, professional development, and resident to specialist ratio.

  8. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  9. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  10. Integrating Self-Determination and Job Demands-Resources Theory in Predicting Mental Health Provider Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreison, Kimberly C; White, Dominique A; Bauer, Sarah M; Salyers, Michelle P; McGuire, Alan B

    2018-01-01

    Limited progress has been made in reducing burnout in mental health professionals. Accordingly, we identified factors that might protect against burnout and could be productive focal areas for future interventions. Guided by self-determination theory, we examined whether supervisor autonomy support, self-efficacy, and staff cohesion predict provider burnout. 358 staff from 13 agencies completed surveys. Higher levels of supervisor autonomy support, self-efficacy, and staff cohesion were predictive of lower burnout, even after accounting for job demands. Although administrators may be limited in their ability to reduce job demands, our findings suggest that increasing core job resources may be a viable alternative.

  11. Predicting nurses' well-being from job demands and resources: a cross-sectional study of emotional labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Huei Yin; Hecker, Rob; Martin, Angela

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of job demands and resources as well as emotional labour on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion among nurses. While emotional labour is a construct that has considerable significance in health care as nurses often need to express organizationally desired emotions, little research has investigated the relationships between emotional labour, job demands and resources in the prediction of nurses' well-being. The questionnaire was distributed to 450 registered nurses (RN) working in a teaching hospital in Taiwan during February 2007, of which 240 valid questionnaires were returned and analysed (53.33% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics and correlation, structural equation modelling (LISREL 8.8) was conducted. The findings showed that the frequency of interacting with difficult patients positively related to surface acting. Perceived organizational support (POS) positively related to deep acting and negatively to surface acting. The results also showed that surface acting related negatively, and deep acting related positively, to job satisfaction. The frequency of interactions with difficult patients related positively to emotional exhaustion, and negatively to job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support related negatively to emotional exhaustion and positively to job satisfaction. The results suggest that job demands, resources and emotional labour can predict nurses' well-being. The results of the present study indicate that nurses' well-being can be predicted by job demands, resources and emotional labour. There is a need to address organizational support and training programmes to enhance job satisfaction and reduce emotional exhaustion among nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Stacey L.; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M.; Lentink, Corine R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary ...

  13. Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands, whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.

  14. Applying the Job Demands--Resources Model to the Work--Home Interface: A Study among Medical Residents and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Prins, Jelle T.; van der Heijden, Frank M. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Work-home interference (WHI) is a prevalent problem because most employees have substantial family responsibilities on top of their work demands. The present study hypothesized that high job demands in combination with low job resources contribute to WHI. The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was used as a theoretical framework. Using a sample of…

  15. JOB SATISFACTION FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO JOB PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouloud Kenioua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: this study was to investigate the relation and correlation between job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational commitment among physical education teachers. Material: The participants where 100 physical educations teachers’ male and female from secondary schools. Job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational commitment were measured through a questionnaire has 05 axes. Results: The findings indicated that there was a strongly positive relationship between job satisfaction and job performance, and the same relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Conclusion: there is a need to create an appropriate environment to ensure the success of the professors of physical education as well as providing incentives and promotions through clear standards.

  16. How job demands affect the intimate partner : a test of the spillover-crossover model in Japan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how job demands affect an intimate partner's well-being. We hypothesized that job demands have a negative influence on partner well-being through the experience of work-family conflict (WFC) and an impaired quality of the relationship (reduced social support and increased

  17. Regulatory focus at work : the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Demerouti, E.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e.

  18. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J.; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors (‘decision latitude’ and ‘job demands’) for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of ‘very often’ and ‘always’ for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach’s α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65–0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25–0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  19. Job characteristics and safety climate: the role of effort-reward and demand-control-support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Malley, Christine; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-07-01

    While safety climate is widely recognized as a key influence on organizational safety, there remain questions about the nature of its antecedents. One potential influence on safety climate is job characteristics (that is, psychosocial features of the work environment). This study investigated the relationship between two job characteristics models--demand-control-support (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and effort-reward imbalance (Siegrist, 1996)--and safety climate. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 860 British retail pharmacists, using the job contents questionnaire (JCQ), effort-reward imbalance indicator (ERI) and a measure of safety climate in pharmacies. Multivariate data analyses found that: (a) both models contributed to the prediction of safety climate ratings, with the demand-control-support model making the largest contribution; (b) there were some interactions between demand, control and support from the JCQ in the prediction of safety climate scores. The latter finding suggests the presence of "active learning" with respect to safety improvement in high demand, high control settings. The findings provide further insight into the ways in which job characteristics relate to safety, both individually and at an aggregated level.

  20. Job stress and job satisfaction: home care workers in a consumer-directed model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Wallace, Steven P; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2010-08-01

    To investigate determinants of job satisfaction among home care workers in a consumer-directed model. Analysis of data collected from telephone interviews with 1,614 Los Angeles home care workers on the state payroll in 2003. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of job satisfaction using job stress model domains of demands, control, and support. Abuse from consumers, unpaid overtime hours, and caring for more than one consumer as well as work-health demands predict less satisfaction. Some physical and emotional demands of the dyadic care relationship are unexpectedly associated with greater job satisfaction. Social support and control, indicated by job security and union involvement, have a direct positive effect on job satisfaction. Policies that enhance the relational component of care may improve workers' ability to transform the demands of their job into dignified and satisfying labor. Adequate benefits and sufficient authorized hours of care can minimize the stress of unpaid overtime work, caring for multiple consumers, job insecurity, and the financial constraints to seeking health care. Results have implications for the structure of consumer-directed models of care and efforts to retain long-term care workers.

  1. The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn De Braine

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: This study explored possible differences in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R as predictor of overall work engagement, dedication only and work-based identity, through comparative predictive analyses. Motivation for the study: This study may shed light on the dedication component of work engagement. Currently no literature indicates that the JD-R model has been used to predict work-based identity. Research design: A census-based survey was conducted amongst a target population of 23134 employees that yielded a sample of 2429 (a response rate of about 10.5%. The Job Demands- Resources scale (JDRS was used to measure job demands and job resources. A work-based identity scale was developed for this study. Work engagement was studied with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES. Factor and reliability analyses were conducted on the scales and general multiple regression models were used in the predictive analyses. Main findings: The JD-R model yielded a greater amount of variance in dedication than in work engagement. It, however, yielded the greatest amount of variance in work-based identity, with job resources being its strongest predictor. Practical/managerial implications: Identification and work engagement levels can be improved by managing job resources and demands. Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the literature of the JD-R model by showing that it can be used to predict work-based identity.

  2. Inbound Call Centers and Emotional Dissonance in the Job Demands – Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Monica; Emanuel, Federica; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression) and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support, and job autonomy) on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service (CA) and information service. Method: The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the CA and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling. Results: Analyses showed that CA agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. Results also showed, only for the CA group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort. Conclusion: This study’s findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities. Suggestions for organizations and practitioners emerged in order to identify

  3. The job demands-resources model of work engagement in South African call centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolandi Janse van Rensburg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A ‘sacrificial human resource strategy’ is practised in call centres, resulting in poor employee occupational health. Consequently, questions are posed in terms of the consequences of call centre work and which salient antecedent variables impact the engagement and wellbeing of call centre representatives. Research purpose: Firstly, to gauge the level of employee engagement amongst a sample of call centre representatives in South Africa and, secondly, to track the paths through which salient personal and job resources affect this engagement. More specifically, the relationships between sense of coherence, leadership effectiveness, team effectiveness and engagement were investigated, thus testing the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement. Motivation for the study: To present an application of the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement in a call centre environment in order to diagnose current ills and consequently propose remedies. Research design: A cross-sectional survey design was used and a non-probability convenient sample of 217 call centre representatives was selected. The measuring instruments comprise the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure engagement, the Team Diagnostic Survey to measure team effectiveness, the leadership practices inventory to gauge leadership effectiveness, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire to measure sense of coherence. A series of structural equation modelling analyses were performed. Main findings: Contrary to the ‘electronic sweatshop’ image attached to call centre jobs depicted in the literature, results show a high level of employee engagement for call centre representatives in the sample. Also, personal resources such as sense of coherence and job resources such as team effectiveness related significantly to engagement. A non-significant relationship exists between leadership effectiveness and engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Both the content and

  4. The job demands-resources model of work engagement in South African call centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolandi Janse van Rensburg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A ‘sacrificial human resource strategy’ is practised in call centres, resulting in poor employee occupational health. Consequently, questions are posed in terms of the consequences of call centre work and which salient antecedent variables impact the engagement and wellbeing of call centre representatives.Research purpose: Firstly, to gauge the level of employee engagement amongst a sample of call centre representatives in South Africa and, secondly, to track the paths through which salient personal and job resources affect this engagement. More specifically, the relationships between sense of coherence, leadership effectiveness, team effectiveness and engagement were investigated, thus testing the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement.Motivation for the study: To present an application of the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement in a call centre environment in order to diagnose current ills and consequently propose remedies.Research design: A cross-sectional survey design was used and a non-probability convenient sample of 217 call centre representatives was selected. The measuring instruments comprise the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure engagement, the Team Diagnostic Survey to measure team effectiveness, the leadership practices inventory to gauge leadership effectiveness, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire to measure sense of coherence. A series of structural equation modelling analyses were performed.Main findings: Contrary to the ‘electronic sweatshop’ image attached to call centre jobs depicted in the literature, results show a high level of employee engagement for call centre representatives in the sample. Also, personal resources such as sense of coherence and job resources such as team effectiveness related significantly to engagement. A non-significant relationship exists between leadership effectiveness and engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Both the content and

  5. The moderating effect of control over work scheduling and overtime on the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näswall, Katharina; Burt, Christopher D B; Pearce, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of workload demands on perceived job risk using the Job Demand-Control model as a research framework. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that employee control over work scheduling and overtime would moderate the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk. Ninety-six participants working in a variety of industries completed measures of workload demands, and of control over work scheduling and overtime, and a measure of perceived job risk. Workload demands predicted higher perceptions of job risk. However, the results also suggest that control over overtime moderated this relationship, where those with the combination of high workload demands and low control over overtime reported higher levels of perceived risk. The results indicate that the JDC model is applicable to safety research. The results suggest that employee control over workload demands is an important variable to consider in terms of managing workplace safety. The present study also points to important areas for future research to explore in order to further understand the connection between demands and safety.

  6. Psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of employees in a call centre in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshona Pillay

    2014-12-01

    Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment and intended to determine whether psychological capital and job demands predict call centre employees’ organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: The study aimed to explore potential links between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of call centre employees. It is premised on previous research that call centre job demands may be related to commitment to the organisation. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study sampled 117 call centre employees from Durban, South Africa, and used a biographical questionnaire, psychological capital questionnaire, the job-demands-resources scale and the organisational commitment questionnaire to collect data. Main findings: Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between psychological capital and work overload, as well as a practically and statistically significant relationship (medium effect between psychological capital and continuance organisational commitment. The results showed that psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Organisations can develop initiatives to enhance positive psychological states and address this relationship. Contribution: The findings could be beneficial to management and employees in considering ways to boost psychological capital in order to improve organisational commitment.

  7. Elucidating the role of recovery experiences in the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Garrosa, Eva

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the current study examined the moderating role of recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control over leisure time) on the relationship between one job demand (i.e., role conflict) and work- and health-related outcomes. Results from our sample of 990 employees from Spain showed that psychological detachment from work and relaxation buffered the negative impact of role conflict on some of the proposed outcomes. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find significant results for mastery and control regarding moderating effects. Overall, findings suggest a differential pattern of the recovery experiences in the health impairment process proposed by the JD-R model.

  8. Design of the DIRECT-project : interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, E.M.B.; Jonge, de J.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still

  9. Psychological Flexibility as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Demands and Resources and Occupational Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Vladimir Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Valentini, Felipe

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the relations of job demands (work overload) and job resources (social support and autonomy) with subjective job well-being (job satisfaction, positive affects, negative affects), as well as the moderating role of personal resources (psychological flexibility at work) in such relationships. The sample consisted of 4,867 Brazilian workers, of both sexes, with ages ranging from 18 to 67 years. Structural equation modelling showed that the work overload was negatively associated with job satisfaction (β = -.06; p autonomy was positively associated with satisfaction (β = .08; p autonomy with positive affects (β = -.06; p job demands-resources theory, especially with respect to the relevance of personal resources for the promotion of occupational well-being.

  10. High quantitative job demands and low coworker support as risk factors for neck pain: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Wal, G. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2001-01-01

    Study Design. A 3-year prospective cohort study among 1334 workers was conducted. Objective. To determine whether the work-related psychosocial factors of quantitative job demands, conflicting job demands, skill discretion, decision authority, supervisor support, coworker support, and job security

  11. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Blom

    Full Text Available Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  12. Positive aging in demanding workplaces: The gain cycle between job satisfaction and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Guglielmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees’ well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job overload, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job workload and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 to 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and eight months later. The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction eight months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the

  13. Work-family conflict and enrichment in nurses: between job demands, perceived organisational support and work-family backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how work relationships (perceived organisational support, supervisor and co-worker work-family backlash) and job demands (workload, emotional dissonance) can interact with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Despite the extensive literature on the work-family interface, few studies on the nursing profession have considered the role of job demands and work relationships, focusing on both the positive and negative side of the work-family interface. The study involved a sample of 500 nurses working in an Italian hospital. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Analyses showed that work-family conflict has a positive relationship with job demands and supervisor backlash, and a negative relationship with perceived organisational support. Work-family enrichment was found to have a negative relationship with job demands and a positive relationship with perceived organisational support. No significant relationships were found between work-family enrichment and both backlash dimensions. The study confirmed the importance of promoting a balance between job demands and resources in order to create favourable conditions for work-family enrichment and to prevent work-family conflict. The findings suggest that it may be advisable for health-care organisations to invest in measures at individual, team and organisational levels, specifically in training and counselling for nurses and supervisors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  15. Inbound Call Centers and Emotional Dissonance in the Job Demands – Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Molino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support and job autonomy on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service and information service.Method: The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the customer assistance service and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling.Results: Analyses showed that customer assistance service agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. Results also showed, only for the customer assistance service group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort.Conclusion: This study’s findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities

  16. Using the Job-Demands-Resources model to predict turnover in the information technology workforce – General effects and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoonakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High employee turnover has always been a major issue for Information Technology (IT. In particular, turnover of women is very high. In this study, we used the Job Demand/Resources (JD-R model to examine the relationship between job demands and job resources, stress/burnout and job satisfaction/commitment, and turnover intention and tested the model for gender differences. Data were collected in five IT companies. A sample of 624 respondents (return rate: 56%; 54% males; mean age: 39.7 years was available for statistical analyses. Results of our study show that relationships between job demands and turnover intention are mediated by emotional exhaustion (burnout and relationships between job resources and turnover intention are mediated by job satisfaction. We found noticeable gender differences in these relationships, which can explain differences in turnover intention between male and female employees. The results of our study have consequences for organizational retention strategies to keep men and women in the IT work force.

  17. Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Marion; Baltz, Davis; Gassel, Margy; Kirsch, Luz; Vaccaro, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated injured construction workers' perceptions of workplace safety climate, psychological job demands, decision latitude, and coworker support, and the relationship of these variables to the injury severity sustained by the workers. Injury severity was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), which evaluates functional limitations. Worker perceptions of workplace variables were determined by two instruments: (a) the Safety Climate Measure for Construction Sites and (b) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The overall model explained 23% of the variance in injury severity, with unique contributions provided by union status, the Safety Climate Score, and Psychological Job Demands. A positive significant correlation was found between injury severity and the Safety Climate Scores (r = .183, P = .003), and between the Safety Climate Scores and union status (r = .225, P safety climate on 5 of the 10 safety climate items. Union workers were more likely than nonunion workers to: (a) perceive their supervisors as caring about their safety; (b) be made aware of dangerous work practices; (c) have received safety instructions when hired; (d) have regular job safety meetings; and (e) perceive that taking risks was not a part of their job. However, with regard to the 49-item JCQ, which includes Coworker Support, the responses between union and nonunion workers were very similar, indicating an overall high degree of job satisfaction. However, workers who experienced their workplace as more safe also perceived the level of management (r = -.55, P demands, need to be identified.

  18. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cheng Tang

    Full Text Available Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1 to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2 to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled.A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine, psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress, job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support, and prolonged fatigue.A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue.Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers' prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables.

  19. Relationships between workplace well-being, job demands and resources in a sample of veterinary nurses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, S; Gardner, D H

    2016-07-01

    To use a job demands-resources model to examine the associations among perceived job demands, job resources, family-to-work enrichment, positive team relationships, work engagement, emotional exhaustion, cynicism and intention to leave, in a sample of New Zealand veterinary nurses. Data were collected by means of a self-reported online survey, with the help of eight New Zealand tertiary education providers and the New Zealand Veterinary Nurses' Association. Nine measures or variables were assessed using questions or statements with responses categorised on a linear scale. Measurement models for each of the variables in the study were assessed to establish whether the variables represented the respective item-level data. Structural equation modelling was then used to test the hypothesised interrelationships among study variables. There were 253 respondents; 17.1% of individuals who classified themselves as veterinary nurses in the 2013 New Zealand census. In the final structural model job demands were associated with emotional exhaustion (standardised regression coefficient β=0.57), which was related to cynicism (β=0.52) and intention to leave (β=0.56). Job resources were negatively related to emotional exhaustion (β=-0.32). Higher work engagement was associated with lower emotional exhaustion (β=-0.29) and lower intention to leave (β=-0.30). Job resources were associated with work-to-family enrichment (β=0.69), which was related to work engagement (β=0.57); and job resources were associated with positive team relationships (β=0.79). It is important that job resources are available to help deal with demanding work. Without resources, demanding work is associated with exhaustion, cynicism and increased intention to leave, while positive spill over between work and family life are related to higher work engagement.

  20. Feeling successful as an entrepreneur : A job demands — Resources approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, J.; Gorgievski, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study among 277 Dutch entrepreneurs investigates how entrepreneurs’ job demands relate to their work-related strain and work engagement, as well as their feelings of subjective success. As such it contributes to the literature firstly by focusing on psychological rather than

  1. Job demands-resources model in the context of recovery : Testing recovery experiences as mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Siltaloppi, Marjo; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to extend the original Job Demands– Resources (JD-R) model by taking into account recovery as an important mediation mechanism between work characteristics and well-being/ill-health. Specifically, we examined whether recovery experiences—strategies promoting recovery—might have a mediating role in the JD-R model among 527 employees from a variety of different jobs. The results showed that psychological detachment fully mediated the effects of job demands on fa...

  2. How to Keep Teachers Healthy and Growing: The Influence of Job Demands and Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Yamkovenko, Bogdan; Van Amersfoort, Daniël

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job demands and resources can affect the health and cognitive development of teachers using the Demand-Induced Strain

  3. The Job Demands?Resources model: Challenges for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Demerouti, Eva; Bakke, Arnold B.

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. Research purpose: To provide an overview of the JD-R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative studie...

  4. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  5. How job demands affect partners' experience of exhaustion: integrating work-family conflict and crossover theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Dollard, Maureen F

    2008-07-01

    This study among 168 couples of dual-earner parents uses insights from previous work-family conflict and crossover research to propose an integrative model delineating how job demands experienced by men and women carry over to the home domain. The authors hypothesized that for both men and women, job demands foster their own work-family conflict (WFC), which in turn contributes to their partners' home demands, family-work conflict (FWC), and exhaustion. In addition, they hypothesized that social undermining mediates the relationship between individuals' WFC and their partners' home demands. The results of structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for the proposed model. The hypothesis that gender would moderate the model relationships was rejected. These findings integrate previous findings on work-family conflict and crossover theories and suggest fluid boundaries between the work and home domains.

  6. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  7. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy and decision environment management (DEM. Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  8. Influence of working conditions on job satisfaction in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, J F; Knotzer, H; Traweger, C; Lederer, W; Heidegger, T; Benzer, A

    2005-02-01

    We studied job satisfaction, physical health, emotional well-being and working conditions in 125 Austrian and Swiss anaesthetists. Responses to self-reporting questionnaires were evaluated. Dependent variables included job satisfaction, emotional well-being and physical health. Independent variables included age, sex, marital status, position and working conditions as assessed by the Instrument for Stress-related Job Analysis. Control over work shows a strong effect on job satisfaction in anaesthetists, for example influence on handling tasks (P=0.001), time control (P=0.002) and participation (P=0.001), whereas task demands and task-related problems did not have any effect. Anaesthetists in leading positions and specialists reported lower job satisfaction (P=0.012) than did anaesthetists in non-leading positions. Job satisfaction was associated with better physical health (P=0.001) and better emotional well-being (P=0.005). Our results suggest that a high level of job satisfaction in anaesthetists correlates with interesting work demands and the opportunity to contribute skills and ideas. To improve job satisfaction, more attention should be paid to improving working conditions, including control over decision-making, and allowing anaesthetists to have more influence on their own work pace and work schedule.

  9. I. Do chronic pain patients' perceptions about their preinjury jobs determine their intent to return to the same type of job post-pain facility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, D A; Rosomoff, H L; Cutler, R B; Steele-Rosomoff, R

    1995-12-01

    To demonstrate that chronic pain patients' (CPPs') perceptions about their preinjury jobs determine their intent to return to the same type of job post pain facility treatment. A total of 225 CPPs completed a series of rating scales and yes/no questions relating to their preinjury job perceptions and a question relating to intent to return to the same type of preinjury job post-pain facility treatment. The CPPs were broken down into subgroups (males, females, college males, noncollege males, college females, noncollege females), and within each subgroup those not intending to return to the same type of pre-injury job were compared to those intending to return on the preinjury job perception questions. In addition for the whole group, stepwise discriminant analysis was used to predict who planned to return to the preinjury job utilizing the job perceptions questions. Multidisciplinary Pain Center. Consecutive chronic pain patients. For the whole group, CPPs not intending to return were more likely to complain of job excessive physical demands, job satisfaction, and job dislike. Job perception complaints that were significantly different between the intending and not intending to return groups differed between the subgroups. For example, noncollege males not intending to return were more likely to complain of excessive physical demands only versus satisfaction and liking as significant items for college males who did not intend to return. Within the discriminant analysis, the combination of job satisfaction, excessive physical demands, employee conflicts, job liking, job dangerousness, supervisory conflicts, job stress, and age classified 73.46% of the CPPs correctly as to intent to return to the same type of preinjury job. There appears to be a relationship between preinjury job perceptions and intent to return to the same type of job post pain treatment. However, subgroups of CPPs will differ by which job perceptions are important towards making that decision.

  10. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  11. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ronald C; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the psychological health--in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress--among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the western part of Northern Ireland. The questionnaire consisted of 'Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)', 'Job Demands in Dentistry measure', 'Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)', 'Job Resources in dentistry measure', and 'General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)'. Overall response rate among all staff members was 45% (for general dental practitioners: 65%). Burnout mean scores were unfavourable when compared with MBI manual norm scores, 26% had scores in the 'high' categories of both emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP). This is an indication of severe burnout risk. Time pressure, financial worries, and difficult patients appeared to be the most prominent work demands (mean scores >3). All job demands' scales correlated significantly (P r UWES, and all job resources' subscales were all well above each subscale's range midpoint. Treatment results appeared the most prominent work resource. GHQ mean score for all was 1.05 (SD = 0.51). No difference in mean score was found between dentists and other staff (F(1,123) = 1.08, NS). With 'case level' set at a score >3 as a cut-off point, 25% of the subjects have to be considered cases. Burnout is a serious threat for the dental team in this region of Northern Ireland, especially among general dental practitioners. One-quarter of the dentists were categorized as having a serious burnout risk. Dentists appeared to have most trouble with the work environment aspects: time pressure and financial worries. Furthermore, the proportion of those suffering from psychological distress was unusually high. In contrast to these findings, encouraging levels of engagement were identified. It is recommended that attention for burnout risk is given priority by dental

  12. Daily fluctuations in teachers' well-being: a diary study using the Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbula, Silvia

    2010-10-01

    The study tests the dynamic nature of the Job Demands-Resources model with regard to both motivational and health impairment processes. It does so by examining whether daily fluctuations in co-workers' support (i.e., a typical job resource) and daily fluctuations in work/family conflict (i.e., a typical job demand) predict day-levels of job satisfaction and mental health through work engagement and exhaustion, respectively. A total of 61 schoolteachers completed a general questionnaire and a daily survey over a period of five consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses provided evidence for both the above processes. Consistently with the hypotheses, our results showed that day-level work engagement mediated the impact of day-level co-workers' support on day-level job satisfaction and day-level mental health, after general levels of work engagement and outcome variables had been controlled for. Moreover, day-level exhaustion mediated the relationship between day-level work/family conflict and day-level job satisfaction and day-level mental health after general levels of exhaustion and outcome variables had been controlled for. These findings provide new insights into the dynamic psychological processes that determine daily fluctuations in employee well-being. Such insights may be transformed into job redesign strategies and other interventions designed to enhance work-related psychological well-being on a daily level.

  13. Psychosocial safety climate moderates the job demand-resource interaction in predicting workgroup distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) arises from workplace policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety that are largely driven by management. Many work stress theories are based on the fundamental interaction hypothesis - that a high level of job demands (D) will lead to psychological distress and that this relationship will be offset when there are high job resources (R). However we proposed that this interaction really depends on the organizational context; in particular high levels of psychosocial safety climate will enable the safe utilization of resources to reduce demands. The study sample consisted of police constables from 23 police units (stations) with longitudinal survey responses at two time points separated by 14 months (Time 1, N=319, Time 2, N=139). We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effect of the proposed three-way interaction term (PSC×D×R) on change in workgroup distress variance over time. Specifically we confirmed the interaction between emotional demands and emotional resources (assessed at the individual level), in the context of unit psychosocial safety climate (aggregated individual data). As predicted, high emotional resources moderated the positive relationship between emotional demands and change in workgroup distress but only when there were high levels of unit psychosocial safety climate. Results were confirmed using a split-sample analysis. Results support psychosocial safety climate as a property of the organization and a target for higher order controls for reducing work stress. The 'right' climate enables resources to do their job. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Turnover intention and emotional exhaustion "at the top": adapting the job demands-resources model to leaders of addiction treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with the large literature on subordinate employees, there are few studies of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention for organizational leaders. There is little research that has extended the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of emotional exhaustion to leaders. In this study, the authors adapted the JD-R framework to analyze data collected from a sample of 410 leaders of addiction treatment organizations. The authors considered whether two job demands (performance demands and centralization) and two job resources (innovation in decision making and long-range strategic planning) were associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. The authors also examined whether emotional exhaustion fully or partially mediated the associations between the job-related measures and turnover intention. The results supported the partially mediated model. Both job demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, and the association for long-range strategic planning was negative. Emotional exhaustion was positively associated with turnover intention. Centralization and innovation in decision making were also directly associated with turnover intention. Future research should continue to examine this theoretical framework among leaders of other types of organizations using more refined measures of demands and resources.

  15. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, BongKyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, and health-related variables. Disability pension information was obtained through record linkage from the National Health Insurance Register. Nearly 20 % of the women and 15 % of the men were granted a disability pension during the follow-up period. The highest quartile of psychological job demands and the lowest quartile of decision latitude were associated with disability pensions when controlling for age, socioeconomic position, and health risk behaviours. In the final model, with adjustment also for health indicators and stress from outside the workplace, the hazard ratios for high strain jobs (i.e. high psychological demands in combination with low decision latitude) were 1.5 in men (95 % CI, 1.04-2.0) and 1.7 in women (95 % CI, 1.3-2.2). Stratifying for health at baseline showed that high strain tended to affect healthy but not unhealthy men, while this pattern was reversed in women. High psychological demands, low decision latitude, and job strain were all confirmed as independent risk factors for subsequent disability pensions. In order to increase chances of individuals remaining in the work force, interventions against these adverse psychosocial factors appear worthwhile.

  16. Job stress dimension and work-related musculoskeletal disorders among southeast Nigerian physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Ezema, Charles Ikechukwu; Nwosu, Chinenye Kosisochukwu

    2017-09-01

    Although publications describe physical demands of the job in the physiotherapy profession, there is a dearth of literature on job stress dimensions (JSDs), and their relationship to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). To investigate JSDs and their relationship to WMSDs among physiotherapists currently practicing in southeast Nigeria. A cross-sectional study using items related to the Job Content Questionnaire and the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the relationship between WMSDs and JSDs was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 126 physiotherapists responded. There were high levels of stress in most of the job dimensions investigated: 82.1% and 22.8% of the physiotherapists had WMSDs in at least one body region in the last 12 months and the last 7 days respectively. The lower back was the most commonly affected in both periods. No specific domain was related to development of WMSDs. Over 80% of physiotherapists in southeast Nigeria have WMSDs. However, despite high levels of physical demands on the job, physiotherapists have job control and good social support. Intervention programs aimed at reducing WMSDs in physiotherapists should focus on risk factors that target the physical demands of the job.

  17. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2018-05-01

    Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.

  18. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To investigate the psychological health - in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress - among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Methods:  Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the

  19. Factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction: questionnaire survey targeting first-year physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Munetsugu; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Okita, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The survey aimed to clarify the factors that affect physiotherapists' job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] To examine factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction using a cross-sectional study with a questionnaire survey. Subjects were 193 first-year physical therapists who participated in a newcomer orientation at Hiroshima Prefectural Physical Therapy Association. The questionnaire comprised items concerning physical therapists' satisfaction with their work, motives for becoming physical therapists, education in school, internships, the workplace, and comfort in the workplace. [Results] Subjects were divided into two groups according to their satisfaction with their occupation. The "high satisfaction" group included 157 subjects, and the group "low satisfaction" group included 36 subjects. Using logistic regression analysis, items concerning comfort in the workplace, motives for becoming physical therapists, and learning in school were analysed. [Conclusion] Factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction were primarily influenced by previous experience and working conditions.

  20. How to Keep Teachers Healthy and Growing: The Influence of Job Demands and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Arnoud T.; Yamkovenko, Bogdan; Van Amersfoort, Daniël

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job demands and resources can affect the health and cognitive development of teachers using the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation model. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  1. Job-specific mandatory medical examinations for the police force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-08-01

    Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties. We used a stepwise mixed-methods approach in which we included interviews with employees and experts and a review of the national and international literature. We determined the job demands for the various police jobs, determined which were regarded as specific job demands and formulated the matching health requirements as specific as possible for each occupation. A total of 21 specific job demands were considered relevant in different police jobs. These included biomechanical, physiological, physical, emotional, psychological/cognitive and sensory job demands. We formulated both police-generic and job-specific health requirements based on the specific job demands. Two examples are presented: bike patrol and criminal investigation. Our study substantiated the need for job-specific MMEs for police personnel. We found specific job demands that differed substantially for various police jobs. The corresponding health requirements were partly police-generic, and partly job-specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Job demands and resources and their associations with early retirement intentions through recovery need and work enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Schreurs

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which job characteristics associate with early retirement intention, using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model as a theoretical framework. Motivation of the study: Early retirement presents a threat to existing health and pension systems, and to organisational functioning. Therefore, it is important to examine how workrelated factors contribute to early retirement decisions. Research design, approach and method: Two parallel processes were theorised to shape early retirement intention: a health impairment process (i.e. job demands → recovery need → early retirement intention and a motivational process (i.e. job resources → work enjoyment → early retirement intention. Survey data were collected from a heterogeneous sample of 1812 older workers (age > 45. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Job demands and job resources were both associated with work enjoyment, which was associated with early retirement intention. Recovery need did not add to the prediction of early retirement intention. Practical/managerial implications: To retain older workers, companies should promote work conditions and practices that keep older workers motivated. Good health may be a necessary condition for retaining older workers, but it does not appear to be a sufficient one. Contribution/value-add: The results suggest that – for early retirement intention – the motivational process is more prominent than the health impairment process.

  3. Excessive physical demands in modern worklife and characteristics of work and living conditions of persons at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlqvist, Lena K; Härenstam, Annika; Leijon, Ola; Schéele, Patrik

    2003-10-01

    This study attempted to identify work and leisure-time conditions and life-style factors associated with excess metabolic levels (metabolic demands exceeding one-third of a person's aerobic capacity) at work among men and women. The study focused upon psychological, ergonomic, and physically loading factors and chemical and physical environmental conditions. Data were obtained through self-reports, interviews, workplace analyses, technical measurements, and observations. Gender-specific calculations were used in univariate analyses and in stepwise logistic regression models for excess metabolic level. Twenty-seven percent of the men and twenty-two percent of the women worked at an excess metabolic level during their workday. Awkward work postures, heavy manual materials handling, high circulatory strain, chemical exposures, noise levels, much routine work, and many obstacles to job performance characterized their work conditions. The women had low skill discretion and more often atypical workhours, while the men showed high circulatory strain during leisure-time activities. Important negative life-style factors were a high consumption of alcohol for the men and a high body mass index and no or little regular physical exercise for the women. Metabolic demands in worklife today remain high. The women who exceeded the recommended metabolic level at work in this study were characterized by low pay, poor health, and children at home, in addition to high physical load and psychosocial strain at work. These characteristics indicate a group with few possibilities to leave a hazardous job for a less physically demanding one. The men who worked at an excess metabolic level seemed to be characterized more by a life-style common in some male-dominated work cultures with monotonous work.

  4. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Dåderman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources (COR theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC and family-work conflict (FWC threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1 examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work and engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession; (2 attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigour were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigour, dedication and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  5. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Basinska, Beata A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  6. Job-Demands, Job Control, Social Support, Self-Efficacy, and Burnout of Staff of Residential Children's Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, André; Tomic, Welko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine among educational staff members of residential children's homes to what extent task demands, job control, emotional and social support from colleagues and management as well as self-efficacy beliefs concerning coping with aggressive behaviour in youngsters are associated with emotional exhaustion,…

  7. Workplace Bullying Among Teachers: An Analysis From the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz R, Noel M; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L; Leal-Millán, Antonio G

    2016-08-01

    This paper adopts the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model to analyze workplace bullying among teachers. The data used for this research are obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey. Given the objective of this work, a subsample of 261 education employees is collected: 48.7% of these teachers report having experienced workplace bullying (N = 127), while 51.3% indicate not considering themselves as bullied at work (N = 134). In order to test the research model and hypotheses, this study relies on the use of partial least squares (PLS-SEM), a variance-based structural equation modeling method. The study describes a workplace bullying prevalence rate of 4.4% among education employees. This work summarizes an array of outcomes with the aim of proposing, in general, that workplace bullying may be reduced by limiting job demands and increasing job resources.

  8. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace – is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. Methods: A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Results: Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. Conclusions: It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015. PMID:28820017

  9. The moderating role of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support on the impact of job demands in nursing homes: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B.M.; de Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to

  10. Differential effects of decision latitude and control on the job demands-strain relationship: a cross-sectional survey study among elderly care nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Diestel, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    According to the influential Job Demands-Control (JD-C) model developed by Karasek (1979; Karasek and Theorell, 1990), job strain is expected to result from high job demands and low job control as well as an interaction between both job characteristics. Previous research, however, has found such an interaction only rarely or inconsistently.It has been suggested that the conceptualization of the control variable (formerly referred to as decision latitude) may be particularly responsible for the lack of supportive findings. The present study aimed at clarifying this issue by contrasting a focused measure of control with a traditional measure of decision latitude in their relations to job strain of health care workers. The measure of decision latitude encompassed a wide range of job characteristics including control, task variety, and learning opportunities. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with job satisfaction, psychosomatic complaints and emotional exhaustion as criterion measures of job strain. A supra-regional organization for residential elderly care with 11 nursing homes located in a federal state in Germany. Questionnaires were distributed to the whole nursing staff, of which 379 filled in the questionnaire during normal working hours (68% participation rate). In addition to confirmatory factor analyses, descriptive statistics, and bivariate correlations, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed for testing the corresponding interaction effects. Findings confirmed the assumption that the focused measure of control and the traditional measure of decision latitude represent distinct, yet correlated factors. Furthermore, findings revealed a significant interaction effect between job demands and control on all outcomes considered. By way of contrast, there was no equivalent interaction effect between job demands and decision latitude. In line with the JD-C model, the adverse influence of increasing demands on job satisfaction

  11. Job demands, job control, psychological climate, and job satisfaction: a cognitive dissonance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M; Michaelides, G; Wood, S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. This study examines the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.\\ud \\ud Design/approach: Cognitive Dissonance Theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. We hypothesized that psychologic...

  12. Turnover intention and emotional exhaustion “at the top”: Adapting the job demands-resources model to leaders of addiction treatment organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Ducharme, Lori J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to the large literature on subordinate employees, there are few studies of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention for organizational leaders. There is little research that has extended the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of emotional exhaustion to leaders. In this study, we adapted the JD-R framework in order to analyze data collected from a sample of 410 leaders of addiction treatment organizations. We considered whether two job demands (performance demands and centralization) and two job resources (innovation in decision-making and long-range strategic planning) were associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. We also examined whether emotional exhaustion fully or partially mediated the associations between the job-related measures and turnover intention. The results supported the partially mediated model. Both job demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, while the association for long-range strategic planning was negative. Emotional exhaustion was positively associated with turnover intention. Centralization and innovation in decision-making were also directly associated with turnover intention. Future research should continue to examine this theoretical framework among leaders of other types of organizations using more refined measures of demands and resources. PMID:19210050

  13. Acceleration in the care of older adults: new demands as predictors of employee burnout and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Ulferts, Heike

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the concept of acceleration-related demands in the care of older adults. It examines these new demands and their relation to cognitive, emotional, and physical job demands and to employee well-being. Various changes in the healthcare systems of Western societies pose new demands for healthcare professionals' careers and jobs. In particular today's societal changes give rise to acceleration-related demands, which manifest themselves in work intensification and in increasing requirements to handle new technical equipment and to update one's job-related knowledge. It is, therefore, of interest to investigate the effects of these new demands on the well-being of employees. Survey. Between March-June 2010 the survey was conducted among healthcare professionals involved in care of older adults in Austria. A total of 1498 employees provided data on cognitive, emotional, and physical job demands and on acceleration-related demands. The outcome variables were the core dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and engagement (vigour and dedication). Hierarchical regression analyses show that acceleration-related demands explain additional variance for exhaustion, depersonalization, vigour, and dedication when controlling for cognitive, emotional, and physical demands. Furthermore, acceleration-related demands associated with increasing requirements to update one's knowledge are related to positive outcomes (vigour and dedication). Acceleration-related demands associated with an increasing work pace are related to negative outcomes such as emotional exhaustion. Results illustrate that new demands resulting from social acceleration generate potential challenges for on-the-job learning and potential risks to employees' health and well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Geneviève; Chênevert, Denis

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the paper are to examine the role of burnout in the relationship between stress factors related to nurses' work and social environment and intention to leave the profession and to investigate the nature of the relationship between burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession. A postulate of the job demands-resources model is that two distinct yet related processes contribute to the development of burnout. The energetic process originates from demands and is mainly centered on emotional exhaustion; the motivational process originates from resources and is mainly centered on depersonalization. Moreover, we postulated that the two components of burnout are linked indirectly to intention to leave the profession via psychosomatic complaints, associated with the energetic process, and via professional commitment, associated with the motivational process. The research model was tested on cross-sectional data collected in 2005 from 1636 registered nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administrated questionnaire. Demands are the most important determinants of emotional exhaustion and indirectly induce depersonalization via emotional exhaustion, whereas resources mainly predict depersonalization. Moreover, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are linked to psychosomatic complaints and professional commitment, which are in turn associated with intention to leave the profession. The results suggest that a dual strategy is needed in order to retain nurses within the profession: a decrease in job demands, coupled with an increase in available job resources. In particular, nurses' tasks and role should be restructured to reduce work overload and increase the meaning of their work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Workplace Phobic Anxiety as a Mental Health Phenomenon in the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Muschalla, Beate; Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems at work are a serious problem in the occupational context, as they come along with sick leave and problems in work participation. The aim of this study is to analyse workplace phobic anxiety in nonclinical context using the Job Demands-Resources model. The study involved a sample of 739 workers from a retail company, mostly with permanent contracts. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed using AMOS software. Both the health impairment and motivational variables in the JD-R model were significantly related to workplace phobic anxiety and subsequently to absenteeism, specifically, exhaustion mediated between perceived job demands and workplace phobic anxiety and work engagement mediated between perceived job resources and workplace phobic anxiety. Moreover, workplace phobic anxiety was significantly positively related to absenteeism. Results suggest that workplace phobic anxiety is a specific concept and an important issue in organizations for both workers' health and the organizational costs linked to absenteeism. Supervisors and occupational physicians should be aware of workplace phobic anxiety, especially when workers are on sick leave often or for long periods.

  16. Workplace Phobic Anxiety as a Mental Health Phenomenon in the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Anxiety-related problems at work are a serious problem in the occupational context, as they come along with sick leave and problems in work participation. The aim of this study is to analyse workplace phobic anxiety in nonclinical context using the Job Demands-Resources model. Methods The study involved a sample of 739 workers from a retail company, mostly with permanent contracts. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed using AMOS software. Results Both the health impairment and motivational variables in the JD-R model were significantly related to workplace phobic anxiety and subsequently to absenteeism, specifically, exhaustion mediated between perceived job demands and workplace phobic anxiety and work engagement mediated between perceived job resources and workplace phobic anxiety. Moreover, workplace phobic anxiety was significantly positively related to absenteeism. Conclusions Results suggest that workplace phobic anxiety is a specific concept and an important issue in organizations for both workers' health and the organizational costs linked to absenteeism. Supervisors and occupational physicians should be aware of workplace phobic anxiety, especially when workers are on sick leave often or for long periods. PMID:29318143

  17. Workplace Phobic Anxiety as a Mental Health Phenomenon in the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anxiety-related problems at work are a serious problem in the occupational context, as they come along with sick leave and problems in work participation. The aim of this study is to analyse workplace phobic anxiety in nonclinical context using the Job Demands-Resources model. Methods. The study involved a sample of 739 workers from a retail company, mostly with permanent contracts. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed using AMOS software. Results. Both the health impairment and motivational variables in the JD-R model were significantly related to workplace phobic anxiety and subsequently to absenteeism, specifically, exhaustion mediated between perceived job demands and workplace phobic anxiety and work engagement mediated between perceived job resources and workplace phobic anxiety. Moreover, workplace phobic anxiety was significantly positively related to absenteeism. Conclusions. Results suggest that workplace phobic anxiety is a specific concept and an important issue in organizations for both workers’ health and the organizational costs linked to absenteeism. Supervisors and occupational physicians should be aware of workplace phobic anxiety, especially when workers are on sick leave often or for long periods.

  18. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  19. Emotional job demands and the role of matching job resources: a cross-sectional survey study among health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Peeters, M.C.W.; Noordam, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. Objectives To test the moderating role

  20. The moderating role of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support on the impact of job demands in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Bernadette M; de Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2012-07-01

    Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how specific job resources can buffer the adverse effects of high demands, and can even activate positive consequences of high demands. The present study tests the moderating (i.e. buffering and activating) effects of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support that are assumed by the hypotheses of the DCS Model. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted with an anonymous questionnaire. One hundred and thirty six living arrangements that provide nursing home care for people with dementia in the Netherlands. Fifteen healthcare workers per living arrangement. In total, 1147 people filled out the questionnaires (59% response rate). Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses were conducted to test the assumption that the effect of job demands on the dependent variables is buffered or activated the most when both decision authority and social support are high. This moderation is statistically represented by three-way interactions (i.e. demands×authority×support), while lower-order effects are taken into account (i.e. two-way interactions). The hypotheses are supported when three-way interaction effects are found in the expected direction. The dependent variables studied are job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment. The proposed buffering and activation hypotheses of the DCS Model were not supported in our study. Three-way interaction effects were found for emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, though not in the expected direction. In addition, two-way interaction effects were found for job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Decision authority was found to buffer the adverse effect of job demands and to activate

  1. Job analysis of nuclear power reactor health physics technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.T.; Mazour, T.J.; Clark, P.V.; Todd, R.C.; Marotta, F.J.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes a project, an industry-wide Job Analysis of Nuclear Power Reactor Health Physics Technicians (HPTs), conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Analysis and Technology, Inc. to provide the industry with job-performance data that can be used in systematically defining training programs in terms of required job functions responsibilities, and performance standards. The job-analysis methodology is consistent with that used by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in similar industry-wide projects and includes administration of over 850 job task questionnaires to utility and contractor Health Physics Technicians throughout the country. Data collected includes task performance (difficulty, importance, and frequency) and industry-wide demographics (job levels, experience, education, and training). The results of this project discussed herein include model job descriptions for HPT positions, summaries of HPT experience, education, and training, industry-wide task listings with task-performance characteristics, and recommendations of selected tasks as a basis for HPT training development. Finally, potential future applications of the data base by utility and contractor organizations in training program development and evaluation and personnel qualifications are discussed

  2. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  3. Job design and job stress in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, P

    1993-05-01

    A model to look at various job components that affect individual well-being and health was developed drawing from the job design and job stress literature. Briefly stated, the model proposes job control to be a primary causal determinant of the stress outcomes. The effects of perceived demands, job content, and career/future concerns were hypothesized to influence the stress outcomes only to the extent of their influence on job control. This was tested in a population of government office employees in various clerical, professional, and managerial jobs all of which involve the use of computers. Results indicated that job control was not a crucial determinant of the stress outcomes, that job demands and career/future concerns were consistent determinants of the stress outcomes, and that job content, demands, and career/future concerns did not influence the stress outcomes through job control as described by the proposed model. The differentiation of job control levels to define specific relationships with stress outcomes and other job elements was shown to be useful because different levels of job control were associated with different stress outcomes and job elements.

  4. Designing the organizational creativity based on job characteristics and job involvement among physical education units’ employees of Technology University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Alavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designing the organizational creativity based on job characteristics and job involvement among physical education employees of Technology University. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all employees, experts, and physical education units’ managers. The statistical samples were 389 people reduced to 338 employees after eliminating the incomplete and useless questionnaires. The research method of the present study was descriptive-correlative. Three questionnaires of job characteristics, job involvement, and organizational creativity were used to evaluate the research variables which were distributed and gathered among research samples after translation and comparison with research samples via face validity (views of 12 sport management experts and construct validity. The research results were analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS and showed that the best predictor of job involvement among physical education units’ employees of Technology University was problem solving (ES= 0.41. However, the job characteristics of autonomy (0.26 and job feedback (.024 had more effects on employees’ creativity. Other results showed that managers reported lower scores of job characteristics and creativity than sport employees. According to research findings, in order to achieve creativity in the workplace within physical education units of Technology University, the managers should stimulate the autonomy and feedback characteristics. Of course, it should not be neglected that this mechanism would be facilitated by creating the problem solving in job.

  5. Demands and Job Resources in the Child Care Workforce: Swiss Lead Teacher and Assistant Teacher Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloechliger, Olivia R.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Center-based child care has been struggling with poor health and high turnover rates of child care staff and their adverse impact on care quality for decades. Yet little is known about personal and structural antecedents of job resources and job demands that are valid predictors of health and turnover in the child care workforce. Research…

  6. The impact of physically demanding work of basketball and volleyball players on the risk for patellar tendinopathy and on work limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, H; Zwerver, J; Kuijer, P P F M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2011-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is a common injury in jumping athletes. Little is known about work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. The aim of this study was to identify work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and to determine the relation between patellar tendinopathy and work limitations. Basketball and volleyball players between 18 and 35 years were invited to complete an online-questionnaire concerning knee complaints, etiological risk factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. A total of 1505 subjects were included in the analysis. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy were gender and heavy physically demanding work. The odds for having patellar tendinopathy were significantly higher for heavy physically demanding occupations compared to mentally demanding occupations. 30% of subjects with patellar tendinopathy with a physically demanding job reported to be impaired in their work and 17% reported to be less productive. Basketball and volleyball players with heavy physically demanding work seem to have an increased risk for developing patellar tendinopathy. This finding has important clinical relevance in the treatment of this injury. Working activities should be adjusted in order to reduce the total load on the patellar tendon and help prevention and recovery.

  7. A Daily Diary Study of Coping in the Context of the Job Demands-Control-Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin; Harris, Claire

    2005-01-01

    We examined one of the processes thought to underpin Karasek and Theorell's job demands-control-support model (1990). This is that control and support accentuate better well-being by fostering problem-focused coping with work demands. We also examined whether other forms of coping implemented through control and support are related to indicators…

  8. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-04-15

    The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p job demands were found at Time 2. Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  9. Do Job Demands Undermine Parenting? A Daily Analysis of Spillover and Crossover Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Brenda L.; Butler, Adam B.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Linney, Kirsten D.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected over 14 consecutive days, we examined the impact of work hours and job demands on parent-child interactions for mothers and fathers in nonprofessional couples. Wives and husbands evaluated their interactions with their children similarly, such that changes in a spouse's evaluation of parent-child interactions typically matched…

  10. Job demands and driving anger: The roles of emotional exhaustion and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guangxi; Li, Yongjuan; Zhou, Ronggang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of both hindrance and challenge demands on driving anger within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. We collected self-reported data from 411 office workers driving to and from work each day in five cities in China. The results from a structural equation modeling analysis indicated that both hindrance and challenge demands were positively related to emotional exhaustion, which was in turn positively correlated with driving anger. Moreover, work engagement was positively correlated with driving anger. Implications of the present findings regarding both the JD-R model and driving safety research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Job satisfaction among academic coordinators of clinical education in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M J; Fogel, M; Blacconiere, M

    1987-06-01

    The Academic Coordinator of Clinical Education is the physical therapy faculty member who is responsible for the clinical component of the curriculum. The responsibilities involved in the ACCE's job are such that ACCEs seem to be at risk for job dissatisfaction and burnout. The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the levels and patterns of job satisfaction among ACCEs in physical therapy. A questionnaire, including a 32-item job satisfaction inventory, was sent to the ACCE at each accredited entry-level education program for physical therapists and physical therapist assistants (N = 169). One hundred twelve (66.3%) responses were received and analyzed. Demographic characteristics of the respondents are reported. The results of the study showed that ACCEs, in general, expressed low levels of occupational dissatisfaction and burnout. Satisfaction with the aspects of the job involving self-esteem, achievement, and creativity seems to outweight dissatisfaction with the time available, the work load, and organizational efficiency. Those ACCEs with doctoral degrees expressed the highest levels of dissatisfaction and burnout. Those ACCEs working in entry-level master's degree programs expressed the lowest level of dissatisfaction; those in tenure-track positions expressed the lowest level of burnout. Factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are discussed.

  12. Job Satisfaction of People with Intellectual Disability: Associations with Job Characteristics and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…

  13. Relationship between job dissatisfaction and physical and psychological health among Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job dissatisfaction and psychological and physical health among Filipino immigrants in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study were analyzed for 1,381 Filipino immigrants. The primary independent variable of interest was job dissatisfaction. Linear and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to determine separate associations between job dissatisfaction and the outcomes of psychological distress and physical health conditions, respectively. Job dissatisfaction was positively associated with both psychological distress (beta = 0.32, p job category. This community-based study demonstrated that job dissatisfaction has implications for health and well-being among an understudied, immigrant group of workers. Findings also suggest that job-related experiences should be considered when examining disparate health for immigrant, minority populations.

  14. Effects of externally rated job demand and control on depression diagnosis claims in an industrial cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSanto Iennaco, Joanne; Cullen, Mark R; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Fiellin, Martha; Kasl, Stanislav V

    2010-02-01

    This study examined whether externally rated job demand and control were associated with depression diagnosis claims in a heavy industrial cohort. The retrospective cohort sample consisted of 7,566 hourly workers aged 18-64 years who were actively employed at 11 US plants between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2003, and free of depression diagnosis claims during an initial 2-year run-in period. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of tertiles of demand and control exposure on depression diagnosis claims. Demand had a significant positive association with depression diagnosis claims in bivariate models and models adjusted for demographic (age, gender, race, education, job grade, tenure) and lifestyle (smoking status, body mass index, cholesterol level) variables (high demand odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.86). Control was associated with greater risk of depression diagnosis at moderate levels in unadjusted models only (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.93), while low control, contrary to expectation, was not associated with depression. The effects of the externally rated demand exposure were lost with adjustment for location. This may reflect differences in measurement or classification of exposure, differences in depression diagnosis by location, or other location-specific factors.

  15. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwijsen, S A; Gerritsen, D L; Eefsting, J A; Smalbrugge, M; Hertogh, C M P M; Pot, A M

    2015-01-01

    Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to diminishing the challenging behaviour of residents, improve job satisfaction and reduce the care staff's feelings of burnout. To determine the effects of a care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia on the burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff. The care programme was implemented according to a stepped wedge design in which care units were randomly divided over five groups with different time points of starting with implementation. 17 Dutch dementia special care units. Care staff members of the 17 units. The care programme consists of an education package and of various structured assessment tools that guide professionals through the multidisciplinary detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation of treatment of challenging behaviour. Burnout, job satisfaction and job demands were measured before implementation, halfway through the implementation process and after all the care units had implemented the care programme. Burnout was measured with the Dutch version of the Maslach burnout inventory (UBOS-C, three subscales); job satisfaction and job demands were measured with subscales of the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire. Mixed model analyses were used to determine effects. Care staff could not be blinded for the intervention. Of the 1441 questionnaires, 645 were returned (response 45%, 318 control measurements, 327 intervention measurements) by 380 unique care staff members. Significant effects were found on job satisfaction (0.93, 95% CI 0.48-1.38). On the other outcomes, no significant changes in the scores were found. Positive effects of using the Grip on Challenging behaviour care programme were found on job

  16. Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study of Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, R; Baker, D; Marxer, F; Ahlbom, A; Theorell, T

    1981-07-01

    The association between specific job characteristics and subsequent cardiovascular disease was tested using a large random sample of the male working Swedish population. The prospective development of coronary heart disease (CHD) symptoms and signs was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression technique. Additionally, a case-controlled study was used to analyze all cardiovascular-cerebrovascular (CHD-CVD) deaths during a six-year follow-up. The indicator of CHD symptoms and signs was validated in a six-year prospective study of CHD deaths (standardized mortality ratio 5.0; p less than or equal to .001). A hectic and psychologically demanding job increases the risk of developing CHD symptoms and signs (standardized odds ratio 1.29, p less than 0.25) and premature CHD-CVD death (relative risk 4.0, p less than .01). Low decision latitude-expressed as low intellectual discretion and low personal schedule freedom-is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low intellectual discretion predicts the development of CHD symptoms and signs (SOR 1.44, p less than .01), while low personal schedule freedom among the majority of workers with the minimum statutory education increases the risk of CHD-CVD death (RR 6.6, p less than .0002). The associations exist after controlling for age, education, smoking, and overweight.

  17. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labor productivity to work engagement : The mediating role of job demands and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Voorde, F.C.; Veld, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the strategic HRM literature with key aspects of the job demands-resources (JDR) model, we propose in this study that empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity influence work engagement of employees by shaping task-related resources and demands. A total of 311 employees nested

  18. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity to work engagement: the mediating role of job demands and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Voorde, Karina; Veld, M.F.A.; van Veldhoven, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the strategic HRM literature with key aspects of the job demands-resources (JDR) model, we propose in this study that empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity influence work engagement of employees by shaping task-related resources and demands. A total of 311 employees nested

  19. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Physically and psychologically hazardous jobs and mental health in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225

  1. Return to work after cancer and pre-cancer job dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heinesen, Eskil; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Ladenburg, Jacob; Andersen, Ingelise; Thielen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the association between pre-cancer job dissatisfaction and return-to-work probability 3 years after a cancer diagnosis. We use a Danish data set combining administrative data and a survey to breast and colon cancer survivors. We find that the return-to-work probability has a negative correlation with pre-cancer job dissatisfaction with mental demands (where the correlation is driven by the high-educated) and with physical demands and the superior (where the correlation is drive...

  2. Job task characteristics of Australian emergency services volunteers during search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Aaron; Lenton, Gavin; Savage, Robbie; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-01

    Search and rescue operations are necessary in locating, assisting and recovering individuals lost or in distress. In Australia, land-based search and rescue roles require a range of physically demanding tasks undertaken in dynamic and challenging environments. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterise the physically demanding tasks inherent to search and rescue operation personnel within Australia. These aims were met through a subjective job task analysis approach. In total, 11 criterion tasks were identified by personnel. These tasks were the most physically demanding, frequently occurring and operationally important tasks to these specialist roles. Muscular strength was the dominant fitness component for 7 of the 11 tasks. In addition to the discrete criterion tasks, an operational scenario was established. With the tasks and operational scenario identified, objective task analysis procedures can be undertaken so that practitioners can implement evidence-based strategies, such as physical selection procedures and task-based physical training programs, commensurate with the physical demands of search and rescue job roles. Practitioner Summary: The identification of physically demanding tasks amongst specialist emergency service roles predicates health and safety strategies which can be incorporated into organisations. Knowledge of physical task parameters allows employers to mitigate injury risk through the implementation of strategies modelled on the precise physical demands of the role.

  3. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.

  4. Job demands-control-social support model and coping strategies: predicting burnout and wellbeing in a group of Italian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is generally considered to be a stressful profession. The purpose of the present study was to test the core hypotheses of the job demands-control-social support model (JDCS) of Karasek & Theorell (1990). In order to refine and extend the JDCS model, we also analyzed the direct and interactive role of three coping strategies: task- oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping. Questionnaire data from 1383 nurses (77%female) were collected. Controlling for demographic variables and non-linearity of the associations between job characteristics and outcomes (job satisfaction; burnout dimensions, psychological distress, and somatic complaints), hierarchical regression analyses indicated that job control and social support combined additively (p < 0.001) with job demands to explain the wellbeing outcomes (explained variance between 6% and 28%). Coping strategies accounted for additional variance (p < 0.001; explained variance between 4% and 15%) in all outcomes except in job satisfaction. Support was found for main effects of coping. Coping strategies did not moderate the impact of job characteristics on burnout and wellbeing. Emotion-oriented coping emerged as the most important predictor and was consistently associated with higher burnout levels and lower wellbeing levels. The results demonstrated the need to include the role of individual variables in the JDCS model. The limitations of the study, and theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job and family domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.

  6. The Job Costs of Family Demands: Gender Differences in Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Jennifer Reid; Reynolds, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article uses the 1992 National Study of the Changing Workforce to examine family and workplace factors contributing to gender differences in negative family-to-work spillover. We focus on spillover as manifested when family demands negatively affect job performance. Among married workers, women were twice as likely as men to report that…

  7. Burnout and Connectedness among Australian Volunteers: A Test of the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewig, Kerry A.; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Dollard, Maureen F.; Metzer, Jacques C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, developed in the context of occupational well-being in the paid workforce, to examine the antecedents of burnout and connectedness in the formal volunteer rural ambulance officer vocation (N=487). Structural equation modeling using self-reports provide strong evidence for the central…

  8. Job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Ješinová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionals working in the area of special education are exposed to the unique situation of occupational stress. Adapted physical education teachers are experiencing several symptoms of the burnout phenomenon. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors causing job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA. Methods: The survey was developed based (a on Herzberg's (1959 theory of job satisfaction, and (b a pilot study, which examined specific factors of job dissatisfaction among adapted physical education (APE teachers in the USA. The survey consisted of three parts: (a demographic information, (b paired comparison of nine general factors which could cause job dissatisfaction, and (c paired comparison of ten APE specific factors which could cause job dissatisfaction. The participants were 113 certified adapted physical education specialists (CAPES (88 females, 25 males, a 38% return rate of all mailed surveys. Results: The results indicated that 39% of CAPES have seriously considered another job outside of APE and 26% of CAPES have actively searched for job outside of APE in the last two years. 113 CAPES indicated the general factors that they found the most dissatisfying in their job (listed accordingly to rank, frequency and percent of times chosen, N for each factor = 1017 were working conditions (644, 71%; policies and administration (619, 68%; interpersonal relationship with supervisors (552, 61%; supervision (484, 54%; salary (404, 45%; interpersonal relationship with subordinates (404, 45%; benefits on job (301, 33%; interpersonal relationship with peers (293, 32%; and job security (245, 27%. 110 CAPES indicated the APE specific factors they found the most dissatisfying on their job (listed accordingly to rank, frequency and percent of times chosen, N for each factor = 990 were paperwork (687, 69%; scheduling (659, 67%; facilities (617, 62%; individualized education

  9. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  10. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lilian Cristina X; Lopes, Claudia S

    2013-08-03

    Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); "high effort and low reward" was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = -0.198; CI 95% -0.384; -0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = -0.184; CI 95% -0.321; -0.046). The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity.

  11. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, Bongkyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. METHODS: We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, a...

  12. Return to work after cancer and pre-cancer job dissatisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinesen, Eskil; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Ladenburg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the association between pre-cancer job dissatisfaction and return-to-work probability 3 years after a cancer diagnosis. We use a Danish data set combining administrative data and a survey to breast and colon cancer survivors. We find that the return-to-work probability has a negative...... correlation with pre-cancer job dissatisfaction with mental demands (where the correlation is driven by the high-educated) and with physical demands and the superior (where the correlation is driven by the low-educated). Educational gradients in the probability of returning to work after cancer...... are not significantly affected by controlling for pre-cancer job dissatisfaction and pre-cancer ability to work....

  13. Burnout and Work Demands Predict Reduced Job Satisfaction in Health Professionals Working In a Surgery Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of work demands, particularly excessive workload, time pressure, and lack of staff can lead to prevention of burnout and reduced job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs, and contribute to better quality of patient care.

  14. Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and employee well-being: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, J; Bosma, H; Peter, R; Siegrist, J

    2000-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Job Demand-Control (JD-C) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model on employee well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large representative sample of 11,636 employed Dutch men and women. Logistic regression analyses were used. Controlling for job sector, demographic characteristics (including educational level) and managerial position, employees reporting high job demands (i.e. psychological and physical demands) and low job control had elevated risks of emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic and physical health complaints and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios ranged from 2.89 to 10.94). Odds ratios were generally higher in employees reporting both high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards (i.e. poor salary, job insecurity and low work support): they ranged from 3.23 to 15.43. Furthermore, overcommitted people had higher risks of poor well-being due to a high effort-low reward mismatch (ORs: 3.57-20.81) than their less committed counterparts (ORs: 3.01-12.71). Finally, high efforts and low occupational rewards were stronger predictors of poor well-being than low job control when both job stress models were simultaneously adjusted. In conclusion, our findings show independent cumulative effects of both the JD-C Model and the ERI Model on employee well-being and are not significantly different in men and women as well as in young and old people. In particular, high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards adversely affected employee well-being. Preliminary findings also indicate excess risks of poor well-being in overcommitted persons suffering from high cost--low gain conditions at work.

  15. Relation Between Job Stress Dimensions and Job Satisfaction in Workers of a Refinery Control Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behjati Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction. Results: In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01. In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest. Conclusion: This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.

  16. The Effects of Job Demands and Organizational Resources through Psychological Need Satisfaction and Thwarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Huyghebaert, Tiphaine; Colombat, Philippe

    2015-05-20

    In Study 1, we tested a model in which two job demands (i.e., changes in tasks and ambiguities about work) and organizational resources (i.e., interpersonal and informational justice) influence work engagement through the satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In Study 2, we examined the indirect effects of the same job demands and organizational resources on burnout through need thwarting. We also examined the mediating role of organizational resources in the relationships of changes in tasks and ambiguities about work to need satisfaction (Study 1) and need thwarting (Study 2). Structural equation modeling performed on cross-sectional data collected from 461 workers in Study 1 and 708 employees in Study 2 provided support for the hypothesized models. Specifically, results revealed that changes in tasks and ambiguities about work have direct and indirect effects (via organizational resources) on psychological need satisfaction and need thwarting, which in turn positively predicted work engagement and burnout, respectively (p < .05). Research implications and study limitations are discussed.

  17. Mindfulness as a personal resource to reduce work stress in the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Steven L; Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Roche, Maree

    2017-10-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study examines the different ways that the personal resource of mindfulness reduces stress. Structural equation modeling based on data from 415 Australian nurses shows that mindfulness relates directly and negatively to work stress and perceptions of emotional demands as well as buffering the relation of emotional demands on psychological stress. This study contributes to the literature by employing empirical analysis to the task of unravelling how personal resources function within the JD-R model. It also introduces mindfulness as a personal resource in the JD-R model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Job Demands-Resources and employee health and well-being : The moderating role of contract type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tooren, M.; de Jong, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the main propositions of the job demands-resources (JDR) model are moderated by type of contract (i.e. temporary contract vs permanent contract). Design/methodology/approach Survey data were collected in a large, heterogeneous sample from

  19. Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a theoretical extension and meta-analytic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Eean R; Lepine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce Louis

    2010-09-01

    We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Parallelization and scheduling of data intensive particle physics analysis jobs on clusters of PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, S

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. Scheduling policies are proposed for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis applications on computer clusters. Particle physics analysis jobs require the analysis of tens of thousands of particle collision events, each event requiring typically 200ms processing time and 600KB of data. Many jobs are launched concurrently by a large number of physicists. At a first view, particle physics jobs seem to be easy to parallelize, since particle collision events can be processed independently one from another. However, since large amounts of data need to be accessed, the real challenge resides in making an efficient use of the underlying computing resources. We propose several job parallelization and scheduling policies aiming at reducing job processing times and at increasing the sustainable load of a cluster server. Since particle collision events are usually reused by several jobs, cache based job splitting strategies considerably increase cluster utilization and reduce job ...

  1. Fit for Duty?: Evaluating the Physical Fitness Requirements of Battlefield Airmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean, Robson; Maria C, Lytell; Carra S, Sims; Stephanie, Pezard; Thomas, Manacapilli; Amanda, Anderson; Therese, Bohusch; Abigail, Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Military occupations can be physically demanding, yet few attempts have been made to determine the physical readiness of today's airmen to perform their jobs. Although the Air Force conducts fitness testing of all its airmen, these tests and standards are not based on validated job requirements. As part of a broader Air Force effort to measure the physical readiness of airmen to perform their jobs, this study describes a methodology for establishing physical fitness standards for four physically demanding Air Force occupational specialties-combat controller, pararescue, special operations weather team, and tactical air control party. Airmen in these specialties are collectively known as battlefield airmen. The authors sought to identify the physically demanding tasks required of battlefield airmen and ways in which fitness standards might be established to ensure that individuals in these specialties are able to perform these tasks. They reviewed the research literature and relevant military documents, conducted focus groups and interviews with battlefield airmen and other subject matter experts, and analyzed the movement patterns and physical abilities associated with each task. They found a high demand across the four specialities for strength and muscular and cardiovascular endurance, followed by agility, anaerobic power, and equilibrium, whereas they found flexibility to be less critically important. The authors recommend that a validation study be conducted next, to (a) ensure that tests measure important physical abilities required for successful mission or job performance, (b) ensure that performance on tests is a good indicator of mission or job performance, and (c) identify minimum test standards that are associated with acceptable mission or job performance.

  2. How job demands affect partners' experience of exhaustion : integrating work-family conflict and crossover theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Dollard, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study among 168 couples of dual-earner parents uses insights from previous work-family conflict and crossover research to propose an integrative model delineating how job demands experienced by men and women carry over to the home domain. The authors hypothesized that for both men and women,

  3. Management perceptions of the Health Physics Technician job

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.; Marotta, F.J.

    1985-12-01

    In 1984, an industry-wide job analysis of nuclear power reactor Health Physics Technicians (HPTs) was completed. These results provided the basis for job descriptions, industry-wide task listings and recommendations for task selections for further analysis and formal training. A total of 389 tasks were identified and reviewed by 850 HPTs representing 39 plants and 6 vendor companies. Constructive criticism of the HPT job analysis focused on the fact that HPT supervisors and managers were not included in the survey. Concerns were addressed that these supervisors/managers might have a divergent perception of the HPT job that could lead to different conclusions than those that were originally drawn. The only way to confirm (or deny) this hypothesis was to verify the results of the job analysis of HPTs by also surveying radiation protection management personnel. A total of 19 HPT supervisors/managers completed the same survey that had been used for HPT job incumbents. They were asked to rate each task on the basis of their job incumbents' performance of the task. Of the 1161 ratings (389 tasks each with a rating for frequency, difficulty, and importance), only 37 of the ratings differed between the HPTs and the HPT supervisors/managers (at the 99% confidence level)

  4. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  5. Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2016-10-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p work-related stress in modern working life.

  6. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. METHODS: Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. RESULTS: Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time. PMID:29731948

  7. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police

  8. Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects. Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time. Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands. Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593 included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses. Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant. Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement. Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

  9. Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Scherzer, Teresa; Krause, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service sector. To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners. We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and smoking were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses. Psychosocial work characteristics were associated with smoking after adjustment for covariates. Effect estimates were substantially reduced by additional adjustment for ethnicity, but remained significant for high psychological demands and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.97, p = 0.02), high job strain and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.87, p = 0.04), and high job strain and smoking intensity (coefficient = 3.52, p = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to Hispanic workers and further adjusted for place of birth, low decision latitude (coefficient = 3.94, p = 0.04) and high job strain (coefficient = 4.57, p = 003) were associated with smoking intensity but not with smoking status. Workplace smoking cessation programs may benefit from a primary prevention component reducing job strain among service workers. More research is needed on perceived and objective differences in psychosocial work characteristics across ethnic, immigrant, and other social groups within the same occupation.

  10. Occupational status and job stress in relation to cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Hirokawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP, heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p < 0.05. Women showed inverse associations between qualitative job overload and SBP, and showed positive associations between qualitative job overload and peripheral blood flow, and between a poor physical environment and SBP (all p < 0.05. When stratified by occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p < 0.05. Job stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.

  11. Job Satisfaction of a Physical Education Teacher as Seen by School Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In A high level of satisfaction with a job influences the effectiveness and increases the quality of performed tasks. In the case of physical education teachers it is connected not only with a higher commitment to passing knowledge and skills but also with instilling passion in their students. The aim of the study was to analyse how school community perceives job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The research included 148 teachers and 171 students who were divided into three groups by means of random-purposive sampling. The groups were as follows: physical education teachers (n=22, teachers of other subjects (n=22 and students (n=22. The results obtained from these respondents (n=66 were subjected to further analysis. In the study a modified Polish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS prepared by Juczyński (2001 was used. It made it possible to diagnose the job satisfaction of physical education teachers. The analyses revealed that the subjects assess the job satisfaction of a physical education teacher at an average or low level. This assessment showed significant differences between physical education teachers and teachers of other subjects. The study also revealed differences between groups with regard to two out of five scores in the SWLS.

  12. Connecting Physics Bachelors to Their Dream Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shouvik

    2013-01-01

    People who earn bachelor’s degrees in physics are highly employable. Employers value the skills that physics bachelor’s recipients acquire and develop over their four years of a college education, such as complex problem solving, advanced mathematics, teamwork and programming. The Career Pathways Project of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) aims to better prepare physics undergraduates for the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workforce. This presentation will include a discussion of common features among departments visited by the AIP’s Career Pathways team, ideas for a career workshop for physics undergraduates, and advice on how to make the most out of a job fair and how to start effective online professional networking.

  13. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  14. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Long-Term Care Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kelly; Resnick, Barbara; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors that predicted job satisfaction among long-term care employees. Baseline data were used to describe characteristics that influence job satisfaction. Using a forced linear regression model, while controlling for age and job title, we assessed if higher physical activity levels, fewer symptoms of depression, stress, and/or anxiety (ie, decreased mood), less back pain, stronger social support, and reports of low work demands were associated with higher job satisfaction. Mood (β = -0.412, P = 0.003) explained 17% of the variance in job satisfaction. This information can be used to guide facility wide programs and interventions aimed at increasing job satisfaction among all long-term care staff.

  15. Consequences of Team Job Demands: Role Ambiguity Climate, Affective Engagement, and Extra-Role Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, Miguel A; Díaz-Fúnez, Pedro; Pecino, Vicente; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla, David; Aguilar-Parra, José M

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate). In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context.

  16. Consequences of Team Job Demands: Role Ambiguity Climate, Affective Engagement, and Extra-Role Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, Miguel A.; Díaz-Fúnez, Pedro; Pecino, Vicente; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla, David; Aguilar-Parra, José M.

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate). In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context. PMID:29375424

  17. Consequences of Team Job Demands: Role Ambiguity Climate, Affective Engagement, and Extra-Role Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Mañas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate. In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context.

  18. Work-self balance : a longitudinal study on the effects of job demands and resources on personal functioning in Japanese working parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Shimada, K.; Kawakami, N.

    2013-01-01

    In work-family research the effects on the individual, or the "self", in terms of personal interests independent of the work and family domains, have been largely neglected. This longitudinal study on 471 Japanese employees with young children investigated how job demands and job resources may have

  19. Occupational status and job stress in relation to cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women) from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.

  20. Stress and Burnout in Demanding Nursing Home Care : A literature review of the causes, prevention and coping strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Di

    2017-01-01

    Nursing job is generally related to intense pressure and high-level burnout because of its high demanding, challenging and stressful professional characteristic. Nursing staff in elderly home and long-term care facilities particularly experience higher level of physical job demands, more emotional exhaustion and lower level of job satisfaction than those in other units, thus bringing out higher burnout ratio among the nursing staffs. The main aim of this study was to reveal the causing factor...

  1. The combined fatigue effects of sequential exposure to seated whole body vibration and physical, mental, or concurrent work demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Lang, Angelica E; Stobart, Jamie; Kociolek, Aaron M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate fatigue-related human responses of WBV sequentially combined with physical, mental, or concurrent physical and mental demands. Sixteen healthy participants performed four conditions on four separate days: (1) physically demanding work, (2) mentally demanding work, (3) concurrent work, and (4) control quiet sitting. For each condition, participants performed two 15-minute bouts of the experimental task, separated by 30-minutes of simulated WBV based on realistic all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding data. A test battery of fatigue measures consisting of biomechanical, physiological, cognitive, and sensorimotor measurements were collected at four interval periods: pre-session, after the first bout of the experimental task and before WBV, after WBV and before the second bout of the experimental task, and post-session. Nine measures demonstrated statistically significant time effects during the control condition; 11, 7, and 12 measures were significant in the physical, mental, and concurrent conditions, respectively. Overall, the effects of seated WBV in combination with different tasks are not additive but possibly synergistic or antagonistic. There appears to be a beneficial effect of seated ATV operation as a means of increasing task variation; but since excessive WBV may independently pose a health

  2. Applying Occupational Health Theories to Educator Stress : Contribution of the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298978504; Leisink, P.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071055266; Schaufeli, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this chapter discusses the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in general terms. We address several variations of the model, including the JD-R model of burnout and the revised JD-R model. Moreover, we discuss several extensions of the model (engagement, performance and personal

  3. Job strain and unhealthy lifestyle: results from the baseline cohort study, Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Giatti, Luana; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Toivanen, Susanna; Chor, Dóra

    2015-03-31

    Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and sedentary behavior, are among the main modifiable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. The workplace is regarded as an important site of potential health risks where preventive strategies can be effective. We investigated independent associations among psychosocial job strain, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking in public servants in the largest Brazilian adult cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. Our analytical samples comprised 11,779 and 11,963 current workers for, respectively, analyses of job strain and leisure-time physical activity and analyses of job strain and smoking. Job strain was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire; physical activity was evaluated using a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We also examined smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The association reported in this paper was assessed by means of multinomial and logistic regression, stratified by sex. Among men, compared with low-strain activities (low demand and high control), job strain showed an association with physical inactivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.64) or with the practice of physical activities of less than recommended duration (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.15-1.82). Among women, greater likelihood of physical inactivity was identified among job-strain and passive-job groups (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.22-1.77 and OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.20-1.67, respectively). Greater control at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among both men and women. Social support at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among women, as was smoking for both genders. We observed no association

  4. Relationship between Job Statisfaction Levels and Work-Family Conflicts of Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucan, Hakki

    2017-01-01

    Study aims to examine the relationship between perceived job satisfaction levels and work-family conflicts of the physical education teachers. Research group consists of 154 volunteer physical education teachers that work full time in governmental institutions in Kirsehir city and its counties. To acquire the job satisfaction datum; the Minnesota…

  5. Job Burnout (Burnout) with Performance by Nurses in Nursing Care Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Triyoga, Akde; Maharani, Puspa Ayu

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout is a condition that physical, emotional and mental drop caused by a very demanding job situation in the long term. This study aims to determine the job burnout relationship with the performance of nurses in providing nursing care in Inpatient Installation Kediri Baptist Hospital. Design used in this study were Analytical Correlation. The populations were nurses who worked in Inpatient Installation Kediri Baptist Hospital. The number of samples were 53 respondents and was taken by ...

  6. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals: An application of the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work engagement, and the predictors of both, utilizing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, within a sample of psychosocial oncologists. Psychosocial-oncologist (N = 417) clinicians, recruited through 10 international and national psychosocial-oncology societies, completed an online questionnaire. Measures included demographic and work characteristics, burnout (the MBI-HSS Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) subscales), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of job demands and resources. High EE and DP was reported by 20.2 and 6.6% of participants, respectively, while 95.3% reported average to high work engagement. Lower levels of job resources and higher levels of job demands predicted greater burnout, as predicted by the JD-R model, but the predicted interaction between these characteristics and burnout was not significant. Higher levels of job resources predicted higher levels of work engagement. Burnout was surprisingly low and work engagement high in this sample. Nonetheless, one in five psychosocial oncologists have high EE. Our results suggest that both the positive (resources) and negative (demands) aspects of this work environment have an on impact burnout and engagement, offering opportunities for intervention. Theories such as the JD-R model can be useful in guiding research in this area.

  7. Validity and Reliability of Malay Version of the Job Content Questionnaire among Public Hospital Female Nurses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N A; Quek, K F; Oxley, J A; Noah, R M; Nordin, R

    2015-10-01

    The Job Content Questionnaire (M-JCQ) is an established self-reported instrument used across the world to measure the work dimensions based on the Karasek's demand-control-support model. To evaluate the psychometrics properties of the Malay version of M-JCQ among nurses in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was carried out on nurses working in 4 public hospitals in Klang Valley area, Malaysia. M-JCQ was used to assess the perceived psychosocial stressors and physical demands of nurses at their workplaces. Construct validity of the questionnaire was examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Cronbach's α values were used to estimate the reliability (internal consistency) of the M-JCQ. EFA showed that 34 selected items were loaded in 4 factors. Except for psychological job demand (Cronbach's α 0.51), the remaining 3 α values for 3 subscales (job control, social support, and physical demand) were greater than 0.70, indicating acceptable internal consistency. However, an item was excluded due to poor item-total correlation (rMalaysia.

  8. The Role of Personality in the Job Demands-Resources Model: A Study of Australian Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Boyd, Carolyn M.; Dollard, Maureen; Gillespie, Nicole; Winefield, Anthony H.; Stough, Con

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study is to incorporate two core personality factors (neuroticism and extroversion) in the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Design/methodology/approach: It was hypothesized that neuroticism would be most strongly related to the health impairment process, and that extroversion would be most strongly related to…

  9. Physical work environment: testing an expanded model of job satisfaction in a sample of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Budin, Wendy C; Norman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The impact of personal, organizational, and economic factors on nurses' job satisfaction have been studied extensively, but few studies exist in which the effects of physical work environment--including perceptions of architectural, interior design, and ambient features on job satisfaction-are examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived physical work environment on job satisfaction, adjusting for multiple personal, organizational, and economic determinants of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, predictive design and a Web-based survey instrument were used to collect data from staff registered nurses in a large metropolitan hospital. The survey included 34 questions about multiple job satisfaction determinants, including 18 Likert-type measures with established good validity (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, root mean square error of approximation = .06) and reliability (r ≥ .70). A response rate of 48.5% resulted in a sample of 362, with 80% power to detect a medium effect of perceived physical environment on job satisfaction. On average, nurses had negative perceptions of physical work environment (M = 2.9, SD = 2.2). Although physical environment was related positively to job satisfaction (r =.256, p = .01) in bivariate analysis, in ordered probit regression, no effect of physical work environment on job satisfaction was found. In future studies, this relationship should be examined in larger and more representative samples of nurses. Qualitative methods should be used to explore how negatively perceived physical work environment impacts nurses. Rebuilding of U.S. hospitals, with a planned investment of $200 billion without considering how physical environment contributes to nurse work outcomes, threatens to exacerbate organizational nurse turnover.

  10. Is fatigue after work a barrier for leisure-time physical activity? Cross-sectional study among 10,000 adults from the general working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bláfoss, Rúni; Micheletti, Jéssica K; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bay, Hans; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-04-01

    In spite of the many health-related benefits of regular physical activity, fatiguing work may be a barrier to performing leisure-time physical activity. This study investigates the association between work-related fatigue and the duration of low- and high-intensity leisure-time physical activity in workers with sedentary and physically demanding jobs. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners from the general working population ( N=10,427) replied to questions about work-related fatigue (predictor) and duration of low- and high-intensity leisure-time physical activity (outcome). Associations were modelled using general linear models controlling for various confounders. Among workers with physically demanding jobs, higher levels of work-related fatigue were associated with gradually lower levels of leisure-time physical activity - for low, moderate and high levels of work-related fatigue the duration of high-intensity leisure-time physical activity was 133 (95% confidence interval (CI) 127-178), 134 (95% CI 109-160) and 113 (95% CI 86-140) min per week, respectively (trend test pwork-related fatigue in workers with physically demanding jobs. Older workers perform less high-intensity physical activity than younger workers. Workplaces should consider initiatives to allow workers with physically demanding jobs and older workers to perform physical exercise during working hours and thereby increase physical capacity to meet the job demands.

  11. Burnout and work engagement among teachers: an application of the job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Simbula, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The present dissertation focuses on burnout and work engagement among teachers, with especial focus on the Job-Demands Resources Model: Chapter 1 focuses on teacher burnout. It aims to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and to establish whether depersonalization and cynism can be considered two different dimensions of the teacher burnout syndrome. Chapter 2 investigates the factorial validity of the instruments u...

  12. Relative effects of demand and control on task-related cardiovascular reactivity, task perceptions, performance accuracy, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Niamh; James, Jack E

    2009-05-01

    The hypothesis that work control has beneficial effects on well-being is the basis of the widely applied, yet inconsistently supported, Job Demand Control (JDC) Model [Karasek, R.A., 1979. Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Adm. Sci. Q. 24, 285-308.; Karasek, R., Theorell, T., 1990. Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life. Basic Books, Oxford]. The model was tested in an experiment (N=60) using a cognitive stressor paradigm that sought to prevent confounding between demand and control. High-demand was found to be associated with deleterious effects on physiological, subjective, and performance outcomes. In contrast, few main effects were found for control. Evidence for the buffer interpretation of the JDC Model was limited to a significant demand-control interaction for performance accuracy, whereas substantial support was found for the strain interpretation of the model [van der Doef, M., Maes, S., 1998. The job demand-control(-support) model and physical health outcomes: A review of the strain and buffer hypotheses. Psychol. Health 13, 909-936., van der Doef, M., Maes, S., 1999. The Job Demand-Control(-Support) model and psychological well-being: A review of 20 years of empirical research. Work Stress 13, 87-114]. Manipulation checks revealed that objective control altered perceptions of control but not perceptions of demand. It is suggested that beneficial effects of work-related control are unlikely to occur in the absence of reductions in perceived demand. Thus, contrary to the propositions of Karasek and colleagues, demand and control do not appear to be independent factors.

  13. The effect of job demand-control-social support model on nurses' job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among 1371 nurses, 360 were selected as sample. Data was collected using Job Content Questionnaire and Job Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire. After the data was collected, ...

  14. Self-rated job performance and absenteeism according to employee engagement, health behaviors, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.

  15. How to Define the Content of a Job-Specific Worker's Health Surveillance for Hospital Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2016-03-01

    A job-specific Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) for hospital physicians is a preventive occupational health strategy aiming at early detection of their diminished work-related health in order to improve or maintain physician's health and quality of care. This study addresses what steps should be taken to determine the content of a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians and outlines that content. Based on four questions, decision trees were developed for physical and psychological job demands and for biological, chemical, and physical exposures to decide whether or not to include work-related health effects related to occupational exposures or aspects of health reflecting insufficient job requirements. Information was gathered locally through self-reporting and systematic observations at the workplace and from evidence in international publications. Information from the decision trees on the prevalence and impact of the health- or work-functioning effect led to inclusion of occupational exposures (e.g., biological agents, emotionally demanding situations), job requirements (e.g., sufficient vision, judging ability), or health effects (e.g., depressive symptoms, neck complaints). Additionally, following the Dutch guideline for occupational physicians and based on specific job demands, screening for cardiovascular diseases, work ability, drug use, and alcohol consumption was included. Targeted interventions were selected when a health or work functioning problem existed and were chosen based on evidence for effectiveness. The process of developing a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians was described and the content presented, which might serve as an example for other jobs. Before implementation, it must first be tested for feasibility and acceptability.

  16. Job strain and resting heart rate: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish random working sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Eriksson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported an association between stressing work conditions and cardiovascular disease. However, more evidence is needed, and the etiological mechanisms are unknown. Elevated resting heart rate has emerged as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relation to work-related stress. This study therefore investigated the association between job strain, job control, and job demands and resting heart rate. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected men and women in Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden (West county of Sweden (n = 1552. Information about job strain, job demands, job control, heart rate and covariates was collected during the period 2001–2004 as part of the INTERGENE/ADONIX research project. Six different linear regression models were used with adjustments for gender, age, BMI, smoking, education, and physical activity in the fully adjusted model. Job strain was operationalized as the log-transformed ratio of job demands over job control in the statistical analyses. Results No associations were seen between resting heart rate and job demands. Job strain was associated with elevated resting heart rate in the unadjusted model (linear regression coefficient 1.26, 95 % CI 0.14 to 2.38, but not in any of the extended models. Low job control was associated with elevated resting heart rate after adjustments for gender, age, BMI, and smoking (linear regression coefficient −0.18, 95 % CI −0.30 to −0.02. However, there were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Low job control and job strain, but not job demands, were associated with elevated resting heart rate. However, the observed associations were modest and may be explained by confounding effects.

  17. [Investigation on job stress of pediatricians and nurses working in pediatric department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, San-qiao; Tian, Ling; Pang, Bao-dong; Bai, Yu-ping; Fan, Xue-yun; Shen, Fu-hai; Jin, Yu-lan

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the occupational stressors and modifiers of pediatricians and nurses in order to find the measurements for control of the job stress. 427 pediatricians and nurses working in five hospitals of a city served as subjects. Of them, the staff in section of pharmacy and toll offices in each hospital mentioned above served as control group. The General Job Stress Questionnaire was used to investigate the job stress by self-assessment. The scores of job demand, job risk, drug using, daily job stress, positive feelings, patient A behavior, physical environment and feeling balance in pediatricians and nurses were higher than those of control group, but the scores of job-person conflict, environmental control, technology utility, mental health, responsibility on things were lower than those of control group (Pdepression in nurses were higher than those of pediatricians, and non-work activities, job risk and daily life stress were lower than those of doctors (Pwork job, lower job control, more job risk, job future ambiguous, poorer social support, lower job locus control and lower self-esteem. The stress degree of pediatric staff is higher than that of controls. The pediatricians have more job stress than that of nurses. The main stressors of pediatric staff are job monotony, higher job demand, more non-worker activity, lower job control, higher job risk and ambiguous job future. The main modifiers are good social support, external job locus of control and higher self-esteem.

  18. The Job Accommodation Scale (JAS): Psychometric evaluation of a new measure of employer support for temporary job modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S.; Kristman, Vicki L.; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work (RTW) for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. OBJECTIVE To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure (the Job Accommodation Scale [JAS]) to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. METHODS Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8% male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. RESULTS The full response range (1–4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. CONCLUSIONS The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with LBP showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to

  19. The demand-control model for job strain: a commentary on different ways to operationalize the exposure variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Guimarães de Mello Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand-control has been the most widely used model to study job strain in various countries. However, researchers have used the model differently, thus hindering the comparison of results. Such heterogeneity appears in both the study instrument used and in the definition of the main exposure variable - high strain. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess differences between various ways of operationalizing job strain through association with prevalent hypertension in a cohort of workers (Pro-Health Study. No difference in the association between high job strain and hypertension was found according to the different ways of operationalizing exposure, even though prevalence varied widely, according to the adopted form, from 19.6% for quadrants to 42% for subtraction tertile. The authors recommend further studies to define the cutoff for exposure variables using combined subjective and objective data.

  20. Burnout and connectedness in the job demands-resources model: studying palliative care volunteers and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Jasmine-Yan; Winefield, Anthony H; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Metzer, Jacques C

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the role of burnout and connectedness in the job demands-resources (JD-R) model among palliative care volunteers. It was hypothesized that (a) exhaustion mediates the relationship between demands and depression, and between demands and retention; (b) cynicism mediates the relationship between resources and retention; and (c) connectedness mediates the relationship between resources and retention. Hypotheses were tested in 2 separate analyses: structural equation modeling (SEM) and path analyses. The first was based on volunteer self-reports (N = 204), while the second analysis concerned matched data from volunteers and their family members (N = 99). While strong support was found for cynicism and connectedness as mediators in both types of analyses, this was not altogether the case for exhaustion. Implications of these findings for the JD-R model and volunteer organizations are discussed.

  1. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Ellen; de Jonge, Jan; Hamers, Jan P H

    2010-05-28

    Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial) is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1) how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2) what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  2. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Jan PH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. Methods/design The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1 how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2 what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  3. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-09-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands.

  4. JOB SATISFACTION OF MIDWIVES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nedvědová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the literature review were to identify and analyze factors affecting job satisfaction of midwives. Design: A literature review. Methods: Included in the literature review were full texts of papers published in English language from 1990 to 2014. The search for relevant data was performed using the electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library. From a total of 43 studies found, 11were analyzed as quantitative studies that fulfilled the specified criteria. Results: Job satisfaction of midwives is affected by a lack of support from the management of healthcare facilities, low salary, understaffing, insufficient time for professional activities, work-family imbalance, high workload, physical demands, inadequate professional development, working environment, stress and low autonomy at work. Midwives showed signs of exhaustion, fatigue, hostility and depression, contributing to job turnover. Conclusion: The literature review presents the factors influencing job satisfaction of midwives. This is affected by many variable determinants, which create a feeling of job satisfaction of midwives, but can also lead to job dissatisfaction and, consequently, high turnover. Keywords: midwives, job satisfaction.

  5. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Anthony; Sp?nu, Florina; B?ban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, a...

  6. The moderating effects of job control and selection, optimization, and compensation strategies on the age-work ability relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigl, Matthias; Mueller, Andreas; Hornung, Severin; Zacher, Hannes; Angerer, Peter

    Work ability describes employees' capability to carry out their work with respect to physical and psychological job demands. This study investigated direct and interactive effects of age, job control, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC)

  7. Validity and Reliability of Malay Version of the Job Content Questionnaire among Public Hospital Female Nurses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NA Amin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Job Content Questionnaire (M-JCQ is an established self-reported instrument used across the world to measure the work dimensions based on the Karasek's demand-control-support model. Objective: To evaluate the psychometrics properties of the Malay version of M-JCQ among nurses in Malaysia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on nurses working in 4 public hospitals in Klang Valley area, Malaysia. M-JCQ was used to assess the perceived psychosocial stressors and physical demands of nurses at their workplaces. Construct validity of the questionnaire was examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Cronbach's α values were used to estimate the reliability (internal consistency of the M-JCQ. Results: EFA showed that 34 selected items were loaded in 4 factors. Except for psychological job demand (Cronbach's α 0.51, the remaining 3 α values for 3 subscales (job control, social support, and physical demand were greater than 0.70, indicating acceptable internal consistency. However, an item was excluded due to poor item-total correlation (r<0.3. The final M-JCQ was consisted of 33 items. Conclusion: The M-JCQ is a reliable and valid instrument to measure psychosocial and physical stressors in the workplace of public hospital nurses in Malaysia.

  8. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  9. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2018-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  10. Job control, job demands, social support at work and health among adolescent workers Controle, exigências, apoio social no trabalho e efeitos na saúde de trabalhadores adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida M Fischer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physical and psychological dimensions of adolescent labor (such as job demands, job control, and social support in the work environment, and their relation to reported body pain, work injuries, sleep duration and daily working hours. METHODS: A total of 354 adolescents attending evening classes at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil, answered questionnaires regarding their living and working conditions (Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, 1998, and their health status. Data collection took place in April and May 2001. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine relations among variables. RESULTS: Psychological job demands were related to body pain (OR=3.3, higher risk of work injuries (OR=3.0 and reduced sleep duration in weekdays (Monday to Thursday (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar as dimensões físicas e psicológicas do trabalho de adolescentes (demanda de trabalho, controle no trabalho e apoio social e ambiental, relacionando-os a relatos de: dores no corpo, acidentes de trabalho, duração de sono e duração diária da jornada de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 354 estudantes do período noturno de escola pública no Município de São Paulo, entre abril e maio de 2001. Esses, responderam a questionário sobre condições de vida, trabalho (escalas Karasek de controle no trabalho e estado de saúde. Foram feitas análises de regressão logística múltipla a fim de determinar a relação entre variáveis. RESULTADOS: As exigências psicológicas mostraram-se associadas aos relatos de dores no corpo (OR=3,3, maiores riscos de ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho (OR=3,0 e redução da duração do sono durante os dias de semana (segunda a quinta-feira (p<0,01. Baixa autoridade de decisão (p=0,03 e maior segurança no emprego (p=0,02 estão relacionadas à maior duração da jornada diária de trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que não somente os estressores físicos, mas também os psicol

  11. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  12. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Eefsting, J.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to

  13. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Eefsting, J.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Hertogh, C.M.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to

  14. Association between Emotional Symptoms and Job Demands in an Asian Electronics Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jui; Chu, Po-Ching

    2017-09-19

    Various work-related issues including mental health have been described for the electronic industry. Although East Asian countries play important roles in the electronics industry, the association between job demands and emotional symptoms has been rarely examined. The present study recruited 603 workers from either office or clean room environments in an electronics factory in Taiwan. Their personal factors, work-related factors, and emotional symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The symptoms of depression and hostility were reported in 24.88% and 24.38% of the subjects, respectively, while 14.93% reported both. A multivariate analysis showed that, overall, women workers were more likely to have emotional symptoms than male workers (odds ration (OR) = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.02-2.18). Among clean room workers, working under high pressure (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21), conflicting demands (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.30-3.57), and social isolation at work (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.23-7.30) were associated with emotional symptoms. The findings suggest that in the Asian electronics industry, for women, working under high pressure, conflicting demands, and social isolation at work are risk factors for emotional symptoms, especially for clean room workers. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm and prevent the mental health problems in this fast-evolving, highly competitive industry.

  15. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands. PMID:26877971

  16. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...

  17. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon

    2006-01-01

    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10 th survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering

  18. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10{sup th} survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering.

  19. Managing Deadline-constrained Bag-of-Tasks Jobs on Hybrid Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Song, Ying; Sun, Yuzhong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Outsourcing jobs to a public cloud is a cost-effective way to address the problem of satisfying the peak resource demand when the local cloud has insufficient resources. In this paper, we study on managing deadline-constrained bag-of-tasks jobs on hybrid clouds. We present a binary nonlinear programming (BNP) problem to model the hybrid cloud management where the utilization of physical machines (PMs) in the local cloud/cluster is maximized when the local resources are enough to satisfy the d...

  20. What makes home health workers think about leaving their job? The role of physical injury and organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention.

  1. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Physical and psychosocial ergonomic risk factors for low back pain in automobile manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Gold, Judith E; Hanlon, Alexandra; Punnett, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between ergonomic physical and psychosocial exposures and the risk of prevalent and incident low back pain (LBP) in a longitudinal cohort of automobile manufacturing workers. Ergonomic exposure intensity and LBP presence were determined through questionnaires at baseline (n=1181) and to workers in the same job 1 year later (n=505). Models were constructed using log-binomial regression with special attention to interactions between ergonomic exposures. Awkward back posture (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17), hand force (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), physical effort (PR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.16) and whole body vibration (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) were each associated cross-sectionally with LBP. Awkward back posture (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.31) and hand force (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.22) also predicted incident LBP, although estimates were statistically less precise. Neither job control, psychological demands, nor job strain was independently related to risk of incident LBP. Among participants reporting high physical ergonomic exposures and moderate to high job control, increasing job demands was associated with a reduced LBP risk (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00). Among participants reporting high physical exposures and low job control, psychological demands was associated with an increased LBP risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.66). Psychosocial workplace interventions for LBP should prioritise jobs in which there are high physical ergonomic exposures. Future studies of LBP should examine the interactions between physical ergonomic risk factors.

  3. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Hakanen, Jari J; Westerlund, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model with aspects of work ability as outcome. The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345). The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling. This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A) The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B) Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C) Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources. In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model-can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  4. Physical and Organizational Job Stressors in Pregnancy and Associations With Primary Cesarean Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; Hosang, Nap; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to physical and organizational job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery. We sampled 580 employed women in California who participated in a nested population-based case-control study of birth outcomes. Adjusted multivariate regression analyses estimated associations between heavy lifting, frequent bending, high noise, extreme temperature, prolonged standing and organizational stressors (shift work, inflexible schedules, effort-reward ratio), and primary cesarean (vs vaginal) delivery, controlling for covariates. Women occupationally exposed had higher odds of cesarean. Those exposed to daily manual lifting more than 15 pounds [adjusted odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21 to 5.32] and at least four physical job stressors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.09) had significantly elevated odds of cesarean delivery. Exposed morbid women experienced greater risk; risk was lower among those with schedule flexibility. Associations were found between modifiable exposure to physical job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery.

  5. [Job demands and work-family conflict in a health care staff. The role of work shifts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Colombo, Lara; Mura, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Work-family conflict (wfc), that originates from an incompatibility between the job and the family demands, is a very relevant topic in health care context, as suggested by NEXT study. Work overload and schedule organization are dimensions that can affect wfc, and particularly, studies indicate work shifts as one of its main determinants, as they limit the work-family balance and represent one of the prime risk factors for workers' health. The aim of this study was to detect the role of some job demands (both general and specific) and of schedule organization in determining the wfc experience, with particular attention to work shifts. Respondents to our questionnaire are 207 nurses of a north Italian public health organization. They are mostly women (92.8%) and their average age is 42. Data analysis shows that wfc is mostly influenced by work shifts, but also by work overload, cognitive load and by on-call availability. Staff working on shifts and on-call availability perceive a higher wfc than their colleagues without work shifts and on-call availability. The central role of work shifts in determining wfc suggests the need to act on schedule organization and on training programs for supervisors and workers.

  6. Psychosocial work environment and health in U.S. metropolitan areas: a test of the demand-control and demand-control-support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Schoenbach, C

    1994-01-01

    The authors use confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the psychosocial dimensions of work environments relevant to health outcomes, in a representative sample of five U.S. metropolitan areas. Through an aggregated inference system, scales from Schwartz and associates' job scoring system and from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) were employed to examine two alternative models: the demand-control model of Karasek and Theorell and Johnson's demand-control-support model. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the two models. The two multidimensional models yielded better fits than an unstructured model. After allowing for the measurement error variance due to the method of assessment (Schwartz and associates' system or DOT), both models yielded acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, but the fit of the demand-control-support model was significantly better. Overall these results indicate that the dimensions of Control (substantive complexity of work, skill discretion, decision authority), Demands (physical exertion, physical demands and hazards), and Social Support (coworker and supervisor social supports) provide an acceptable account of the psychosocial dimensions of work associated with health outcomes.

  7. Working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among French clerks and manual workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Constance, Jean; Seror, Valérie; Beck, François

    2009-03-01

    To study the relationships between working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviors among clerks and manual workers. We used data from the French Health Barometer, a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among a national random sample (N = 4825). Regarding working conditions, the questionnaire dealt with reported job satisfaction, psychological demands and mental workload, physical demands, latitude decision and work schedule. Manual workers and clerks who reported strong dissatisfaction toward unhealthy working conditions also reported more frequently current smoking, tobacco dependence, potential alcohol dependence and perceived stress. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, perceived working conditions and job dissatisfaction remained correlated with smoking and tobacco dependence. Poor working conditions may heavily contribute to health inequalities, as they are likely to fuel both stress and unhealthy behaviors, which combine to increase morbidity and mortality.

  8. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem...... at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life....

  9. Job crafting and its impact on work engagement and job satisfaction in mining and manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T de Beer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate job crafting and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction within the South African context. This research is important as job crafting has been shown to have a positive influence on employee motivation. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect primary data from organisations in the mining and manufacturing industries of South Africa (N = 470. The results of multi-group structural equation modelling showed that the original four-factor structure of the job crafting scale was supported by the data, but that a three-factor structure was necessary due to a discriminant validity concern regarding two job crafting dimensions. Regression results revealed that increasing structural job resources with challenging job demands, and increasing social job resources were significant predictors of work engagement in both groups. Contrary to expectations decreasing hindering job demands was a negative predictor of job satisfaction in the mining group. Furthermore, increasing social job resources was also a significant predictor of job satisfaction in both groups. This study indicates the importance of job crafting for work engagement and job satisfaction in organisations.

  10. The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roslyn De Braine; Gert Roodt

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Research shows that engaged employees experience high levels of energy and strong identification with their work, hence this study’s focus on work identity and dedication. Research purpose: This study explored possible differences in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as predictor of overall work engagement, dedication only and work-based identity, through comparative predictive analyses. Motivation for the study: This study may shed light on the dedication component o...

  11. Employment consequences of depressive symptoms and work demands individually and combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Andersen, Ingelise; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-02-01

    Denmark, like other Western countries, is recently burdened by increasingly high social spending on employment consequences caused by ill mental health. This might be the result of high work demands affecting persons with ill mental health. Therefore, this study assesses to what extent depressive symptoms and high work demands, individually and combined, have an effect on employment consequences. We conducted a population-based 7-year longitudinal follow-up study with baseline information from the year 2000 on socio-demographics, lifestyle, depressive symptoms and work demands. In total, 5785 employed persons, aged 40 and 50 years, were included. Information about employment status, sick leave and work disability was obtained from registers. Logistic regression models were used to measure separate and combined effects of depressive symptoms and work demands on job change, unemployment and sick leave during 2001-02 and work disability during 2003-07. After adjustment for covariates, high physical work demands and depressive symptoms had a graded effect on subsequent unemployment, sick leave and permanent work disability. Persons with both depressive symptoms and high physical demands had the highest risks, especially for sick leave, but the combined effect did not exceed the product of single effects. Persons who perceived high amount of work changed job significantly more frequently. Persons with depressive symptoms might have an increased risk of negative employment consequences irrespective of the kind and amount of work demands. This might be an effect on the level of work ability in general as well as partly the result of health selection and co-morbidity.

  12. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy: Suggested Readings [and] Physical Therapy: Supply/Demand--Some Facts [and] Occupational Therapy: Supply and Demand--Some Facts. Information on Personnel Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Reston, VA.

    Brought together are two fact sheets on the supply of and demand for physical therapists and occupational therapists. The fact sheets cite statistical data from the National Easter Seal Society, the American Physical Therapy Association, and the American Occupational Therapy Association. The cited facts focus on the need to recruit and retain…

  13. Demands of physical activities and efforts in elite basketbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great importance in describing the demands of physical exertion of the players in official games for we can organize better periodization training. The aim of this study is to propose a new form of demand physical exertion rating of basketball players and analyze the five existing positions in the game. The classification was divided into five classes and their subclass, as follows: a displacement class with its subclasses: forward pair back side, stopped and defensive position, the class of power contact with its subclass one against one, box out, pick and faults, the class of jump, upper-body movements and dribble. We analyzed two teams in a game quarter of the New Basketball Brazil, the players were divided by the positions / functions operating in the basketball game. Found difference between the frequencies, medium time and total time in the displacement class and power contact between positions thus we conclude that it is necessary to detail the demands of physical exertion and analyze five separate positions indicating the need individualized training.

  14. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  15. Modeling students’ instrumental (mis-) use of substances to enhance cognitive performance: Neuroenhancement in the light of job demands-resources theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthy university students have been shown to use psychoactive substances, expecting them to be functional means for enhancing their cognitive capacity, sometimes over and above an essentially proficient level. This behavior called Neuroenhancement (NE) has not yet been integrated into a behavioral theory that is able to predict performance. Job Demands Resources (JD-R) Theory for example assumes that strain (e.g. burnout) will occur and influence performance when job demands are high and job resources are limited at the same time. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not university students’ self-reported NE can be integrated into JD-R Theory’s comprehensive approach to psychological health and performance. Methods 1,007 students (23.56 ± 3.83 years old, 637 female) participated in an online survey. Lifestyle drug, prescription drug, and illicit substance NE together with the complete set of JD-R variables (demands, burnout, resources, motivation, and performance) were measured. Path models were used in order to test our data’s fit to hypothesized main effects and interactions. Results JD-R Theory could successfully be applied to describe the situation of university students. NE was mainly associated with the JD-R Theory’s health impairment process: Lifestyle drug NE (p model NE as a means to reach an end (i.e. performance enhancement) rather than a target behavior itself. This is necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the behavioral roots and consequences of the phenomenon. PMID:24904687

  16. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  17. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  18. Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Makiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire in 2008; job performance was evaluated using the item from the World Mental Health Survey Instrument in 2008 and 2009. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance in 2008. Job control and coworker support in 2008 were positively related to job performance in 2009. Stratified analyses revealed that job control for staff and coworker support for managers were positively related to job performance in 2009. These associations were prominent among men; however, supervisor support in 2008 was negatively related to job performance in 2009 among men. Job demand was not significantly related to job performance. Our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.

  19. Job control and social support as coping resources in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odahara, Tsutomu

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on job satisfaction in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 867 employees (811 men and 56 women, M age = 35.2 yr.) of a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined whether effects of active coping on job satisfaction might depend on the extent of coping resources, such as job control or social support (supervisor and coworker). Analysis showed that the effect of active coping on job satisfaction depended on the extent of coworkers' support, not on job control and supervisors' support.

  20. Empowering leadership and job crafting: The role of employee optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Sylvi; Bakker, Arnold B

    2018-06-08

    The objective of this study was to test the relationship between empowering leadership and job crafting and to examine the moderating role of optimism as a personal resource. We hypothesized that the association between empowering leadership and job crafting would be stronger for employees with high (vs. low) levels of optimism. A total of 331 Norwegian workers from a variety of occupations participated in our study. Results of structural equation modelling analysis generally supported our hypotheses. Empowering leadership was positively related to 3 of the 4 job crafting strategies investigated (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, and increasing challenging job demands; but not reducing hindrance job demands). Moreover, as hypothesized, optimism strengthened the empowering leadership-job crafting relationship for increasing structural resources and increasing challenging demands. The results suggest that empowering leadership is an important antecedent of job crafting strategies, except for reducing hindrance demands. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Job demands-resources : a gender perspective on employee well-being and resilience in retail stores in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qihai; Xing, Yijun; Gamble, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Organisational resilience can be promoted through human resource management (HRM) practices that enhance individual employees’ well-being and ability to cope with adversity. However, the extant literature tends to neglect the influence of gender on employee well-being and resilience. Shop floor employees in retail stores often undertake demanding roles, characterised by considerable pressure and low pay, and attendant high levels of employee turnover. Drawing on the job demands–resources mode...

  2. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire - A validation study using the Job Demand-Resources model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nomological validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II by using an extension of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model with aspects of work ability as outcome.The study design is cross-sectional. All staff working at public dental organizations in four regions of Sweden were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire (75% response rate, n = 1345. The questionnaire was based on COPSOQ II scales, the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, and the one-item Work Ability Score in combination with a proprietary item. The data was analysed by Structural Equation Modelling.This study contributed to the literature by showing that: A The scale characteristics were satisfactory and the construct validity of COPSOQ instrument could be integrated in the JD-R framework; B Job resources arising from leadership may be a driver of the two processes included in the JD-R model; and C Both the health impairment and motivational processes were associated with WA, and the results suggested that leadership may impact WA, in particularly by securing task resources.In conclusion, the nomological validity of COPSOQ was supported as the JD-R model-can be operationalized by the instrument. This may be helpful for transferral of complex survey results and work life theories to practitioners in the field.

  3. Leisure-time physical activity and some psychological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... physical work capacity for the demands of daily living and job performance. ... physical activity and psychological well-being of executive employees; and to ... A cross-sectional study design was carried out on a group of 156 (mean age; ...

  4. Job strain variations in relation to plasma testosterone fluctuations in working men--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A; Eneroth, P

    1990-01-01

    Job strain, a high level of psychological demands combined with a low level of decision latitude, has been hypothesized to induce mobilization of energy and inhibition of anabolism. In the present project this hypothesis was tested using four repeated observations every third month in a group of 44 men working in six widely different occupations. On each occasion scores of self-reported demands and decision latitude were calculated for every participant. An earlier report has shown that systolic blood pressure during work hours--an indicator of mobilization of energy--increased with increasing job strain (ratio between demands and decision latitude). Blood samples were drawn in the morning at the work site. For each man the plasma testosterone levels--representing the general level of anabolic activity--on the two occasions with the worst strain (ratio between demands and decision latitude) were compared with the plasma testosterone levels on the two occasions with the least strain. The results indicated that total plasma testosterone (but not free testosterone) levels increased when strain diminished in sedentary but not in physically demanding work. Subjects with a family history of hypertension showed a greater decrease in testosterone levels than others when job strain increased.

  5. Study Quantifies Physical Demands of Yoga in Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Study Quantifies Physical Demands of Yoga in Seniors Share: A recent NCCAM-funded study measured the ... performance of seven standing poses commonly taught in senior yoga classes: Chair, Wall Plank, Tree, Warrior II, ...

  6. Job Crafting: Older Workers’ Mechanism for Maintaining Person-Job Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol M.; Tetrick, Lois E.

    2017-01-01

    Aging at work is a dynamic process. As individuals age, their motives, abilities and values change as suggested by life-span development theories (Lang and Carstensen, 2002; Kanfer and Ackerman, 2004). Their growth and extrinsic motives weaken while intrinsic motives increase (Kooij et al., 2011), which may result in workers investing their resources in different areas accordingly. However, there is significant individual variability in aging trajectories (Hedge et al., 2006). In addition, the changing nature of work, the evolving job demands, as well as the available opportunities at work may no longer be suitable for older workers, increasing the likelihood of person-job misfit. The potential misfit may, in turn, impact how older workers perceive themselves on the job, which leads to conflicting work identities. With the traditional job redesign approach being a top-down process, it is often difficult for organizations to take individual needs and skills into consideration and tailor jobs for every employee (Berg et al., 2010). Therefore, job crafting, being an individualized process initiated by employees themselves, can be a particularly valuable mechanism for older workers to realign and enhance their demands-abilities and needs-supplies fit. Through job crafting, employees can exert personal agency and make changes to the task, social and cognitive aspects of their jobs with the goal of improving their work experience (Wrzesniewski and Dutton, 2001). Building on the Life Span Theory of Control (Heckhausen and Schulz, 1995), we posit that job crafting, particularly cognitive crafting, will be of increasing value as employees age. Through reframing how they think of their job and choosing to emphasize job features that are personally meaningful, older workers can optimize their resources to proactively redesign their jobs and maintain congruent, positive work identities. PMID:28943859

  7. Job Crafting: Older Workers’ Mechanism for Maintaining Person-Job Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M. Wong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging at work is a dynamic process. As individuals age, their motives, abilities and values change as suggested by life-span development theories (Lang and Carstensen, 2002; Kanfer and Ackerman, 2004. Their growth and extrinsic motives weaken while intrinsic motives increase (Kooij et al., 2011, which may result in workers investing their resources in different areas accordingly. However, there is significant individual variability in aging trajectories (Hedge et al., 2006. In addition, the changing nature of work, the evolving job demands, as well as the available opportunities at work may no longer be suitable for older workers, increasing the likelihood of person-job misfit. The potential misfit may, in turn, impact how older workers perceive themselves on the job, which leads to conflicting work identities. With the traditional job redesign approach being a top-down process, it is often difficult for organizations to take individual needs and skills into consideration and tailor jobs for every employee (Berg et al., 2010. Therefore, job crafting, being an individualized process initiated by employees themselves, can be a particularly valuable mechanism for older workers to realign and enhance their demands-abilities and needs-supplies fit. Through job crafting, employees can exert personal agency and make changes to the task, social and cognitive aspects of their jobs with the goal of improving their work experience (Wrzesniewski and Dutton, 2001. Building on the Life Span Theory of Control (Heckhausen and Schulz, 1995, we posit that job crafting, particularly cognitive crafting, will be of increasing value as employees age. Through reframing how they think of their job and choosing to emphasize job features that are personally meaningful, older workers can optimize their resources to proactively redesign their jobs and maintain congruent, positive work identities.

  8. Occupational accident and disease claims, work-related stress and job satisfaction of physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattig, Birte; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert; Peters, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Physiotherapists are exposed to diverse occupational demands. Until now, little has been known about the interaction between occupational stress and the job satisfaction of physiotherapists. This paper aims to examine their work-related stress and job satisfaction. It will analyse accidents at work and occupational diseases of physiotherapists along with work-related physical and psychosocial stress and job satisfaction. We analysed routine data of the German Institute for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) on accidents at work and occurring en route to/from work as well as occupational diseases of physiotherapists. Work-related stress and job satisfaction were examined in a cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to be completed by subjects themselves. Between 2007 and 2011, 1,229 cases of occupational disease were reported to the BGW. The majority of reports involved skin diseases (73%). Stumbles and falls were the most frequent causes of accidents at work (42.9%). Eighty-five physiotherapists all over Germany took part in the survey. They experience high quantitative demands at work. The main physical demands consist of a torso posture between 45° and 90° and high hand activity. Of the 85 subjects, 51% suffer from complaints of the musculoskeletal system in the neck and thoracic spine area and 24% have skin diseases. Most physiotherapists (88%) are satisfied with their work overall. This is aided by a high degree of influence on their work and breaks, by practical application of skills and expert knowledge, high regard for their profession, varied work and a good atmosphere at work. Reservations tend to be about statutory regulations and the social benefits provided by the German healthcare system. Overall, despite high demands and stress relating to the adequacy of resources, the majority of physiotherapists surveyed seem to be satisfied with their job. The main focus of action to promote the

  9. Modeling students' instrumental (mis-) use of substances to enhance cognitive performance: Neuroenhancement in the light of job demands-resources theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Brand, Ralf; Baumgarten, Franz; Lösel, Johanna; Ziegler, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Healthy university students have been shown to use psychoactive substances, expecting them to be functional means for enhancing their cognitive capacity, sometimes over and above an essentially proficient level. This behavior called Neuroenhancement (NE) has not yet been integrated into a behavioral theory that is able to predict performance. Job Demands Resources (JD-R) Theory for example assumes that strain (e.g. burnout) will occur and influence performance when job demands are high and job resources are limited at the same time. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not university students' self-reported NE can be integrated into JD-R Theory's comprehensive approach to psychological health and performance. 1,007 students (23.56 ± 3.83 years old, 637 female) participated in an online survey. Lifestyle drug, prescription drug, and illicit substance NE together with the complete set of JD-R variables (demands, burnout, resources, motivation, and performance) were measured. Path models were used in order to test our data's fit to hypothesized main effects and interactions. JD-R Theory could successfully be applied to describe the situation of university students. NE was mainly associated with the JD-R Theory's health impairment process: Lifestyle drug NE (p performance. From a public health perspective, intervention strategies should address these costs of non-supervised NE. With regard to future research we propose to model NE as a means to reach an end (i.e. performance enhancement) rather than a target behavior itself. This is necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the behavioral roots and consequences of the phenomenon.

  10. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  11. Job demands and resting and napping opportunities for nurses during night shifts: impact on sleepiness and self-evaluated quality of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Béatrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; Toupin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of work scores (visual analog scale). The results showed that the number of rests and naps depended on the job demands. Resting and napping lowered the levels of sleepiness at the end of the shift. There was no direct relationship between sleepiness and the quality of work score. Discussions about the choice of indicators for the quality of work are necessary. Suggestions for implementing regulations for prescribed napping during night shifts are presented.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of job-related depression in laboratory technicians in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) Hospitals in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, B D; Rusli, B N; Winn, T; Naing, L; Tengku, M A

    2004-06-01

    Karasek's job strain model postulates that workers chronically exposed to adverse psychosocial work environment (high strain job)--high psychological job demands and low job control, including poor social support, increased physical demand and hazardous work condition--will eventually develop both physical illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases and psychological disorders such as depression. In order to determine the prevalence and associated factors of job-related depression, a cross-sectional study was conducted among laboratory technicians in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) Hospitals in Kelantan between September 2001 and February 2002. One hundred and two laboratory technicians in HUSM and 79 laboratory technicians in 7 KKM Hospitals were selected; 84/102 (82.4%) in HUSM and 71/79 (89.9%) in KKM Hospitals responded. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires of the validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) originally developed by Robert Karasek. Results indicated that the prevalence of high job strain in laboratory technicians in HUSM and KKM hospitals was 33.3% (28/84) and 26.8% (19/71), respectively (p>0.05). Significantly higher proportion (59.5%) (50/84) of laboratory technicians in HUSM compared to those in KKM Hospitals (39.4%) (28/71) (p = 0.016) experienced job-related depression. Significant associated factors of job-related depression were low social support (HUSM: adjusted OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2-18.8; KKM: adjusted OR 14.8, 95%CI 2.4-89.3), high psychological demand (HUSM: adjusted OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.0-8.8), and low decision authority (KKM: adjusted OR 9.7, 95%CI 1.0-91.1). We conclude that strengthening the social support network (supervisors' and coworkers' support), reducing psychological job demand, and increasing decision-making authority of laboratory technicians may go a long way towards reducing job-related depression.

  13. Job strain and time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Kold Jensen, T; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....

  14. Layoffs and tradeoffs: production, quality, and safety demands under the threat of job loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M

    2002-07-01

    Employees often face a conflict between production targets, quality assurance, and adherence to safety policies. In a time when layoffs are on the rise, it is important to understand the effects of employee job insecurity on these potentially competing demands. A laboratory experiment manipulated the threat of layoffs in a simulated organization and assessed its effect on employee productivity, product quality, and adherence to safety policies. Results suggest that student participants faced with the threat of layoffs were more productive, yet violated more safety rules and produced lower quality outputs, than participants in the control condition. Implications for organizations contemplating layoffs and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  16. Job characteristics and mental health for older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Carthy, V J C; Cronly, J; Perry, I J

    2017-07-01

    Adverse job characteristics have been linked with increased incidence of depression and anxiety in working populations. However, the association between job characteristics and mental health, in an older working population while controlling for personality traits, is less well known. To examine the association between job characteristics (job demands and job control) and mental health (depression and anxiety) for older workers while controlling for personality traits. A sample of workers aged 50-69 years were recruited from a primary health care clinic in Southern Ireland. Job characteristics were measured using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire; demands (quantitative and cognitive) and control (influence at work and possibilities for development). Personality traits were measured using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The final sample size was 1025 with an initial 67% response rate. Multiple linear regression analysis showed job characteristics (in particular, job demands) to be significant positive predictors of symptoms of depression and anxiety. The inverse was true for job control variables and symptoms of depression. Neither possibilities for development nor influence at work were associated with symptoms of anxiety. Our findings indicate that despite potential confounders, higher demands at work can impact the worker's mental health negatively. Reducing job demands and encouraging role development may benefit the mental health of older workers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. BALANCE ABILITIES OF WORKERS IN PHYSICALLY DEMANDING JOBS: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FIREFIGHTERS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Punakallio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations between balance abilities and age, occupation and the use of fire-protective equipment (FPE in different visual conditions, and the associations of slip and fall risk with balance abilities among workers in physically demanding jobs, especially among workers in fire and rescue work. The reliability and predictive values of balance tests in respect to perceived work ability were also studied. The professional firefighters aged 30 to 56-years (n = 29-135, construction workers (n = 52, home care workers (n = 66 and nursing workers (n = 51 aged 23 to 61 years participated in this study. The data were obtained with balance tests with the use of a force platform, functional balance tests, slipping tests and questionnaires. In one study the balance tests were carried out with and without FPE. The slipping tests with FPE were carried out on a straight 8-m long path that had one area covered by water and detergent or glycerol. Perceived work ability at baseline and after a 3-year follow-up was determined with the use of the work ability index (WAI. In the reliability study, the dynamic balance tests were repeated six times in two testing periods at an interval of 2 months. The results indicated that the balance abilities of firefighters over 49 years of age were significantly poorer than those of firefighters in the age groups of <40 and 40-49 years. The decline of balance abilities among construction, home care and nursing workers was not as consistent. Postural balance was also more harmfully affected among the older firefighters (43-56 years than among the younger ones (33-38 years by the use of FPE without visual input. Self-contained breathing apparatus was the most significant single piece of FPE to impair balance in both groups. Furthermore, fast and controlled performance in the dynamic stability test based on visual feedback was related to smaller slip and fall risk with

  18. Physical demands in elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the physical demands imposed on male vs. female adult elite team handball players during match--play. METHODS: Male and female elite team handball players were monitored over a six and five season time span, respectively. Each player.......4±6.1 cm, 69.5±6.5 kg, phandball were observed, with MP performing more high--intense, strength--related playing actions and high--intensity running than FP. Conversely, FP covered a greater total distance...... and demonstrated a higher relative workload than MP. The physical training of male and female elite team handball players should be designed to reflect these contrasting needs....

  19. Physical and physiological demands of futsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Naser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Futsal, the 5-a-side version of soccer (i.e. 1 goalkeeper and 4 outfield players, was introduced in 1930 and continues to grow in popularity around the world. Competitive games comprise of two 20-min periods of high-intensity and intermittent activities requiring substantial physical, tactical, and technical efforts from the players. A greater understanding of the physical and skill requirements will aid the development of futsal and enable practitioners to undertake appropriate training regimes for the demands of the sport. The objective of this review is to examine key aspects of futsal such as match analysis, physiological demands, energy requirements, fitness measurements, and skill requirements. Futsal players experience fatigue as the game progresses due to the high-intensity nature of the game and the repeated maximal sprint efforts required. The intermittent nature of the sport necessitates the use of aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways throughout exercise. Therefore, a futsal player needs to have a great capacity of intermittent endurance, repeated sprint ability, and leg power, while technical aspects include the ability of high level shooting and passing skills, agility and coordination. Future research is warranted to help practitioners develop more specific tests into futsal performance, especially with regards skill.

  20. WE-G-204-01: Building a Career in Academic Medical Physics: The Hardest and Best Job You Will Ever Have!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, J.

    2016-01-01

    While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of

  1. WE-G-204-01: Building a Career in Academic Medical Physics: The Hardest and Best Job You Will Ever Have!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazle, J. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of

  2. Dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and work ability: Cross-sectional study among 3000 workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Casaña, Jose; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-12-01

    Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time and work ability in relation to physical demands of the job. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners with physically demanding work (n = 2952) replied to questions about work, lifestyle and health. Excellent (100 points), very good (75 points), good (50 points), fair (25 points) and poor (0 points) work ability in relation to the physical demands of the job was experienced by 18%, 40%, 30%, 10% and 2% of the respondents, respectively. General linear models that controlled for gender, age, physical and psychosocial work factors, lifestyle and chronic disease showed that the duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure was positively associated with work ability, in a dose-response fashion (p performing ⩾ 5 hours of high-intensity physical activity per week had on average 8 points higher work ability than those not performing such activities. The duration of low-intensity leisure-time physical activity was not associated with work ability (p = 0.5668). The duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure time is associated in a dose-response fashion with work ability, in workers with physically demanding jobs. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Psychosocial job factors and biological cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rojas, Isabel Judith; Choi, BongKyoo; Krause, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    Psychosocial job factors (PJF) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. The paucity of data from developing economies including Mexico hampers the development of worksite intervention efforts in those regions. This cross-sectional study of 2,330 Mexican workers assessed PJF (job strain [JS], social support [SS], and job insecurity [JI]) and biological cardiovascular disease risk factors [CVDRF] by questionnaire and on-site physical examinations. Alternative formulations of the JS scales were developed based on factor analysis and literature review. Associations between both traditional and alternative job factor scales with CVDRF were examined in multiple regression models, adjusting for physical workload, and socio-demographic factors. Alternative formulations of the job demand and control scales resulted in substantial changes in effect sizes or statistical significance when compared with the original scales. JS and JI showed hypothesized associations with most CVDRF, but they were inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure and some adiposity measures. SS was mainly protective against CVDRF. Among Mexican workers, alternative PJF scales predicted health outcomes better than traditional scales, and psychosocial stressors were associated with most CVDRF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Zito

    Full Text Available Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand, and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center.The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects.Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover.This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  5. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  6. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance. PMID:29401507

  7. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  8. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn; Theorell, T

    1998-01-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material...

  9. Association of Job Demands with Work Engagement of Japanese Employees: Comparison of Challenges with Hindrances (J-HOPE)

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Miyaki, Koichi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kurioka, Sumiko; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Enta, Kazuhiko; Kosugi, Yuki; Sakata, Tomoko; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees. Methods Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women) fr...

  10. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety outcomes within the iron ore mining environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas W.H. Smit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour of a sample of iron ore mine workers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The mining industry in general is often faced with hazardous and physically demanding working environments, where employees work under constant pressure. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support and job satisfaction are considered key variables when investigating effective means of managing safety. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect the data. A convenience sample of employees in the iron ore mining industry of South Africa (N = 260 were included. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping resampling analysis were used to analyse the data. Main findings: Work stressors and job insecurity were found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Conversely, perceived union support was positively associated with job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between union support and safety motivation and behaviour. Practical/managerial implications: Mining organisations can, by placing the focus on reducing work stressors, and promoting job security and union support, achieve higher levels of safety motivation and behaviour through job satisfaction. Contribution/value-add: A great deal of independent research on work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction as well as safety motivation and behaviour has already been done. To date, very little empirical research exists that simultaneously considers all these constructs. This

  11. Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2008-01-01

    Aims: This paper is a report of a study with three aims: (i) to investigate whether emotional, quantitative and physical demands have a causal, negative impact on nurses' health; (ii) to examine whether work-home interference can explain this effect, by playing a mediating role; and (iii) to test

  12. Job resources and emotional exhaustion: The mediating role of learning opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruysseveldt, J. van; Verboon, P.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands increase and job resources decrease emotional exhaustion in employees. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism for this, in order to provide a deeper insight into the role of job resources in this energy-depletion process. We

  13. I Ain't Gonna Make It. Comparing Job Demands-Resources and Attrition Intention Between Senior Teachers and Senior Employees of Six Other Occupational Categories in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram

    2016-07-01

    Teachers are often thought to retire early and have more stress and burnout than other human service professionals. In this article, we investigate attrition intention amongst senior teachers and senior employees of six other blue- and white-collar occupational categories using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. We followed a two-step approach. First, analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences in the level of job demands, resources, and attrition intention between occupations for male and female employees separately. Subsequently, multiple group path analysis was used to assess the invariance of the JD-R model across occupational groups and genders. We used representative data gathered in Flanders among 6,810 senior employees (45 years or older). Results indicate that there are differences in the determinants of attrition intention between men and women. The differences in attrition intention are minimal between occupations once controlled for job demands and resources. In addition, the JD-R model is largely invariant across white-collar occupations and gender. We provide support for both the energetic and motivational process of the JD-R model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Physical environment and job satisfaction in a community mental health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, C; O'Reilly, C; Roberts, K; Miller, S

    1977-01-01

    Relocation of professional staff in a community mental health center provided a setting in which to evaluate the effects of physical environment on job satisfaction. Two mental health teams moved from an old, drab central clinic building to new satellite clinics while a third team remained in the old building. Relocated staff reported significant increase in satisfaction with physical surroundings as compared to staff that did not move. Furthermore, satisfaction with physical surroundings had some impact on overall satisfaction ratings. Physical surroundings in a community mental health center may be a mediating variable for staff morale and effectiveness.

  15. Job sharing: impact on the general well-being of female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, D; Kartha, A

    1992-01-01

    Women today have more life choices than ever before: career, marriage, motherhood, or any combination of the three. Unfortunately little has been done to make up for the competing demands of these roles. Job sharing may be the alternative choice which allows working women to cope with the multiple stressors of having it all--career and family without having to sacrifice their sense of well-being. Nursing administrators stand to benefit from a work schedule alternative which promotes a healthy balance between work and family. Job sharing may offer a solution to the loss of valued staff nurses who require less than full-time employment. In order to compare the general well-being of female nurses who are employed in full-time, casual part-time, and job sharing positions a descriptive correlation study was conducted. One hundred female nurses between the ages of 22 and 40 who have their children living at home with them completed the 18-Item General Well-Being Questionnaire. Additional questions regarding job satisfaction, physical health status, and demographic data were also included. The results of the analyses of variances revealed there were no statistical differences between the general well-being scores of women working full-time, casual part-time, or job sharing. However, crosstabulations showed the job sharing nurses had the highest ratings for job satisfaction and physical health status.

  16. Information and communication technology demands at work : the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata

    OpenAIRE

    Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I.

    2016-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-rela...

  17. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.

  18. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, W E; Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Ariëns, G A M; van Mechelen, W; Bouter, L M

    2002-05-01

    To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Workers from 21 companies located throughout The Netherlands participated in the part of this study on sickness absence due to low back pain. The study population consisted of 732 workers with no sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain in the 3 months before the baseline survey and complete data on the reasons for absences during the follow up period. The mean (range) period of follow up in this group was 37 (7-44) months. Physical load at work was assessed by analyses of video recordings. Baseline information on psychosocial work characteristics was obtained by a questionnaire. Data on sickness absence were collected from company records. The main outcome measure was the rate of sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain during the follow up period. After adjustment of the work related physical and psychosocial factors for each other and for other potential determinants, significant rate ratios ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 were found for trunk flexion, trunk rotation, lifting, and low job satisfaction. A dose-response relation was found for trunk flexion, but not for trunk rotation or lifting. Non-significant rate ratios of about 1.4 were found for low supervisor support and low coworker support. Quantitative job demands, conflicting demands, decision authority, and skill discretion showed no relation with sickness absence due to low back pain. Flexion and rotation of the trunk, lifting, and low job satisfaction are risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain. Some indications of a relation between low social support, either from supervisors or coworkers, and sickness absence due to low back pain are also present.

  19. Construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire in a large population of heterogeneous occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya

    2009-04-01

    To test the construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire (TJCQ). The present descriptive study recruited 10415 participants from all occupations according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The instrument consisted of a 48-item of the job content questionnaire. Eight items newly developed by the authors from in-depth interviews were added. Exploratory factor analysis showed six factor models of work hazards, decision latitude, psychological demand, social support, physical demand, and job security. However, supervisor and co-worker support were not distinguished into two factors and some items distributed differently along the factors extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct of six latent factors, although the overall fit was moderately acceptable. Cronbach's alpha coefficients higher than 0.7, supported the internal consistency of TJCQ scales except for job security (0.55). These findings suggest that TJCQ is valid and reliable for assessing job stress among Thai populations.

  20. Physical work demands and physical fitness in low social classes--30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann; Søgaard, Karen; Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul

    2011-11-01

    Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness. Thirty-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study of 5249 men aged 40 to 59 years without cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness was estimated using the Åstrand cycling test, and physical work demands determined by two self-reported questions. Among 2707 low social class men, multiple-adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios showed an almost threefold increased risk of IHD mortality among men with high physical work demands and low physical fitness, but not among men with a high physical fitness, referencing men with low physical work demands. These findings among low social class men support that high physical work demands increases the risk of IHD mortality among those with low physical fitness.

  1. Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Examining internal and external job resources in child welfare: Protecting against caseworker burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Phillips, Jon D; Lizano, Erica L; Rienks, Shauna; Leake, Robin

    2018-04-28

    Given intense job demands, it is not surprising that job burnout is a consistent threat to the well-being and retention of the child welfare workforce. Guided by central postulates of the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model which suggests that job burnout develops because of experiences of high work demands coupled with low resources in the workplace, we applied a conceptual model of job burnout (client and work related) that accounts for both internal and external resources available to child welfare workers. Findings among child welfare caseworkers from three states (N = 1917) indicate that job demands (stress and time pressure) were positively related to client- and work-related burnout. Additionally, both internal and external resources moderated the relationships between job demands and client- and work-related burnout. Study findings have workforce management implications in the child welfare sector, including the role resources might play in mitigating the negative impact of job demands on burnout in the child welfare workforce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated Job Scheduling and Network Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resou...... indicate that the algorithm can be used as an actual scheduling algorithm in the Grid or as a tool for analyzing Grid performance when adding extra machines or jobs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number...... of resources which must be sent to the executing machine through a network with limited capacity. A job cannot start before all of its resources have arrived at the machine. The scheduling problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) and proved to be NP-hard. An exact solution approach using Dantzig...

  4. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control, and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) differs among employees in Britain, Finland, and Japan and whether work characteristics contribute to some of the health inequalities. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. Both male and female low grade employees had poor physical functioning in all cohorts. British and Japanese male low grade employees tended to have poor mental functioning but the associations were significant only for Japanese men. No consistent employment-grade differences in mental functioning were observed among British and Japanese women. Among Finnish men and women, high grade employees had poor mental functioning. In all cohorts, high grade employees had high control, high demands and long work hours. The grade differences in poor physical functioning and disadvantaged work characteristics among non-manual workers were somewhat smaller in the Finnish cohort than in the British and Japanese cohorts. Low control, high demands, and both short and long work hours were associated with poor functioning. When work characteristics were adjusted for, the socioeconomic differences in poor functioning were mildly attenuated in men, but the differences increased slightly in women. This study reconfirms the generally observed pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in health for physical functioning but not for mental functioning. The role of work characteristics in the relationship between socioeconomic status and health differed between men and women but was modest overall. We suggest that these differences in the pattern and magnitude of grade differences in work characteristics and health among the 3 cohorts may be attributable to the different welfare

  6. Does race/ethnicity moderate the association between job strain and leisure time physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Avrunin, Jill S; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Emmons, Karen M

    2006-08-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities report myriad barriers to regular leisure time physical activity (LTPA), including the stress and fatigue resulting from their occupational activities. We sought to investigate whether an association exists between job strain and LTPA, and whether it is modified by race or ethnicity. Data were collected from 1,740 adults employed in 26 small manufacturing businesses in eastern Massachusetts. LTPA and job strain data were self-reported. Adjusted mean hours of LTPA per week are reported. In age and gender adjusted analyses, reports of job strain were associated with LTPA. There was a significant interaction between job strain and race or ethnicity (p = .04). Whites experiencing job strain reported 1 less hr of LTPA per week compared to Whites not reporting job strain. Collectively, racial/ethnic minorities reporting job strain exhibited comparatively higher levels of LTPA compared to their counterparts with no job strain, although patterns for individual groups did not significantly differ. Job strain was associated with LTPA in a lower income, multiethnic population of healthy adult men and women. The association between job strain and LTPA was modified by race or ethnicity, highlighting the importance of investigating the differential effects of psychosocial occupational factors on LTPA levels by race or ethnicity.

  7. Nurse practitioner job content and stress effects on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and self-perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Huang; Wang, Jane; Yang, Cheng-San; Fan, Jun-Yu

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of job content and stress on anxiety, depressive symptoms and self-perceived health status among nurse practitioners (NPs). Taiwan's NP roles vary between hospitals as a result of the diverse demands and complex tasks that cause job-related stress, potentially affecting the health of the NP. This study utilised a cross-sectional descriptive design with 161 NPs from regional hospitals participating. Data collection involved demographics, the Taiwan Nurse Stress Checklist, the Job Content Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, a General Health Status Checklist and salivary cortisol tests. NPs reported moderate job stress, similar job control to nurses, mild anxiety and depression, and below-average self-perceived health. Being a licensed NP, personal response, competence, and incompleteness of the personal arrangements subscales of job stress, and anxiety predicted self-perceived health after adjusting for other covariates. Job stress and anxiety affect NP health. NPs are a valuable resource, and the healthcare system demand is growing. Reasonable NP staffing, working hours, proper promotion systems, the causes of job stress, job content clarification and practical work shift scheduling need to be considered. The occupational safety and physical and psychological health of NPs are strongly associated with the quality of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Leader–member exchange fosters work engagement: The mediating role of job crafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Radstaak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The right balance between job demands and job resources are essential for employees to bring energy and enthusiasm to work. Employees who experience high-quality relationships with their supervisors may actively craft their job demands and job resources and feel more engaged. Research purpose: The current study examined the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX, job crafting and work engagement. Motivation: This study attempts to gain more insight in the associations between LMX, job crafting and work engagement. It was hypothesised that high-quality relationships with supervisors fosters work engagement because it stimulates employees to craft their jobs by increasing social and structural job resources and challenging job demands and by decreasing hindering job demands. Research approach, design and methodology: Participants (N = 402 working for a leading mail and parcels company in the Netherlands completed questionnaires measuring LMX, work engagement and job crafting. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the hypotheses. Main findings: Increasing social job resources (β = 0.01, SE = 0.00, p < 0.001 and increasing challenging job demands (β = 0.08, SE = 0.04, p < 0.05 were significant mediators in the association between LMX and work engagement. Increasing structural job resources (β = 0.00, SE = 0.00, p = 0.92 and decreasing hindering job demands (β = -0.00, SE 0.00, p = 0.09 were not significant mediators. Practical and managerial implications: Supervisors who are capable of building high-quality relationships with their employees based on trust, respect and loyalty will foster a positive, fulfilling work-related state of mind among employees because they are more willing to proactively craft a challenging and resourceful work environment. Contribution or value-add: The findings of this study showed the importance of high-quality relationships with supervisors and were unique in examining the

  9. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment, and leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sadiq Mohammad; Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. A total of 5,180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 16.1% of men and 14.8% of women had low leisure-time physical activity. The job strain (high demands/low control) and unemployed categories had significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity among both men and women compared with the relaxed (low demands/high control) reference category. However, the significant differences between the job strain, the unemployed, and the relaxed categories disappeared in the multivariate models. Respondents with job strain or unemployment have significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity than the relaxed category. However, after adjustments for education in particular the differences disappear. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the association between psychosocial work conditions, which are often dependent on education, and leisure-time physical activity may be interesting to study in more detail.

  10. Antecedents of daily team job crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkikangas, Anne; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated potential antecedents of team job crafting defined as the extent to which team members engage together in increasing (social and structural) job resources and challenges, and decreasing hindering job demands. Mindful of the teamwork literature, we hypothesized that individual

  11. A comparison of general and ambulance specific stressors: predictors of job satisfaction and health problems in a nationwide one-year follow-up study of Norwegian ambulance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To address the relative importance of general job-related stressors, ambulance specific stressors and individual characteristics in relation to job satisfaction and health complaints (emotional exhaustion, psychological distress and musculoskeletal pain among ambulance personnel. Materials and methods A nationwide prospective questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel in operational duty at two time points (n = 1180 at baseline, T1 and n = 298 at one-year follow up, T2. The questionnaires included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Job Satisfaction Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-10, Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey and the Basic Character Inventory. Results Overall, 42 out of the possible 56 correlations between job stressors at T1 and job satisfaction and health complaints at T2 were statistically significant. Lower job satisfaction at T2 was predicted by frequency of lack of leader support and severity of challenging job tasks. Emotional exhaustion at T2 was predicted by neuroticism, frequency of lack of support from leader, time pressure, and physical demands. Adjusted for T1 levels, emotional exhaustion was predicted by neuroticism (beta = 0.15, p Psychological distress at T2 was predicted by neuroticism and lack of co-worker support. Adjusted for T1 levels, psychological distress was predicted by neuroticism (beta = 0.12, p Musculoskeletal pain at T2 was predicted by, higher age, neuroticism, lack of co-worker support and severity of physical demands. Adjusted for T1 levels, musculoskeletal pain was predicted neuroticism, and severity of physical demands (beta = 0.12, p Conclusions Low job satisfaction at T2 was predicted by general work-related stressors, whereas health complaints at T2 were predicted by both general work-related stressors and ambulance specific stressors. The personality variable neuroticism predicted increased complaints across all health outcomes.

  12. Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: the moderating role of job context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E

    2012-07-01

    We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  14. The identification of job opportunities for severely disabled sick-listed employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broersen Jake PJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work disability is a major problem for both the worker and society. To explore the work opportunities in regular jobs of persons low in functional abilities, we tried to identify occupations low in task demands. Because of the variety of functional abilities and of the corresponding work demands, the disabled persons need to be classified by type of disability in a limited number of subgroups. Within each subgroup, occupations judged suitable for the most seriously disabled will be selected as having a very low level of the corresponding task demands. These occupations can be applied as reference occupations to assess the presence or absence of work capacity of sick-listed employees in regular jobs, and as job opportunities for people with a specific type of functional disability. Methods Registered data from 50,931 disability assessments within the Dutch social security system were used in a second order factor analysis to identify types of disabilities in claimants for a disability pension. Threshold values were chosen to classify claimants according to the severity of the disability. In the disability assessment procedure, a labour expert needs to select jobs with task demands not exceeding the functional abilities of the claimant. For each type of disability, the accessible jobs for the subgroup of the most severely disabled claimants were identified as lowest in the corresponding demand. Results The factor analysis resulted in four types of disabilities: general physical ability; autonomy; psychological ability; and manual skills. For each of these types of disablement, a set of four to six occupations low in task demands were selected for the subgroup of most severely disabled claimants. Because of an overlap of the sets of occupations, 13 occupations were selected in total. The percentage of claimants with at least one of the occupations of the corresponding set (the coverage, ranged from 84% to 93%. An alternative

  15. Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.

  16. Job demands as a moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Kramer, J.; Zettler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    .g. enterprising jobs) where they have the opportunity to exercise interpersonal influence, and where that interpersonal influence is directly related to their performace. Originality/value - This paper makes several contributions to theory and practice in vocational achievement and political skill. Perhaps, most...

  17. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  18. On the Integrated Job Scheduling and Constrained Network Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling a number of jobs on a finite set of machines such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resources, which must be sent to the executing machine via constrained paths. Furthermore, two resource demand...

  19. Proactive personality and job performance: the role of job crafting and work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Tims, M.; Derks, D.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the role of proactive personality in predicting work engagement and job performance. On the basis of the literature on proactive personality and the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employees with a proactive personality would be most likely to craft their own

  20. Working in small-scale, homelike dementia care: effects on staff burnout symptoms and job characteristics. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwakhalen, Sandra Mg; Hamers, Jan Ph; van Rossum, Erik; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis Ijm; Verbeek, Hilde

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study on the effects of working in a new type of dementia care facility (i.e. small-scale living facilities) on staff burnout symptoms and job characteristics (job autonomy, social support, physical demands and workload). It is hypothesised that nursing staff working in small-scale facilities experience fewer burnout symptoms, more autonomy and social support, and fewer symptoms of physical demands and workload compared with staff in regular wards. Two types of long-term institutional nursing care settings were included: 28 houses in small-scale living facilities and 21 regular psychogeriatric wards in nursing homes. At baseline and at follow-ups after 6 and 12 months nursing staff were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. In total, 305 nursing staff members were included in the study, 114 working in small-scale living facilities (intervention group) and 191 in regular wards (control group). No overall effects on burnout symptoms were detected. Significantly fewer physical demands and lower workload were experienced by staff working in small-scale living facilities compared with staff in regular wards. They also experienced more job autonomy. No significant effect was found for overall social support in the total group. This study suggests positive effects of the work environment on several work characteristics. Organisational climate differs in the two conditions, which might account for our results. This may influence nursing staff well-being and has important implications for nursing home managers and policy makers. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the influence of job characteristics on outcomes.

  1. Investigating a 21st Century Paradox: As the Demand for Technology Jobs Increases Why Are Fewer Students Majoring in Information Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy; Gao, Yuan; Sherman, Cherie; Vengerov, Alexander; Klein, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey administered to 322 undergraduate business students enrolled in an introductory Information Systems course at a public liberal arts college located in the northeast US. The goal of this research was to learn, given the increased demand for technology oriented jobs, why fewer students are choosing the…

  2. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strating, M; Bakker, R H; Dijkstra, G J; Lemmink, K A P M; Groothoff, J W

    2010-06-01

    The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police work. The principal research questions were: are test scores related to gender, age and function and are test scores related to body mass index (BMI) and the number of hours of physical exercise? Data of 6999 police officers, geographically spread over all parts of The Netherlands, who completed a physical competence test over a 1 year period were analysed. Women performed the test significantly more slowly than men. The mean test score was also related to age; the older a person the longer it took to complete the test. A higher BMI was associated with less hours of body exercise a week and a slower test performance, both in women and men. The differences in individual test scores, based on gender and age, have implications for future strategy within the police force. From a viewpoint of 'same job, same standard' one has to accept that test-score differences may lead to the exclusion of certain staff. However, from a viewpoint of 'diversity as a business issue', one may have to accept that on average, both female and older police officers are physically less tailored to their jobs than their male and younger colleagues.

  3. Examining the links between employed mothers' work characteristics, physical activity, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan C; Allen, Tammy D

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a process model through which the strain-based (job control and role ambiguity) and time-based (work hours) job demands of employed mothers relate to child health via child modeling of mother's physical activity. Support was found for a model of these relationships using dyadic mother-child data (N = 359) from a large, multi-wave nationwide data set and job demands data from the Occupational Information Network (O*Net). Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions, are also discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Exhaustion and Emotional Demands in China:A Large-Scale Investigation across Occupations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelly Z.Peng

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese economy moves toward a market-based model,employees are likely to face more emotional demands and exhaustion at work.However,there are some unique aspects to the emotional demands of work in the Chinese cultural context.We investigate emotional demands and exhaustion in China with a large-scale sample across the six major occupations identified by the Holland classification system.Results show that incumbents of social and enterprising jobs face higher emotional demands.Unexpectedly,exhaustion differs significantly between conventional and other types of jobs.Building on the Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) model,job crafting and the cultural context,we propose that the nonlinear relationship of emotional demands and exhaustion exists only when emotional intelligence is low.Our study may inform practitioners and policy makers in Chinese enterprises about emotional demands and exhaustion for various occupations and the importance of selection and training programs in emotional intelligence.

  5. Office work and complaints of the arms, neck and shoulders: the role of job characteristics, muscular tension and need for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawke, Jason C; Gorgievski, Marjan J; van der Linden, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated physical, psychological and social job characteristics as potential risk factors for complaints of the arms, neck and shoulders (CANS) and mediating effects of muscular tension and need for recovery. Data were collected among 105 computer workers using questionnaires and electromyography (EMG), and were analyzed with linear regression analyses. Task interdependence, information processing and lower social support predicted more CANS. Physical job demands had no predictive power over and above psychological and social Stressors. Both muscular tension and need for recovery partially mediated the job characteristics-CANS relationships. Occupational health professionals should not neglect psychological and social job characteristics as potentially important predictors of CANS in specific occupational groups, such as office workers. Our findings imply that CANS interventions should not be restricted to ergonomic improvements, but should be accompanied by improvement of the job design from a psychological and social perspective and reactive intervention aimed at decreasing short-term physical strain (muscular tension) and mental strain (need for recovery).

  6. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs are charact......Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs...... are characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test......, increasing social job resources, increasing quantitative demands and decreasing hindering job demands. These can be reliably measured with 15 items. The measure shows acceptable discriminant and criterion validity, and test-retest reliability. The findings extend the application of the original questionnaire...

  7. Physical demands in competitive ultimate frisbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate...... = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance....

  8. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  9. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konze, Anne-Kathrin; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-12-20

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company ( N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  10. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Konze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139 in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  11. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  12. Need Satisfaction at Work, Job Strain, and Performance: A Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Sara; Hofmans, Joeri; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-08-24

    We performed a daily diary study to examine the mediating role of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction in the relationships between job characteristics (i.e., job resources, challenge and hindrance demands) and strain and performance. For 10 consecutive working days, 194 employees reported on their daily job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, task performance, strain level, and satisfaction of the needs for competence and autonomy. Multilevel path modeling demonstrated that the within-person relationships between job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, and strain are mediated by autonomy need satisfaction, but not by competence need satisfaction. However, the relationships between job resources and hindrance demands, and performance are mediated by both competence and autonomy need satisfaction. Our findings show that organizations may benefit from designing jobs that provide employees with the opportunity to satisfy their basic needs for competence and autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Exploring the Job Satisfaction of Late Career Secondary Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Tom

    2016-01-01

    As teachers move toward the end of their careers, understanding the experiences that help them derive satisfaction from their work has implications for helping them stay engaged in teaching. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the job satisfaction of late career physical education teachers. Jessica, Sandy, and Bill were later…

  14. The relationships among nurses' job characteristics and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Fan Chiang, Chih-Yun

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between job characteristics (job demands, job control and social support) and nurses' attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. A total of 221 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan were surveyed. The Attitudes toward Web-based Continuing Learning Survey (AWCL) was employed as the outcome variables, and the Chinese version Job Characteristic Questionnaire (C-JCQ) was administered to assess the predictors for explaining the nurses' attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. To examine the relationships among these variables, hierarchical regression was conducted. The results of the regression analysis revealed that job control and social support positively associated with nurses' attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. However, the relationship of job demands to such learning was not significant. Moreover, a significant demands×job control interaction was found, but the job demands×social support interaction had no significant relationships with attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  16. Job stress and mortality in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper aims to assess the relationship between the determinants of the psychosocial work environment, as expressed in terms of JDC or ERI models, and all-cause mortality in older individuals. Materials and Methods: The baseline study was conducted on a cohort comprising a random sample of 65-year-old community-dwelling citizens of Kraków, Poland. All of the 727 participants (410 women, 317 men were interviewed in their households in the period between 2001 and 2003; a structured questionnaire was used regarding their occupational activity history, which included indexes measuring particular dimensions of their psychosocial work environment based on Karasek's Job Demand-Control model and Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance model, as well as health-related quality of life and demographic data. Mortality was ascertained by monitoring City Vital Records for 7 years. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, with the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: During a 7-year follow-up period, 59 participants (8.1% died, including 21 women (5.1% of total women and 38 men (12% (p < 0.05. Significant differences in the number of deaths occurred regarding disproportion between physical demands and control in men: those with low physical demands and low control died three times more often than those with high control, regardless of the level of demands. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that significantly higher risk of death was observed only in men with low physical demands and low control, compared to those with low physical demands and high control (Exp(B = 4.65, 95% CI: 1.64-13.2. Conclusions: Observed differences in mortality patterns are similar to the patterns of relationships observed in health-related quality of life (HRQoL level at the beginning of old age; however, the relationship between efforts and rewards or demands and control and mortality was not fully confirmed.

  17. Exploring physical health perceptions, fatigue and stress among health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Vanessa; Glass, Nel; Ogle, Kr; Parsian, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Nurses, midwives, and paramedics are exposed to high degrees of job demand, which impacts health status and job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of health with a group of nurses, midwives and paramedics in Australia. Specifically, this paper reveals the findings related to the dataset on physical health. In this regard, the researchers sought to explore the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and the relationship between health status and stress levels. The study adopted a mixed methodology and used two methods for data collection: one-on-one interviews exploring the relationship between physical health and job satisfaction, and a survey questionnaire focusing on self-rated stress management. The individual interviews were conducted for further exploration of the participants' responses to the survey. There were 24 health care participants who were drawn from metropolitan and regional Australia. The findings revealed participants: had a desire to increase their physical activity levels; had different perspectives of physical health from those recommended by government guidelines; and viewed physical health as important to job satisfaction, yet related to stress and fatigue.

  18. Job crafting among health care professionals: The role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of job crafting on the quality of the work environment of health care professionals. Job crafting refers to proactive behavior aimed at optimizing the fit between person and job. Using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that job crafting would be positively related to job resources and person-organisation fit, and negatively to hindrance demands. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these relationships would be qualified by work engagement. A total of 5,272 health care professional