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Sample records for physical component scores

  1. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  2. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  3. Robust LOD scores for variance component-based linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangero, J; Williams, J T; Almasy, L

    2000-01-01

    The variance component method is now widely used for linkage analysis of quantitative traits. Although this approach offers many advantages, the importance of the underlying assumption of multivariate normality of the trait distribution within pedigrees has not been studied extensively. Simulation studies have shown that traits with leptokurtic distributions yield linkage test statistics that exhibit excessive Type I error when analyzed naively. We derive analytical formulae relating the deviation from the expected asymptotic distribution of the lod score to the kurtosis and total heritability of the quantitative trait. A simple correction constant yields a robust lod score for any deviation from normality and for any pedigree structure, and effectively eliminates the problem of inflated Type I error due to misspecification of the underlying probability model in variance component-based linkage analysis.

  4. Revision Vodcast Influence on Assessment Scores and Study Processes in Secondary Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marencik, Joseph J.

    A quasi-experimental switching replications design with matched participants was employed to determine the influence of revision vodcasts, or video podcasts, on students' assessment scores and study processes in secondary physics. This study satisfied a need for quantitative results in the area of vodcast influence on students' learning processes. Thirty-eight physics students in an urban Ohio public high school participated in the study. The students in one Physics class were paired with students in another Physics class through the matching characteristics of current student cumulative test score mean and baseline study process as measured by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ). Students in both classes were given identical pedagogic treatment and access to traditional revision tools except for the supplemental revision vodcasts given to the experimental group. After students in the experimental group viewed the revision vodcast for a particular topic, the assessment scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to the assessment scores of the control group through the direct-difference, D, test to determine any difference between the assessment score means of each group. The SPQ was given at the beginning of the experiment and after each physics assessment. The direct-difference method was again used to determine any difference between the SPQ deep approach scores of each group. The SPQ was also used to determine any correlative effects between study process and revision vodcast use on students' assessment scores through descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Analysis indicated that revision vodcast use significantly increased students' assessment scores (p.05). There were no significant correlative effects of revision vodcast use and study processes on students' assessment scores (p>.05). This study offers educators the empirical support to devote the necessary effort, time, and resources into developing successful

  5. Same But Different: FIM Summary Scores May Mask Variability in Physical Functioning Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steve R; Middleton, Addie; Graham, James E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2018-02-08

    To examine how similar summary scores of physical functioning using the FIM can represent different patient clinical profiles. Retrospective cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=765,441) discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Not applicable. We used patients' scores on items of the FIM to quantify their level of independence on both self-care and mobility domains. We then identified patients as requiring "no physical assistance" at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation by using a rule and score-based approach. In those patients with FIM self-care and mobility summary scores suggesting no physical assistance needed, we found that physical assistance was in fact needed frequently in bathroom-related activities (eg, continence, toilet and tub transfers, hygiene, clothes management) and with stairs. It was not uncommon for actual performance to be lower than what may be suggested by a summary score of those domains. Further research is needed to create clinically meaningful descriptions of summary scores from combined performances on individual items of physical functioning. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  7. Longitudinal associations between physical activity and depression scores in Swedish women followed 32 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Lindwall, M; Gustafson, D R; Östling, S; Hällström, T; Waern, M; Skoog, I

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies consider dynamic associations of changes in physical activity and reciprocal relationships. This study aimed to perform comprehensive evaluations of relationships between physical activity and depression scores in women followed from mid- to late life. The Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden, provided repeated measures of self-reported physical activity and depressive symptoms between 1974 and 2005 (baseline N = 676, 84.5% response rate). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and physical activity was evaluated by the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale. Latent growth curve analyses were used to evaluate associations of change, and cross-lagged models were used to study the reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression scores. At baseline, lower levels of physical activity were related to higher depression scores. Individuals with decreasing physical activity over time evidenced higher depression scores at 32-year follow-up. Higher average baseline depression score was related to declining levels of physical activity at subsequent examinations. Reduced physical activity may be a long-term consequence of depression. It is important to address individual changes in physical activity and not merely absolute levels of physical activity in relationship to depression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PROMIS®-29 v2.0 profile physical and mental health summary scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Spritzer, Karen L; Schalet, Benjamin D; Cella, David

    2018-03-22

    The PROMIS-29 v2.0 profile assesses pain intensity using a single 0-10 numeric rating item and seven health domains (physical function, fatigue, pain interference, depressive symptoms, anxiety, ability to participate in social roles and activities, and sleep disturbance) using four items per domain. This paper describes the development of physical and mental health summary scores for the PROMIS-29 v2.0. We conducted factor analyses of PROMIS-29 scales on data collected from two internet panels (n = 3000 and 2000). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a physical health factor defined by physical function, pain (interference and intensity), and ability to participate in social roles and activities, and a mental health factor defined primarily by emotional distress (anxiety and depressive symptoms). Reliabilities for these two summary scores were 0.98 (physical health) and 0.97 (mental health). Correlations of the PROMIS-29 v2.0 physical and mental health summary scores with chronic conditions and other health-related quality of life measures were consistent with a priori hypotheses. This study develops and provides preliminary evidence supporting the reliability and validity of PROMIS-29 v2.0 physical and mental health summary scores that can be used in future studies to assess impacts of health care interventions and track changes in health over time. Further evaluation of these and alternative summary measures is recommended.

  9. Postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison with controls and evaluation of relationships between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lo, Min-Tzu; Liao, Wei-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    To assess the differences in postural stability between patients with knee osteoarthritis and controls without knee osteoarthritis, and to evaluate possible relations between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components. An age-matched, case-controlled trial with a cross-sectional design. A teaching hospital. Patients with knee osteoarthritis (n=73) and age-matched controls (n=60). Data on patients' postural stability and additional health-related variables were collected using various instruments. These included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version, the physical function test (chair-rising time), the Chinese version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Chinese version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Biodex Stability System. A comparison of postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis versus that of controls was performed. The relation between postural stability scores for patients with knee osteoarthritis and ICF components was evaluated. Pearson correlation tests were used to determine the variables that correlated with postural stability among these patients. Patients with knee osteoarthritis displayed lower overall postural stability than controls (scores of 0.7 vs. 0.5, P=.006) and scored lower on the environmental domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version (62.2 vs 66.8, P=.014). For patients with knee osteoarthritis, postural stability was weakly associated with the ICF components of body functions and structures, including pain (r=.33-.34, P=.004), physical fatigue (r=.28, P=.016), and reduced motivation (r=.30, P=.011). Weak to moderate associations between postural stability and the ICF components of activities and participation were found; the relevant ICF variables included

  10. Functional Movement Screen Scores and Physical Performance among Youth Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study had two main objectives: (1 to determine if differences in Functional Movement Screen (FMS scores exist between two levels of competition; and (2 to analyze the association between FMS individual and overall scores and physical performance variables of lower-limb power (jumps, repeated sprint ability and shot speed. Twenty-two Under 16 (U16 and twenty-six Under 19 (U19 national competitive soccer players participated in this study. All participants were evaluated according to anthropometrics, FMS, jump performance, instep kick speed and anaerobic performance. There were no significant differences in the individual FMS scores between competitive levels. There were significant negative correlations between hurdle step (right and Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST power average ( ρ = −0.293; p = 0.043 and RAST fatigue index (RAST FatIndex ( ρ = −0.340; p = 0.018. The hurdle step (left had a significant negative correlation to squat jump (SJ ( ρ = −0.369; p = 0.012. Rotary stability had a significant negative correlation to RAST fatigue index (Right: ρ = −0.311; p = 0.032. Left: ρ = −0.400; p = 0.005. The results suggest that individual FMS scores may be better discriminants of performance than FMS total score and established minimal association between FMS scores and physical variables. Based on that, FMS may be suitable for the purposes of determining physical function but not for discriminating physical performance.

  11. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatowicz Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs. None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness.

  12. Association between Children's Physical Activity and Parental Practices Enhancing Children's Physical Activity: The Moderating Effects of Children's BMI z-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parental practices that aim at increasing children's physical activity were found to be related to children's physical activity. So far, however, the association between these two sets of variables was studied without considering the moderating role of children's BMI z-score, which may determine the effectiveness of parental practices. The present study aims at filling this void.Design: Longitudinal data were collected among 879 dyads of children (6–11 years old and their parents. Seven parental physical activity practices were assessed at baseline. Physical activity, body mass, and height (measured among children were assessed twice (at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Body mass and height were measured objectively. Seven moderation analyses were conducted.Results: Six parental practices emerged to predict physical activity of children: collaborative social control, overall support, stimulation to be active, general encouragement for physical activity, positive social control, and modeling. Children's BMI z-score moderated three associations. The relationships between parental positive social control, overall parental support, and general parental encouragement for physical activity (at baseline, and children's physical activity (at follow-up were significant only among children with low and medium BMI z-score. In turn, collaborative social control and modeling predicted children's physical activity at the follow-up regardless child's BMI z-score.Conclusions: Parental positive social control or overall parental support may be ineffective in children with higher body mass who are in need to increase their physical activity.

  13. Component analysis and initial validity of the exercise fear avoidance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Baskin, Monica; Ard, Jamy D; Evans, Retta; Roy, Jane; Vogtle, Laura; Grimley, Diane; Snyder, Scott

    2013-01-01

    To develop the Exercise Fear Avoidance Scale (EFAS) to measure fear of exercise-induced discomfort. We conducted principal component analysis to determine component structure and Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of the EFAS. Relationships between EFAS scores, BMI, physical activity, and pain were analyzed using multivariate regression. The best fit was a 3-component structure: weight-specific fears, cardiorespiratory fears, and musculoskeletal fears. Cronbach's alpha for the EFAS was α=.86. EFAS scores significantly predicted BMI, physical activity, and PDI scores. Psychometric properties of this scale suggest it may be useful for tailoring exercise prescriptions to address fear of exercise-related discomfort.

  14. A Mediation Analysis on the Relationship of Physical Fitness Components, Obesity, and Academic Performance in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Pere, Palou; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene

    2018-04-20

    To examine the relationship between a battery of obesity indicators and physical fitness components with academic performance in children and to explore the combined and mediation role of the physical fitness components in the relationship between obesity and academic performance in children. A cross-sectional study including data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren (Balearic Islands) between 10 and 12 years of age (mean age, 10.98 ± 0.76 years) was conducted. Obesity measures (body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and speed-agility), and academic performance (Spanish language, Catalan language, English language, natural sciences, social sciences, arts, physical education, religion, and grade point average [GPA]) were collected. All obesity measures were negatively related to at least 3 of the 10 academic indicators, including GPA (β range, -0.135 to -0.229; all P fitness and speed-agility were positively related to all academic indicators (β range, 0.182 to 0.350; all P fitness with 3 academic indicators (β range, 0.143 to 0.253; all P fit had better academic performance than their unfit peers (score +0.75; P = .001). The association between body mass index and GPA was mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility. This investigation contributes to the current knowledge by adding evidence about the crucial role of physical fitness in terms of academic performance rather than obesity status, suggesting that physical fitness may ameliorate the negative influence of obesity on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development(s) in question with supporting census data showing the level of poverty. Properties that fall into... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical condition scoring and thresholds. 902.25 Section 902.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  16. Predictive value of the Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and its components for long-term survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukland, Preben; Lando, Martin; Vilholm, Ole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Status Epilepticus Severity Score" (STESS) is the most important clinical score to predict in-hospital mortality of patients with status epilepticus (SE), but its prognostic relevance for long-term survival is unknown. This study therefore examined if STESS and its components...

  17. Association between physical frailty and cognitive scores in older adults

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    Clóris Regina Blanski Grden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between physical frailty and cognitive scores in older adults at an Open University of the Third Age in Southern Brazil. Methods: descriptive cross-sectional study with convenience sample comprising 100 elderly, conducted from March to June 2013. For cognitive assessment, we applied the Mini Mental State Examination and the Edmonton Frail Scale. Results: there was a predominance of females (93%, with a mean age of 65.6 years. 81% of the participants were classified as non-frail, 16% as apparently vulnerable to frailty, and 3% as mild frailty. There was a significant association between cognitive performance and frailty (p<0.006. Conclusion: the research on the association between physical frailty and cognitive scores in older people promotes the construction of gerontological care plans aimed at managing this syndrome.

  18. Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 Health Survey, V.1

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    Cunningham William E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 and SF-12 summary scores were derived using an uncorrelated (orthogonal factor solution. We estimate SF-36 and SF-12 summary scores using a correlated (oblique physical and mental health factor model. Methods We administered the SF-36 to 7,093 patients who received medical care from an independent association of 48 physician groups in the western United States. Correlated physical health (PCSc and mental health (MCSc scores were constructed by multiplying each SF-36 scale z-score by its respective scoring coefficient from the obliquely rotated two factor solution. PCSc-12 and MCSc-12 scores were estimated using an approach similar to the one used to derive the original SF-12 summary scores. Results The estimated correlation between SF-36 PCSc and MCSc scores was 0.62. There were far fewer negative factor scoring coefficients for the oblique factor solution compared to the factor scoring coefficients produced by the standard orthogonal factor solution. Similar results were found for PCSc-12, and MCSc-12 summary scores. Conclusion Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 derived from an obliquely rotated factor solution should be used along with the uncorrelated summary scores. The new scoring algorithm can reduce inconsistent results between the SF-36 scale scores and physical and mental health summary scores reported in some prior studies. (Subscripts C = correlated and UC = uncorrelated

  19. Scoring Mental Health Quality of Life With the SF-36 in Patients With and Without Diabetes Foot Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junho; Del Core, Michael A; Wukich, Dane K; Liu, George T; Lalli, Trapper; VanPelt, Michael D; La Fontaine, Javier; Lavery, Lawrence A; Raspovic, Katherine M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales. The DFC group had lower orthogonal ( P < .00001) and oblique PCS scores ( P < .00001). However, despite lower Mental Health subscale scores in the patients with DFCs, orthogonal MCS scores ( P = .156) did not differ. In contrast, the oblique MCS scores reflected the difference in the Mental Health subscale ( P = .0005). Orthogonal and oblique PCS scores did not differ significantly. However, orthogonal MCS scores were significantly higher than oblique MCS scores in those with DFCs ( P = .0004) and without DFCs ( P = .005). The shorter, 12-item SF-12 survey demonstrated similar results. Poorer physical function leads to higher orthogonal MCS scores than if determined by oblique scoring coefficients since Physical Function, Bodily Pain, and General Health are weighted more negatively in orthogonal coefficients when calculating the MCS score. Oblique scoring coefficients may address this issue, but further study is necessary to confirm whether oblique MCS scores accurately represent the mental health of patients with diabetic foot disease.

  20. Physical activity, stress, and metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Gentile, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37). Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r adolescents.

  1. Comparison of multipoint linkage analyses for quantitative traits in the CEPH data: parametric LOD scores, variance components LOD scores, and Bayes factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun Ju; Di, Yanming; Fu, Audrey Q; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Tong, Liping; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2007-01-01

    We performed multipoint linkage analyses with multiple programs and models for several gene expression traits in the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain families. All analyses provided consistent results for both peak location and shape. Variance-components (VC) analysis gave wider peaks and Bayes factors gave fewer peaks. Among programs from the MORGAN package, lm_multiple performed better than lm_markers, resulting in less Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) variability between runs, and the program lm_twoqtl provided higher LOD scores by also including either a polygenic component or an additional quantitative trait locus.

  2. The influence of physical activity on components of metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Inactivity causes obesity which is related to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ... of physical activity (PA) on the MS components and vascular function in children and ...

  3. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  4. Evidence for age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive provided by scoring principal components of the resting EEG spectrum in sleep-provoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A; Donskaya, Olga G

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated changes in different bandwidths of the human electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum are well documented, but their functional significance is poorly understood. This spectrum seems to represent summation of simultaneous influences of several sleep-wake regulatory processes. Scoring of its orthogonal (uncorrelated) principal components can help in separation of the brain signatures of these processes. In particular, the opposite age-associated changes were documented for scores on the two largest (1st and 2nd) principal components of the sleep EEG spectrum. A decrease of the first score and an increase of the second score can reflect, respectively, the weakening of the sleep drive and disinhibition of the opposing wake drive with age. In order to support the suggestion of age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive from the antagonistic influence of the sleep drive, we analyzed principal component scores of the resting EEG spectra obtained in sleep deprivation experiments with 81 healthy young adults aged between 19 and 26 and 40 healthy older adults aged between 45 and 66 years. At the second day of the sleep deprivation experiments, frontal scores on the 1st principal component of the EEG spectrum demonstrated an age-associated reduction of response to eyes closed relaxation. Scores on the 2nd principal component were either initially increased during wakefulness or less responsive to such sleep-provoking conditions (frontal and occipital scores, respectively). These results are in line with the suggestion of disinhibition of the wake drive with age. They provide an explanation of why older adults are less vulnerable to sleep deprivation than young adults.

  5. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Olyvia; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, panalysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  6. Validity and Responsiveness of Concept Map Assessment Scores in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Soo; Jang, Yongkyu; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Concept map assessment has been applied to many education areas to measure students' knowledge structure. However, the proper and valid use of concept map assessment has not been examined in physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence of validity and responsiveness of the concept map assessment scores in physical…

  7. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donti Olyvia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22 based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0, shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8, straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9, sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9 and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7, but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05, sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01, push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05 and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01, while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05 for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9% of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers, physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  9. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components in employees of a financial institution

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Madelein; Wilders, Cilas J.; Moss, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was determined by using the Health Risk Assessment (HRA) and Monitored Health Risk (MHM). Assessment included a physical activity, diabetes risk and cardiovascular risk question...

  10. Wellness Assessment: A Rationale, A Measure, and Physical/Psychological Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffield, Gilda; Dana, Richard H.

    Wellness, or holistic health, represents a positive attitude toward the integration of physical and psychological aspects of lifestyle. There have been few attempts to assess wellness that contain more than questionnaire items across several component areas. This paper describes a test battery that includes physical (nutrition, cardiorespiratory…

  11. [Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhu-Mei; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Wang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Ai-Li

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls (Pdevelopment remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.

  12. Achieving Minimum Clinically Important Difference in Oxford Knee Score and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary Is Less Likely with Single-Radius Compared with Multiradius Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wu Chean; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Allen, John Carson; Chong, Hwei Chi; Tan, Hwee Chye Andrew

    2018-04-10

    Single-radius (SR) and multiradius (MR) total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) have produced similar outcomes, albeit most studies originate from Western nations. There are known knee kinematic differences between Western and Asian patients after TKA. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of SR-TKA versus MR-TKA in Asians. Registry data of 133 SR-TKA versus 363 MR-TKA by a single surgeon were analyzed. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative range of motion (ROM) and PROMs were compared with Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the odds of SR-TKA or MR-TKA achieving the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of studied outcomes. Patients in both groups had similar age (65.7 ± 7.6 vs. 65.8 ± 8.2 years; p  = 0.317), gender proportion (71% females vs. 79% females; p  = 0.119), and ethnic distribution (80% Chinese vs. 84% Chinese; p  = 0.258). Preoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences between both groups for ROM, Knee Society Score (KSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Short Form (SF)-36 scores. At 2 years, all outcomes were statistically similar or failed to achieve a difference of MCID. Controlling for all preoperative variables, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving MCID for OKS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.275, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.114-0.663; p  = 0.004) and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) (OR: 0.547; 95% CI: 0.316-0.946; p  = 0.031) compared with MR-TKA. In conclusion, there are no significant differences in the absolute PROMs between SR-TKA and MR-TKA at 2 years following TKA in Asians. However, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving the MCID for OKS and SF-36 PCS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Effect of the application of a multimedia in the acquisition of skills for the evaluation of physical fitness components related to health, in students of Physical Education of the National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Anchía Umaña

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was determining the effect of the application of a multimedia on the acquisition of the necessary skills for the evaluation of physical fitness components related to health. Methodology: subjects: university physical education students (n=29, registered in the course Evaluation of Physical Qualities. Instruments: multimedia of battery of tests for physical evaluation related to health (subcutaneous tissue thickness, cardio respiratory capacity, flexibility, muscular strength and modified abdominal muscular resistance, software of authorship Neobook for the elaboration of electronic publications, version 5.0; software for development of academic evaluations Hot Potatoes from Half – Baked Software Inc., version 6; Adobe Premiere to capture and edit video, version Pro 1.5; Audicity for audio recording; basic program for editing text Word, SONY DCR-VX2000 video camera in format MiniDV NTSC, for video recording. Procedure: the subjects performed the first test (application of tests to evaluate components of physical fitness related to health and had a blind assessor, and based on this pretest’s results were distributed in three treatment groups, by modality of paired scores and each group was applied a different treatment: only theory, only multimedia, and theory - multimedia. Each group received 1-hour treatment for 10 weeks and by the end of this process, the blind assessor proceeded to apply the post-test to evaluate the components of physical fitness related to health, to the 3 groups. Likewise, a focal group interview was carried out on each separate group, identifying the qualitative factors. Statistical Analysis: A mixed two-way ANOVA was used (3 treatments x 2 measures for the quantitative analysis and the analysis of contents, and categorization for the qualitative data. Results: There was no significant interaction between measures and groups, or significant differences between groups; although a positive

  14. Construct Validation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-02-01

    The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. An exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including: knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. Although women and men differed on the components, they had equivalent overall metacognition for problem solving. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  15. Parkinson's disease severity and motor subtype influence physical capacity components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The severity of Parkinson's disease (PD and PD's motor subtypes influence the components of physical capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of both PD severity and motor subtype in the performance of these components. Thirty-six PD patients were assigned into four groups: Tremor (TD initial and TD mild, akinetic-rigid (AR initial, and AR mild. Patients' strength, balance, coordination, mobility and aerobic capacity were evaluated and groups were compared using a two-way ANOVA (severity and subtype as factors. AR presents a poorer performance than TD in almost all tests. Also this performance was worsened with the advance of the disease in AR, contrary to TD. We conclude that AR and TD subgroups are different about their performance on physical capacity components, moreover, this performance worsens with the advance of the disease of the AR group, but not for TD.

  16. Physics-based scoring of protein-ligand interactions: explicit polarizability, quantum mechanics and free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict the interaction of a ligand with its receptor is a key limitation in computer-aided drug design approaches such as virtual screening and de novo design. In this article, we examine current strategies for a physics-based approach to scoring of protein-ligand affinity, as well as outlining recent developments in force fields and quantum chemical techniques. We also consider advances in the development and application of simulation-based free energy methods to study protein-ligand interactions. Fuelled by recent advances in computational algorithms and hardware, there is the opportunity for increased integration of physics-based scoring approaches at earlier stages in computationally guided drug discovery. Specifically, we envisage increased use of implicit solvent models and simulation-based scoring methods as tools for computing the affinities of large virtual ligand libraries. Approaches based on end point simulations and reference potentials allow the application of more advanced potential energy functions to prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. Comprehensive evaluation of polarizable force fields and quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical and QM methods in scoring of protein-ligand interactions is required, particularly in their ability to address challenging targets such as metalloproteins and other proteins that make highly polar interactions. Finally, we anticipate increasingly quantitative free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods that are practical for optimization of hits obtained from screened ligand libraries.

  17. Comparative Analyses of Physics Candidates Scores in West African and National Examinations Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utibe, Uduak James; Agah, John Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study is a comparative analysis of physics candidates' scores in West African and National Examinations Councils. It also investigates influence of gender. Results of 480 candidates were randomly selected form three randomly selected Senior Science Colleges using the WASSCE and NECOSSCE computer printout sent to the schools, transformed using…

  18. Increasing the reliability of the fluid/crystallized difference score from the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with reliable component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J C

    2001-06-01

    The unreliability of difference scores is a well documented phenomenon in the social sciences and has led researchers and practitioners to interpret differences cautiously, if at all. In the case of the Kaufman Adult and Adolescent Intelligence Test (KAIT), the unreliability of the difference between the Fluid IQ and the Crystallized IQ is due to the high correlation between the two scales. The consequences of the lack of precision with which differences are identified are wide confidence intervals and unpowerful significance tests (i.e., large differences are required to be declared statistically significant). Reliable component analysis (RCA) was performed on the subtests of the KAIT in order to address these problems. RCA is a new data reduction technique that results in uncorrelated component scores with maximum proportions of reliable variance. Results indicate that the scores defined by RCA have discriminant and convergent validity (with respect to the equally weighted scores) and that differences between the scores, derived from a single testing session, were more reliable than differences derived from equal weighting for each age group (11-14 years, 15-34 years, 35-85+ years). This reliability advantage results in narrower confidence intervals around difference scores and smaller differences required for statistical significance.

  19. Physical disability contributes to caregiver stress in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David G; Paley, Glenys A; Nichols, Pamela; Roberts, David; Underwood, Peter J; Schaper, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Previous findings of studies on the impact of physical illness on caregiver health have been inconsistent. The authors wanted to determine whether physical disability, as determined by the SF-12 survey that provides information on both physical and mental health problems, contributes to caregiver stress. The authors interviewed 91 primary caregivers (aged 38-85 years) of persons with dementia who had been referred by their family physicians for the first time for formal support services or memory evaluation. Caregivers completed the SF-12 version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey that generates Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores and reported on caregiver stress and concurrent medical conditions and medications. Most caregivers reported stress (76.9%), having medical conditions (72.4%), or taking medications (67%). The MCS but not the PCS scores were significantly lower than community norms, indicating an excess of disability due to mental health problems. Nevertheless, 40.7% had PCS scores indicating some degree of physical disability. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, PCS scores but not the presence of medical problems were independently associated with caregiver stress. Chronic disability as assessed by SF-12 PCS scores is independently associated with caregiver stress. These data suggest that caregivers of persons with dementia should be assessed for disabling physical conditions and mental health problems. In addition, reducing the impact of physical disability could ameliorate caregiver stress.

  20. HitPredict version 4: comprehensive reliability scoring of physical protein-protein interactions from more than 100 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Nakai, Kenta; Patil, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    HitPredict is a consolidated resource of experimentally identified, physical protein-protein interactions with confidence scores to indicate their reliability. The study of genes and their inter-relationships using methods such as network and pathway analysis requires high quality protein-protein interaction information. Extracting reliable interactions from most of the existing databases is challenging because they either contain only a subset of the available interactions, or a mixture of physical, genetic and predicted interactions. Automated integration of interactions is further complicated by varying levels of accuracy of database content and lack of adherence to standard formats. To address these issues, the latest version of HitPredict provides a manually curated dataset of 398 696 physical associations between 70 808 proteins from 105 species. Manual confirmation was used to resolve all issues encountered during data integration. For improved reliability assessment, this version combines a new score derived from the experimental information of the interactions with the original score based on the features of the interacting proteins. The combined interaction score performs better than either of the individual scores in HitPredict as well as the reliability score of another similar database. HitPredict provides a web interface to search proteins and visualize their interactions, and the data can be downloaded for offline analysis. Data usability has been enhanced by mapping protein identifiers across multiple reference databases. Thus, the latest version of HitPredict provides a significantly larger, more reliable and usable dataset of protein-protein interactions from several species for the study of gene groups. Database URL: http://hintdb.hgc.jp/htp. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Physical Activity Predicts Higher Physical Function in Older Adults: The Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra M; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Zbehlik, Alicia J; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity reduces mobility impairments in elders. We examined the association of physical activity on risk of subjective and objective physical function in adults with and at risk for osteoarthritis (OA). Adults aged ≥ 60 years from the longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective observational study of knee OA, were classified by sex-specific quartiles of Physical Activity Score for the Elderly scores. Using linear mixed models, we assessed 6-year data on self-reported health, gait speed, Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI) and chair stand. Of 2252 subjects, mean age ranged from 66 to 70 years. Within each quartile, physical component (PCS) of the Short Form-12 and gait speed decreased from baseline to follow-up in both sexes (all P physical activity is associated with maintained physical function and is mediated by muscle strength, highlighting the importance of encouraging physical activity in older adults with and at risk for OA.

  2. Relationships between exercise and three components of mental well-being in corporate employees

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Fox, Kenneth R; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The main purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between exercise participation and three components of mental well-being (physical self, work-related, and global) in a sample of corporate employees. As a subsidiary and exploratory question, we also examined whether these well-being components are more strongly related to structured exercise participation scores compared to total levels of physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Me...

  3. Formation of personality’s acme-qualities as a component of physical education specialists’ acmeological competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hr. Dereka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine characteristics of acme-qualities’ formation in physical education specialists and determine correlations between components. Material: in the research students of “Physical education” specialty (n=194 participated. For assessment personality’s qualities special tests were used. Organization abilities, communicative abilities, creative potential, demand in achievement, emotional information level, control of emotions and etc. were assessed. Results: we determined components of personality’s acme-competence component in physical education specialists. We found density and orientation of correlation and influence of acme-qualities on personality’s component. By the results of factorial analysis we grouped, classified components by four factors and created their visual picture. The accumulated percentage of the studied factors’ dispersion was determined. Conclusions: continuous professional training of physical education specialists on acme-principles resulted in formation of personality’s acme-qualities. They facilitate manifestation of personality’s activity in the process of professional formation and constant self-perfection.

  4. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Carla C; Slater, Betzabeth

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI) z-score change among adolescents. The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004) (hereafter, baseline) and 299 in wave II (2005) (hereafter, follow-up). BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04) and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03) was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  5. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI Z-score among Brazilian adolescents*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Enes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI z-score change among adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004 (hereafter, baseline and 299 in wave II (2005 (hereafter, follow-up. BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. Results: The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04 and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03 was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Conclusions: Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  6. Comparison of clinical and physics scoring of PET images when image reconstruction parameters are varied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, C.; Johnston, C.; Sheehy, N.; Reilly, G. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study the quantitative and qualitative image quality (IQ) measurements with clinical judgement of IQ in positron emission tomography (PET) were compared. The limitations of IQ metrics and the proposed criteria of acceptability for PET scanners are discussed. Phantom and patient images were reconstructed using seven different iterative reconstruction protocols. For each reconstructed set of images, IQ was scored based both on the visual analysis and on the quantitative metrics. The quantitative physics metrics did not rank the reconstruction protocols in the same order as the clinicians' scoring of perceived IQ (R s = -0.54). Better agreement was achieved when comparing the clinical perception of IQ to the physicist's visual assessment of IQ in the phantom images (R s = +0.59). The closest agreement was seen between the quantitative physics metrics and the measurement of the standard uptake values (SUVs) in small tumours (R s = +0.92). Given the disparity between the clinical perception of IQ and the physics metrics a cautious approach to use of IQ measurements for determining suspension levels is warranted. (authors)

  7. Evaluating Photographs as a Replacement for the In-Person Physical Examination of the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment in Elderly Hospital Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle; Thomas, Jolene; Suen, Jenni; Ong, De Sheng; Sharma, Yogesh

    2018-05-01

    Undernourished patients discharged from the hospital require follow-up; however, attendance at return visits is low. Teleconsultations may allow remote follow-up of undernourished patients; however, no valid method to remotely perform physical examination, a critical component of assessing nutritional status, exists. This study aims to compare agreement between photographs taken by trained dietitians and in-person physical examinations conducted by trained dietitians to rate the overall physical examination section of the scored Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Nested cross-sectional study. Adults aged ≥60 years, admitted to the general medicine unit at Flinders Medical Centre between March 2015 and March 2016, were eligible. All components of the PG-SGA and photographs of muscle and fat sites were collected from 192 participants either in the hospital or at their place of residence after discharge. Validity of photograph-based physical examination was determined by collecting photographic and PG-SGA data from each participant at one encounter by trained dietitians. A dietitian blinded to data collection later assessed de-identified photographs on a computer. Percentage agreement, weighted kappa agreement, sensitivity, and specificity between the photographs and in-person physical examinations were calculated. All data collected were included in the analysis. Overall, the photograph-based physical examination rating achieved a percentage agreement of 75.8% against the in-person assessment, with a weighted kappa agreement of 0.526 (95% CI: 0.416, 0.637; Pexamination by trained dietitians achieved a nearly acceptable percentage agreement, moderate weighted kappa, and fair sensitivity-specificity pair. Methodological refinement before field testing with other personnel may improve the agreement and accuracy of photograph-based physical examination. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Principal component analysis reveals gender-specific predictors of cardiometabolic risk in 6th graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Mark D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific pattern of pediatric cardiometabolic risk with principal component analysis, using several biological, behavioral and parental variables in a large cohort (n = 2866 of 6th grade students. Methods Cardiometabolic risk components included waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol. Principal components analysis was used to determine the pattern of risk clustering and to derive a continuous aggregate score (MetScore. Stratified risk components and MetScore were analyzed for association with age, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, physical activity (PA, and parental factors. Results In both boys and girls, BMI and CRF were associated with multiple risk components, and overall MetScore. Maternal smoking was associated with multiple risk components in girls and boys, as well as MetScore in boys, even after controlling for children’s BMI. Paternal family history of early cardiovascular disease (CVD and parental age were associated with increased blood pressure and MetScore for girls. Children’s PA levels, maternal history of early CVD, and paternal BMI were also indicative for various risk components, but not MetScore. Conclusions Several biological and behavioral factors were independently associated with children’s cardiometabolic disease risk, and thus represent a unique gender-specific risk profile. These data serve to bolster the independent contribution of CRF, PA, and family-oriented healthy lifestyles for improving children’s health.

  9. Relationship among physical activity, smoking, drinking and clustering of the metabolic syndrome diagnostic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Sayuri; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Aki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Taichiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Takebayashi, Toru; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-06-30

    To examine the relation between lifestyle and the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnostic components in a general population, and to find a means of preventing the development of MetS components. We examined baseline data from 3,365 participants (2,714 men and 651 women) aged 19 to 69 years who underwent a physical examination, lifestyle survey, and blood chemical examination. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We defined four components for MetS in this study as follows: 1) high BP: systolic BP > or = 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration or = 150 mg/dL, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) Impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar level > or = 110 mg/d, or if less than 8 hours after meals > or = 140 mg/dL), or on medication for diabetes mellitus; 4) obesity: body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2). Those who had 0 to 4 MetS diagnostic components accounted for 1,726, 949, 484, 190, and 16 participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors contributing to the number of MetS diagnostic components were being male (regression coefficient b=0.600, p physical activity was inversely associated with the number of MetS diagnostic components, whereas smoking was not associated.

  10. PROMIS Pain Interference and Physical Function Scores Correlate With the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in Patients With Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Devon C; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Klein, Sandra E

    2017-11-01

    Traditional patient-reported outcome instruments like the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) quantify patient disability but often are limited by responder burden and incomplete questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) overcomes such obstacles through computer-adaptive technology and can capture outcome data from various domains including physical and psychosocial function. Prior work has compared the FAAM with PROMIS physical function; however, there is little evidence comparing the association between foot and ankle-specific tools like the FAAM with more general outcomes measures of PROMIS pain interference and depression in foot and ankle conditions. (1) We asked whether there was a relationship between FAAM Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores with PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and depression in patients with hallux valgus. (2) Additionally, we asked if we could identify specific factors that are associated with variance in FAAM and PROMIS physical function scores in patients with hallux valgus. Eighty-five new patients with either a primary or secondary diagnosis of hallux valgus based on clinic billing codes from July 2015 to February 2016 were retrospectively identified. Patients completed FAAM ADL paper-based surveys and electronic PROMIS questionnaires for physical function, pain interference, and depression from new patient visits at a single time. Spearman rho correlations were performed between FAAM ADL and PROMIS scores. Analyses then were used to identify differences in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function measures based on demographic variables. Stepwise linear regressions then determined which demographic and/or outcome variable(s) accounted for the variance in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function scores. FAAM scores correlated strongly with PROMIS physical function (r = 0.70, p hallux valgus. PROMIS tools allow for more-efficient data collection across multiple domains and, moving

  11. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

  12. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo, E-mail: anamariafeoli@hotmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Interaction of a genetic risk score with physical activity, physical inactivity, and body mass index in relation to venous thromboembolism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kraft, Peter; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Harrington, Laura B; Lindstroem, Sara; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable. Physical activity, physical inactivity and body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors, but evidence of interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors is limited. Data on 2,134 VTE cases and 3,890 matched controls were obtained from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with VTE risk in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Data on three risk factors, physical activity (metabolic equivalent [MET] hours per week), physical inactivity (sitting hours per week) and BMI, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. VTE cases were incident since cohort inception; controls were matched to cases on age, cohort, and genotype array. Using conditional logistic regression, we assessed joint effects and interaction effects on both additive and multiplicative scales. We also ran models using continuous wGRS stratified by risk-factor categories. We observed a supra-additive interaction between wGRS and BMI. Having both high wGRS and high BMI was associated with a 3.4-fold greater risk of VTE (relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.69, p = 0.046). However, we did not find evidence for a multiplicative interaction with BMI. No interactions were observed for physical activity or inactivity. We found a synergetic effect between a genetic risk score and high BMI on the risk of VTE. Intervention efforts lowering BMI to decrease VTE risk may have particularly large beneficial effects among individuals with high genetic risk. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. Principles of designing cyber-physical system of producing mechanical assembly components at Industry 4.0 enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, A. V.; Zakoldaev, D. A.; Shukalov, A. V.; Zharinov, I. O.

    2018-03-01

    The task of developing principles of cyber-physical system constitution at the Industry 4.0 company of the item designing components of mechanical assembly production is being studied. The task has been solved by analyzing the components and technologies, which have some practical application in the digital production organization. The list of components has been defined and the authors proposed the scheme of the components and technologies interconnection in the Industry 4.0 of mechanical assembly production to make an uninterrupted manufacturing route of the item designing components with application of some cyber-physical systems.

  15. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Maria Nyssen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, andExercise capacity (BODE index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components.METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1, perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale, and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]. The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ. The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer, using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI− and severe physical inactivity (SPI+. We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis.RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain, lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted, and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total. The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399, age (r = −0.459, and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446 and in % of predicted (r = 0.422.CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day.

  16. SU-E-T-192: FMEA Severity Scores - Do We Really Know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonigan, J; Johnson, J; Kry, S; Balter, P; Court, L; Stingo, F; Followill, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a subjective risk mitigation technique that has not been applied to physics-specific quality management practices. There is a need for quantitative FMEA data as called for in the literature. This work focuses specifically on quantifying FMEA severity scores for physics components of IMRT delivery and comparing to subjective scores. Methods: Eleven physical failure modes (FMs) for head and neck IMRT dose calculation and delivery are examined near commonly accepted tolerance criteria levels. Phantom treatment planning studies and dosimetry measurements (requiring decommissioning in several cases) are performed to determine the magnitude of dose delivery errors for the FMs (i.e., severity of the FM). Resultant quantitative severity scores are compared to FMEA scores obtained through an international survey and focus group studies. Results: Physical measurements for six FMs have resulted in significant PTV dose errors up to 4.3% as well as close to 1 mm significant distance-to-agreement error between PTV and OAR. Of the 129 survey responses, the vast majority of the responders used Varian machines with Pinnacle and Eclipse planning systems. The average years of experience was 17, yet familiarity with FMEA less than expected. Survey reports perception of dose delivery error magnitude varies widely, in some cases 50% difference in dose delivery error expected amongst respondents. Substantial variance is also seen for all FMs in occurrence, detectability, and severity scores assigned with average variance values of 5.5, 4.6, and 2.2, respectively. Survey shows for MLC positional FM(2mm) average of 7.6% dose error expected (range 0–50%) compared to 2% error seen in measurement. Analysis of ranking in survey, treatment planning studies, and quantitative value comparison will be presented. Conclusion: Resultant quantitative severity scores will expand the utility of FMEA for radiotherapy and verify accuracy of FMEA

  17. Component-oriented approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, N.S.; Komogorov, M.Eh.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the main concepts of a component approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics. This approach is realized as the NiMax software system. The discussed concepts are illustrated by numerous examples of the system user session. In appendix chapter we describe physics and numerical algorithms of the model components to perform simulation of hadronic and nuclear collisions at high energies. These components are members of hadronic application modules that have been developed with the help of the NiMax system. Given report is served as an early release of the NiMax manual mainly for model component users

  18. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  19. Profile of Physical Fitness of Young Football Players at SDN Cibeusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subashini Periasamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related physical fitness components are important in hypokinetic disease prevention and good sports performance. The aim of this research is to evaluate the physical fitness profile of the SDN Cibeusi young football players based on Fitnessgram. Methods: This study was participated by 20 subjects ranging from 10 to 12 years old boys who played for the school football team in SDN Cibeusi. This descriptive study was conducted in the school field in the month of November 2012. Physical fitness components that were tested are aerobic capacity,V02 max using the one-mile run test, muscle endurance by performing push-up and curl-up test, flexibility using the flexometer and body composition by measuring the body mass index and fat fold measurement. The mean and standard deviation of the results were tabulated. Results: Aerobic capacity and percentage of body fat showed 100% of them scored in the category of healthy fitness zone. For body mass index, 55% scored in healthy fitness zone, 25% ni-some risk, and 10% each for ni-high risk and very lean. For push-up test and curl-up test, 80% and 65% scored in the healthy fitness zone while the remaining 20% and 35% respectively scored in the not healthy fitness zone. For flexibility, 75% of them scored in healthy fitness zone and 25% scored in not healthy fitness zone. Conclusions: The physical fitness level in these young football players is mostly in healthy fitness zone.

  20. Alimentary habits, physical activity, and Framingham global risk score in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  2. Reliability of the individual components of the Canadian Armed Forces Physical Employment Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Barry G; Reilly, Tara J; Blacklock, Rachel E; Gagnon, Patrick J

    2018-01-29

    This investigation recruited 24 participants from both the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and civilian populations to complete 4 separate trials at "best effort" of each of the 4 components in the CAF Physical Employment Standard named the FORCE Evaluation: Fitness for Operational Requirements of CAF Employment. Analyses were performed to examine the level of variability and reliability within each component. The results demonstrate that candidates should be provided with at least 1 retest if they have recently completed at least 2 previous best effort attempts as per the protocol. In addition, the minimal detectable difference is given for each of the 4 components in seconds which identifies the threshold for subsequent action, either retest or remedial training, for those unable to meet the minimum standard. These results will educate the delivery of this employment standard, function as a method of accommodation, in addition to providing direction for physical training programs.

  3. Examination of the Five Comparable Component Scores of the Diet Quality Indexes HEI-2005 and RC-DQI Using a Nationally Representative Sample of 2–18 Year Old Children: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Kranz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with low diet quality and the suboptimal intake of food groups and nutrients. Two composite diet quality measurement tools are appropriate for Americans 2–18 years old: the Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005 and the Revised Children’s Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI. The five components included in both indexes are fruits, vegetables, total grains, whole grains, and milk/dairy. Component scores ranged from 0 to 5 or 0 to 10 points with lower scores indicating suboptimal intake. To allow direct comparisons, one component was rescaled by dividing it by 2; then, all components ranged from 0 to 5 points. The aim of this study was to directly compare the scoring results of these five components using dietary data from a nationally representative sample of children (NHANES 2003–2006, . Correlation coefficients within and between indexes showed less internal consistency in the HEI; age- and ethnic-group stratified analyses indicated higher sensitivity of the RC-DQI. HEI scoring was likely to dichotomize the population into two groups (those with 0 and those with 5 points, while RC-DQI scores resulted in a larger distribution of scores. The scoring scheme of diet quality indexes for children results in great variation of the outcomes, and researchers must be aware of those effects.

  4. Adding Vectors across the North: Development of Laboratory Component of Distance Education Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, V. K.; Solie, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Bush Physics for the 21st Century (BP21) is a distance education physics course offered through the Interior Aleutians Campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It provides an opportunity for rural Alaskan high school and community college students, many of whom have no other access to advanced science courses, to earn university science credit. The curriculum is mathematically rigorous and includes a laboratory component to prepare students who wish to pursue science and technology careers. The laboratory component has been developed during the past 3 years. Students learn lab safety, basic laboratory technique, experiment components and group collaboration. Experiments have place-based themes and involve skills that translate to rural Alaska when possible. Preliminary data on the general effectiveness of the labs have been analyzed and used to improve the course.

  5. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A; Zhu, Weimo; McAuley, Edward; Frogley, Michael; Figoni, Stephen F

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of a new 13-item physical activity survey designed to assess physical activity in individuals with physical disabilities. Mail survey requesting information on physical activity, basic demographic characteristics, self-rated health, and self-rated physical activity. In February 2000, surveys were sent to 1176 individuals who had used rehabilitative services at a major midwestern university between 1950 and 1999. Two hundred twenty-seven men and 145 women with disabilities responded to the mail survey (80%, spinal cord or other locomotor injuries; 13%, visual and auditory injuries; 7%, other; 92%, white; mean age +/- standard deviation, 49.8 +/- 12.9y; mean length of disability, 36.9 +/- 14.9y). Not applicable. Physical activity was assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD requests the number of days a week and hours daily (categories) of participation in recreational, household, and occupational activities over the past 7 days. Total scores were calculated as the average hours daily times a metabolic equivalent value and summed over items. Pearson correlations between each survey item and the total PASIPD score were all statistically significant (P or= .20 (range, .20- .67). Factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax orthogonal rotations revealed 5 latent factors (eigenvalues >or= 1, factor loadings >or= .40): home repair and lawn and garden, housework, vigorous sport and recreation, light sport and recreation, and occupation and transportation. These 5 factors accounted for 63% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.37 to.65, indicating low-to-moderate internal consistency within factors. Those who reported being "active/highly active" had higher total and subcategory scores compared with those "not active at all." Those in "excellent" health had higher total, vigorous sport and recreation, and occupation and

  7. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  8. Is a perceived supportive physical environment important for self-reported leisure time physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged women with poor psychosocial characteristics? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2013-03-27

    Over the past decade, studies and public health interventions that target the physical environment as an avenue for promoting physical activity have increased in number. While it appears that a supportive physical environment has a role to play in promoting physical activity, social-ecological models emphasise the importance of considering other multiple levels of influence on behaviour, including individual (e.g. self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment) and social (e.g. social support, access to childcare) factors (psychosocial factors). However, not everyone has these physical activity-promoting psychosocial characteristics; it remains unclear what contribution the environment makes to physical activity among these groups. This study aimed to examine the association between the perceived physical environment and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas demonstrating different psychosocial characteristics. In 2007-8, 3765 women (18-45 years) randomly selected from low socioeconomic areas in Victoria, Australia, self-reported LTPA, and individual, social and physical environmental factors hypothesised within a social-ecological framework to influence LTPA. Psychosocial and environment scores were created. Associations between environment scores and categories of LTPA (overall and stratified by thirds of perceived environment scores) were examined using generalised ordered logistic regression. Women with medium and high perceived environment scores had 20-38% and 44-70% greater odds respectively of achieving higher levels of LTPA than women with low environment scores. When stratified by thirds of psychosocial factor scores, these associations were largely attenuated and mostly became non-significant. However, women with the lowest psychosocial scores but medium or high environment scores had 76% and 58% higher odds respectively of achieving ≥120 minutes/week (vs. <120 minutes/week) LTPA

  9. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  10. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  11. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  12. Measuring mental workload with the NASA-TLX needs to examine each dimension rather than relying on the global score: an example with driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Edith; Paxion, Julie; Berthelon, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    The distinction between several components of mental workload is often made in the ergonomics literature. However, measurements used are often established from a global score, notably with several questionnaires that originally reflect several dimensions. The present study tested the effect of driving situation complexity, experience and subjective levels of tension and alertness on each dimension of the NASA-TLX questionnaire of workload, in order to highlight the potential influence of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load factors. The results showed that, in complex situation, mental, temporal and physical demand (load dimensions) increased, and that novice drivers presented high physical demand when subjective tension was low on performance. Moreover, increase of mental and physical demand increased effort. It thus, appears essential to distinguish the different components of mental workload used in the NASA-TLX questionnaire. Practitioner Summary: Currently, global score of NASA-TLX questionnaire is used to measure mental workload. Here, we considered independently each dimension of NASA-TLX, and results showed that mental load factors (driving situation complexity, experience, subjective tension and alertness) had a different effect on dimensions, questioning global score use to evaluate workload.

  13. The Two-Component Virial Theorem and the Physical Properties of Stellar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas; Ribeiro; Capelato; de Carvalho RR

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by present indirect evidence that galaxies are surrounded by dark matter halos, we investigate whether their physical properties can be described by a formulation of the virial theorem that explicitly takes into account the gravitational potential term representing the interaction of the dark halo with the baryonic or luminous component. Our analysis shows that the application of such a "two-component virial theorem" not only accounts for the scaling relations displayed by, in particular, elliptical galaxies, but also for the observed properties of all virialized stellar systems, ranging from globular clusters to galaxy clusters.

  14. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Philip H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression. Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months. Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring. No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long

  15. Improvements in fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified a positive association between fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency and physical activity in children; however, the causal pathways have not been established. The aim of this study is to determine if changes in FMS competency mediated the effect of the Supporting Children's Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Eight primary schools (25 classes) and 460 children (aged 8.5 ± 0.6, 54% girls) were randomised to the SCORES intervention or control group for the 12-month study. The outcomes were accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesised mediators were actual FMS competency and perceived sport competence. Mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel linear analysis in MPlus. From the original sample, 138 (30.0%) and 370 (80.4%) children provided useable physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness data at post-test assessments. There were significant treatment effects for locomotor skills and overall FMSs. Changes in MVPA were associated with changes in object-control skills, overall FMSs and perceived competence. The overall FMSs had a significant mediating effect on MVPA (AB = 2.09, CI = 0.01-4.55). Overall FMSs (AB = 1.19, CI = 0.002-2.79) and locomotor skills (AB = 0.74, CI = 0.01-1.69) had a significant mediating effect on cardiorespiratory fitness. The results of this study conclude that actual but not perceived movement skill competency mediated the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

  16. The Effect of Programmed Physical Exercise to Attention and Working Memory Score in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fachri Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention and working memory are two cognitive domain crucial for activities of daily living. Physical exercise increases the level of BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF which contributes in attention and working memory processes.This study was conducted to analyze improvement of attention and working memory after programmed physical exercise of Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP. Methods: An analytic observational study was conducted on 47 students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran during September-November 2012. Attention was assessed using digit span backward test, stroop test, visual search task, and trail making test. Working memory was assessed using digit span forward test and digit symbol test. Assessment was done on the 11th and 19th week of Pendas XXI AMP. Data distribution was tested first using a test of normality, and then analyzed using T-Dependent Test and Wilcoxon Test Results: Significant improvement was noted for attention in males based on working time for stroop test (26.50±5.66 to 22.03±3.78 seconds, working memory in males based on digit symbol test score (43.96±6.14 to 53.36±5.26 points, attention in females based on reaction time of visual search task for target absent (0.92±0.07 to 0.87±0.07 seconds, and working memory in females based on digit span forward score (5.42±1.30 to 6.63±1.07 points and digit symbol test score (42.47±5.95 to 53.84±5.33 points. Conclusions: Exercise in Pendas XXI AMP improves attention and working memory for college students in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran.

  17. Simulated lumbar minimally invasive surgery educational model with didactic and technical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Rohan; Ghobrial, George M; Lobel, Darlene; Harrop, James

    2013-10-01

    The learning and development of technical skills are paramount for neurosurgical trainees. External influences and a need for maximizing efficiency and proficiency have encouraged advancements in simulator-based learning models. To confirm the importance of establishing an educational curriculum for teaching minimally invasive techniques of pedicle screw placement using a computer-enhanced physical model of percutaneous pedicle screw placement with simultaneous didactic and technical components. A 2-hour educational curriculum was created to educate neurosurgical residents on anatomy, pathophysiology, and technical aspects associated with image-guided pedicle screw placement. Predidactic and postdidactic practical and written scores were analyzed and compared. Scores were calculated for each participant on the basis of the optimal pedicle screw starting point and trajectory for both fluoroscopy and computed tomographic navigation. Eight trainees participated in this module. Average mean scores on the written didactic test improved from 78% to 100%. The technical component scores for fluoroscopic guidance improved from 58.8 to 52.9. Technical score for computed tomography-navigated guidance also improved from 28.3 to 26.6. Didactic and technical quantitative scores with a simulator-based educational curriculum improved objectively measured resident performance. A minimally invasive spine simulation model and curriculum may serve a valuable function in the education of neurosurgical residents and outcomes for patients.

  18. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  19. "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life!" - Higher Hypomania Scores Are Associated with Higher Mental Toughness, Increased Physical Activity, and Lower Symptoms of Depression and Lower Sleep Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Rahmani, Anahita; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Soltanian, Ali R; Shirzadi, Shahriar; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the present study, we explored the associations between hypomania, symptoms of depression, sleep complaints, physical activity and mental toughness. The latter construct has gained interest for its association with a broad variety of favorable behavior in both clinical and non-clinical samples. Subjects and Methods: The non-clinical sample consisted of 206 young adults ( M = 21.3 years; age range: 18-24 years; 57.3% males). They completed questionnaires covering hypomania, mental toughness, symptoms of depression, physical activity, and sleep quality. Results: Higher hypomania scores were associated with higher mental toughness, increased physical activity, lower symptoms of depression and lower sleep complaints. No gender differences were observed. Higher hypomania scores were predicted by higher scores of mental toughness subscales of control and challenge, and physical activity. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that among a non-clinical sample of young adults, self-rated hypomania scores were associated with higher scores on mental toughness and physical activity, along with lower depression and sleep complaints. The pattern of results further suggests that hypomania traits are associated with a broad range of favorable psychological, behavioral and sleep-related traits, at least among a non-clinical sample of young adults.

  20. Source apportionment of soil heavy metals using robust absolute principal component scores-robust geographically weighted regression (RAPCS-RGWR) receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Wang, Yan; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2018-06-01

    The traditional source apportionment models, such as absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR), are usually susceptible to outliers, which may be widely present in the regional geochemical dataset. Furthermore, the models are merely built on variable space instead of geographical space and thus cannot effectively capture the local spatial characteristics of each source contributions. To overcome the limitations, a new receptor model, robust absolute principal component scores-robust geographically weighted regression (RAPCS-RGWR), was proposed based on the traditional APCS-MLR model. Then, the new method was applied to the source apportionment of soil metal elements in a region of Wuhan City, China as a case study. Evaluations revealed that: (i) RAPCS-RGWR model had better performance than APCS-MLR model in the identification of the major sources of soil metal elements, and (ii) source contributions estimated by RAPCS-RGWR model were more close to the true soil metal concentrations than that estimated by APCS-MLR model. It is shown that the proposed RAPCS-RGWR model is a more effective source apportionment method than APCS-MLR (i.e., non-robust and global model) in dealing with the regional geochemical dataset. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Fitness Component Profiles of Futsal Team Members of Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Muhammad Tanri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To be a good athlete, an athlete needs to possess good predominant components of physical fitness. Futsal Team of Universitas Padjadjaran has never won any competition. This study was conducted to identify the predominant component profiles of physical fitness of Futsal Team members of Universitas Padjadjaran. The predominant component profiles were classified based on the Indonesian National Sport Committee (KONI standard. Methods: This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine Student Center of Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. Twenty two members of the Futsal Team were enrolled as subjects of the study. The study used the step test to examine aerobic endurance; the leg dynamometer to measure leg muscle strength; the squat jump test to test the leg muscle endurance; the vertical jump test to measure leg muscle power; and the sit and reach test to measure lower extremity flexibility. The data collected were analyzed using percentage. Results: Leg muscle strength was mostly in the fair category (95%. Leg muscle power was mostly in the good category (41%. Leg muscle endurance was mostly in the good category (82%. Leg flexibility was mostly in the excellent category (91% and aerobic endurance was mostly in the good category (41%. Conclusions: Only several members of Universitas Padjadjaran Futsal Team have an excellent physical fitness profile. Most of the members fell into the fair and good category.

  2. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-01-01

    To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. The current implementation status of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme in 12 rehabilitation centres and 5 hospitals with a rehabilitation department was described by scoring fidelity and satisfaction. Seventy-one rehabilitation professionals filled out a questionnaire on how sports and physical activity, including stimulation activities, were implemented into rehabilitation care. Total fidelity scores (in %) were calculated for each organization. Professionals' satisfaction was rated on a scale from 1 to 10. In most organizations sports and physical activity were to some extent integrated during and after rehabilitation (fidelity scores: median = 54%, IQR = 23%). Physical activity stimulation was not always embedded as standard component of a rehabilitation treatment. Professionals' satisfaction rated a median value of 8.0 (IQR = 0.0) indicating high satisfaction rates. The fidelity outcome showed that activities to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation were integrated into rehabilitation care, but not always delivered as standardized component. These findings have emphasized the importance to focus on integrating these activities into routines of organizations. Implications for Rehabilitation Components of an evidence-based programme to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation can be used to measure the current status of the integration of sports and physical activity in rehabilitation care in a structural and effective way. The method described in the current study can be used to compare the content of the rehabilitation care regarding the integration of sports and physical activity among organizations both on a national and international level

  3. The development of summary components for the Disablement in the Physically Active scale in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Megan N; Hoch, Johanna M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-11-01

    The Disablement in the Physically Active scale (DPA) is a generic patient-reported outcome designed to evaluate constructs of disability in physically active populations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the DPA scale structure for summary components. Four hundred and fifty-six collegiate athletes completed a demographic form and the DPA. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted with oblique rotation. Factors with eigenvalues >1 that explained >5 % of the variance were retained. The PCA revealed a two-factor structure consistent with paradigms used to develop the original DPA. Items 1-12 loaded on Factors 1 and Items 13-16 loaded on Factor 2. Items 1-12 pertain to impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Items 13-16 address psychosocial and emotional well-being. Consideration of item content suggested Factor 1 concerned physical function, while Factor 2 concerned mental well-being. Thus, items clustered around Factor 1 and 2 were identified as physical (DPA-PSC) and mental (DPA-MSC) summary components, respectively. Together, the factors accounted for 65.1 % of the variance. The PCA revealed a two-factor structure for the DPA that resulted in DPA-PSC and DPA-MSC. Analyzing the DPA as separate constructs may provide distinct information that could help to prescribe treatment and rehabilitation strategies.

  4. Validity Evidence and Scoring Guidelines for Standardized Patient Encounters and Patient Notes From a Multisite Study of Clinical Performance Examinations in Seven Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Hyderi, Abbas; Heine, Nancy; May, Win; Nevins, Andrew; Lee, Ming; Bordage, Georges; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    To examine validity evidence of local graduation competency examination scores from seven medical schools using shared cases and to provide rater training protocols and guidelines for scoring patient notes (PNs). Between May and August 2016, clinical cases were developed, shared, and administered across seven medical schools (990 students participated). Raters were calibrated using training protocols, and guidelines were developed collaboratively across sites to standardize scoring. Data included scores from standardized patient encounters for history taking, physical examination, and PNs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine scores from the different assessment components. Generalizability studies (G-studies) using variance components were conducted to estimate reliability for composite scores. Validity evidence was collected for response process (rater perception), internal structure (variance components, reliability), relations to other variables (interassessment correlations), and consequences (composite score). Student performance varied by case and task. In the PNs, justification of differential diagnosis was the most discriminating task. G-studies showed that schools accounted for less than 1% of total variance; however, for the PNs, there were differences in scores for varying cases and tasks across schools, indicating a school effect. Composite score reliability was maximized when the PN was weighted between 30% and 40%. Raters preferred using case-specific scoring guidelines with clear point-scoring systems. This multisite study presents validity evidence for PN scores based on scoring rubric and case-specific scoring guidelines that offer rigor and feedback for learners. Variability in PN scores across participating sites may signal different approaches to teaching clinical reasoning among medical schools.

  5. Handling and Transport of Oversized Accelerator Components and Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S; Guinchard, M; Minginette, P

    2006-01-01

    For cost, planning and organisational reasons, it is often decided to install large pre-built accelerators components and physics detectors. As a result surface exceptional transports are required from the construction to the installation sites. Such heavy transports have been numerous during the LHC installation phase. This paper will describe the different types of transport techniques used to fit the particularities of accelerators and detectors components (weight, height, acceleration, planarity) as well as the measurement techniques for monitoring and the logistical aspects (organisation with the police, obstacles on the roads, etc). As far as oversized equipment is concerned, the lowering into the pit is challenging, as well as the transport in tunnel galleries in a very scare space and without handling means attached to the structure like overhead travelling cranes. From the PS accelerator to the LHC, handling systems have been developed at CERN to fit with these particular working conditions. This pap...

  6. Sex differences in relationships between metabolic syndrome components and factors associated with health-related quality of life in middle-aged adults living in the community: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Chieh; Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2018-04-27

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a widespread condition with important effects on public health, in general. There is a lack of relevant research on possible sex differences in the relationship between MetS and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and also the sex differences in factors associated with HRQoL. The aims of this study were to identify: 1) whether women exhibit greater negative impacts on physical domain HRQoL from MetS compared with men; 2) whether women exhibit greater mental domain impacts compared with men; and 3) whether factors associated with HRQoL scores are different for men and women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Taipei, Taiwan. Using random sampling, a total of 906 participants aged 35-55 years were recruited. MetS was defined according to the MetS criteria for the Taiwanese population, and HRQoL were assessed using physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Taiwan version. Demographics, physical activity, medical history, and blood tests as covariates were recorded and checked. The associations were assessed by multiple linear regression. After adjusting for covariates, women but not men with more components of MetS had significantly lower PCS scores (β = - 0.542, p = 0.036). The number of components of MetS was not a significant factor in MCS score differences between the sexes. Furthermore, there were sex differences regarding age, education level, physical activity, and smoking status in association with PCS scores. For MCS scores, sex differences were found in education level, marital status, and habits of smoking and alcohol consumption. There were sex differences in the relationships between metabolic syndrome components and factors associated with HRQoL among middle-aged adults living in the community in Taiwan. Further research should be conducted to investigate mechanisms of these sex differences.

  7. The Commander's Wellness Program: Assessing the Association Between Health Measures and Physical Fitness Assessment Scores, Fitness Assessment Exemptions, and Duration of Limited Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Col Anthony P; Greenwell, Brandon; Vicen, Gloria J; Maupin, Genny M

    2018-03-26

    Air Force Medical Service health promotions staff have identified a set of evidenced-based interventions targeting tobacco use, sleep habits, obesity/healthy weight, and physical activity that could be integrated, packaged, and deployed as a Commander's Wellness Program. The premise of the program is that improvements in the aforementioned aspects of the health of unit members will directly benefit commanders in terms of members' fitness assessment scores and the duration of periods of limited duty. The purpose of this study is to validate the Commander's Wellness Program assumption that body mass index (BMI), physical activity habits, tobacco use, sleep, and nutritional habits are associated with physical fitness assessment scores, fitness assessment exemptions, and aggregate days of limited duty in the population of active duty U.S. Air Force personnel. This study used a cross-sectional analysis of active duty U.S. Air Force personnel with an Air Force Web-based Health Assessment and fitness assessment data during fiscal year 2013. Predictor variables included age, BMI, gender, physical activity level (moderate physical activity, vigorous activity, and muscle activity), tobacco use, sleep, and dietary habits (consumption of a variety of foods, daily servings of fruits and vegetables, consumption of high-fiber foods, and consumption of high-fat foods). Nonparametric methods were used for the exploratory analysis and parametric methods were used for model building and statistical inference. The study population comprised 221,239 participants. Increasing BMI and tobacco use were negatively associated with the outcome of composite fitness score. Increasing BMI and tobacco use and decreasing sleep were associated with an increased likelihood for the outcome of fitness assessment exemption status. Increasing BMI and tobacco use and decreasing composite fitness score and sleep were associated with an increased likelihood for the outcome of limited duty status, whereas

  8. Associations of anatomical measures from MRI with radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis score, pain, and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Maryfran; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Jacobson, Jon A; Jiang, Yebin; Yosef, Matheos

    2011-02-02

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is traditionally based on radiographic findings, but magnetic resonance imaging is now being used to provide better visualization of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues as well as the patellar compartment. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalences of knee features defined on magnetic resonance imaging in a population and to relate these abnormalities to knee osteoarthritis severity scores based on radiographic findings, physical functioning, and reported knee pain in middle-aged women. Magnetic resonance images of the knee were evaluated for the location and severity of cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, meniscal and/or ligamentous tears, effusion, and synovitis among 363 middle-aged women (724 knees) from the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. These findings were related to Kellgren-Lawrence osteoarthritis severity scores from radiographs, self-reported knee pain, self-reported knee injury, perception of physical functioning, and physical performance measures to assess mobility. Radiographs, physical performance assessment, and interviews were undertaken at the 1996 study baseline and again (with the addition of magnetic resonance imaging assessment) at the follow-up visit during 2007 to 2008. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis changed from 3.7% at the baseline assessment to 26.7% at the follow-up visit eleven years later. Full-thickness cartilage defects of the medial, lateral, and patellofemoral compartments were present in 14.5% (105 knees), 4.6% (thirty-three knees), and 26.2% (190 knees), respectively. Synovitis was identified in 24.7% (179) of the knees, and joint effusions were observed in 70% (507 knees); 21.7% (157) of the knees had complex or macerated meniscal tears. Large osteophytes, marked synovitis, macerated meniscal tears, and full-thickness tibial cartilage defects were associated with increased odds of knee pain and with

  9. HitPredict version 4: comprehensive reliability scoring of physical protein?protein interactions from more than 100 species

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez, Yosvany; Nakai, Kenta; Patil, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    HitPredict is a consolidated resource of experimentally identified, physical protein?protein interactions with confidence scores to indicate their reliability. The study of genes and their inter-relationships using methods such as network and pathway analysis requires high quality protein?protein interaction information. Extracting reliable interactions from most of the existing databases is challenging because they either contain only a subset of the available interactions, or a mixture of p...

  10. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children's outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: a physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Weaver, Kristen; Callister, Robin; Dewar, Deborah L; Costigan, Sarah A; Finn, Tara L; Smith, Jordan; Upton, Lee; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-06-12

    Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. The Supporting Children's Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The findings from the study may be used to

  11. Regular multi-component exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...

  12. Examining the use of evidence-based and social media supported tools in freely accessible physical activity intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna; Rebar, Amanda; Alley, Stephanie; Short, Camille; Fallon, Luke; Buzza, Gavin; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Maher, Carol; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-08-17

    It has been shown that physical activity is more likely to increase if web-based interventions apply evidence-based components (e.g. self-monitoring) and incorporate interactive social media applications (e.g. social networking), but it is unclear to what extent these are being utilized in the publicly available web-based physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether freely accessible websites delivering physical activity interventions use evidence-based behavior change techniques and provide social media applications. In 2013, a systematic search strategy examined 750 websites. Data was extracted on a wide range of variables (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting, and social media applications). To evaluate website quality a new tool, comprising three sub-scores (Behavioral Components, Interactivity and User Generated Content), was developed to assess implementation of behavior change techniques and social media applications. An overall website quality scored was obtained by summing the three sub-scores. Forty-six publicly available websites were included in the study. The use of self-monitoring (54.3%), goal setting (41.3%) and provision of feedback (46%) was relatively low given the amount of evidence supporting these features. Whereas the presence of features allowing users to generate content (73.9%), and social media components (Facebook (65.2%), Twitter (47.8%), YouTube (48.7%), smartphone applications (34.8%)) was relatively high considering their innovative and untested nature. Nearly all websites applied some behavioral and social media applications. The average Behavioral Components score was 3.45 (±2.53) out of 10. The average Interactivity score was 3.57 (±2.16) out of 10. The average User Generated Content Score was 4.02 (±2.77) out of 10. The average overall website quality score was 11.04 (±6.92) out of 30. Four websites (8.7%) were classified as high quality, 12 websites (26.1%) were classified as moderate

  13. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  14. Physical and mental health of mothers caring for a child with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurvick, Crystal L; Msall, Michael E; Silburn, Sven; Bower, Carol; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2006-10-01

    Our goal was to investigate the physical and mental health of mothers who care for a child with Rett syndrome. We assessed maternal physical and mental health by using the SF-12 version 1 physical component summary and mental component summary scores as the outcome measures of interest. Mothers (n = 135) of children with Rett syndrome completed the SF-12 measure as part of the Australian Rett Syndrome Study in 2002. The analysis investigated linear relationships between physical and mental health scores and maternal, family, and child characteristics. Mothers ranged in age from 21 to 60 years and their children from 3 to 27 years. Nearly half of these mothers (47.4%) indicated that they worked full-time or part-time outside the home, and 41% had a combined family (gross) income of health demonstrated that the following factors were positively associated with better maternal physical health: the mother working full-time or part-time outside the home, having some high school education, having private health insurance, the child not having breathing problems in the last 2 years, the child not having home-based structured therapy, and high scores on the Family Resource Scale (indicating adequacy of time resources for basic and family needs). The resultant model for mental health demonstrated that the following factors were positively associated with better maternal mental health: the mother working full-time or part-time outside the home, the child not having a fracture in the last 2 years, lesser reporting of facial stereotypes and involuntary facial movements, being in a well-adjusted marriage, and having low stress scores. Our study suggests that the most important predictors of maternal physical and emotional health are child behavior, caregiver demands, and family function.

  15. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683

  16. Validation of the German version of the Kujala score in patients with patellofemoral instability: a prospective multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, D; Liebensteiner, M C; Kujala, U M; Emmanuel, K; Kopf, S; Dirisamer, F; Giesinger, J M

    2018-04-01

    The Kujala score is the most frequently used questionnaire for patellofemoral disorders like pain, instability or osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, we are not aware of a validated German version of the Kujala score. The aim of our study was the translation and linguistic validation of the Kujala score in German-speaking patients with patella instability and the assessment of its measurement characteristics. The German Kujala score was developed in several steps of translation. In addition to healthy controls, the Kujala German was assessed in consecutive patients undergoing reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament for recurrent patellar dislocations. Pre-op, 6 and 12 months postop the patients completed the Kujala German score, the KOOS, the Lysholm score, a VAS Pain, and the SF-12v2 scores. In addition, there was a Kujala German Score retest preop after a 1-week interval. We found high reliability in terms of internal consistency for the Kujala score (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Convergent validity with the KOOS (symptom r = 0.65, pain r = 0.78, ADL r = 0.74, sports/recreation r = 0.84, quality of life r = 0.70), the Lysholm score (r = 0.88) and the SF-12 physical component summary score (r = 0.79) and VAS pain (r = - 0.71) was also very high. Discriminant validity in terms of correlation with the SF-12 mental component summary Score was satisfactory (r = 0.14). In conclusion, the German version of the Kujala score proved to be a reliable and valid instrument in the setting of a typical patellofemoral disease treated with a standard patellofemoral procedure.

  17. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of a short measure of physical function for hip OA HOOS-Physical Function Shortform (HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M

    2008-01-01

    : The daily activity and sports and recreational items of the HOOS were reduced to five items achieving a feasible, short measure of physical function with interval level properties. This tool has potential for use as the function component of an OA severity scoring system. Further testing of this measure......OBJECTIVE: To derive a cross-culturally valid, short measure of physical function using function subscales (daily living and sports and recreation) of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). METHODS: Rasch analysis was conducted on data from individuals from multiple countries...... who had hip osteoarthritis (OA). Fit of the data to the Rasch model was evaluated by model chi(2) and item fit statistics (chi(2), size of residual, and F-test). Differential item functioning was evaluated by gender, age and country. Unidimensionality was evaluated by factor analysis of residuals...

  19. Determination of an effective scoring function for RNA-RNA interactions with a physics-based double-iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yumeng; Wen, Zeyu; Zhang, Di; Huang, Sheng-You

    2018-05-18

    RNA-RNA interactions play fundamental roles in gene and cell regulation. Therefore, accurate prediction of RNA-RNA interactions is critical to determine their complex structures and understand the molecular mechanism of the interactions. Here, we have developed a physics-based double-iterative strategy to determine the effective potentials for RNA-RNA interactions based on a training set of 97 diverse RNA-RNA complexes. The double-iterative strategy circumvented the reference state problem in knowledge-based scoring functions by updating the potentials through iteration and also overcame the decoy-dependent limitation in previous iterative methods by constructing the decoys iteratively. The derived scoring function, which is referred to as DITScoreRR, was evaluated on an RNA-RNA docking benchmark of 60 test cases and compared with three other scoring functions. It was shown that for bound docking, our scoring function DITScoreRR obtained the excellent success rates of 90% and 98.3% in binding mode predictions when the top 1 and 10 predictions were considered, compared to 63.3% and 71.7% for van der Waals interactions, 45.0% and 65.0% for ITScorePP, and 11.7% and 26.7% for ZDOCK 2.1, respectively. For unbound docking, DITScoreRR achieved the good success rates of 53.3% and 71.7% in binding mode predictions when the top 1 and 10 predictions were considered, compared to 13.3% and 28.3% for van der Waals interactions, 11.7% and 26.7% for our ITScorePP, and 3.3% and 6.7% for ZDOCK 2.1, respectively. DITScoreRR also performed significantly better in ranking decoys and obtained significantly higher score-RMSD correlations than the other three scoring functions. DITScoreRR will be of great value for the prediction and design of RNA structures and RNA-RNA complexes.

  20. Depression Affects the Scores of All Facets of the WHOQOL-BREF and May Mediate the Effects of Physical Disability among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chang

    Full Text Available Geriatric depression is associated with the overall quality of life (QOL. However, how depressive symptoms affect the different domains and facets of QOL in older adults, and whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical disability and QOL in older adults are unclear.A total of 490 ambulatory community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or above were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF, the Modified Barthel Index (MBI, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Sequential models for multiple linear regressions were analysed to determine if the MBI, GDS-15 and MMSE scores predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. The potential mediation effects of depression (as determined by the GDS-15 on the relationship between MBI and WHOQOL-BREF were also analysed.The GDS-15 score was predictive of the scores of the four domains and all 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF. The significant predictive effects of the MBI score on 15 of the 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF were reduced to three after the adjustment for the GDS-15 score. Depression (as assessed by the GDS-15 is a mediator of the relationship between MBI and the physical, psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF.Depression (assessed by the GDS-15 may affect the scores of every domain and all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF in the elderly. Furthermore, it may mediate the relationship between the MBI and on QOL scores. We recommend taking depressive symptoms into consideration when measuring community-dwelling older adults' QOL and providing active ageing programs.

  1. Talking and learning physics: Predicting future grades from network measures and Force Concept Inventory pretest scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bruun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of student interactions in learning situations is a foundation of sociocultural learning theory, and social network analysis can be used to quantify student relations. We discuss how self-reported student interactions can be viewed as processes of meaning making and use this to understand how quantitative measures that describe the position in a network, called centrality measures, can be understood in terms of interactions that happen in the context of a university physics course. We apply this discussion to an empirical data set of self-reported student interactions. In a weekly administered survey, first year university students enrolled in an introductory physics course at a Danish university indicated with whom they remembered having communicated within different interaction categories. For three categories pertaining to (1 communication about how to solve physics problems in the course (called the PS category, (2 communications about the nature of physics concepts (called the CD category, and (3 social interactions that are not strictly related to the content of the physics classes (called the ICS category in the introductory mechanics course, we use the survey data to create networks of student interaction. For each of these networks, we calculate centrality measures for each student and correlate these measures with grades from the introductory course, grades from two subsequent courses, and the pretest Force Concept Inventory (FCI scores. We find highly significant correlations (p<0.001 between network centrality measures and grades in all networks. We find the highest correlations between network centrality measures and future grades. In the network composed of interactions regarding problem solving (the PS network, the centrality measures hide and PageRank show the highest correlations (r=-0.32 and r=0.33, respectively with future grades. In the CD network, the network measure target entropy shows the highest correlation

  2. Technological sequence of creating components of the training system of the future officers to the management of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkhovy O.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to determine constructive ways of sequence of constructing components of the training system of the future officers to carry out official questions of managing the physical training in the process of the further military career. The structural logic circuit of the interconnections stages of optimum cycle management and technological sequence of constructing the components of the training system of the future officers to the management of physical training, which provides: definition of requirements to the typical problems of professional activities on the issues of the leadership, organization and conducting of physical training, the creation of the phased system model cadets training, training of the curriculum discipline ″Physical education, special physical training and sport″; model creation and definition of criteria of the integral evaluation of the readiness of the future officers to the management of physical training was determined through the analysis more than thirty documentary and scientific literature.

  3. Association of the sense of coherence with physical and psychosocial health in the rehabilitation of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Thomas; Angst, Felix; Lehmann, Susanne; Aeschlimann, André

    2013-05-04

    According to Antonovsky's salutogenic concept, a strong sense of coherence is associated with physical and psychological health. The goal of this study was to analyze the association of Antonovsky's sense of coherence with physical and psychosocial health components in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis before and after in- and outpatient rehabilitation. Prospective cohort study with 335 patients, 136 (41%) with hip and 199 (59%) with knee osteoarthritis. The outcome was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Sense of Coherence (SOC-13). Baseline scores of the SF-36 and WOMAC scales and the observed effect sizes after rehabilitation were correlated with the baseline SOC-13. These correlations of the SF-36 scales were compared to the Factor Score Coefficients for the Mental Component Summary of SF-36, which quantify the factor load on the psychosocial dimension. Predictive impact of the baseline SOC-13 for the SF-36 and WOMAC scales (baseline scores and effect sizes) was then determined by multivariate linear regression controlled for possible confounders. At baseline, the SOC-13 correlated with the WOMAC scores between r = 0.18 (stiffness) and r = 0.25 (pain) and with the SF-36 scores between r = 0.10 (physical functioning) and r = 0.53 (mental health). The correlation of these SF-36 correlation coefficients to the Factor Score Coefficient of the SF-36 Mental Component Summary was r = 0.95. The correlations for the effect sizes (baseline → discharge) with the baseline SOC-13 global score were all negative and varied between r = 0.00 (physical functioning) and r = -0.19 (social functioning). In the multivariate linear regression model, the explained variance of the SF-36 scores by the baseline SOC-13 increased continuously from physical to psychosocial health dimensions (from 12.9% to 29.8%). This gradient was consistently observed for both the baseline

  4. Do SF-36 summary scores work as outcome measures in chronic functional disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per

    controlled trial on cognitive behavioural therapy in patients with severe and chronic functional disorders. Based on a pilot study and baseline data, we have assessed the performance of the summary scores. Aim To demonstrate problems in the orthogonal factor solution for PCS and MCS and to assess other...... based on an oblique factor solution and the summary components from the RAND-36 HSI. Results Pilot study: Improvement on subscales of physical health was not reflected by the original PCS. The three methods showed different results with regard to individual changes over time. Baseline data: Surprisingly...

  5. Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical function is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and the ability of older adults to reside in the community depends to a large extent on their level of physical function. Multiple physical and health-related variables may differentially affect physical function, but they have not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and examine physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods Nine hundred and four community dwelling older men (n = 263 and women (n = 641 with a mean (95% Confidence Interval age of 76.6 (76.1, 77.1 years underwent tests of physical function (Timed Up and Go; TUG, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, and data were collected on self-reported health quality of life (SF-36, falls during the past 6 months, number of medications per day, depression (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Results Subjects completed the TUG in 8.7 (8.2, 9.2 seconds and expended 6,976 (6,669, 7,284 Kcal.wk-1 in physical activity. The older persons had a mean BMI of 27. 6 (27.2, 28.0, 62% took 3 or more medications per day, and14.4% had fallen one or more times over the last 6 months. Mean scores on the Mental Component Summary (MCS was 50.6 (50.2, 51,0 and the Physical Component Summary (PCS was 41.3 (40.8, 41.8. Multiple sequential regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for TUG floor surface correlates of physical function included age, sex, education, physical activity (weekly energy expenditure, general health, bodily pain, number of medications taken per day, depression and Body Mass Index. Further, there is a dose response relationship such that greater degree of physical function impairment is associated with poorer scores on physical health-related variables. Conclusions Physical

  6. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  7. Five years of lifestyle intervention improved self-reported mental and physical health in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotte; Ladelund, Steen; Glümer, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-reported health has been shown to predict mortality. We lack knowledge on whether a lifestyle intervention can improve self-reported mental and physical health in a general population. METHODS: Inter99, Denmark (1999-2006) is a randomised population-based intervention study. We...... of the intervention on self-reported health over time. RESULTS: At baseline men had higher physical health-component scores (PCS) than women. Living with a partner, being employed, and being healthy was associated with high PCS. The mental health-component scores (MCS) showed the same socio-demographic differences......, except that MCS increased with age. Significantly fewer participants in the intervention groups had decreased their PCS and MCS compared with the control group. Adjusted multilevel analyses confirmed that the intervention significantly improved physical- (p=0.008) and mental health (p...

  8. Physical activity, the Framingham risk score and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women of the EPIC-Norfolk study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Rana, Jamal S.; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Test the hypothesis that considering leisure-time and work-related physical activity habits in addition to the Framingham risk score (FRS) would result into better classification of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk than FRS alone. Methods: Prospective, population-based study of 9564 men

  9. “Always Look on the Bright Side of Life!” – Higher Hypomania Scores Are Associated with Higher Mental Toughness, Increased Physical Activity, and Lower Symptoms of Depression and Lower Sleep Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jahangard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, we explored the associations between hypomania, symptoms of depression, sleep complaints, physical activity and mental toughness. The latter construct has gained interest for its association with a broad variety of favorable behavior in both clinical and non-clinical samples.Subjects and Methods: The non-clinical sample consisted of 206 young adults (M = 21.3 years; age range: 18–24 years; 57.3% males. They completed questionnaires covering hypomania, mental toughness, symptoms of depression, physical activity, and sleep quality.Results: Higher hypomania scores were associated with higher mental toughness, increased physical activity, lower symptoms of depression and lower sleep complaints. No gender differences were observed. Higher hypomania scores were predicted by higher scores of mental toughness subscales of control and challenge, and physical activity.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that among a non-clinical sample of young adults, self-rated hypomania scores were associated with higher scores on mental toughness and physical activity, along with lower depression and sleep complaints. The pattern of results further suggests that hypomania traits are associated with a broad range of favorable psychological, behavioral and sleep-related traits, at least among a non-clinical sample of young adults.

  10. Factors associated with physical therapists' implementation of physical activity interventions in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; Dusseldorp, Elise; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Verheijden, Marieke W; van der Zouwe, Nicolette; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Duijzer, Geerke; Crone, Mathilde R

    2015-04-01

    Physical therapists play an important role in the promotion of physical activity (PA) and the effectiveness of PA interventions. However, little is known about the extent to which they implement PA interventions following the intervention protocol and about the factors influencing their implementation behaviors. The study objective was to investigate physical therapists' implementation fidelity regarding PA interventions, including completeness and quality of delivery, and influencing factors with a Theoretical Domains Framework-based questionnaire. The study was based on a cross-sectional design. A total of 268 physical therapists completed the Determinants of Implementation Behavior Questionnaire. Questions about completeness and quality of delivery were based on components and tasks of PA interventions as described by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy. Multilevel regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with completeness and quality of delivery. High implementation fidelity was found for the physical therapists, with higher scores for completeness of delivery than for quality of delivery. Physical therapists' knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, positive emotions, behavioral regulation, and the automaticity of PA intervention delivery were the most important predictors of implementation fidelity. Together, the Theoretical Domains Framework accounted for 23% of the variance in both total completeness and total quality scores. The cross-sectional design precluded the determination of causal relationships. Also, the use of a self-report measure to assess implementation fidelity could have led to socially desirable responses, possibly resulting in more favorable ratings for completeness and quality. This study enhances the understanding of how physical therapists implement PA interventions and which factors influence their behaviors. Knowledge about these factors may assist in the development of strategies to

  11. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130-HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well.

  12. A principal components model of soundscape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Östen; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker's N(10)), which shows that 'informational' properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes.

  13. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients with osteoporosis is related to low daily physical activity and high COPD assessment test scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Te Liu,1,2,* Han-Pin Kuo,3,* Tien-Hua Liao,4 Ling-Ling Chiang,1 Li-Fei Chen,3 Min-Fang Hsu,5 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1 Kang-Yun Lee,2,6 Chien-Da Huang,3 Shu-Chuan Ho11School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, 5Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: COPD patients have an increased prevalence of osteoporosis (OP compared with healthy people. Physical inactivity in COPD patients is a crucial risk factor for OP; the COPD assessment test (CAT is the newest assessment tool for the health status and daily activities of COPD patients. This study investigated the relationship among daily physical activity (DPA, CAT scores, and bone mineral density (BMD in COPD patients with or without OP. This study included 30 participants. Ambulatory DPA was measured using actigraphy and oxygen saturation by using a pulse oximeter. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. OP was defined as a T-score (standard deviations from a young, sex-specific reference mean BMD less than or equal to -2.5 SD for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. We quantified oxygen desaturation during DPA by using a desaturation index and recorded all DPA, except during sleep. COPD patients with OP had lower DPA and higher CAT scores than those of patients without OP. DPA was significantly positively correlated with (lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD (r=0.399, 0.602, 0.438, respectively

  14. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  15. Effects of a Whatsapp-delivered physical activity intervention to enhance health-related physical fitness components and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Borràs, Pere A; Ortega, Francisco B; Palou, Pere

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a 10-week WhatsApp-based intervention aimed at enhancing health-related physical fitness components and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors compared with a face-to-face condition. Participants (N.=32) were assigned to one of three groups: training group (N.=16), mobile group (N.=7) and control group (N.=9). Training group and mobile group performed the same training program, based on strength training with elastics bands and aerobic exercise, during 10 weeks; only the delivery mode differed. The mobile group increased handgrip strength, aerobic capacity and decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate after exercise though there were no significant differences respect to control group. The training group decreased significantly systolic blood pressure (P=0.038), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.005), mean arterial pressure (P=0.006) and heart rate after exercise (P=0.002), respect to control group. Comparison between training and mobile group showed that WhatsApp-based physical activity intervention was less effective than face-to-face condition. The results indicate that the use of an online social network produced slight changes in some health-related physical fitness components and CVD risk factors.

  16. Analysis of impact of noncompliance with physical-security requirements at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.N.

    1982-03-01

    Inspectors are required to analyze the impact of instances of noncompliance with physical security requirements at licensed nuclear facilities. A scoring procedure for components and a method for evaluating the effectiveness of the subsystems involved are proposed to reinforce an inspector's judgment about the remaining level of safeguards

  17. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  18. Clustering of leptin and physical activity with components of metabolic syndrome in Iranian population: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Zandieh, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Morteza, Afsaneh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), manifested by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension, is conceived to be associated with hyperleptinemia and physical activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors underlying components of MetS and also to test the suitability of leptin and physical activity as additional components of this syndrome. Data of the individuals without history of diabetes mellitus, aged 25-64 years, from third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007), were analyzed. Performing factor analysis on waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) led to extraction of two factors which explained around 59.0% of the total variance in both genders. When TG and HDL-C were replaced by TG to HDL-C ratio, a single factor was obtained. In contrast to physical activity, addition of leptin was consistent with one-factor structure of MetS and improved the ability of suggested models to identify obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, Pphysical activity loaded on the first identified factor. Our study shows that one underlying factor structure of MetS is also plausible and the inclusion of leptin does not interfere with this structure. Further, this study suggests that physical activity influences MetS components via modulation of the main underlying pathophysiologic pathway of this syndrome.

  19. Understanding recovery: changes in the relationships of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) components over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Ibrahim, S; Hogg-Johnson, S; Wong, R; Badley, E M

    2012-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework describes human functioning through body structure and function, activity and participation in the context of a person's social and physical environment. This work tested the temporal relationships of these components. Our hypotheses were: 1) there would be associations among physical impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions within time; 2) prior status of a component would be associated with future status; 3) prior status of one component would influence status of a second component (e.g. prior activity limitations would be associated with current participation restrictions); and, 4) the magnitude of the within time relationships of the components would vary over time. Participants from Canada with primary hip or knee joint replacement (n = 931), an intervention with predictable improvement in pain and disability, completed standardized outcome measures pre-surgery and five times in the first year post-surgery. These included physical impairment (pain), activity limitations and participation restrictions. ICF component relationships were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally using path analysis adjusting for age, sex, BMI, hip vs. knee, low back pain and mood. All component scores improved significantly over time. The path coefficients supported the hypotheses in that both within and across time, physical impairment was associated with activity limitation and activity limitation was associated with participation restriction; prior status and change in a component were associated with current status in another component; and, the magnitude of the path coefficients varied over time with stronger associations among components to three months post surgery than later in recovery with the exception of the association between impairment and participation restrictions which was of similar magnitude at all times. This work enhances understanding of the

  20. Influence of disintegrants in different substrate physical form on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Srimanta; Ooi, Shing Ming; Liew, Celine Valeria; Tan, Bing Xun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-11-20

    This study investigated the influence of different disintegrants, present in different substrate physical forms, on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablets prepared at different compression pressures. Formulations containing model drug, metformin, (10%, w/w), different disintegrants (10%, w/w), and lactose (80%, w/w) were compressed directly or after granulation using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (1%, w/w) as binder, into tablets (350 mg, 10mm diameter) at 150, 200, and 250 N/mm(2) compression pressures. Tablets were characterized for immediate dimensional recovery (IR) after ejection from the die, latent dimensional recovery (LR) over 24 h, tensile strength, and disintegration. The IR was predominantly contributed by crystalline components whereas LR was brought about by polymeric materials. With increased compression pressure, higher degree of plastic deformation of the polymeric disintegrants resulted in tablet with lower LR and higher tensile strength. Presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone in the granules contributed considerably to plastic deformation, and the tablets produced had lower LR, higher tensile strength, and longer disintegration time. This study indicated that use of granules as the feed substrate physical form and a prudent selection of components may enable the coating of resultant tablets immediately after compression without the risk of coat damage due to LR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Naturally occurring workplace facilities to increase the leisure time physical activity of workers: A propensity-score weighted population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aviroop; Smith, Peter M; Gignac, Monique A M

    2018-06-01

    The benefit of providing access to physical activity facilities at or near work to support the leisure time physical activity (LTPA) of workers is uncertain. We examined the association between access to physical activity facilities at or near work and the LTPA of workers after adjusting for a range of individual and occupational characteristics. Data was obtained from 60,650 respondents to the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Participants were employed adults ≥18 years of age who had no long-term health condition which reduced their participation in physical activity. Latent class analysis determined naturally occurring combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work. Each combination was balanced by 19 individual and occupational covariate characteristics using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores. The association between combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work on LTPA level was estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Five different combinations of physical activity facilities were available to respondents at or near work. Data were analyzed in 2017. All possible physical facilities increased the likelihood for LTPA (OR, 2.08, 95% CI, 1.03-4.20) and other combinations were also positively associated. Respondents with no physical activity facilities were characterized as having a low education, low income, high physically demanding work, poor health and mental health, non-white racial background, and being an immigrant. Access to supportive workplace environments can help workers be physically active. Future research should assess a range of personal, social and environmental factors that may be driving this relationship.

  2. Effect of a Physical Education-Based Stretching Programme on Sit-and-Reach Score and Its Posterior Reduction in Elementary Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio; Estrada, Francisco Vera; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 1-minute stretching programme and 5 weeks of detraining on sit-and-reach score among schoolchildren aged 5-6 years in a physical education setting. Forty-five schoolchildren 5-6 years old from two classes were clustered randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 23) or a control group…

  3. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection: Diagnostic Accuracy of Physical Examination, Imaging, and LRINEC Score: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shannon M; Tran, Alexandre; Cheng, Wei; Rochwerg, Bram; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; Seely, Andrew J E; Inaba, Kenji; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-18

    We sought to summarize accuracy of physical examination, imaging, and Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score in diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) in adults with a soft tissue infection clinically concerning for NSTI. NSTI is a life-threatening diagnosis. Delay to diagnosis and surgical management is associated with increased mortality. We searched 6 databases from inception through November 2017. We included English-language studies reporting diagnostic accuracy of testing or LRINEC Score. Outcome was NSTI confirmed by surgery or histopathology. Two reviewers screened all citations and extracted data independently. Summary measures were obtained from the Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic model. From 2,290 citations, we included 23 studies (n = 5982). Of physical examination signs, pooled sensitivity and specificity for fever was 46.0% and 77.0% respectively, for hemorrhagic bullae 25.2% and 95.8%, and for hypotension 21.0% and 97.7%. Computed tomography (CT) had sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 93.3%, while plain radiography had sensitivity of 48.9% and specificity of 94.0%. Finally, LRINEC ≥ 6 had sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 84.8%, while LRINEC ≥ 8 had sensitivity of 40.8% and specificity of 94.9%. Absence of any 1 physical examination feature (eg, fever or hypotension) is not sufficient to rule-out NSTI. CT is superior to plain radiography. LRINEC had poor sensitivity, and should not be used to rule-out NSTI. Given the poor sensitivity of these tests, a high clinical suspicion warrants early surgical consultation for definitive diagnosis and management.

  4. Verifying Digital Components of Physical Systems: Experimental Evaluation of Test Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laputenko, A. V.; López, J. E.; Yevtushenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper continues the study of high quality test derivation for verifying digital components which are used in various physical systems; those are sensors, data transfer components, etc. We have used logic circuits b01-b010 of the package of ITC'99 benchmarks (Second Release) for experimental evaluation which as stated before, describe digital components of physical systems designed for various applications. Test sequences are derived for detecting the most known faults of the reference logic circuit using three different approaches to test derivation. Three widely used fault types such as stuck-at-faults, bridges, and faults which slightly modify the behavior of one gate are considered as possible faults of the reference behavior. The most interesting test sequences are short test sequences that can provide appropriate guarantees after testing, and thus, we experimentally study various approaches to the derivation of the so-called complete test suites which detect all fault types. In the first series of experiments, we compare two approaches for deriving complete test suites. In the first approach, a shortest test sequence is derived for testing each fault. In the second approach, a test sequence is pseudo-randomly generated by the use of an appropriate software for logic synthesis and verification (ABC system in our study) and thus, can be longer. However, after deleting sequences detecting the same set of faults, a test suite returned by the second approach is shorter. The latter underlines the fact that in many cases it is useless to spend `time and efforts' for deriving a shortest distinguishing sequence; it is better to use the test minimization afterwards. The performed experiments also show that the use of only randomly generated test sequences is not very efficient since such sequences do not detect all the faults of any type. After reaching the fault coverage around 70%, saturation is observed, and the fault coverage cannot be increased anymore. For

  5. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Allen, Bryan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Ercole, Cesar E; Sexton, Wade J; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of the first standardized renal tumor complexity system, many subsequent scoring systems have been introduced, many of which are complicated and can make it difficult to accurately measure data end points. In light of these limitations, we introduce the new zonal NePhRO scoring system. The zonal NePhRO score is based on 4 anatomical components that are assigned a score of 1, 2, or 3, and their sum is used to classify renal tumors. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is made up of the (Ne)arness to collecting system, (Ph)ysical location of the tumor in the kidney, (R)adius of the tumor, and (O)rganization of the tumor. In this retrospective study, we evaluated patients exhibiting clinical stage T1a or T1b who underwent open partial nephrectomy performed by 2 genitourinary surgeons. Each renal unit was assigned both a zonal NePhRO score and a RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) score, and a blinded reviewer used the same preoperative imaging study to obtain both scores. Additional data points gathered included age, clamp time, complication rate, urine leak rate, intraoperative blood loss, and pathologic tumor size. One hundred sixty-six patients underwent open partial nephrectomy. There were 37 perioperative complications quantitated using the validated Clavien-Dindo system; their occurrence was predicted by the NePhRO score on both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .0008). Clinical stage, intraoperative blood loss, and tumor diameter were all correlated with the zonal NePhRO score on univariate analysis only. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is a simpler tool that accurately predicts the surgical complexity of a renal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubans David R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles, PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers, FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test. Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg/height (m2], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled

  7. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The

  8. Naturally occurring workplace facilities to increase the leisure time physical activity of workers: A propensity-score weighted population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviroop Biswas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of providing access to physical activity facilities at or near work to support the leisure time physical activity (LTPA of workers is uncertain. We examined the association between access to physical activity facilities at or near work and the LTPA of workers after adjusting for a range of individual and occupational characteristics. Data was obtained from 60,650 respondents to the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Participants were employed adults ≥18 years of age who had no long-term health condition which reduced their participation in physical activity. Latent class analysis determined naturally occurring combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work. Each combination was balanced by 19 individual and occupational covariate characteristics using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores. The association between combinations of physical activity facilities at or near work on LTPA level was estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Five different combinations of physical activity facilities were available to respondents at or near work. Data were analyzed in 2017. All possible physical facilities increased the likelihood for LTPA (OR, 2.08, 95% CI, 1.03–4.20 and other combinations were also positively associated. Respondents with no physical activity facilities were characterized as having a low education, low income, high physically demanding work, poor health and mental health, non-white racial background, and being an immigrant. Access to supportive workplace environments can help workers be physically active. Future research should assess a range of personal, social and environmental factors that may be driving this relationship. Keywords: Physical activity, Workplace, Built environment, Health promotion, Exercise

  9. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  10. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score in patients with traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. This study used data from a large prospectively entered database to assess the efficacy of the motor score (M score) component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Simplified Motor Score (SMS) in predicting overall outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective. To safely and reliably ...

  11. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  12. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoJung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD in healthy young college women.Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4 and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck. The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm, weight (kg, fat free mass (FFM, kg, percent body fat (%, and body mass index (BMI. Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire.There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014 and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007, while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05. When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024, while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015. Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004. There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025, but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05.BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in life.

  13. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-07-01

    Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45-75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31-0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = -0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (-0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (-0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (-0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (-0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P lifestyle components. Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults than individual components. The HLS may be a useful tool for examining health-related outcomes. This trial was registered at

  14. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005 Scores and More Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES. A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005 and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol. LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity.

  15. Consumption of low-calorie sweeteners among U.S. adults is associated with higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) scores and more physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-10-17

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity.

  16. Developing skills versus reinforcing concepts in physics labs: Insight from a survey of students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-06-01

    Physics laboratory courses have been generally acknowledged as an important component of the undergraduate curriculum, particularly with respect to developing students' interest in, and understanding of, experimental physics. There are a number of possible learning goals for these courses including reinforcing physics concepts, developing laboratory skills, and promoting expertlike beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. However, there is little consensus among instructors and researchers interested in the laboratory learning environment as to the relative importance of these various learning goals. Here, we contribute data to this debate through the analysis of students' responses to the laboratory-focused assessment known as the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a large, national data set of students' responses, we compare students' E-CLASS performance in classes in which the instructor self-reported focusing on developing skills, reinforcing concepts, or both. As the classification of courses was based on instructor self-report, we also provide additional description of these courses with respect to how often students engage in particular activities in the lab. We find that courses that focus specifically on developing lab skills have more expertlike postinstruction E-CLASS responses than courses that focus either on reinforcing physics concepts or on both goals. Within first-year courses, this effect is larger for women. Moreover, these findings hold when controlling for the variance in postinstruction scores that is associated with preinstruction E-CLASS scores, student major, and student gender.

  17. Pediatric siMS score: A new, simple and accurate continuous metabolic syndrome score for everyday use in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rade; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Stojan, George; Vukovic, Ana; Mitrovic, Katarina; Todorovic, Sladjana; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomous nature of the current definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) in youth results in loss of information. On the other hand, the calculation of continuous MS scores using standardized residuals in linear regression (Z scores) or factor scores of principal component analysis (PCA) is highly impractical for clinical use. Recently, a novel, easily calculated continuous MS score called siMS score was developed based on the IDF MS criteria for the adult population. To develop a Pediatric siMS score (PsiMS), a modified continuous MS score for use in the obese youth, based on the original siMS score, while keeping the score as simple as possible and retaining high correlation with more complex scores. The database consisted of clinical data on 153 obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) children and adolescents. Continuous MS scores were calculated using Z scores and PCA, as well as the original siMS score. Four variants of PsiMS score were developed in accordance with IDF criteria for MS in youth and correlation of these scores with PCA and Z score derived MS continuous scores was assessed. PsiMS score calculated using formula: (2xWaist/Height) + (Glucose(mmol/l)/5.6) + (triglycerides(mmol/l)/1.7) + (Systolic BP/130)-(HDL(mmol/l)/1.02) showed the highest correlation with most of the complex continuous scores (0.792-0.901). The original siMS score also showed high correlation with continuous MS scores. PsiMS score represents a practical and accurate score for the evaluation of MS in the obese youth. The original siMS score should be used when evaluating large cohorts consisting of both adults and children.

  18. Age-associated declines in muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance: impact on fear of falling and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, A; Reid, K F; Hars, M; Herrmann, F R; Pasha, E; Phillips, E M; Fielding, R A

    2016-02-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study among older adults showed that declining muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are independent contributing factors to increased fear of falling, while declines of muscle mass and physical performance contribute to deterioration of quality of life. Our findings reinforce the importance of preserving muscle health with advancing age. The age-associated loss of skeletal muscle quantity and function are critical determinants of independent physical functioning in later life. Longitudinal studies investigating how decrements in muscle components of sarcopenia impact fear of falling (FoF) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults are lacking. Twenty-six healthy older subjects (age, 74.1 ± 3.7; Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score ≥10) and 22 mobility-limited older subjects (age, 77.2 ± 4.4; SPPB score ≤9) underwent evaluations of lower extremity muscle size and composition by computed tomography, strength and power, and physical performance at baseline and after 3-year follow-up. The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) were also administered at both timepoints to assess FoF and QoL, respectively. At 3-year follow-up, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (p < 0.013) and power decreased (p < 0.001), while intermuscular fat infiltration increased (p < 0.001). These decrements were accompanied with a longer time to complete 400 m by 22 ± 46 s (p < 0.002). Using linear mixed-effects regression models, declines of muscle CSA, strength and power, and SPPB score were associated with increased FES score (p < 0.05 for each model). Reduced physical component summary score of SF-36 over follow-up was independently associated with decreased SPPB score (p < 0.020), muscle CSA (p < 0.046), and increased 400 m walk time (p < 0.003). In older adults with and without mobility limitations, declining muscle mass, strength, power, and physical

  19. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, but not Commuting Physical Activity, is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk among ELSA-Brasil Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila M A; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-01-01

    Despite reports in the literature that both leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and commuting physical activity (CPA) can promote health benefits, the literature lacks studies comparing the associations of these domains of physical activity with cardiovascular risk scores. To investigate the association between LTPA and CPA with different cardiovascular risk scores in the cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. Cross-sectional study with data from 13,721 participants of both genders, aged 35-74 years, free of cardiovascular disease, from ELSA Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Five cardiovascular risk scores were used: Framingham score - coronary heart disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - coronary heart disease (LDL-C); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (body mass index, BMI); and pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Associations adjusted for confounding variables between physical activity and different cardiovascular risk scores were analyzed by logistic regression. Confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) was considered. LTPA is inversely associated with almost all cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, while CPA shows no statistically significant association with any of them. Dose-response effect in association between LTPA and cardiovascular risk scores was also found, especially in men. LTPA was shown to be associated with the cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, but CPA not. The amount of physical activity (duration and intensity) was more significantly associated, especially in men, with cardiovascular risk scores in ELSA-Brasil.

  20. Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Fernández-Vázquez, Amaya; Alexy, Ute; Pedrero, Raquel; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2013-07-18

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure "per se" but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different body's components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents. A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 2200 (1016 males) adolescents (14.7 ± 1.2 years). Weight, height, skinfold thickness, bioimpedance and PA (accelerometry) were measured. Indices of fat mass (body mass index, % fat mass, sum of skinfolds) and muscular component (assessed as fat-free mass) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat-free mass and fat mass when possible. Vigorous PA was positively associated with height (pgenders, except for average PA in relation with body mass index in females. Regarding muscular components, vigorous PA showed positive associations with fat-free mass and muscle mass (all pgenders. Average PA was positively associated with fat-free mass (both p<0.05) in males and females. The present study suggests that PA, especially vigorous PA, is negatively associated with indices of fat mass and positively associated with markers of muscle mass, after adjusting for several confounders (including indices of fat mass and muscle mass when possible). Future studies should focus not only on the classical relationship between PA and fat mass, but also on PA and muscular components, analyzing the independent role of both with the different PA intensities.

  1. Which clinical variable influences health-related quality of life the most after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage? Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, Brussels coma score, and Glasgow coma score compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapapa, Thomas; Tjahjadi, Martin; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    To determine the strength of the correlation between the Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, Brussels coma score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, and Glasgow coma score and health-related quality of life. Evaluable questionnaires from 236 patients (5.6 years [± standard deviation, 2.854 years] on average after hemorrhage) were included in the analysis. Quality of life was documented using the MOS-36 item short form health survey. Because of the ordinal nature of the variables, Kendall tau was used for calculation. Significance was established as P ≤ 0.05. Weak and very weak correlations were found in general (r ≤ 0.28). The strongest correlations were found between the Glasgow coma score and quality of life (r = 0.236, P = 0.0001). In particular, the "best verbal response" achieved the strongest correlations in the comparison, at r = 0.28/P = 0.0001. The Fisher score showed very weak correlations (r = -0.148/P = 0.012). The Brussels coma score (r = -0.216/P = 0.0001), Hunt and Hess scale (r = -0.197/P = 0.0001), and the World Federation of Neurosurgeons score (r = -0.185/P = 0.0001) revealed stronger correlations, especially in terms of the physical aspects of quality of life. The Glasgow coma scale revealed the strongest, and the Fisher score showed the weakest correlations. Thus the Fisher score, as an indicator of the severity of a hemorrhage, has little significance in terms of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining the Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Gender, and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Busing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested a positive effect of physical activity on life satisfaction. Little research exists that has investigated the relationship between physical fitness and life satisfaction. For this purpose, this research was done to determine the relationship between physical fitness and life satisfaction in a sample of university men and women. Participants (N = 28, Mage = 22.18 completed multiple indicators of physical fitness including cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness, body composition and flexibility, and life satisfaction (SWLS. Descriptive and one-way between-groups ANOVAs were performed to determine gender differences on measures of life satisfaction and measures of fitness. In addition, the relationship between the five health-related components of fitness and life satisfaction were investigated using Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient. Analyses indicated there were no significant correlations between any of the health-related components of fitness and scores on the SWLS. There were significant gender differences on all physical fitness measures, except partial curl-ups, but no significant gender differences on life satisfaction. Our findings suggest that improved physical fitness does not have a relationship with higher life satisfaction measures. Further tests, utilizing larger sample sizes, are recommended.

  3. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is not related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Maarten W; Van Aken, Katrijn; Claessens, Albrecht L

    2013-01-01

    The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13.5-18 y) was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance) was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index) are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019) was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9.2% (flexibility) and 33.9% (static strength) of variance. Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls.

  4. Relationships among personality traits, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome scores: The Kakegawa cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohseto, Hisashi; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Igarashi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satomi; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shigihara, Michiko; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Miyashita, Masako; Mizuno, Satoshi; Nagai, Masato; Matsubara, Hiroko; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome and the presence of metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between personality traits and metabolic syndrome remains controversial, and few studies have been conducted in East Asian populations. We measured personality traits using the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised Short Form) and five metabolic syndrome components-elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose-in 1322 participants aged 51.1±12.7years old from Kakegawa city, Japan. Metabolic syndrome score (MS score) was defined as the number of metabolic syndrome components present, and metabolic syndrome as having the MS score of 3 or higher. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome components and multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between personality traits and MS scores adjusted for age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, and family history of CVD and diabetes mellitus. We also examine the relationship between personality traits and metabolic syndrome presence by multiple logistic regression analyses. "Extraversion" scores were higher in those with metabolic syndrome components (elevated waist circumference: P=0.001; elevated triglycerides: P=0.01; elevated blood pressure: P=0.004; elevated fasting glucose: P=0.002). "Extraversion" was associated with the MS score (coefficient=0.12, P=0.0003). No personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Higher "extraversion" scores were related to higher MS scores, but no personality trait was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the application of a multimedia in the acquisition of skills for the evaluation of physical fitness components related to health, in students of Physical Education of the National University

    OpenAIRE

    Anchía Umaña, Irina; Vargas Araya, Gerardo Alonso; Gutiérrez Vargas, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was determining the effect of the application of a multimedia on the acquisition of the necessary skills for the evaluation of physical fitness components related to health. Methodology: subjects: university physical education students (n=29), registered in the course Evaluation of Physical Qualities. Instruments: multimedia of battery of tests for physical evaluation related to health (subcutaneous tissue thickness, cardio respiratory capacity, flexibility, muscul...

  6. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is not related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. METHODS: In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13.5-18 y was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. RESULTS: Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019 was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9.2% (flexibility and 33.9% (static strength of variance. CONCLUSION: Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls.

  7. The effect of a physical activity intervention on preschoolers' fundamental motor skills - A cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasenius, Niko S; Grattan, Kimberly P; Harvey, Alysha L J; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Goldfield, Gary S; Adamo, Kristi B

    2018-07-01

    To assess the effect of a physical activity intervention delivered in the childcare centres (CC), with or without a parent-driven home physical activity component, on children's fundamental motor skills (FMS). Six-month 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Preschoolers were recruited from 18 licensed CC. CC were randomly assigned to a typical curriculum comparison group (COM), childcare intervention alone (CC), or childcare intervention with parental component (CC+HOME). FMS was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Linear mixed models were performed at the level of the individual while accounting for clustering. Raw locomotor skills score increased significantly in the CC group (mean difference=2.5 units, 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, 1.0-4.1, p0.05) between group differences were observed in the raw object control skills, sum of raw scores, or gross motor quotient. No significant sex differences were found in any of the measured outcomes. A physical activity intervention delivered in childcare with or without parents' involvement was effective in increasing locomotor skills in preschoolers. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Academic excellence workshops in chemistry and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan Rose

    In the mid-1970's, Uri Treisman, at the University of California, Berkeley, developed an academic excellence workshop program that had important successes in increasing minority student achievement and persistence in calculus. The present dissertation research is an in-depth study of chemistry and physics workshops at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Data for the first, longitudinal component of this study were obtained by tracking to Spring 1998 all workshop minority students, i.e., Latino, African American, and Native American workshop students, a random sample of non-workshop minority students, and a random sample of non-targeted students, i.e., Anglo and Asian students, enrolled in first-quarter General Chemistry or Physics during specific quarters of 1992 or 1993. Data for the second component were obtained by administering questionnaires, conducting interviews, and observing science students during Fall, 1996. Workshop participation was a significant predictor of first-quarter course grade for minority students in both chemistry and physics, while verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were not significant predictors of beginning course grade for minority science students. The lack of predictive ability of the SAT and the importance of workshop participation in minority students' beginning science course performance are results with important implications for educators and students. In comparing pre-college achievement measures for workshop and non-targeted students, non-targeted students' mathematics SAT scores were significantly higher than chemistry and physics workshop students' scores. Nonetheless, workshop participation "leveled the field" as workshop and non-targeted students performed similarly in beginning science courses. Positive impacts of workshop participation on achievement, persistence, efficiency, social integration, and self-confidence support the continued and expanded funding of workshop programs

  9. Professional Development Graduate Courses and a Masters of Arts in Physics Education with Web Based Course Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Richard; Thornton, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Professional development courses offered in physical/Earth science and physics by the Department of Physics are delivered by different venues to accommodate the needs of the K-12 teaching community. The majority of teachers take our courses off-site or through our distance-learning web-based program on the Internet for endorsement or recertification, but with a gradually increasing number enrolling in our 30 credit Masters of Arts in Physics Education degree (MAPE) program. The purpose of the Masters program is to provide increased physics content to those teachers who feel inadequately prepared to teach high school physics. The increase in numbers and success of this program is partly due to the convenience of taking online web-based courses which is made possible by using the latest communication technologies on the high speed internet. There is also a residential component of the MAPE program, which requires the candidates to earn 14 credits of calculus-based core physics in residence in the summer at the University. We have graduated a total of 91 teachers since the program began in 2000. )

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Physical Activity Programs on Self-Esteem and Body Mass Index of Overweight Adolescent Girls, based on Health Belief Model with School-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Rabiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescents leads to physical and mental complications. Exercise is one of the main components of weight control programs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical activity programs on self-esteem and Body Mass Index of overweight adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This study was a semi experimental study.The subjects were 140 second grade student girls from two high schools in 5th district of Isfahan. Data collection scales included: tape measure, carriage scale, questionnaire to collect background and personal information, designed questionnaire based on Health Belief Model, weekly physical self- reportedand adolescent weekly food record form, parent’s nutritional performance questionnaire, teachers’ attitude on adolescents’ nutrition questionnaire and Cooper Smith's Standard Self-esteem questionnaire. Education based program on Health Belief Model for improving nutritional status consistent with model structures during six sessions each 60-minute was conducted with emphasis on diet to control weight in overweight and at-risk adolescents. Questionnaires were compared immediately afterand two months after intervention. Results: Average score of model structures and self-esteem of students in both groups had no significant difference at baseline, but immediately after and 2 months after the intervention, the mean component scores were significantly higher in intervention group in comparison with the control group. There was a significant difference in component scores at different times in the experimental group. Significant difference in BMI scores was seen at different times in experimental group. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that school based approach of physical activity training leads to increase in knowledge, sensitivity, severity and perceived benefits and eventually increase in self- esteem and physical activity in students.

  11. COMPARISON OF SOME PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF WHOLE AND SCORED LISINOPRIL AND LISINOPRIL/ HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE TABLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranić, Edina; Uzunović, Alija

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are one of the most popular and preferred solid dosage forms because they can be accurately dosed, easily manufactured and packaged on a large scale, have good physical and chemical stability, and can contribute to good patient compliance given their ease of administration. The ability to match doses to patients depends on the availability of multiple dose sizes and adequate dose-response information. These are not always provided, so splitting of the tablets is sometimes necessary, Tablet splitting is an accepted practice in dispensing medication, It has been used when a dosage form of the required strength is not available commercially. The aim of our study was to compare some physical parameters of whole and scored lisinopril and lisinopril/hydrochlorthiazide tablets and to accept or exclude their influence on the obtaining of required dosage. According to the results obtained, we may conclude that tablets from batch “I” “IL “III” and “IV” satisfied pharmacopeial requirements concerning crushing strength, friability, disintegration time and mass uniformity. The hardness testing showed acceptable reproducibility and indicate that the data variation was primarily from the irreversible changes in the structure of tablet samples. The act of compacting powders stores energy within the tablets, by shifting or compressing the intermolecular bonds within the particles. The tablets have a natural tendency to relax once pressure is removed, and this tendency works against the interparticle bonding formed during compression. Hardness testing procedure causes irreversible changes in this structure. PMID:19125715

  12. Methodology Development for Passive Component Reliability Modeling in a Multi-Physics Simulation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldemir, Tunc [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Denning, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Unwin, Stephen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Reduction in safety margin can be expected as passive structures and components undergo degradation with time. Limitations in the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology constrain its value as an effective tool to address the impact of aging effects on risk and for quantifying the impact of aging management strategies in maintaining safety margins. A methodology has been developed to address multiple aging mechanisms involving large numbers of components (with possibly statistically dependent failures) within the PRA framework in a computationally feasible manner when the sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation environment, such as the New Generation System Code (NGSC) concept. Both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties can be accounted for within the same phenomenological framework and maintenance can be accounted for in a coherent fashion. The framework accommodates the prospective impacts of various intervention strategies such as testing, maintenance, and refurbishment. The methodology is illustrated with several examples.

  13. Methodology Development for Passive Component Reliability Modeling in a Multi-Physics Simulation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Catalyurek, Umit; Unwin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in safety margin can be expected as passive structures and components undergo degradation with time. Limitations in the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology constrain its value as an effective tool to address the impact of aging effects on risk and for quantifying the impact of aging management strategies in maintaining safety margins. A methodology has been developed to address multiple aging mechanisms involving large numbers of components (with possibly statistically dependent failures) within the PRA framework in a computationally feasible manner when the sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation environment, such as the New Generation System Code (NGSC) concept. Both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties can be accounted for within the same phenomenological framework and maintenance can be accounted for in a coherent fashion. The framework accommodates the prospective impacts of various intervention strategies such as testing, maintenance, and refurbishment. The methodology is illustrated with several examples.

  14. Physical self-concept and physical fitness in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesberger, G; Finkenzeller, T; Würth, S; Müller, E

    2011-08-01

    This investigation examined the relations between physical self-concept and physical fitness (endurance, balance, muscle strength, muscle power) for gaining knowledge about the interrelationship between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores in the elderly in three steps: (1) detecting correlations and changes in time, (2) clarifying the influence of gender, and (3) of a skiing intervention lasting 12 weeks. Physical self-concept was assessed using a modified version of the Physical Self-Concepts (PSK) scales (Stiller et al., 2004) reflecting three first-order factors (endurance, strength, general sportiness) and one second-order factor (global fitness). Objective fitness scores were obtained by VO(2 max), counter movement jump, concentric muscle strength, and static balance. The results reveal that elderly individuals' global physical self and general sportiness are mainly linked to VO(2 max) and concentric muscle strength. Global physical self is predicted by VO(2 max) in females and by physical strength (concentric muscle strength) in males, indicating gender differences. Over time, correlations between subjective ratings and objective fitness scores become stronger in the sense of convergent validity in the skiing intervention group, whereas convergent and divergent validity cannot be supported by data of the control group. In sum, physical self-concept is an important factor in the context of physical intervention programs in the elderly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Interobserver Reliability of the Total Body Score System for Quantifying Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Connor, Melissa; Bytheway, Joan A

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have tested the accuracy of the Total Body Score (TBS) method for quantifying decomposition, but none have examined the reliability of the method as a scoring system by testing interobserver error rates. Sixteen participants used the TBS system to score 59 observation packets including photographs and written descriptions of 13 human cadavers in different stages of decomposition (postmortem interval: 2-186 days). Data analysis used a two-way random model intraclass correlation in SPSS (v. 17.0). The TBS method showed "almost perfect" agreement between observers, with average absolute correlation coefficients of 0.990 and average consistency correlation coefficients of 0.991. While the TBS method may have sources of error, scoring reliability is not one of them. Individual component scores were examined, and the influences of education and experience levels were investigated. Overall, the trunk component scores were the least concordant. Suggestions are made to improve the reliability of the TBS method. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Lipscombe, Trevor Davis

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of sports fans were stirred recently by the fastest-ever try scored in international rugby. Welsh winger Dafydd Howells crossed the Fijian try line to score a mere six seconds after Angus O'Brien had started the game with a kickoff, in one of the fixtures in rugby's Junior World Cup played on June 2, 2014, in New Zealand. This…

  17. Characterization of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves Using Principal Component Analysis of Sparse Functional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiyuan; Wang, Lifan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2018-04-01

    With growing data from ongoing and future supernova surveys, it is possible to empirically quantify the shapes of SNIa light curves in more detail, and to quantitatively relate the shape parameters with the intrinsic properties of SNIa. Building such relationships is critical in controlling systematic errors associated with supernova cosmology. Based on a collection of well-observed SNIa samples accumulated in the past years, we construct an empirical SNIa light curve model using a statistical method called the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for sparse and irregularly sampled functional data. Using this method, the entire light curve of an SNIa is represented by a linear combination of principal component functions, and the SNIa is represented by a few numbers called “principal component scores.” These scores are used to establish relations between light curve shapes and physical quantities such as intrinsic color, interstellar dust reddening, spectral line strength, and spectral classes. These relations allow for descriptions of some critical physical quantities based purely on light curve shape parameters. Our study shows that some important spectral feature information is being encoded in the broad band light curves; for instance, we find that the light curve shapes are correlated with the velocity and velocity gradient of the Si II λ6355 line. This is important for supernova surveys (e.g., LSST and WFIRST). Moreover, the FPCA light curve model is used to construct the entire light curve shape, which in turn is used in a functional linear form to adjust intrinsic luminosity when fitting distance models.

  18. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Mannix, Rebekah C; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P

    2016-04-01

    Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Zadereev, E.S.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Prokopkin, I.; Barkhatov, Y.V.; Tolomeev, A.; Khromechek, E.B.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite

  20. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Physical characteristics of non-fuel assembly reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, E.C.

    1994-09-01

    The primary objective of this report is to enhance the utility of the Characteristics Data Base (CDB). This has been accomplished by providing a pictorial representation of the principal non-fuel assembly (NFA) components along with a tabular summary of key information about each type of component. This report is intended for use as an adjunct to the CDB. Toward this end, the report may be used either as a complement to the detailed descriptions in the CDB, or as a stand-alone document that acts as an illustrated abstract of the CDB. Line drawings of major NFA components are included. Data not provided in the CDB are also included. Summary descriptions of each component are given in tabular format

  2. Parental expectations, physical punishment, and violence among adolescents who score positive on a psychosocial screening test in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Ireland, Marjorie; McNeely, Clea; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2006-02-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between perceived and stated parental expectations regarding adolescents' use of violence, parental use of physical punishment as discipline, and young adolescents' violence-related attitudes and involvement. Surveys were completed by 134 youth and their parents attending 8 pediatric practices. All youth were 10 to 15 years of age and had scored positive on a psychosocial screening test. Multivariate analyses revealed that perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence was associated with a more prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence and a decreased likelihood of physical fighting by the youth. Parental report of whether they would advise their child to use violence in a conflict situation (stated parental expectations) was not associated with the adolescents' attitudes toward interpersonal peer violence, intentions to fight, physical fighting, bullying, or violence victimization. Parental use of corporal punishment as a disciplining method was inversely associated with a prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence among the youth and positively correlated with youths' intentions to fight and fighting, bullying, and violence victimization. Perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence may be an important protective factor against youth involvement in violence, and parental use of physical punishment is associated with both violence perpetration and victimization among youth. Parents should be encouraged to clearly communicate to their children how to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence and to model these skills themselves by avoiding the use of physical punishment.

  3. Self-perceived assessment skill of prospective physics teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, R.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Kaniawati, I.

    2018-05-01

    Assessment skills are an important component of assessment practice, without adequate assessment skills it is unlikely that teacher assessment practices will produce desired student learning outcomes. This study was conducted to reveal self-perceived assessment skills of prospective physics teachers by using quantitative descriptive analysis, and involving 92 prospective physics teachers who were experiencing teaching practice in junior high school and final project related to assessment. Data was collected by using Self-Perceived Assessment Science Skills Questionnaire consisted of 29 items related seven assessment competencies was developed and used in the study. Internal consistency reliability coefficient for the total scale scores was 0.87 as measured by Cronbach’s alpha. Determination of self-perceived assessment science skills detected from prospective physics teachers was carried out in descriptive statistics, in the form of respondent average values. Research findings show that self-perceived assessment skills of prospective physics teachers was categorized as transition.

  4. Association between physical activity and health-related quality of life in elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural Hunan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhao; Gao, Fan; Yang, Yang; Qin, Lulu; Luo, Bang-an

    2018-01-01

    Objectives There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. This study aimed to determine if differences existed in HRQoL between individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active compared with those who were physically inactive in rural China. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the elderly (≧60 years) in rural communities in Yiyang City of China. Multistage cluster random sampling was carried out to select 42 areas, and interviews were conducted among 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes was screened using an oral glucose tolerance test. Main outcome measures The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure HRQoL. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to test for differences in HRQoL between the physically active group and the inactive group. Results A total of 434 individuals with pre-diabetes were included in this study. The physical component summary (PCS) score of HRQoL was 42.1±10.2 and the mental component summary score was 46.4±8.9. A median total physical activity of 524 metabolic equivalent-min/week was reported. A significant MANCOVA model (Wilks’ λ=0.962, F(2,423)=8.44, Pphysically active reported higher PCS scores (Mdiff=5.2, Peffective size=0.47) compared with those physically inactive after adjusting for the following covariates: age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, chronic disease, body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusions The HRQoL of elderly individuals with pre-diabetes is poor in rural China. These findings demonstrated that elderly individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active had higher PCS scores than those who were physically inactive. Furthermore, these results support the rationale

  5. The intellectual profile of abused and neglected children in the Philippines: An analysis of SB5 IQ scores of sexually abused, physically abused and neglected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengwasan, Peejay D

    2018-05-24

    Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Principal component analysis of the Norwegian version of the quality of life in late-stage dementia scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjørud, Marit; Kirkevold, Marit; Røsvik, Janne; Engedal, Knut

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which factors the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia (QUALID) scale holds when used among people with dementia (pwd) in nursing homes and to find out how the symptom load varies across the different severity levels of dementia. We included 661 pwd [mean age ± SD, 85.3 ± 8.6 years; 71.4% women]. The QUALID and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale were applied. A principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization was applied to test the factor structure. Nonparametric analyses were applied to examine differences of symptom load across the three CDR groups. The mean QUALID score was 21.5 (±7.1), and the CDR scores of the three groups were 1 in 22.5%, 2 in 33.6% and 3 in 43.9%. The results of the statistical measures employed were the following: Crohnbach's α of QUALID, 0.74; Bartlett's test of sphericity, p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure, 0.77. The PCA analysis resulted in three components accounting for 53% of the variance. The first component was 'tension' ('facial expression of discomfort', 'appears physically uncomfortable', 'verbalization suggests discomfort', 'being irritable and aggressive', 'appears calm', Crohnbach's α = 0.69), the second was 'well-being' ('smiles', 'enjoys eating', 'enjoys touching/being touched', 'enjoys social interaction', Crohnbach's α = 0.62) and the third was 'sadness' ('appears sad', 'cries', 'facial expression of discomfort', Crohnbach's α 0.65). The mean score on the components 'tension' and 'well-being' increased significantly with increasing severity levels of dementia. Three components of quality of life (qol) were identified. Qol decreased with increasing severity of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can We Listen for Open Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can we listen for... Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can we listen for open water? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...the source. These different sounds can be described as “ soundscapes ”, and graphically represented by comparing two or more features of the sound

  8. Analysis of overflow-induced sloshing in an elestic-wall vessel using physical component BFC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, D.; Kondo, S. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Takizawa, A. [Toyko Electric Power Company, Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Newly developed {open_quotes}physical component boundary fitted coordinate (PCBFC) method{close_quotes} is applied to the fluid-structure interaction problems. The applicability was verified through several benchmark problems. Then, 2D experiment on overflow-induced fluid-structure interaction instability was simulated. The computation showed occurrence scope of instability essentially the same as that obtained by experiment. By computations with modified initial and boundary conditions, several basic factors for the occurrence of this instability were obtained.

  9. Many-body physics in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates in a cavity: fragmented superradiance and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, Axel U. J.; Diorico, Fritz S.; Wu, RuGway; Molignini, Paolo; Papariello, Luca; Lin, Rui; Lévêque, Camille; Exl, Lukas; Tsatsos, Marios C.; Chitra, R.; Mauser, Norbert J.

    2018-05-01

    We consider laser-pumped one-dimensional two-component bosons in a parabolic trap embedded in a high-finesse optical cavity. Above a threshold pump power, the photons that populate the cavity modify the effective atom trap and mediate a coupling between the two components of the Bose–Einstein condensate. We calculate the ground state of the laser-pumped system and find different stages of self-organization depending on the power of the laser. The modified potential and the laser-mediated coupling between the atomic components give rise to rich many-body physics: an increase of the pump power triggers a self-organization of the atoms while an even larger pump power causes correlations between the self-organized atoms—the BEC becomes fragmented and the reduced density matrix acquires multiple macroscopic eigenvalues. In this fragmented superradiant state, the atoms can no longer be described as two-level systems and the mapping of the system to the Dicke model breaks down.

  10. C-reactive protein as an available biomarker determining mental component of health-related quality of life among individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Latifi, Sahar; Soltani, Zahra; Shakeri, Hania; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan

    2017-05-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in some chronic medical conditions. However, these associations have not yet described in spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we tried to identify biomarkers associated with HRQL in SCI. Cross-sectional. Tertiary rehabilitation center. Referred patients to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2013. Blood samples were taken to measure circulatory CRP, leptin, adiponectin, ferritin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, thyroid hormones, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. All the analyses were performed with adjustment for injury-related confounders (level of injury, injury completeness and time since injury) and demographic characteristics. HRQL was measured with Short Form health survey (SF-36). The initial inverse association between CRP and total score of SF-36 (P: 0.006, r = -0.28) was lost after adjustment for confounders. However, the negative correlation between CRP and Mental Component Summary (MCS) remained significant (P: 0.0005, r = -0.38). Leptin level was inversely correlated with Physical Component Summary (PCS) (P: 0.02, r = -0.30). Although CRP and leptin levels were not related with total scores of SF-36 questionnaire, CRP can be more useful in determining mental component of HRQL whereas leptin can be a determinant of physical component. The combined consideration of these two biomarkers may help to predict HRQL in individuals with SCI.

  11. Revisiting the utility of technical performance scores following tetralogy of Fallot repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodin, Daud; Mavrothalassitis, Orestes; Haberer, Kim; Sunderji, Sherzana; Quek, Ruben G W; Peyvandi, Shabnam; Moon-Grady, Anita; Karamlou, Tara

    2017-08-01

    Although an important quality metric, current technical performance scores may not be generalizable and may omit operative factors that influence outcomes. We examined factors not included in current technical performance scores that may contribute to increased postoperative length of stay, major complications, and cost after primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot. This is a retrospective single site study of patients younger than age 2 years with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing complete repair between 2007 and 2015. Medical record data and discharge echocardiograms were reviewed to ascertain component and composite technical performance scores. Primary outcomes included postoperative length of stay, major complications, and total hospital costs. Multivariable logistic and linear regression identified determinants of each outcome. Patient population (n = 115) had a median postoperative length of stay of 8 days (interquartile range, 6-10 days), and a median total cost of $71,147. Major complications occurred in 33 patients (29%) with 1 death. Technical performance scores assigned were optimum in 28 patients (25%), adequate in 59 patients (52%), and inadequate in 26 patients (23%). Neither technical performance score components nor composite scores were associated with increased postoperative length of stay. Optimum or adequate repairs versus inadequate had equal risk of a complication (P = .79), and equivalent mean total cost ($100,000 vs $187,000; P = .25). Longer cardiopulmonary bypass time per 1-minute increase (P technical performance scores were not associated with selected outcomes in our postoperative population. Although returning to bypass and bypass length are not included as components in the current score, these are important factors influencing complications and resource use in our population. Revisions anticipated from a prospective trial should consider including these variables. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  12. Contribution of Physical Fitness Component to Health Status in Elderly Males and Females over 60 years – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the physicalfitness (PF level of a cohort of elderly people that are subjected tophysical activity (PA, and to establish a regression model for theevaluation of health status (HS of elderly people based on their PF.This is a Cross-sectional study. Consists of 114 Participants over60 years old, that were recruited from a physical activity program.Were measured variables about anthropometric characteristics,jumping tests with jumping platform, dynamic and static balance, riskof falls, lung capacity, HS and quality of life (QoL. We used Pearson’slinear correlation with 95% Zr. We looked for simple and multiple regression models. We used the bayesianinformation criterion approach and statistical inference to find and calculated a numerical estimate of thebest regression model. We used the dependent variable physical function of SF-12. Physical fitness variablesselected for the models were weight, height, Countermovement Jump test (flight time, Functional Reachtest, lumbosacral flexion mobility, Extended Timed Get Up and Go (ETGUG (10 meters time score andtotal time score. The HS and QoL measurement are important for the prevention of injury during physicalexercise and should be conducted whenever is possible. The regression models proposed in this study can beused as an initial screening of HS or QoL at fitness facilities and fitness clubs that do not provide HS or QoLquestionnaires. However, these models are not an alternative to health care for a detailed determination ofHS and is not intended for use as a final evaluation.

  13. Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Who Score Highly on the PainDETECT Questionnaire Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia, Increased Pain, and Impaired Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Wright, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    PainDETECT is a self-report questionnaire that can be used to identify features of neuropathic pain. A proportion of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) score highly on the PainDETECT questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether those with a higher "positive neuropathic" score on the PainDETECT questionnaire also had greater pain, hypersensitivity, and reduced function compared with individuals with knee OA with lower PainDETECT scores. In total, 130 participants with knee OA completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and Pain Quality Assessment Scale questionnaires. Quantitative sensory testing was carried out at 3 sites (both knees and elbow) using standard methods. Cold and heat pain thresholds were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds using a digital algometer. Physical function was assessed using 3 timed locomotor function tests. In total, 22.3% of participants scored in the "positive neuropathic" category with a further 35.4% in the unclear category. Participants in the "positive neuropathic" category reported higher levels of pain and more impaired function based on the WOMAC questionnaire (Ppain thresholds at the OA knee. They were also slower to complete 2 of the locomotion tasks. This study identified a specific subgroup of people with knee OA who exhibited PainDETECT scores in the "positive neuropathic" category. These individuals experienced increased levels of pain, widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, and greater functional impairment than the remaining cohort. Identification of OA patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  14. Emotional Component in Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnambalam, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The laws of physics are often seen as objective truth, pure and simple. Hence, they tend to appear cerebral and cold. However, their presentation is necessarily subjective and may vary from being boring to being exciting. A detailed analysis of physics education reform efforts over the last three decades finds that interactive instruction results in greater learning gains than the traditional lecture format. In interactive engagement, the emotional component plays a far greater role than acknowledged by many. As an experienced physics teacher [(i) Four decades of teaching and research in four continents (teaching all courses to undergraduate physics majors and algebra-based physics to high school seniors as well as college freshmen), (ii) 11 years of volunteer work in Physics Popularization in six countries to many thousands of students in elementary, middle, and high schools as well as colleges and universities, and (iii) eight years as a Master Teacher and mentor], I feel that the emotional component in teaching and learning physics has been neglected. This paper presents the role of the emotional component in transforming ordinary teaching and learning of physics into an enjoyable and exciting experience for students as well as teachers.

  15. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p < .005). The association between the school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p < .001). The difference in physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  16. Prosthetic alignment after total knee replacement is not associated with dissatisfaction or change in Oxford Knee Score: A multivariable regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Henricus J T A M; Khan, Riaz J K; Fick, Daniel P; Jarrett, Olivia M; Haebich, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 18% of the patients are dissatisfied with the result of total knee replacement. However, the relation between dissatisfaction and prosthetic alignment has not been investigated before. We retrospectively analysed prospectively gathered data of all patients who had a primary TKR, preoperative and one-year postoperative Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) and postoperative computed tomography (CT). The CT protocol measures hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, and coronal, sagittal and axial component alignment. Satisfaction was defined using a five-item Likert scale. We dichotomised dissatisfaction by combining '(very) dissatisfied' and 'neutral/not sure'. Associations with dissatisfaction and change in OKS were calculated using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. 230 TKRs were implanted in 105 men and 106 women. At one year, 12% were (very) dissatisfied and 10% neutral. Coronal alignment of the femoral component was 0.5 degrees more accurate in patients who were satisfied at one year. The other alignment measurements were not different between satisfied and dissatisfied patients. All radiographic measurements had a P-value>0.10 on univariate analyses. At one year, dissatisfaction was associated with the three-months OKS. Change in OKS was associated with three-months OKS, preoperative physical SF-12, preoperative pain and cruciate retaining design. Neither mechanical axis, nor component alignment, is associated with dissatisfaction at one year following TKR. Patients get the best outcome when pain reduction and function improvement are optimal during the first three months and when the indication to embark on surgery is based on physical limitations rather than on a high pain score. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete blood count risk score and its components, including RDW, are associated with mortality in the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Benjamin D; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Ridker, Paul M; Paynter, Nina P

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we showed that sex-specific complete blood count (CBC) risk scores strongly predicted risk of all-cause mortality in multiple sets of general medical patients. This study evaluated the CBC risk score in an independent, well-studied international primary risk population of lower-risk individuals initially free from cardiovascular (CV) disease. Observational secondary analysis of a randomized trial population. The previously derived and validated CBC score was evaluated for association with all-cause mortality among CV disease-free females (n = 6568) and males (n = 10,629) enrolled for up to 5 years in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial. Associations of the CBC score with CV mortality and with major CV disease were also tested. The CBC score predicted all-cause mortality, with univariable hazard ratio (HR) 4.83 (95% CI 3.70-6.31) for the third CBC score tertile vs. the first tertile, and HR 2.31 (CI 1.75-3.05) for the second tertile (p trend JUPITER endpoint (p trend = 0.015). c-statistics for mortality were 0.729 among all, and 0.722 and 0.750 for females and males, respectively. The CBC risk score was strongly associated with all-cause mortality among JUPITER trial participants and had good discrimination. It also predicted CV-specific outcomes. This CBC score may be useful in identifying cardiac disease-free individuals at increased risk of mortality. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. A comparison of physical self-concept between physical education and non-physical education university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid ARAZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare physical self-concept between physical education and non-physical education university students. The target population of this study was all male and female physical education and non-physical education university students in Rasht city of Iran. After translating the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ and adjusting some of the questions, the questionnaire was evaluated by the specialists in the context of validity and the reliability achieved by test-retest (Cronbach Alpha value of 0.84. We then, according to the Odineski table selected 180 physical education and non-physical education males and 190 physical education and non-physical education females opportunistically. The collected data was analyzed by 2×2 MANOVA for determine differences between genders and major. The results showed mean vector scores of physical education in the following scales: physical activity; global physical; competence; sports; strength; endurance and flexibility were significantly (p<0.05 higher than that of non-physical education major students. Also, the results shows that mean vector scores of male in the following scales: health; coordination; physical activity; body fat; global physical; competence; sports; global physical self-concept and global esteem were significantly (p<0.05 higher than female. Based on the result of our study the physical self-concept non-physical education and female is lower, than that physical education and male. The results may reflect that male and physical major education students, who usually spend more time on physical activity and sport training to have better fitness and skill oriented self concept than their counterparts.

  19. Distribution of lod scores in oligogenic linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J T; North, K E; Martin, L J; Comuzzie, A G; Göring, H H; Blangero, J

    2001-01-01

    In variance component oligogenic linkage analysis it can happen that the residual additive genetic variance bounds to zero when estimating the effect of the ith quantitative trait locus. Using quantitative trait Q1 from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 simulated general population data, we compare the observed lod scores from oligogenic linkage analysis with the empirical lod score distribution under a null model of no linkage. We find that zero residual additive genetic variance in the null model alters the usual distribution of the likelihood-ratio statistic.

  20. Cross-sectional relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older persons living in long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age-related deterioration of physiological capacities such as muscle strength and balance is associated with increased dependence. Understanding the contribution of physical fitness components to functional performance facilitates the development of adequate exercise interventions aiming at preservation of function and independence of older people. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older people living in long-term care facilities. Methods Design cross-sectional study Subjects 226 persons living in long-term care facilities (mean age: 81.6 ± 5.6. Outcome measures Physical fitness and functional performance were measured by performance-based tests. Results Knee and elbow extension strength were significantly higher in men (difference = 44.5 and 50.0 N, respectively, whereas women were more flexible (difference sit & reach test = 7.2 cm. Functional performance was not significantly different between the genders. In men, motor coordination (eye-hand coordination and measures of strength were the main contributors to functional performance, whereas in women flexibility (sit and reach test and motor coordination (tandem stance and eye-hand coordination played a major role. Conclusion The results of this study show that besides muscle strength, fitness components such as coordination and flexibility are associated with functional performance of older people living in long-term care facilities. This suggests that men and women living in long-term care facilities, differ considerably concerning the fitness factors contributing to functional performance. Women and men may, therefore, need exercise programs emphasizing different fitness aspects in order to improve functional performance.

  1. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valisa E. Hedrick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories, yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER or a physical activity group (MoveMore. Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149 (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7, p ≤ 0.001 and MoveMore (n = 143 (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2, p ≤ 0.001 participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05, over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01. Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  2. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-04

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  3. A STUDY ON RANKING METHOD IN RETRIEVING WEB PAGES BASED ON CONTENT AND LINK ANALYSIS: COMBINATION OF FOURIER DOMAIN SCORING AND PAGERANK SCORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Purwitasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranking module is an important component of search process which sorts through relevant pages. Since collection of Web pages has additional information inherent in the hyperlink structure of the Web, it can be represented as link score and then combined with the usual information retrieval techniques of content score. In this paper we report our studies about ranking score of Web pages combined from link analysis, PageRank Scoring, and content analysis, Fourier Domain Scoring. Our experiments use collection of Web pages relate to Statistic subject from Wikipedia with objectives to check correctness and performance evaluation of combination ranking method. Evaluation of PageRank Scoring show that the highest score does not always relate to Statistic. Since the links within Wikipedia articles exists so that users are always one click away from more information on any point that has a link attached, it it possible that unrelated topics to Statistic are most likely frequently mentioned in the collection. While the combination method show link score which is given proportional weight to content score of Web pages does effect the retrieval results.

  4. The effectiveness of a peer-mentored older adult fitness program on perceived physical, mental, and social function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Robinson, Kristynia M; Bader, Julia

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare changes in perceived physical, mental, and social function measured by the Short Form-36 (SF36vr2) in a group of older adults who were trained by peer mentors (PMs) versus a similar group trained by qualified kinesiology student mentors (SMs). We conducted a two-arm repeated measures longitudinal intervention and collected data for 87 PM and 44 SM participants. Pre- and post-training subscale scores were computed for all eight subscales and the two summary physical and mental component scores. The percentage differences in the 10 scores were used as the response variables. After a 14-week physical fitness intervention, perceived physical, mental, and social functioning improved significantly (p .06). Thus, older adults who participated in a physical fitness program with peer support perceived (a) overall improvement in physical and mental well-being; (b) better social functioning, (c) enhanced ability to carry out physical and emotional roles, (d) improved general health, and (e) increased level of vitality. Thus, we conclude that peer-mentored exercise programs for older adults are superior to programs mentored by young professionals and may lead to increased adherence. Nurse practitioners routinely prescribe exercise while educating older adults about the benefits of an active lifestyle; however, older adults often remain sedentary and exhibit poor adherence to exercise. One potential solution is to use peer support. Two factors that can improve adherence are availability of structured exercise programs for the older adult and peer mentoring.

  5. Component- and system-level degradation modeling of digital Instrumentation and Control systems based on a Multi-State Physics Modeling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Multi-State Physics Modeling (MSPM) framework for reliability assessment is proposed. • Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is utilized to estimate the degradation state probability. • Due account is given to stochastic uncertainty and deterministic degradation progression. • The MSPM framework is applied to the reliability assessment of a digital I&C system. • Results are compared with the results obtained with a Markov Chain Model (MCM). - Abstract: A system-level degradation modeling is proposed for the reliability assessment of digital Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). At the component level, we focus on the reliability assessment of a Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), which is an important digital I&C component used to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. A Multi-State Physics Model (MSPM) is built to describe this component degradation progression towards failure and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to estimate the probability of sojourn in any of the previously defined degradation states, by accounting for both stochastic and deterministic processes that affect the degradation progression. The MC simulation relies on an integrated modeling of stochastic processes with deterministic aging of components that results to be fundamental for estimating the joint cumulative probability distribution of finding the component in any of the possible degradation states. The results of the application of the proposed degradation model to a digital I&C system of literature are compared with the results obtained by a Markov Chain Model (MCM). The integrated stochastic-deterministic process here proposed to drive the MC simulation is viable to integrate component-level models into a system-level model that would consider inter-system or/and inter-component dependencies and uncertainties.

  6. The BRICS (Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score): A Multicenter Study Score for Use in Idiopathic and Postinfective Bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Pallavi; Chalmers, James D; Goeminne, Pieter C; Mai, Cindy; Saravanamuthu, Pira; Velu, Prasad Palani; Cartlidge, Manjit K; Loebinger, Michael R; Jacob, Joe; Kamal, Faisal; Schembri, Nicola; Aliberti, Stefano; Hill, Uta; Harrison, Mike; Johnson, Christopher; Screaton, Nicholas; Haworth, Charles; Polverino, Eva; Rosales, Edmundo; Torres, Antoni; Benegas, Michael N; Rossi, Adriano G; Patel, Dilip; Hill, Adam T

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a simplified radiological score that could assess clinical disease severity in bronchiectasis. The Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score (BRICS) was devised based on a multivariable analysis of the Bhalla score and its ability in predicting clinical parameters of severity. The score was then externally validated in six centers in 302 patients. A total of 184 high-resolution CT scans were scored for the validation cohort. In a multiple logistic regression model, disease severity markers significantly associated with the Bhalla score were percent predicted FEV 1 , sputum purulence, and exacerbations requiring hospital admission. Components of the Bhalla score that were significantly associated with the disease severity markers were bronchial dilatation and number of bronchopulmonary segments with emphysema. The BRICS was developed with these two parameters. The receiver operating-characteristic curve values for BRICS in the derivation cohort were 0.79 for percent predicted FEV 1 , 0.71 for sputum purulence, and 0.75 for hospital admissions per year; these values were 0.81, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively, in the validation cohort. Sputum free neutrophil elastase activity was significantly elevated in the group with emphysema on CT imaging. A simplified CT scoring system can be used as an adjunct to clinical parameters to predict disease severity in patients with idiopathic and postinfective bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  8. Evaluation of a prospective scoring system designed for a multicenter breast MR imaging screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ruth M L; Thompson, Deborah; Pointon, Linda J; Hoff, Rebecca; Gilbert, Fiona J; Padhani, Anwar R; Easton, Douglas F; Lakhani, Sunil R; Leach, Martin O

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the accuracy of a lesion classification system designed for use in a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging high-breast-cancer-risk screening study. All participating patients provided written informed consent. Ethics committee approval was obtained. The results of 1541 contrast material-enhanced breast MR imaging examinations were analyzed; 1441 screening examinations were performed in 638 women aged 24-51 years at high risk for breast cancer, and 100 examinations were performed in 100 women aged 23-81 years. Lesion analysis was performed in 991 breasts, which were divided into design (491 breasts) and testing (500 breasts) sets. The reference standard was histologic analysis of biopsy samples, fine-needle aspiration cytology, or minimal follow-up of 24 months. The scoring system involved the use of five features: morphology (MOR), pattern of enhancement (POE), percentage of maximal focal enhancement (PMFE), maximal signal intensity-time ratio (MITR), and pattern of contrast material washout (POCW). The system was evaluated by means of (a) assessment of interreader agreement, as expressed in kappa statistics, for 315 breasts in which both readers analyzed the same lesion, (b) assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of the scored components with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and (c) logistic regression analysis to determine which components of the scoring system were critical to the final score. A new simplified scoring system developed with the design set was applied to the testing set. There was moderate reader agreement regarding overall lesion outcome (ie, malignant, suspicious, or benign) (kappa=0.58) and less agreement regarding the scored components. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the overall lesion score, 0.88, was higher than the AUC for any one component. The components MOR, POE, and POCW yielded the best overall result. PMFE and MITR did not contribute to diagnostic utility

  9. Correlations between the components of physical readiness and physical development of the older preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kulyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The indices of interdependence of physical fitness and physical development of children by means of correlation and factor analysis. The study involved 276 children aged 5-6 years. Found that in early childhood education important place occupied by the study of the physical condition of children. Reflected the degree of the relationship between the results of measurements of body length, body weight, volume of the chest, heart rate, blood pressure, lung capacity, breath-holding time (Stange's Genchi test and measures of the level of development of basic physical properties ( strength, speed, flexibility, endurance and coordination abilities . Research indicates the presence of interaction between the indices motor fitness and physical development of preschool children. The most significant effect on the physical health of the ability to provide coordination, speed and power capacity, speed and endurance.

  10. Association between selected physical fitness parameters and esthetic competence in contemporary dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioi, Manuela; Metsios, George S; Twitchett, Emily; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The physical demands imposed on contemporary dancers by choreographers and performance schedules make their physical fitness just as important to them as skill development. Nevertheless, it remains to be confirmed which physical fitness components are associated with aesthetic competence. The aim of this study was to: 1. replicate and test a novel aesthetic competence tool for reliability, and 2. investigate the association between selected physical fitness components and aesthetic competence by using this new tool. Seventeen volunteers underwent a series of physical fitness tests (body composition, flexibility, muscular power and endurance, and aerobic capacity) and aesthetic competence assessments (seven individual criteria commonly used by selected dance companies). Inter-rater reliability of the aesthetic competence tool was very high (r = 0.96). There were significant correlations between the aesthetic competence score and jump ability and push-ups (r = 0.55 and r = 0.55, respectively). Stepwise backward multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictor of aesthetic competence was push-ups (R(2) = 0.30, p = 0.03). Univariate analyses also revealed that the interaction of push-ups and jump ability improved the prediction power of aesthetic competence (R(2) = 0.44, p = 0.004). It is concluded that upper body muscular endurance and jump ability best predict aesthetic competence of the present sample of contemporary dancers. Further research is required to investigate the contribution of other components of aesthetic competence, including upper body strength, lower body muscular endurance, general coordination, and static and dynamic balance.

  11. Match score affects activity profile and skill performance in professional Australian Football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-05-01

    To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. Prospective, longitudinal. Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: 19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p14.5 km h(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all pProfessional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The TAIGA timing array HiSCORE - first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tluczykont M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of gamma rays up to several 100 TeV are particularly important to spectrally resolve the cutoff regime of the long-sought Pevatrons, the cosmic-ray PeV accelerators. One component of the TAIGA hybrid detector is the TAIGA-HiSCORE timing array, which currently consists of 28 wide angle (0.6 sr air Cherenkov timing stations distributed on an area of 0.25 km2. The HiSCORE concept is based on (non-imaging air shower front sampling with Cherenkov light. First results are presented.

  13. Differences in occupational, transportation, domestic, and leisure-time physical activities: do geographical location and socio-cultural status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alain P; Lariviere, Michel; Pong, Raymond; Snelling, Susan; Young, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Researchers have recently expressed their concern for the health of Francophones and rural dwellers in Canada. Their levels of physical activity may explain part of the observed differences. However, little is known about the physical activity levels of these 2 groups. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of physical activity among a sample of Francophones and rural dwellers. The study also assessed the associations of various types of physical activity to measures of health status. A quota-based convenience sample of 256 adults from Northern Ontario was surveyed using the IPAQ and the SF-12. There were no significant differences in activity levels between language groups (P = .06) or geographical groups (P = .22) on the combined dependent variables based on MANOVA. Leisure-time physical activity scores were consistently associated to better physical component summary scores of the SF-12. Implications for practice include that leisure-time physical activities have been at the forefront of public health promotion, and our findings support this approach. Further, population specific interventions are indeed important, however, within this Canadian context when identifying target groups one must look beyond sociocultural status or geographical location.

  14. Sensitivity of the International Skating Union's Mathematical Criteria to Flag Potential Scoring Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Howell, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the "mathematical criteria" employed by the International Skating Union (ISU) to identify potential judging anomalies within competitive figure skating. The mathematical criteria have greater sensitivity to identify scoring anomalies for technical element scores than for the program component scores. This article…

  15. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  16. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  17. Self-Evaluation Scores of Hearing Difficulties and Quality of Life Components among Retired Workers with Noise-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYAKITA, T.; UEDA, A.; ZUSHO, H.; KUDOH, Y.

    2002-02-01

    This study is intended to clarify the relationships between hearing loss caused both by noise exposure and aging and self-rated scores of hearing disabilities and to elucidate the structure of the quality of life (QOL) determinants and their moderating conditions among retired workers with noise-related hearing loss. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: background questions, the hearing disabilities and handicap scale (HDHS), and questions regarding QOL covering five areas, self-rated health, personal health practice, social support network, life satisfaction, and life events. Two hundred ten retired workers aged 56-65 years old (60·6±1·6) with noise-related hearing loss responded to our questionnaire. All were previously engaged in noise exposed work such as shipbuilding, steel and woodwork. According to the hearing disability score (DIS score), subjects were divided into three groups and comparisons were made of the hearing handicap score (HD score) among those groups. Although groups with a higher DIS score showed a higher HD score, a large individual difference in HD score was observed in each of the three groups with the same DIS score level. The results of multiple regression analysis including two variables (life satisfaction and HD score) as the dependent variables and seven variables as the independent variables showed that the strongest explanatory variable for life satisfaction was social support network, followed by handicaps caused by hearing disabilities, self-rated health and personal health practice. It was demonstrated that hearing disabilities and handicap measured by the Japanese version of the HDHS were directly associated with the deterioration in QOL. Measures of the social support network, life satisfaction, and hearing disabilities and handicaps may assist in the detection of workers who can be targeted for a variety of interventions, such as audiological rehabilitation or the creation of a barrier-free community that is supportive

  18. SU-E-E-01: ABR Diagnostic Radiology Core Exam: Was Our Redesigned Physics Course Successful in Teaching Physics to Radiology Residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanal, K; Hoff, M; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D; Stewart, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of our two year physics course in preparing radiology residents for the American Board of Radiology (ABR) diagnostic radiology exam. Methods: We designed a new two-year physics course that integrates radiology clinical content and practice and is primarily based on the AAPM curriculum and RSNA/AAPM physics modules. Biweekly classes focus on relevant concepts from assigned reading and use audience response systems to encourage participation. Teaching efficiency is optimized through lecturer rotations of physicists, radiologists, and guest speakers. An emphasis is placed on clinical relevance by requiring lab work and providing equipment demonstrations. Periodic quiz were given during the course. The course website was also redesigned for usability, and physics review lectures were conducted two weeks before the board exam to refresh key concepts. At the completion of our first two-year course, we conducted a confidential evaluation of the faculty and course. The evaluation assessed metrics such as overall organization, clinical relevance of content, and level of difficulty, with a rating scale from poor to excellent. Results: Our evaluation indicated that the redesigned course provided effective board exam preparation, with most responses between good and excellent. There was some criticism on the course length and on chronological discontinuity, but the review lectures were appreciated by the residents. All of our residents passed the physics component of the ABR exam with scores exceeding the minimum passing score by a significant margin. Conclusion: The course evaluation and board exam results indicate that our new two-year course format provides valuable board exam preparation. This is possible thanks to the time and effort taken by the physics faculty on ensuring the residents get quality physics education

  19. United States Army physical readiness training: rationale and evaluation of the physical training doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Rieger, William; Palkoska, Frank; Van Camp, Steven; Darakjy, Salima

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews the rationale and evaluations of Physical Readiness Training (PRT), the new U.S. Army physical training doctrine designed to improve soldiers' physical capability for military operations. The purposes of PRT are to improve physical fitness, prevent injuries, progressively train soldiers, and develop soldiers' self-confidence and discipline. The PRT follows the principles of progressive overload, regularity, specificity, precision, variety, and balance. Specificity was achieved by examining the standard list of military (warrior) tasks and determining 1) the physical requirements, 2) the fitness components involved, and 3) the training activities that most likely could improve the military tasks. Injury-prevention features include reduced running mileage, exercise variety (cross-training), and gradual, progressive training. In 3 military field studies, the overall adjusted risk of injury was 1.5-1.8 times higher in groups of soldiers performing traditional military physical training programs when compared with groups using a PRT program. Scores on the Army Physical Fitness Test were similar or higher in groups using PRT programs. In an 8-week laboratory study comparing PRT with a weightlifting/running program, both programs resulted in major improvements in militarily relevant tasks (e.g., 3.2-km walk/run with 32-kg load, 400-m run with 18-kg load, 5- to 30-second rushes to and from prone position, 80-kg casualty drag, obstacle course). When compared with traditional military physical training programs, PRT consistently resulted in fewer injuries and in equal or greater improvements in fitness and military task performance.

  20. Quality of life and physical components linked to sarcopenia: The SarcoPhAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, C; Reginster, J Y; Petermans, J; Gillain, S; Quabron, A; Locquet, M; Slomian, J; Buckinx, F; Bruyère, O

    2015-09-01

    The SarcoPhAge project is an ongoing longitudinal study following community-dwelling elderly subjects with the objective to assess some health and functional consequences of sarcopenia. The sarcopenia diagnosis algorithm developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and used in the present study needs further validation through cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The aim of the present study is to assess, using this algorithm, the prevalence of sarcopenia and the clinical components linked to this geriatric syndrome. Participants were community dwelling subjects aged 65years or older. To diagnose sarcopenia, we applied the definition of the EWGSOP. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength by a hydraulic dynamometer and physical performance by the SPPB test. Large amounts of socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical data were collected in all subjects. 534 subjects were recruited for this study (60.5% of women, mean age of 73.5±6.16years), among whom 73 subjects were diagnosed sarcopenic, which represents a global prevalence of 13.7%. Prevalence was 11.8% in men and 14.9% in women. Sarcopenic subjects were older; had a lower Body Mass Index, lower calf, waist, wrist and arm circumferences; presented more cognitive impairments (Mini-Mental State Examination), more comorbidities; were more often malnourished; and consumed more drugs. After adjustment for age, BMI, cognitive status, nutritional status, number of comorbidities and number of drugs, sarcopenic subjects had a worse physical health-related quality of life (SF-36) for the domain of physical functioning, were at higher risk of falls (Timed Up and Go test), were more frail (Fried), presented more often tiredness for the achievement of activities of daily living (Mobility-test), presented less fat mass and obviously less lean mass. Sarcopenic women were also more dependent for housekeeping and handling finances (Lawton scale) than non

  1. The Short Physical Performance Battery is a discriminative tool for identifying patients with COPD at risk of disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu-Mora R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Bernabeu-Mora,1,2 Françesc Medina-Mirapeix,2 Eduardo Llamazares-Herrán,3 Gloria García-Guillamón,2 Luz María Giménez-Giménez,2 Juan Miguel Sánchez-Nieto1,4 1Division of Pneumology, Hospital Morales Meseguer, 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Murcia, Murcia, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares, 4Department of Intern Medical, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain Background: Limited mobility is a risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD-related disabilities. Little is known about the validity of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB for identifying mobility limitations in patients with COPD. Objective: To determine the clinical validity of the SPPB summary score and its three components (standing balance, 4-meter gait speed, and five-repetition sit-to-stand for identifying mobility limitations in patients with COPD.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 137 patients with COPD, recruited from a hospital in Spain. Muscle strength tests and SPPB were measured; then, patients were surveyed for self-reported mobility limitations. The validity of SPPB scores was analyzed by developing receiver operating characteristic curves to analyze the sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients with mobility limitations; by examining group differences in SPPB scores across categories of mobility activities; and by correlating SPPB scores to strength tests.Results: Only the SPPB summary score and the five-repetition sit-to-stand components showed good discriminative capabilities; both showed areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves greater than 0.7. Patients with limitations had significantly lower SPPB scores than patients without limitations in nine different mobility activities. SPPB scores were moderately correlated with the quadriceps test (r>0.40, and less correlated with the handgrip test (r<0.30, which reinforced convergent and

  2. Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

  3. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-assessment of professionalism in physical therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah K; Irwin, Kent E

    2013-01-01

    With the physical therapy (PT) professions' advancement to the clinical doctorate degree and the promotion of autonomous practice, exemplary professional conduct is an expectation of the PT profession. PT education programs are being challenged to develop methods to teach and assess professional behavior. Forty-three PT students (11 male and 32 female, ages 20-28 years) completed the APTA Professionalism in Physical Therapy: Core Values Self-Assessment (PPTCVSA) after their first 3 week clinical experience and again after their final clinical experience. A mixed design ANOVA compared participants' total scores and individual Core Value scores on the Professionalism in Physical Therapy: Core Values Self-Assessment (PPTCVSA) after 3 and 33 weeks of clinical education. The effects of gender, age, and undergraduate area of study on growth in professionalism scores were also investigated. Total PPTCVSA scores and individual Core Value scores on professionalism (accountability, altruism, compassion/caring, excellence, integrity, professional duty, and social responsibility) were higher after 33 weeks compared to scores after 3 weeks of clinical education. Female student's total professionalism scores were higher than male student's scores on both the first and second self-assessments. In addition, female students scored themselves higher than their male peers on accountability, excellence, integrity, and professional duty. Improved scores on the PPTCVSA indicate that physical therapy education is playing an important role in the development of professional behavior, knowledge, and application in practice.

  5. Psychometric properties including reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Majeed pelvic score in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajada, Stefan; Mohanty, Khitish

    2016-06-01

    The Majeed scoring system is a disease-specific outcome measure that was originally designed to assess pelvic injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Majeed scoring system for chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Internal consistency, content validity, criterion validity, construct validity and responsiveness to change was assessed prospectively for the Majeed scoring system in a cohort of 60 patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint pain. This diagnosis was confirmed with CT-guided sacroiliac joint anaesthetic block. The overall Majeed score showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.63). Similarly, it showed acceptable floor (0 %) and ceiling (0 %) effects. On the other hand, the domains of pain, work, sitting and sexual intercourse had high (>30 %) floor effects. Significant correlation with the physical component of the Short Form-36 (p = 0.005) and Oswestry disability index (p ≤ 0.001) was found indicating acceptable criterion validity. The overall Majeed score showed acceptable construct validity with all five developed hypotheses showing significance (p ≤ 0.05). The overall Majeed score showed acceptable responsiveness to change with a large (≥0.80) effect size and standardized response mean. Overall the Majeed scoring system demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties for outcome assessment in chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Thus, its use in this condition is adequate. However, some domains demonstrated suboptimal performance indicating that improvement might be achieved with the development of an outcome measure specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction and degeneration.

  6. Dirichlet Component Regression and its Applications to Psychiatric Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Rosenheck, Robert; Zelterman, Daniel

    2008-08-15

    We describe a Dirichlet multivariable regression method useful for modeling data representing components as a percentage of a total. This model is motivated by the unmet need in psychiatry and other areas to simultaneously assess the effects of covariates on the relative contributions of different components of a measure. The model is illustrated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for assessment of schizophrenia symptoms which, like many other metrics in psychiatry, is composed of a sum of scores on several components, each in turn, made up of sums of evaluations on several questions. We simultaneously examine the effects of baseline socio-demographic and co-morbid correlates on all of the components of the total PANSS score of patients from a schizophrenia clinical trial and identify variables associated with increasing or decreasing relative contributions of each component. Several definitions of residuals are provided. Diagnostics include measures of overdispersion, Cook's distance, and a local jackknife influence metric.

  7. A Physical Education Dilemma: Team Sports or Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, G. McKenzie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of 56 fifth graders found the traditional physical education approach (game techniques and fundamentals) was ineffective in improving scores on a health-related physical fitness test. Modification of the same sport (basketball) with conditioning exercises to improve cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal function, produced improvement in…

  8. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volume II. Intrusion detection components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    This volume covers acoustic components, microwave/radar components, electro-optic barriers, electric field components, orientation components, ferrous metal detection components, proximity detection components, vibration detection components, seismic components, pressure-sensitive components, pressure mats, continuity components, electrical/magnetic switches, fire detection components, and mechanical contact switches

  9. Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Dean León, Emmanuel Carlos; Eder, Martin; Pias, Marcelo; Taherian, Salman; Ekelund, Ulf; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W; Horsch, Alexander; Brage, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Human body acceleration is often used as an indicator of daily physical activity in epidemiological research. Raw acceleration signals contain three basic components: movement, gravity, and noise. Separation of these becomes increasingly difficult during rotational movements. We aimed to evaluate five different methods (metrics) of processing acceleration signals on their ability to remove the gravitational component of acceleration during standardised mechanical movements and the implications for human daily physical activity assessment. An industrial robot rotated accelerometers in the vertical plane. Radius, frequency, and angular range of motion were systematically varied. Three metrics (Euclidian norm minus one [ENMO], Euclidian norm of the high-pass filtered signals [HFEN], and HFEN plus Euclidean norm of low-pass filtered signals minus 1 g [HFEN+]) were derived for each experimental condition and compared against the reference acceleration (forward kinematics) of the robot arm. We then compared metrics derived from human acceleration signals from the wrist and hip in 97 adults (22-65 yr), and wrist in 63 women (20-35 yr) in whom daily activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) was available. In the robot experiment, HFEN+ had lowest error during (vertical plane) rotations at an oscillating frequency higher than the filter cut-off frequency while for lower frequencies ENMO performed better. In the human experiments, metrics HFEN and ENMO on hip were most discrepant (within- and between-individual explained variance of 0.90 and 0.46, respectively). ENMO, HFEN and HFEN+ explained 34%, 30% and 36% of the variance in daily PAEE, respectively, compared to 26% for a metric which did not attempt to remove the gravitational component (metric EN). In conclusion, none of the metrics as evaluated systematically outperformed all other metrics across a wide range of standardised kinematic conditions. However, choice of metric explains different degrees of variance in

  10. Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human body acceleration is often used as an indicator of daily physical activity in epidemiological research. Raw acceleration signals contain three basic components: movement, gravity, and noise. Separation of these becomes increasingly difficult during rotational movements. We aimed to evaluate five different methods (metrics of processing acceleration signals on their ability to remove the gravitational component of acceleration during standardised mechanical movements and the implications for human daily physical activity assessment. METHODS: An industrial robot rotated accelerometers in the vertical plane. Radius, frequency, and angular range of motion were systematically varied. Three metrics (Euclidian norm minus one [ENMO], Euclidian norm of the high-pass filtered signals [HFEN], and HFEN plus Euclidean norm of low-pass filtered signals minus 1 g [HFEN+] were derived for each experimental condition and compared against the reference acceleration (forward kinematics of the robot arm. We then compared metrics derived from human acceleration signals from the wrist and hip in 97 adults (22-65 yr, and wrist in 63 women (20-35 yr in whom daily activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE was available. RESULTS: In the robot experiment, HFEN+ had lowest error during (vertical plane rotations at an oscillating frequency higher than the filter cut-off frequency while for lower frequencies ENMO performed better. In the human experiments, metrics HFEN and ENMO on hip were most discrepant (within- and between-individual explained variance of 0.90 and 0.46, respectively. ENMO, HFEN and HFEN+ explained 34%, 30% and 36% of the variance in daily PAEE, respectively, compared to 26% for a metric which did not attempt to remove the gravitational component (metric EN. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, none of the metrics as evaluated systematically outperformed all other metrics across a wide range of standardised kinematic conditions. However, choice

  11. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Children with Repaired Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Michels, Nathalie; Bove, Thierry; François, Katrien; De Wolf, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are as fit as their peers. We studied 66 children (6-14 years) who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect (n = 19), coarctation of aorta (n = 10), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 15), and transposition of great arteries (n = 22); and 520 healthy children (6-12 years). All children performed physical fitness tests: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed. Metabolic score was assessed through z-score standardization using 4 components: waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin resistance. Assessment also included self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Linear regression analyses with group (CHD vs control) as a predictor were adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, and parental education. Measured physical activity level, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, and total metabolic score did not differ between children with CHD and controls, whereas reported physical activity was greater in the CHD group than control group. Boys with CHD were less strong in upper muscular strength, speed, and balance, whereas girls with CHD were better in lower muscular strength and worse in balance. High-density lipoprotein was greater in boys and girls with CHD, whereas boys with CHD showed unhealthier glucose homeostasis. Appropriate physical fitness was achieved in children after surgery for CHD, especially in girls. Consequently, children with CHD were not at increased total metabolic risk. Lifestyle counseling should be part of every patient interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting physical activity and nutrition interventions towards mothers with young children: a review on components that contribute to attendance and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Marieke A.; Hosper, Karen; Stronks, Karien

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into intervention components targeted specifically to mothers of young children that may contribute to attendance and effectiveness on physical activity and healthy eating. Systematic literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Embase and cited references. Articles were

  13. Comparison of physical therapy anatomy performance and anxiety scores in timed and untimed practical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M R

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating students using untimed examinations. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding whether untimed examinations provide a benefit to test performance in clinical anatomy. This study aimed to determine the impact of timed versus untimed practical tests on Master of Physical Therapy student anatomy performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Differences in performance, anxiety scores, and time taken were compared using paired sample Student's t-tests. Eighty-one of the 84 students completed the study and provided feedback. Students performed significantly higher on the untimed test (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in test anxiety (P anxiety. If the intended goal of evaluating health care professional students is to determine fundamental competencies, these factors should be considered when designing future curricula. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Validation of a new pediatric joint scoring system from the International Hemophilia Prophylaxis Study Group: validity of the hemophilia joint health score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, Brian M.; Funk, Sharon M.; Bergstrom, Britt-Marie; Zourikian, Nichan; Hilliard, Pamela; van der Net, Janjaap; Engelbert, Raoul; Petrini, Pia; van den Berg, H. Marijke; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.; Rivard, Georges E.; Abad, Audrey; Blanchette, Victor S.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated hemarthrosis in hemophilia causes arthropathy with pain and dysfunction. The Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed to be more sensitive for detecting arthropathy than the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) physical examination scale, especially for children and those using

  15. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  16. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Physical Fitness With Fibromyalgia Severity in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Henriksen, Marius; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between physical fitness and fibromyalgia (FM) severity in women with FM as well as to assess whether different fitness components present an independent relation with FM severity. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: University facilities...... and FM associations. PARTICIPANTS: Women with FM (N=444). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FM severity was assessed with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Aerobic fitness (6-min walk test), muscle strength (handgrip, chair stand, and arm curl tests), flexibility...... (chair sit and reach and back scratch tests), and motor agility (8 foot Up and Go test) were measured with the Senior Fitness Test battery and digital dynamometry. A standardized composite score (hereafter "global fitness profile") was calculated and divided into quintiles. RESULTS: Overall, physical...

  18. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  19. Diffusion abnormality maps in demyelinating disease: Correlations with clinical scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onu, Mihaela; Roceanu, Adina; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Bendic, Robert; Tarta, Eugen; Preoteasa, Florentin; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been explored as a noninvasive tool to assess pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, the correlation between classical MRI measures and physical disability is modest in MS. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI technique holds particular promise in this regard. The present study shows brain regions where FA and individual diffusivities abnormalities are present and check their correlations with physical disability clinical scores. Methods: Eight patients and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite was administered. For MR-DTI acquisitions, a Genesis Signa 1.5T MR system, an EP/SE scanning sequence, 25 gradient directions were used. Results: Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) group comparisons showed reduced FA and increased individual diffusivities in several brain regions in patients. Significant correlations were found between FA and: EDSS, 9-HPT(NON)DOM and 25FW score; between λ 2 and: P100 (r and l), 9-HPT(NON)DOM and 25FW; between λ 3 and: 9-HPT(NON)DOM and 25FW score. Conclusions: Fractional anisotropy and individual radial diffusivities proved to be important markers of motor disabilities in MS patients when the disease duration mean and the disability scores values range are relatively high.

  20. Promoting physical activity and improving dietary quality of Singaporean adolescents: effectiveness of a school-based fitness and wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Claudine; Leo, Latasha; Goh, Danielle; Lim, Pei Sin; Loke, Wai Mun

    2018-01-13

    Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the school-based structured fitness and wellness program to influence dietary quality and physical activity levels in Singaporean adolescents. The study examined if a 20-h (over 10 weeks) school-based structured fitness and wellness module affects the diet quality indices, energy intakes, physical activity levels and the associated energy expenditures in a group of healthy, male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels. Participant demography, anthropometry, dietary intake and daily physical activity were obtained at the beginning, mid-point and end of the 10-week program. Physical activity levels were assessed accelerometrically over a 1-weekday period. Dietary intake were taken using a structured 7-day food diary, and diet quality assessed using the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). The 31 enrolled participants (age 19.8 ± 0.6 years) with body mass index (BMI) (19.8 ± 0.6 kg/m2) followed diets of low diet quality scores (48.3 ± 9.6 out of 100) and engaged in 3.87 ± 2.00 h of physical activity daily before the start of the intervention. Their dietary quality and physical activity levels did not change significantly throughout the intervention period. They scored poorly in the moderation and overall balance components of the diet quality assessment. The physical activity duration correlated inversely to the diet quality scores. Our results suggest that the prescribed school-based fitness and wellness module was ineffective in influencing the diet quality and physical activity levels of Singaporean male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels.

  1. Association of Social Frailty With Both Cognitive and Physical Deficits Among Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between social frailty and cognitive and physical function among older adults. This was a cross-sectional study. We examined community-dwelling adults in Japan. Participants comprised 4425 older Japanese people from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Social frailty was defined by using responses to 5 questions (going out less frequently, rarely visiting friends, feeling unhelpful to friends or family, living alone, and not talking with someone every day). Participants showing none of these components were considered nonfrail; those showing 1 component were considered prefrail; and those showing 2 or more components were considered frail. To screen for cognitive deficits, we assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed. Having 2 or more tests with age-adjusted scores of at least 1.5 standard deviations below the reference threshold was sufficient to be characterized as cognitively deficient. To screen for physical function deficits, we assessed walking speed (physically deficient. The prevalence of social frailty was the following: nonfrailty, 64.1% (N = 2835); social prefrailty, 24.8% (N = 1097); social frailty, 11.1% (N = 493; P for trend physical function (gait speed and grip strength) also varied between social frailty groups (all Ps for trend physical function (odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.57-2.52) after adjusting for covariates. This study revealed that social frailty is associated with both cognitive and physical function among Japanese older adults. And social frailty status was also negatively associated with physical function. Further studies are needed to elucidate if a casual association exists between social frailty and cognitive and physical function. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing continuous and dichotomous scoring of the balanced inventory of desirable responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, Joachim; Dette, Dorothea E; Musch, Jochen

    2002-04-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Paulhus, 1994) is a widely used instrument to measure the 2 components of social desirability: self-deceptive enhancement and impression management. With respect to scoring of the BIDR, Paulhus (1994) authorized 2 methods, namely continuous scoring (all answers on the continuous answer scale are counted) and dichotomous scoring (only extreme answers are counted). In this article, we report 3 studies with student samples, and continuous and dichotomous scoring of BIDR subscales are compared with respect to reliability, convergent validity, sensitivity to instructional variations, and correlations with personality. Across studies, the scores from continuous scoring (continuous scores) showed higher Cronbach's alphas than those from dichotomous scoring (dichotomous scores). Moreover, continuous scores showed higher convergent correlations with other measures of social desirability and more consistent effects with self-presentation instructions (fake-good vs. fake-bad instructions). Finally, continuous self-deceptive enhancement scores showed higher correlations with those traits of the Five-factor model for which substantial correlations were expected (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness). Consequently, these findings indicate that continuous scoring may be preferable to dichotomous scoring when assessing socially desirable responding with the BIDR.

  3. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  4. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  5. Shower reconstruction in TUNKA-HiSCORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porelli, Andrea; Wischnewski, Ralf [DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Tunka-HiSCORE detector is a non-imaging wide-angle EAS cherenkov array designed as an alternative technology for gamma-ray physics above 10 TeV and to study spectrum and composition of cosmic rays above 100 TeV. An engineering array with nine stations (HiS-9) has been deployed in October 2013 on the site of the Tunka experiment in Russia. In November 2014, 20 more HiSCORE stations have been installed, covering a total array area of 0.24 square-km. We describe the detector setup, the role of precision time measurement, and give results from the innovative WhiteRabbit time synchronization technology. Results of air shower reconstruction are presented and compared with MC simulations, for both the HiS-9 and the HiS-29 detector arrays.

  6. CRISP: Catheterization RISk score for Pediatrics: A Report from the Congenital Cardiac Interventional Study Consortium (CCISC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, David G; Forbes, Thomas J; Du, Wei; Divekar, Abhay A; Reeves, Jaxk H; Hagler, Donald J; Fagan, Thomas E; Pedra, Carlos A C; Fleming, Gregory A; Khan, Danyal M; Javois, Alexander J; Gruenstein, Daniel H; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Moore, Phillip M; Wax, David H

    2016-02-01

    We sought to develop a scoring system that predicts the risk of serious adverse events (SAE's) for individual pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. Systematic assessment of risk of SAE in pediatric catheterization can be challenging in view of a wide variation in procedure and patient complexity as well as rapidly evolving technology. A 10 component scoring system was originally developed based on expert consensus and review of the existing literature. Data from an international multi-institutional catheterization registry (CCISC) between 2008 and 2013 were used to validate this scoring system. In addition we used multivariate methods to further refine the original risk score to improve its predictive power of SAE's. Univariate analysis confirmed the strong correlation of each of the 10 components of the original risk score with SAE attributed to a pediatric cardiac catheterization (P pediatric cardiac catheterization procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  8. Use of the Short Physical Performance Battery Score to predict loss of ability to walk 400 meters: analysis from the InCHIANTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Coppin, Antonia K; Patel, Kushang V; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M

    2009-02-01

    Early detection of mobility limitations remains an important goal for preventing mobility disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the loss of ability to walk 400 m, an objectively assessed mobility outcome increasingly used in clinical trials. The study sample consisted of 542 adults from the InCHIANTI study aged 65 and older, who completed the 400 m walk at baseline and had evaluations on the SPPB and 400 m walk at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine whether SPPB scores predict the loss of ability to walk 400 m at follow-up among persons able to walk 400 m at baseline. The 3-year incidence of failing the 400 m walk was 15.5%. After adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, Mini-Mental State Examination, number of medical conditions, and 400 m walk gait speed at baseline, SPPB score was significantly associated with loss of ability to walk 400 m after 3 years. Participants with SPPB scores of 10 or lower at baseline had significantly higher odds of mobility disability at follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-8.65) compared with those who scored 12, with a graded response across the range of SPPB scores (OR = 26.93, 95% CI: 7.51-96.50; OR = 7.67, 95% CI: 2.26-26.04; OR = 8.28, 95% CI: 3.32-20.67 for SPPB 400 m. Thus, using the SPPB to identify older persons at high risk of lower body functional limitations seems a valid means of recognizing individuals who would benefit most from preventive interventions.

  9. Sarcopenia Is Associated With Physical and Mental Components of Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the association between sarcopenia and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The Rural Frailty Study, a prospective study on the prevalence of frailty in rural settings in Mexico, with baseline and follow-up measurements conducted in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Five hundred forty-three men and women older than 70 years. Information regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, dependency in activities of daily living, frailty, HRQoL, and other characteristics was obtained. Objective measurements of muscle strength and physical performance were grip strength using a manual hydraulic dynamometer and walking speed; measure of low muscle was by a calf circumference. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Physical and mental components of the HRQoL were measured through the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Questionnaire 36-Item Short Form. Prevalence of sarcopenia was 20.6% for severe and 15.8% for moderate. After adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics, severe sarcopenia was significantly and inversely associated with both the physical (β = -5.39; P = .010) and the mental components (β = -3.69; P = .057) of HRQoL when compared with pre- and nonsarcopenic individuals. Our results on the association between sarcopenia and HRQoL suggest that the latter declines in the presence of severe sarcopenia in older adults. This finding highlights the relevance of the early detection of sarcopenia in older individuals, and even that its detection must be a part of routine diagnosis procedures. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening applicants for risk of poor academic performance: a novel scoring system using preadmission grade point averages and graduate record examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening tool for identifying physician assistant (PA) program applicants at highest risk for poor academic performance. Prior to reviewing applications for the class of 2009, a retrospective analysis of preadmission data took place for the classes of 2006, 2007, and 2008. A single composite score was calculated for each student who matriculated (number of subjects, N=228) incorporating the total undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), the science GPA (SGPA), and the three component Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores: verbal (GRE-V), quantitative (GRE-Q), analytical (GRE-A). Individual applicant scores for each of the five parameters were ranked in descending quintiles. Each applicant's five quintile scores were then added, yielding a total quintile score ranging from 25, which indicated an excellent performance, to 5, which indicated poorer performance. Thirteen of the 228 students had academic difficulty (dismissal, suspension, or one-quarter on academic warning or probation). Twelve of the 13 students having academic difficulty had a preadmission total quintile score 12 (range, 6-14). In response to this descriptive analysis, when selecting applicants for the class of 2009, the admissions committee used the total quintile score for screening applicants for interviews. Analysis of correlations in preadmission, graduate, and postgraduate performance data for the classes of 2009-2013 will continue and may help identify those applicants at risk for academic difficulty. Establishing a threshold total quintile score of applicant GPA and GRE scores may significantly decrease the number of entering PA students at risk for poor academic performance.

  11. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Up to a third of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between...... CT and survival in CF patients screened for LTX. Methods: Clinical data and chest CTs of 411 CF patients screened for LTX between 1990 and 2005 were collected from 17 centers. CTs were scored with the Severe Advanced Lung Disease (SALD) 4-category scoring system, including the components "infection....../inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411...

  13. Validation of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score in adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sriniwasan B; Brown, Haydée C; Nair, Pallavi; Chen, Lan; Do, Huong T; Lyman, Stephen; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2013-08-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Score has been under recent scrutiny. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is an alternative subjective survey, assessing outcomes in 5 subscales. It is validated for lateral ankle instability and hallux valgus patients. The aim of our study was to validate the FAOS for assessing outcomes in flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). Patients from the authors' institution diagnosed with flexible AAFD from 2006 to 2011 were eligible for the study. In all, 126 patients who completed the FAOS and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) on the same visit were included in the construct validity component. Correlation was deemed moderate if the Spearman's correlation coefficient was .4 to .7. Content validity was assessed in 63 patients by a questionnaire that asked patients to rate the relevance of each FAOS question, with a score of 2 or greater considered acceptable. Reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in 41 patients who completed a second FAOS survey. In 49 patients, preoperative and postoperative FAOS scores were compared to determine responsiveness. All of the FAOS subscales demonstrated moderate correlation with 2 physical health related SF-12 domains. Mental health related domains showed poor correlation. Content validity was high for the Quality of Life (QoL; mean 2.26) and Sports/Recreation subscales (mean 2.12). All subscales exhibited very good test-retest reliability, with ICCs of .7 and above. Symptoms, QoL, pain, and daily activities (ADLs) were responsive to change in postoperative patients (P validated the FAOS for AAFD with acceptable construct and content validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Given its previous validation for patients with ankle instability and hallux valgus, the additional findings in this study support its use as an alternative to less reliable outcome surveys. Level II, prospective comparative study.

  14. Revision of cemented hip arthroplasty using a hydroxyapatite-ceramic-coated femoral component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R; Kamath, R P; Parikh, A; Angus, P D

    2005-08-01

    We report the clinical and radiological outcome of 86 revisions of cemented hip arthroplasties using JRI-Furlong hydroxyapatite-ceramic-coated acetabular and femoral components. The acetabular component was revised in 62 hips and the femoral component in all hips. The mean follow-up was 12.6 years and no patient was lost to follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 71.2 years. The mean Harris hip and Oxford scores were 82 (59 to 96) and 23.4 (14 to 40), respectively. The mean Charnley modification of the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score was 5 (3 to 6) for pain, 4.9 (3 to 6) for movement and 4.4 (3 to 6) for mobility. Migration of the acetabular component was seen in two hips and the mean acetabular inclination was 42.6 degrees. The mean linear polyethylene wear was 0.05 mm/year. The mean subsidence of the femoral component was 1.9 mm and stress shielding was seen in 23 (28%) with bony ingrowth in 76 (94%). Heterotopic ossification was seen in 12 hips (15%). There were three re-revisions, two for deep sepsis and one for recurrent dislocation and there were no re-revisions for aseptic loosening. The mean EuroQol EQ-5D description scores and health thermometer scores were 0.69 (0.51 to 0.89) and 79 (54 to 95), respectively. With an end-point of definite or probable loosening, the probability of survival at 12 years was 93.9% and 95.6% for the acetabular and femoral components, respectively. Overall survival at 12 years, with removal or further revision of either component for any reason as the end-point, was 92.3%. Our study supports the continued use of this arthroplasty and documents the durability of hydroxyapatite-ceramic-coated components.

  15. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido; Salmaso, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Larsson, Stig A.; Pagani, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and 18 F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). 18 F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and 18 F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  16. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Medical Sciences, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Head-Neck Department, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Genoa (Italy); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). {sup 18}F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  17. [Impact of physical disability and concomitant emotional disturbances on post-stroke quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, N; Trabelsi, S; Turki, M; Mâalej Bouali, M; Zouari, L; Dammak, M; Ben Thabet, J; Mhiri, C; Mâalej, M

    2017-10-01

    The physical and/or psycho-cognitive changes after stroke may lead to a decline in the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The aims of our study were to evaluate the QOL of stroke survivors and to investigate its relationships with the physical disability degree and the emotional disorders (anxiety and depression). We conducted a cross-sectional study, which included 147 patients, followed for stroke that had occurred over the past year, in the outpatient neurology department at the university hospital Habib Bourguiba of Sfax (Tunisia). For each patient, we collected socio-demographic characteristics and clinical and therapeutic data. The quality of life of our patients was assessed using the SF-36 scale. The HAD scale was used to screen for anxiety and depression, whereas the modified Rankin scale was used to measure the degree of disability. The average age of our patients was 60.58 years. The overall mean score of the SF-36 ranged from 20.81 to 89.81 with an average of 55.27. Impaired QOL was found in 68% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that only two dimensions of the SF-36 were not altered: physical pain and life and relationship with others. The physical component was slightly more altered than the mental component (41.4 and 42.9 respectively). A minimal disability was found in 32% of patients, while a moderate and severe disability was found in 19% and 21.1% of patients. Anxiety was detected in 55.1% of patients and depression in 67.3% of them. Impaired mental component QOL was significantly correlated with the presence of anxiety (P=0.008) and depression (Pnegative impact on all areas of QOL except that of life and relationships with others. It appears from our study that among the important effects of stroke is the constant deterioration of QOL in its various dimensions. The occurrence of emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression and the degree of physical disability seem to be predictors of QOL impairment

  18. Methods of Implementation of Evidence-Based Stroke Care in Europe: European Implementation Score Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Antonio; Pezzella, Francesca Romana; Fraser, Alec; Bovis, Francesca; Baeza, Juan; McKevitt, Chris; Boaz, Annette; Heuschmann, Peter; Wolfe, Charles D A; Inzitari, Domenico

    2015-08-01

    Differences in stroke care and outcomes reported in Europe may reflect different degrees of implementation of evidence-based interventions. We evaluated strategies for implementing research evidence into stroke care in 10 European countries. A questionnaire was developed and administered through face-to-face interviews with key informants. Implementation strategies were investigated considering 3 levels (macro, meso, and micro, eg, policy, organization, patients/professionals) identified by the framing analysis, and different settings (primary, hospital, and specialist) of stroke care. Similarities and differences among countries were evaluated using the categorical principal components analysis. Implementation methods reported by ≥7 countries included nonmandatory policies, public financial incentives, continuing professional education, distribution of educational material, educational meetings and campaigns, guidelines, opinion leaders', and stroke patients associations' activities. Audits were present in 6 countries at national level; national and regional regulations in 4 countries. Private financial incentives, reminders, and educational outreach visits were reported only in 2 countries. At national level, the first principal component of categorical principal components analysis separated England, France, Scotland, and Sweden, all with positive object scores, from the other countries. Belgium and Lithuania obtained the lowest scores. At regional level, England, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden had positive scores in the first principal component, whereas Belgium, Lithuania, Poland, and Scotland showed negative scores. Spain was in an intermediate position. We developed a novel method to assess different domains of implementation in stroke care. Clear variations were observed among European countries. The new tool may be used elsewhere for future contributions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Perkins, K. K.; Podolefsky, N. S.; Dubson, M.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Wieman, C. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student’s likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their “Personal Interest” score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women’s scores in some categories, including “Personal Interest” and “Real World Connections,” are significantly different from men’s scores.

  20. Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchbinder Rachelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36 is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36 subscales following orthopedic surgery. Methods Longitudinal data on outcomes of total hip replacement (THR, n = 255, total knee replacement (TKR, n = 103, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM, n = 74 and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL, n = 62 were used to estimate the effect sizes (ES, magnitude of change and minimal detectable change (sensitivity at the group and individual level. To provide context for interpreting the magnitude of changes in SF-36 scores, we also compared patients' scores with age and sex-matched population norms. The studies were conducted in Sweden. Follow-up was five years in THR and TKR studies, two years in ACL, and three months in APM. Results On average, large effect sizes (ES≥0.80 were found after orthopedic surgery in SF-36 subscales measuring physical aspects (physical functioning, role physical, and bodily pain. Small (0.20–0.49 to moderate (0.50–0.79 effect sizes were found in subscales measuring mental and social aspects (role emotional, vitality, social functioning, and mental health. General health scores remained relatively unchanged during the follow-up. Despite improvements, post-surgery mean scores of patients were still below the age and sex matched population norms on physical subscales. Patients' scores on mental and social subscales approached population norms following the surgery. At the individual level, scores of a large proportion of patients were affected by floor or ceiling effects on several subscales and the sensitivity to individual change was very low. Conclusion Large to moderate meaningful changes in group scores were observed in all SF-36 subscales except General Health

  1. The Baltic Sea Diet Score: a tool for assessing healthy eating in Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2014-08-01

    The health-related effects of the Nordic diet remain mostly unidentified. We created a Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) for epidemiological research to indicate adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. We examined associations between the score and nutrient intakes that are considered important in promoting public health. We also examined the performance of the BSDS under two different cut-off strategies. The cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated using in-house software. Nine components were selected for the score. Each component was scored according to both sex-specific consumption quartiles (BSDS-Q) and medians (BSDS-M), and summed to give the final score values. A large representative sample of the Finnish population. Men (n 2217) and women (n 2493) aged 25 to 74 years. In the age- and energy-adjusted model, adherence to the diet was associated with a higher intake of carbohydrates (E%), and lower intakes of SFA (E%) and alcohol (E%, where E% is percentage of total energy intake; P diet (P healthy Nordic diet to assess diet-health relationships in public health surveys in Nordic countries.

  2. Principal Component Analysis of Working Memory Variables during Child and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Rojas-Benjumea, María Ángeles; Gómez, Carlos M

    2016-10-03

    Correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of behavioral measures from two experimental tasks (Delayed Match-to-Sample and Oddball), and standard scores from a neuropsychological test battery (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was performed on data from participants between 6-18 years old. The correlation analysis (p 1), the scores of the first extracted component were significantly correlated (p < .05) to most behavioral measures, suggesting some commonalities of the processes of age-related changes in the measured variables. The results suggest that this first component would be related to age but also to individual differences during the cognitive maturation process across childhood and adolescence stages. The fourth component would represent the speed-accuracy trade-off phenomenon as it presents loading components with different signs for reaction times and errors.

  3. Association Between Awareness of Hypertension and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Rural Area of Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Baibing; Dang, Shaonong; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yaling; Yang, Ruihai; Wang, Duolao; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Hypertensive patients have more complex health care needs and are more likely to have poorer health-related quality of life than normotensive people. The awareness of hypertension could be related to reduce health-related quality of life. We propose the use of quantile regression to explore more detailed relationships between awareness of hypertension and health-related quality of life. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, 2737 participants (including 1035 hypertensive patients and 1702 normotensive participants) completed the Short-Form Health Survey. A quantile regression model was employed to investigate the association of physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores with awareness of hypertension and to evaluate the associated factors. Patients who were aware of hypertension (N = 554) had lower scores than patients who were unaware of hypertension (N = 481). The median (IQR) of physical component summary scores: 48.20 (13.88) versus 53.27 (10.79), P mental component summary scores: 50.68 (15.09) versus 51.70 (10.65), P = 0.03. adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggest awareness of hypertension was associated with most physical component summary scores quantiles (P mental component summary scores quantiles in which the β-estimates from -3.47 (95% CI: -6.65 to -0.39) to -2.18 (95% CI: -4.30 to -0.06). The awareness of hypertension has a greater effect on those with intermediate physical component summary status: the β-estimates were equal to -2.04 (95% CI: -3.51 to -0.57, P Awareness of hypertension was negatively related to health-related quality of life in hypertensive patients in rural western China, which has a greater effect on mental component summary scores with the poorer status and on physical component summary scores with the intermediate status.

  4. Relationship between sports experience and executive function in 6-12-year-old children: independence from physical fitness and moderation by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Toru; Sugasawa, Shigemi; Matsuda, Yusuke; Mizuno, Masao

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sports experience (i.e., tennis experience) and executive function in children while controlling for physical activity and physical fitness. Sixty-eight participants (6-12 years old, 34 males and 34 females) were enrolled in regular tennis lessons (mean = 2.4 years, range = 0.1-7.3 years) prior to the study. Executive functions, including inhibitory control (the Stroop Color-Word Test), working memory (the 2-back Task), and cognitive flexibility (the Local-global Task) were evaluated. Participants' levels of daily physical activity, ranging from moderate to vigorous, were evaluated using triaxial accelerometers. The total score for physical fitness was assessed using the Tennis Field Test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed interaction effects between gender and tennis experience on participants' reaction time (RT) on the switch cost of the Local-global Task after controlling for age, BMI, gender, physical activity, physical fitness, and tennis experience. Longer tennis experience was associated with shorter switch cost in males but not in females. Higher scores on physical fitness were positively associated with lower interference scores on the Stroop Color-Word Test, RT on the 2-back Task, and RT in the switching condition of the Local-global Task, after controlling for age, BMI, gender, and physical activity. In conclusion, all three foundational components of executive function (i.e., inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) were more strongly related to physical fitness than to physical activity in males and females, whereas greater cognitive flexibility was related to tennis experience only in the males. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  6. Relationship between motor performance and physical fitness score in 7- to 8-year-old children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Felipe Nazario

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many tests for the evaluation of motor performance or physical fitness that take into account different criteria such as movement forms and patterns, time, distance, and repetitions of each task for the analysis of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance and physical fitness scores in children. Fifty children of both genders aged 7 to 8 years (25 boys and 25 girls participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development – Second Edition (TGMD-2 was used for the evaluation of motor performance. Physical fitness was assessed by three specific tests proposed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. The results showed statistical significance and weak correlations among some skills such as run, horizontal jump, hop, leap, underhand roll, and medicine ball throw. The equivalent use of both tests may not be adequate since each test has its own peculiarities in terms of assessment criteria.

  7. Relationship between motor performance and physical fitness score in 7- to 8-year-old children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Jornada Krebs

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many tests for the evaluation of motor performance or physical fitness that take into account different criteria such as movement forms and patterns, time, distance, and repetitions of each task for the analysis of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance and physical fitness scores in children. Fifty children of both genders aged 7 to 8 years (25 boys and 25 girls participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development – Second Edition (TGMD-2 was used for the evaluation of motor performance. Physical fitness was assessed by three specific tests proposed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. The results showed statistical significance and weak correlations among some skills such as run, horizontal jump, hop, leap, underhand roll, and medicine ball throw. The equivalent use of both tests may not be adequate since each test has its own peculiarities in terms of assessment criteria.

  8. Physical activity, the Framingham risk score and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women of the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Benoit J; Rana, Jamal S; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-03-01

    Test the hypothesis that considering leisure-time and work-related physical activity habits in addition to the Framingham risk score (FRS) would result into better classification of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk than FRS alone. Prospective, population-based study of 9564 men and 12165 women aged 45-79 years followed for an average of 11.4 years. A modified FRS which takes into account physical activity (evaluated using a validated lifestyle questionnaire taking into account leisure-time and work-related physical activity) was computed. During follow-up, 2191 CHD events occurred. Among 3369 men who were classified as intermediate risk (event rate of 12.4%) according to the FRS, 413 were reclassified into the low-risk category and 279 were reclassified into the high-risk category after modification of the FRS. After reclassification of these men, CHD event rate was of 5.3% and 18.6%, respectively for men classified at low and high CHD risk. Among 4766 women initially classified as intermediate risk (event rate of 8.4%), 1282 were reclassified into the low-risk category whereas 1071 women were reclassified into the high-risk category. After reclassification of these women, CHD event rate was of 6.8% and 12.2%, respectively for women classified at low and high CHD risk. Results of the present study suggest that asking simple questions about leisure-time and work-related physical activity which can be rapidly obtained by any physician at no cost could be helpful in the estimation of patients' CHD risk.

  9. Prospective validation of a near real-time EHR-integrated automated SOFA score calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Christopher; Franco, Pablo Moreno; Ferreyra, Micaela; Kitson, Jaben; Li, Man; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-07-01

    We created an algorithm for automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score calculation within the Electronic Health Record (EHR) to facilitate detection of sepsis based on the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (SEPSIS-3) clinical definition. We evaluated the accuracy of near real-time and daily automated SOFA score calculation compared with manual score calculation. Automated SOFA scoring computer programs were developed using available EHR data sources and integrated into a critical care focused patient care dashboard at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. We prospectively compared the accuracy of automated versus manual calculation for a sample of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit at Mayo Clinic Hospitals in Rochester, Minnesota and Jacksonville, Florida. Agreement was calculated with Cohen's kappa statistic. Reason for discrepancy was tabulated during manual review. Random spot check comparisons were performed 134 times on 27 unique patients, and daily SOFA score comparisons were performed for 215 patients over a total of 1206 patient days. Agreement between automatically scored and manually scored SOFA components for both random spot checks (696 pairs, κ=0.89) and daily calculation (5972 pairs, κ=0.89) was high. The most common discrepancies were in the respiratory component (inaccurate fraction of inspired oxygen retrieval; 200/1206) and creatinine (normal creatinine in patients with no urine output on dialysis; 128/1094). 147 patients were at risk of developing sepsis after intensive care unit admission, 10 later developed sepsis confirmed by chart review. All were identified before onset of sepsis with the ΔSOFA≥2 point criterion and 46 patients were false-positives. Near real-time automated SOFA scoring was found to have strong agreement with manual score calculation and may be useful for the detection of sepsis utilizing the new SEPSIS-3 definition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. 24 CFR 902.35 - Financial condition scoring and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-wide operations. (3) High liquidity or reserves. (i) Under the scoring process for the Financial Condition Indicator, no points will be deducted under the Current Ratio or Monthly Expenditure Fund Balance components for a PHA that has too high liquidity or reserves if the PHA has achieved at least 90 percent of...

  11. Physical and mental decline and yet rather happy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Thinggaard, Mikael; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about whether the feeling of happiness follows the age-related decline in physical and mental functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze differences with age in physical and mental functions and in the feeling of happiness among Danes aged 45 years and older......-reported mobility, a cognitive composite score, and a depression symptomatology score including a question about happiness were assessed. T-score metric was used to compare across domains and age groups. Results: Overall, successively older age groups performed worse than the youngest age group (45-49 years.......9), and the total depression symptomatology score (men: 15.5, women: 17.4). Conversely, the T-score difference in happiness was small (men: 5.6, women: 6.0). Conclusion: Despite markedly poorer physical and mental functions with increasing age, in this Danish sample age did not seem to affect happiness...

  12. A Soft Intelligent Risk Evaluation Model for Credit Scoring Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khashei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the most important branches of business and finance. Classification models are the most popular and widely used analytical group of data mining approaches that can greatly help financial decision makers and managers to tackle credit risk problems. However, the literature clearly indicates that, despite proposing numerous classification models, credit scoring is often a difficult task. On the other hand, there is no universal credit-scoring model in the literature that can be accurately and explanatorily used in all circumstances. Therefore, the research for improving the efficiency of credit-scoring models has never stopped. In this paper, a hybrid soft intelligent classification model is proposed for credit-scoring problems. In the proposed model, the unique advantages of the soft computing techniques are used in order to modify the performance of the traditional artificial neural networks in credit scoring. Empirical results of Australian credit card data classifications indicate that the proposed hybrid model outperforms its components, and also other classification models presented for credit scoring. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered as an appropriate alternative tool for binary decision making in business and finance, especially in high uncertainty conditions.

  13. Physics and engineering assessments of spherical torus component test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.-K.M.; Neumeyer, C.A.; Kessel, C.; Rutherford, P.; Mikkelsen, D.; Bell, R.; Menard, J.; Gates, D.; Schmidt, J.; Synakowski, E.; Grisham, L.; Fogarty, P.J.; Strickler, D.J.; Burgess, T.W.; Tsai, J.; Nelson, B.E.; Sabbagh, S.; Mitarai, O.; Cheng, E.T.; El-Guebaly, L.

    2005-01-01

    A broadly based study of the fusion engineering and plasma science conditions of a Component Test Facility (CTF), using the Spherical Torus or Spherical Tokamak (ST) configuration, have been carried out. The chamber systems testing conditions in a CTF are characterized by high fusion neutron fluxes Γ n > 4.4x10 13 n/s/cm 2 , over size scales > 10 5 cm 2 and depth scales > 50 cm, delivering > 3 accumulated displacement per atom (dpa) per year. The desired chamber conditions can be provided by a CTF with R 0 1.2 m, A = 1.5, elongation ∼ 3.2, I p ∼ 9 MA, B T ∼ 2.5 T, producing a driven fusion burn using 36 MW of combined neutral beam and RF power. Relatively robust ST plasma conditions are adequate, which have been shown achievable [4] without active feedback manipulation of the MHD modes. The ST CTF will test the single-turn, copper alloy center leg for the toroidal field coil without an induction solenoid and neutron shielding, and require physics data on solenoid-free plasma current initiation, ramp-up, and sustainment to multiple MA level. A new systems code that combines the key required plasma and engineering science conditions of CTF has been prepared and utilized as part of this study. The results show high potential for a family of lowercost CTF devices to suit a variety of fusion engineering science test missions. (author)

  14. Sleep: a marker of physical and mental health in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Martinovich, Zoran; Finkel, Sanford; Statsinger, Judy; Golden, Robyn; Harter, Kathryne; Zee, Phyllis C

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence and recognition of common sleep-related problems and their relationship to health-related quality-of-life measures in the elderly. A total of 1,503 participants with a mean age of 75.5 (+/- 6.8, range: 62-100) years from 11 primary care sites serving primarily elderly patients were interviewed. Subjects completed a five-item sleep questionnaire and the SF-12. A Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) score was calculated. A systematic medical chart review was conducted to determine whether sleep problems were identified by the healthcare providers. A total of 68.9% of patients reported at least one sleep complaint and 40% had two or more. Participants most commonly endorsed (45%) that they had "difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or being able to sleep." The number and type of sleep problems endorsed was associated with both physical and mental health quality-of-life status. Excessive daytime sleepiness was the best predictor of poor mental and physical health-related quality of life. Even when all five sleep questions were endorsed, a sleep complaint was only reported in the chart 19.2% of the time. When elicited, sleep complaints predicted the general physical and mental health-related quality-of-life status in elderly populations with comorbid medical and mental illnesses. Yet, questions regarding sleep are not an integral component of most clinical evaluations. Given the growing evidence of a relationship between sleep and health, identification of sleep disorders could lead to improved management of common age-related chronic illnesses and quality of life of elderly patients.

  15. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores......Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required...... by daily behavior) is appropriate for monitoring the physical literacy of children aged 8 to 12 years. Objectively measured domains (daily behavior, physical competence) have higher relative importance. The interpretation of CAPL results should be reevaluated as more data become available. © 2016 Human...

  16. Identifying and Evaluating External Validity Evidence for Passing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    A critical component of the standard setting process is collecting evidence to evaluate the recommended cut scores and their use for making decisions and classifying students based on test performance. Kane (1994, 2001) proposed a framework by which practitioners can identify and evaluate evidence of the results of the standard setting from (1)…

  17. Population-based metabolic syndrome risk score and its determinants: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetSy, an important predisposing factor for the most of noncommunicable diseases, has become a global pandemic. Given different definitions used for the MetSy, recently using a score termed "continuous MetSy risk score (CMetSyS" is recommended. The aim of this study was to provide a CMetSyS in a population-based sample of Iranian adults and to assess its determinants. Materials and Methods: We used the data of the baseline survey of a community trial entitled "the Isfahan health heart program." The MetSy was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All probable predictive models and their predictive performance were provided using leave-one-out cross-validated logistic regression and the receiver operation characteristic curve methods. Multiple linear regression was performed to assess factors associated with the CMetSyS. Results: The study population consisted of 8313 persons (49.9% male, mean age 38.54 ± 15.86 years. The MetSy was documented in 1539 persons (21.86%. Triglycerides and waist circumference were the best predictive components, and fasting plasma glucose had the lowest area under curve (AUC. The AUC for our best model was 95.36 (94.83-95.83%. The best predictive cutoff for this risk score was −1.151 with 89% sensitivity and 87.93% specificity. Conclusion: We provided four population-based leave-one-out cross-validated risk score models, with moderate to perfect predictive performance to identify the MetSy in Iranian adults. The CMetSyS had significant associations with high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index, leisure time, and workplace physical activity as well as age and gender.

  18. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  19. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P skill components (all P movement patterns that could be targeted for improvement include positioning of the body and feet, the control or release of an object at an optimal position, and better use of the arms to maintain effective force production during the performance of FMS. Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  1. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  2. Reliability of the CMT neuropathy score (second version) in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2011-09-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy score (CMTNS) is a reliable and valid composite score comprising symptoms, signs, and neurophysiological tests, which has been used in natural history studies of CMT1A and CMT1X and as an outcome measure in treatment trials of CMT1A. Following an international workshop on outcome measures in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the CMTNS was modified to attempt to reduce floor and ceiling effects and to standardize patient assessment, aiming to improve its sensitivity for detecting change over time and the effect of an intervention. After agreeing on the modifications made to the CMTNS (CMTNS2), three examiners evaluated 16 patients to determine inter-rater reliability; one examiner evaluated 18 patients twice within 8 weeks to determine intra-rater reliability. Three examiners evaluated 63 patients using the CMTNS and the CMTNS2 to determine how the modifications altered scoring. For inter- and intra-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were ≥0.96 for the CMT symptom score and the CMT examination score. There were small but significant differences in some of the individual components of the CMTNS compared with the CMTNS2, mainly in the components that had been modified the most. A longitudinal study is in progress to determine whether the CMTNS2 is more sensitive than the CMTNS for detecting change over time.

  3. Connecting Symbolic Integrals to Physical Meaning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel R.

    This dissertation presents a series of studies pertaining to introductory physics students' abilities to derive physical meaning from symbolic integrals (e.g., the integral of vdt) and their components, namely differentials and differential products (e.g., dt and vdt, respectively). Our studies focus on physical meaning in the form of interpretations (e.g., "the total displacement of an object") and units (e.g., "meters"). Our first pair of studies independently attempted to identify introductory-level mechanics students' common conceptual difficulties with and unproductive interpretations of physics integrals and their components, as well as to estimate the frequencies of these difficulties. Our results confirmed some previously-observed incorrect interpretations, such as the notion that differentials are physically meaningless; however, we also uncovered two new conceptualizations of differentials, the "rate" (differentials are "rates" or "derivatives") and "instantaneous value" (differentials are values of physical variables "at an instant") interpretations, which were exhibited by more than half of our participants at least once. Our next study used linear regression analysis to estimate the strengths of the inter-connections between the abilities to derive physical meaning from each of differentials, differential products, and integrals in both first- and second-semester, calculus-based introductory physics. As part of this study, we also developed a highly reliable, multiple choice assessment designed to measure students' abilities to connect symbolic differentials, differential products, and integrals with their physical interpretations and units. Findings from this study were consistent with statistical mediation via differential products. In particular, students' abilities to extract physical meaning from differentials were seen to be strongly related to their abilities to derive physical meaning from differential products, and similarly differential

  4. Bodybuilders who consume anabolic steroids and its relationship with their physical self description and their physical social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Arbinaga Ibarzábal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physical and social anxiety and the physical self description in 55 male bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids and 95 non users are determined, the consumption is being valued through the Fat Free Body Mass (Kouri, Pope and Katz, 1995. On the SPAS scale (Hart, Leary and Rejeski, 1989 the consumers give higher values to the non consumers in the total score (t=2,721 p=0,008 and in the “expectation towards a negative assessment” (t=2,710 p=0,008 and very slight differences in the “comfort with their physical presence” (t=1,939 p=0,054. In self description, valued through the PSDQ (Marsh and Sutherland, 1994, it is shown that non users get a higher score in self description (t=2,431 p=0,016. Nevertheless, there are no differences given in the global scores in self description of the physical form (t=1,542 p=0,125. Inverse and significant correlations are observed between the two scales; with the dimension “physical self description” (r=-0,583 p=0,000 and with “self description of the physical form” (r=-0,337 p=0,000.

  5. Combined Versus Detailed Evaluation Components in Medical Student Global Rating Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Askew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine if there is any correlation between any of the 10 individual components of a global rating index on an emergency medicine (EM student clerkship evaluation form. If there is correlation, to determine if a weighted average of highly correlated components loses predictive value for the final clerkship grade. Methods: This study reviewed medical student evaluations collected over two years of a required fourth-year rotation in EM. Evaluation cards, comprised of a detailed 10-part evaluation, were completed after each shift. We used a correlation matrix between evaluation category average scores, using Spearman’s rho, to determine if there was any correlation of the grades between any of the 10 items on the evaluation form. Results: A total of 233 students completed the rotation over the two-year period of the study. There were strong correlations (>0.80 between assessment components of medical knowledge, history taking, physical exam, and differential diagnosis. There were also strong correlations between assessment components of team rapport, patient rapport, and motivation. When these highly correlated were combined to produce a four-component model, linear regression demonstrated similar predictive power in terms of final clerkship grade (R2 =0.71, CI95=0.65–0.77 and R2 =0.69, CI95=0.63–0.76 for the full and reduced models respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that several components of the evaluation card had a high degree of correlation. Combining the correlated items, a reduced model containing four items (clinical skills, interpersonal skills, procedural skills, and documentation was as predictive of the student’s clinical grade as the full 10-item evaluation. Clerkship directors should be aware of the performance of their individual global rating scales when assessing medical student performance, especially if attempting to measure greater than four components.

  6. Collaborative Research and Support of Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center Defense Women's Health Research Program Projects; Evaluation of a Structured Physical Fitness Program for Pregnant Soldiers: Effects on Weight Gain, Blood Pressure, Lost Duty Time, Length of Labor, Infant Birth Weight, and Score on the First Postpartum Army Physical Fitness Test (Protocol 7)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, Hugh

    1996-01-01

    .... On an average the control groups babies weighed more than the Motherwell groups. The diagnostic physical training test taken six weeks postpartum showed the average score for the control group to be 158 points and the Motherwell group scored an average of 155 points. The variance was not very large. Overall the results do support that exercise is beneficial during pregnancy.

  7. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  8. An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B; Siu, A L

    1990-10-01

    Direct observation of physical function has the advantage of providing an objective, quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. We have developed the Physical Performance Test (PPT), which assesses multiple domains of physical function using observed performance of tasks that simulate activities of daily living of various degrees of difficulty. Two versions are presented: a nine-item scale that includes writing a sentence, simulated eating, turning 360 degrees, putting on and removing a jacket, lifting a book and putting it on a shelf, picking up a penny from the floor, a 50-foot walk test, and climbing stairs (scored as two items); and a seven-item scale that does not include stairs. The PPT can be completed in less than 10 minutes and requires only a few simple props. We then tested the validity of PPT using 183 subjects (mean age, 79 years) in six settings including four clinical practices (one of Parkinson's disease patients), a board-and-care home, and a senior citizens' apartment. The PPT was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and 0.79, interrater reliability = 0.99 and 0.93 for the nine-item and seven-item tests, respectively) and demonstrated concurrent validity with self-reported measures of physical function. Scores on the PPT for both scales were highly correlated (.50 to .80) with modified Rosow-Breslau, Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living scales, and Tinetti gait score. Scores on the PPT were more moderately correlated with self-reported health status, cognitive status, and mental health (.24 to .47), and negatively with age (-.24 and -.18). Thus, the PPT also demonstrated construct validity. The PPT is a promising objective measurement of physical function, but its clinical and research value for screening, monitoring, and prediction will have to be determined.

  9. [A better self-perception of physical fitness is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Camacho, Deivy Fredery; Hernández-Fonseca, John Manuel; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2014-12-17

    To evaluate whether more positive self-perception of physical fitness is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in university students in Bogotá, Colombia Method: A total of 493 men (mean age 28.5±11.5 years old) without cardiovascular disease university students completed the self-report fitness tool, namely "The International FItness Scale" (IFIS). The overall prevalence of MetS and its components according to "International Diabetes Federation" (IDF) criteria and the "National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood, Cholesterol in Adults" (NCEP: ATP-III) were measured. Body Fat Mass (BFM), Body Fat Percentage (BF %), Fat-Free Mass (FFM) and Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI), were estimated using segmental bioelectrical impedance equipment. Twenty three percent of participants had met the criteria of MetS. Central obesity (33%) was the most prevalent factor, followed by low HDL cholesterol level (31%). The other factors associated with the presence of MetS were hypercholesterolemia (60%), high LDL cholesterol level (32%) and hypertriglyceridemia (19%). Participants reporting to have a "good/very good" in the self-reported (cardiorespiratory and muscle fitness specific components), shown a healthy range in blood pressure, FFM, FFMI and triglycerides level (p self-perception of physical fitness have an increased prevalence of MetS and its components. This study suggests that the self-report tool used in this study, the IFIS tool, is a useful method to be used in large scale surveys and epidemiological studies in which, because of time, equipment, or qualified personnel limitations, fitness cannot be directly measured. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  11. CUSTOM TRIFLANGE ACETABULAR COMPONENTS IN REVISION HIP REPLACEMENT (EXPERIENCE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korytkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive defects of acetabulum especially accompanied by pelvis discontinuity at the level of acetabulum pose a serious challenge in revision hip replacement and create additional complexity in fixing the acetabular component. One of the perspective options to solve the above issue is the use of custom triflange acetabular components (CTAC designed based on preoperative computer tomography given the specifics of bone defects of the patient. Purpose of the study — to evaluate the outcomes of CTAC use in revision hip replacement.Materials and methods. The authors analyzed treatment outcomes of 12 patients after revision hip replacement using additive techniques of computer simulation and 3D printing CTAC. Follow up period after the surgery averaged 7±3 months (from one to ten months. 7 out of 12 patients had acetabular defects of Paprosky 3B type, 4 patients had defects of Paprosky 3A and in one patient — of Paprosky 2C.Results. Two out of twelve patients had prosthesis dislocations that required revision hip surgery, one of those patients underwent open reduction of dislocation with wound debridement, another patient underwent replacement of articulating couple of acetabular component. Total scores under Harris Hip Score and paint VAS score prior to treatment was 28±7 and 7±1 points respectively, postoperative scores were 76±9 and 3±1 respectively.Conclusion. The application of additive techniques for revision hip replacement in patients with extensive acetabular and pelvic defects allows to make a precise preoperative planning, to restore joint rotation center, to reconstruct bone defects and to securely fix triflange acetabular component that altogether significantly improve treatment outcomes and patients satisfaction with the surgery.

  12. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  13. Correlates of gender and achievement in introductory algebra based physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel Clara

    The field of physics is heavily male dominated in America. Thus, half of the population of our country is underrepresented and underserved. The identification of factors that contribute to gender disparity in physics is necessary for educators to address the individual needs of students, and, in particular, the separate and specific needs of female students. In an effort to determine if any correlations could be established or strengthened between sex, gender identity, social network, algebra skill, scientific reasoning ability, and/or student attitude, a study was performed on a group of 82 students in an introductory algebra based physics course. The subjects each filled out a survey at the beginning of the semester of their first semester of algebra based physics. They filled out another survey at the end of that same semester. These surveys included physics content pretests and posttests, as well as questions about the students' habits, attitudes, and social networks. Correlates of posttest score were identified, in order of significance, as pretest score, emphasis on conceptual learning, preference for male friends, number of siblings (negatively correlated), motivation in physics, algebra score, and parents' combined education level. Number of siblings was also found to negatively correlate with, in order of significance, gender identity, preference for male friends, emphasis on conceptual learning, and motivation in physics. Preference for male friends was found to correlate with, in order of significance, emphasis on conceptual learning, gender identity, and algebra score. Also, gender identity was found to correlate with emphasis on conceptual learning, the strongest predictor of posttest score other than pretest score.

  14. Smoothing of the bivariate LOD score for non-normal quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, Alfonso; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

    2005-12-30

    Variance component analysis provides an efficient method for performing linkage analysis for quantitative traits. However, type I error of variance components-based likelihood ratio testing may be affected when phenotypic data are non-normally distributed (especially with high values of kurtosis). This results in inflated LOD scores when the normality assumption does not hold. Even though different solutions have been proposed to deal with this problem with univariate phenotypes, little work has been done in the multivariate case. We present an empirical approach to adjust the inflated LOD scores obtained from a bivariate phenotype that violates the assumption of normality. Using the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism data available for the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14, we show how bivariate linkage analysis with leptokurtotic traits gives an inflated type I error. We perform a novel correction that achieves acceptable levels of type I error.

  15. Embedded wireless sensors for turbomachine component defect monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Sexton, Daniel White

    2015-11-24

    Various embodiments include detection systems adapted to monitor at least one physical property of a component in a turbomachine. In some embodiments a detection system includes at least one sensor configured to be affixed to a component of a turbomachine, the at least one sensor for sensing information regarding at least one physical property of the turbomachine component during operation of the turbomachine, a signal converter communicatively coupled to the at least one sensor and at least one RF communication device configured to be affixed to a stationary component of the turbomachine, the radio frequency communication device configured to communicate with the at least one signal converter via an RF antenna coupled to the signal converter.

  16. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but ...

  17. Emotional intelligence components in alcohol dependent and mentally healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28±7.82 and 34.93±9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  18. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  19. Validation of the prognostic value of histologic scoring systems in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Elisabeth M G; de Krijger, Manon; Färkkilä, Martti

    2017-01-01

    across a multicenter PSC cohort. Liver biopsies from PSC patients were collected from seven European institutions. Histologic scoring was performed using the Nakanuma, Ishak, and Ludwig scoring systems. Biopsies were independently scored by six liver pathologists for interobserver agreement.......19-5.80] for endpoint 2 and HR, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.09-3.89] for endpoint 3). Only the Nakanuma staging system was independently associated with endpoint 1: HR, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.22-3.77). Interobserver agreement was moderate for Nakanuma stage (κ = 0.56) and substantial for Nakanuma component fibrosis (κ = 0.67), Ishak...

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE DIMENSIONS OF PHYSICAL SELF-CONCEPT BY SEX IN ADOLESCENTES FROM A TYPICAL SPANISH MEDITERRANEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Palomares Cuadros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined globally adolescents’ physical self-concept as a function of its components: physical appearance, physical ability, strength, balance, flexibility, and endurance, and as a function of their sex, in a population aged 12-15 from Jaén, Spain. The sample consisted of 296 participants with an average age of 13.03 years. As a measuring tool, an adaptation of the Marsh and Sutherland Physical Self-concept Scale was used. The results revealed that boys rated above girls in most of the items that showed positive self-concept aspects. Conversely, girls scored higher than boys in the majority of negative self-concept items. Our evidence showed significant gender differences related to teenagers’ physical self-concepts; where girls obtained more negative assessments regarding physical self-concepts than boys did, and the latter group was more interested in engaging in physical exercise than the former group. English translation by Jeannette Soto Segura

  1. Joint Relationship Between Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Motor Skills in Children Aged 3 to 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; Gross McMillan, Amy; Wood, Aaron P; Sisson, Susan B

    2018-06-01

    While the relationships between physical activity (PA), obesity, and motor skills have been independently examined by previous research, this study explored both independent and combined relationships between children's PA, weight status, and motor skills within a multiple regression analysis. We measured height and weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) z scores for 96 children (3-10 years of age). We measured motor skills using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2), and we measured PA levels through accelerometry. Children with more time in moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA had higher Total motor skill scores on the MABC-2. Further, children with higher moderate PA levels had higher Balance scores and those with moderate-to-vigorous PA demonstrated higher Aiming and Catching scores. Among children with healthier BMIs, more time spent in PA, regardless of intensity, was related to higher Aiming and Catching scores. Among children with BMI scores suggestive of overweight/obesity, both moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA were positively related to Balance scores. In conclusion, while BMI z scores were not directly related to motor skills, PA levels were positively related to motor skills, and weight status mediated the relationship between PA and specific components of motor skills.

  2. Predictive value of semi-quantitative MRI-based scoring systems for future knee replacement: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Eng, John; Demehri, Shadpour; Zikria, Bashir; Carrino, John A.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition

  3. Predictive value of semi-quantitative MRI-based scoring systems for future knee replacement: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Eng, John; Demehri, Shadpour [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zikria, Bashir [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carrino, John A. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition

  4. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  5. The Impact of the Use of Hierarchical Teaching on Test Scores of Students’ Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Test scores of students’ technology is the main basis for physical examination of college students’ physical, fitness evaluation based on test results. To change the view by the stratified teaching method consistent system of teaching mode, special movement technical level of students is improved significantly.

  6. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...

  7. Perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity: two primary-care physical activity prescription programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Asmita; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S; Keogh J, W L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

  8. Sense of coherence as a predictor of physical and psychosocial health among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kocjan

    2015-06-01

    Summary   INTRODUCTION: According to salutogenic concept, a strong sense of coherence is associated with physical and psychological health. Global life orientation is a measure of an individual’s ability to balance needs and resources of the body in confrontation with stress. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to assess relationship between sense of coherence (SOC with health-related quality of life (HRQoL, especially with physical (PC and mental (MC component of health in patients undergoing cardiac treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 144 patients in age of 40-84 (mean age: 63,35 ± 10,71 years were examined. The following scale were used: SOC-29 (Sense of Coherence and SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey. Statistical analyses included perform descriptive statistics, calculate correlation between variables and comparision in groups. Levels of p<0,05 were accepted as being statistically significant values. RESULTS: The median score for SOC and its individuals components were as follows: SOC: 121,50; sense of  comprehensibility: 46,00; sense of meaningfulness: 40,00; sense of manageability: 39,00. Correlation between SOC and all components with MC were noted (0,20physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health, pain, health-general, energy/fatigue, role limitations due to emotional problems as well as in MC and PC components (0,0000

  9. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  10. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  11. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José L; Ho-Urriola, Judith A; González, Andrea; Smalley, Susan V; Domínguez-Vásquez, Patricia; Cataldo, Rodrigo; Obregón, Ana M; Amador, Paola; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Hodgson, M Isabel

    2011-10-11

    Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P food responsiveness" (P Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  12. The use of a dietary quality score as a predictor of childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Catherine P; Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Perry, Ivan J; Harrington, Janas M

    2015-06-24

    The use of dietary quality scores/indices to describe diet quality in children has increased in the past decade. However, to date, few studies have focused on the use of these scores on disease outcomes such as childhood obesity and most are developed from detailed dietary assessments. Therefore, the aims of this study were: firstly to construct a diet quality score (DQS) from a brief dietary assessment tool; secondly to examine the association between diet quality and childhood overweight or obesity; thirdly we also aim to examine the associations between individual DQS components and childhood overweight or obesity. A secondary analysis of cross sectional data of a sample of 8,568 9-year-old children and their families as part of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. Subjects were drawn from a probability proportionate to size sampling of primary schools throughout Ireland over the school year 2007-2008. Height and weight were measured by trained researchers using standardised methods and BMI was classified using the International Obesity Taskforce cut-points. The DQS (un-weighted) was developed using a 20-item, parent reported, food frequency questionnaire of foods consumed over the past 24 h. Adjusted odds ratios for overweight and obesity were examined by DQS quintile, using the first quintile (highest diet quality) as the reference category. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obese was 75, 19 and 6% respectively. DQS ranged from -5 to 25, higher scores indicated higher diet quality in the continuous score. In analyses adjusted for gender, parent's education, physical activity and T.V. viewing, child obesity but not overweight was significantly associated with poor diet quality: OR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.02 2.38) in the 5th compared to the 1st DQS quintile. Findings from individual food items were inconsistent. The findings suggest that diet quality may be an important factor in childhood obesity. A simple DQS developed from a short dietary assessment

  13. Myocardium at risk assessed by electrocardiographic scores and cardiovascular magnetic resonance - a MITOCARE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersten, Maria; Fakhri, Yama; Pape, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The myocardium at risk (MaR) represents the quantitative ischemic area destined to myocardial infarction (MI) if no reperfusion therapy is initiated. Different ECG scores for MaR have been developed, but there is no consensus as to which should be preferred. Objective Comparisons...... of ECG scores and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) for determining MaR. Methods MaR was determined by 3 different ECG scores, and by CMR in ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) patients from the MITOCARE cardioprotection trial. The Aldrich score (AL) is based on the number of leads with ST-elevation...... for anterior MI and the sum of ST-segment elevation for inferior MI on the admission ECG. The van Hellemond score (VH) considers both the ischemic and infarcted component of the MaR by adding the AL and the QRS score, which is an estimate of final infarct size. The Hasche score is based on the maximal possible...

  14. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric properties of the German version of the hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimann, Angela; Dauphinee, Sharon Wood; Staal, J Bart

    2014-12-01

    Clinical measurement. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) from English into German, and to study its psychometric properties in patients after hip surgery. There is no specific hip questionnaire in German that not only measures symptoms and function but also contains items about hip-related quality of life. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation involved forward translation, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and comparison to the original HOOS following international guidelines. The German version was tested in 51 Swiss inpatients 8 weeks after different types of hip surgery, mainly total hip replacement. The mean age of the participants was 62.5 years, and the age range was from 27 to 87 years. Thirty (58.8%) of the participants were women. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients for agreement. For construct validity, total scores of the German HOOS were correlated with those of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. The HOOS was also compared to the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Cronbach alpha values for all German HOOS subscales were between .87 and .93. For test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement was 0.85 for the total scores of the German HOOS. The Spearman rho for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning subscale compared to the sum of all HOOS subscales was 0.71, and that for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical component summary was 0.97. The German HOOS has demonstrated adequate reliability and validity. Use of the German HOOS is recommended for assessment of patients after hip surgery, with the proviso that additional psychometric testing should be done in future research.

  15. Skin autofluorescence as proxy of tissue AGE accumulation is dissociated from SCORE cardiovascular risk score, and remains so after 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiessen, Ans H; Jager, Willemein; ter Bogt, Nancy C W; Beltman, Frank W; van der Meer, Klaas; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J

    2014-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF), as a proxy of AGE accumulation, is predictive of cardiovascular (CVD) complications in i.a. type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal failure, independently of most conventional CVD risk factors. The present exploratory substudy of the Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL)-project addresses whether SAF is related to Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk estimation (% 10-year CVD-mortality risk) in overweight/obese persons in primary care, without diabetes/renal disease, and if after 3-year treatment of risk factors (change in, Δ) SAF is related to ΔSCORE. In a sample of 65 participants from the GOAL study, with a body mass index (BMI) >25-40 kg/m2, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia, but without diabetes/renal disease, SAF and CVD risk factors were measured at baseline, and after 3 years of lifestyle and pharmaceutical treatment. At baseline, the mean SCORE risk estimation was 3.1±2.6%, mean SAF 2.04±0.5AU. In multivariate analysis SAF was strongly related to age, but not to other risk factors/SCORE. After 3 years ΔSAF was 0.34±0.45 AU (phistory of CVD compared to 54 persons without CVD (p=0.002). Baseline and 3-year-Δ SAF are not related to (Δ)SCORE, or its components, except age, in the studied population. ΔSAF was negatively related to Δweight. As 3-year SAF was higher in persons with CVD, these results support a larger study on SAF to assess its contribution to conventional risk factors/SCORE in predicting CVD in overweight persons with low-intermediate cardiovascular risk.

  16. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan

    2005-04-01

    To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.

  18. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, M; Michels, N; Bammann, K; Ahrens, W; Sprengeler, O; Molnar, D; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Eiben, G; Konstabel, K; Russo, P; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (β=0.057; P=0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (β=-0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (β=-0.076; P=0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (β=-0.059; P=0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  19. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    , exercise training, diet/nutritional counselling, weight control management, lipid management, blood pressure monitoring, smoking cessation, and psychosocial management. Cardiac rehabilitation services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive, with physical activity counselling and exercise...... training as central components in all rehabilitation and preventive interventions. Many of the risk factor improvements occurring in CR can be mediated through exercise training programmes. This call-for-action paper presents the key components of a CR programme: physical activity counselling and exercise...

  1. Associations among handgrip strength, dietary pattern, and physical activity level in Physical Education students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem KURT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among handgrip strength (HGS, dietary pattern, and physical activity level in students from a physical education and sport department. Material and Methods: In this study, 124 men and 77 women aged 18–29 y participated. HGS was evaluated in the dominant hand by using an adjustable handgrip dynamometer and expressed in Newton. Dietary pattern was evaluated by using the Dietary Pattern Index (DPI adapted into the Turkish. Physical activity level was measured by using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Results: The Spearman correlation coefficient showed that HGS positively correlated with IPAQ score (r=0.204, p=0.004, body mass index (r=0.559, p<0.001, and age (r=0.205, p=0.003, but negatively correlated with DPI score (r=−0.179, p=0.01. Conclusion: HGS is a useful, simple, and objective assessment tool for monitoring the physical activity levels and dietary patterns of young subjects.

  2. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The aim of ths study was to examine the association between habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect. This cross-sectional study included 276 women aged 20 +, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Habitual physical activity and other lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire, concurrent with anthropometric assessments. Physical activity was categorized as very active, moderately active or sedentary. Positive and negative affect scores were derived from the validated 20 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) self-report and were categorized into tertiles. There was a pattern of lower positive affect scores for lower levels of physical activity. With very active as the reference category, the odds for having a positive affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially lower for those who were moderately active (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.01) and sedentary (OR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.75). Associations were sustained after adjusting for body mass index and polypharmacy (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.26-0.96 and OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.72, respectively). These associations were not explained by age, negative affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between physical activity and negative affect scores. This study reports that higher positive affect scores, encompassing emotions such as interest, excitement, enthusiasm and alertness, are associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity. These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association.

  3. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  4. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV. All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  5. Is there regional variation in the SF-36 scores of Canadian adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Tenenhouse, Alan; Poliquin, Suzette; Brown, Jacques P; Murray, Timothy M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A

    2002-01-01

    Canadian normative data for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) have recently been published. However, there is evidence from other countries to suggest that regional variation in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may exist. We therefore examined the SF-36 data from nine Canadian centres for evidence of systematic differences. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to compare the differences in the eight SF-36 domains and the two summary component scores within each of the age and gender strata across the nine sites. Five domains and the two summary component scores showed little clinically important variation. Other than a small number of exceptions, there was little overall evidence of HRQOL differences across most domains and across most sites. Our finding of only a few small differences suggests that there is no need to develop region-specific Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey.

  6. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  7. PM10 and gaseous pollutants trends from air quality monitoring networks in Bari province: principal component analysis and absolute principal component scores on a two years and half data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The chemical composition of aerosols and particle size distributions are the most significant factors affecting air quality. In particular, the exposure to finer particles can cause short and long-term effects on human health. In the present paper PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm), CO, NOx (NO and NO2), Benzene and Toluene trends monitored in six monitoring stations of Bari province are shown. The data set used was composed by bi-hourly means for all parameters (12 bi-hourly means per day for each parameter) and it’s referred to the period of time from January 2005 and May 2007. The main aim of the paper is to provide a clear illustration of how large data sets from monitoring stations can give information about the number and nature of the pollutant sources, and mainly to assess the contribution of the traffic source to PM10 concentration level by using multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS). Results Comparing the night and day mean concentrations (per day) for each parameter it has been pointed out that there is a different night and day behavior for some parameters such as CO, Benzene and Toluene than PM10. This suggests that CO, Benzene and Toluene concentrations are mainly connected with transport systems, whereas PM10 is mostly influenced by different factors. The statistical techniques identified three recurrent sources, associated with vehicular traffic and particulate transport, covering over 90% of variance. The contemporaneous analysis of gas and PM10 has allowed underlining the differences between the sources of these pollutants. Conclusions The analysis of the pollutant trends from large data set and the application of multivariate statistical techniques such as PCA and APCS can give useful information about air quality and pollutant’s sources. These knowledge can provide useful advices to environmental policies in

  8. Physical activity among hospitalized older adults - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Sigurd; Sletvold, Olav; Lydersen, Stian; Taraldsen, Kristin

    2017-05-16

    Low level of physical activity is common among hospitalized older adults and is associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this paper is to describe the pattern and level of physical activity in a group of hospitalized older adults and to identify factors associated with physical activity. We measured physical activity on day three after admission using accelerometer based activity monitors and time in upright position as outcome measure. We collected data of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPB. 0-12), cognitive function (Mini Mental Status Examination, MMSE, 0-30 and diagnosis of cognitive impairment at discharge, yes/no), personal Activities of Daily Living (p-ADL, Barthel Index, BI, 0-20) and burden of disease (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, CIRS, 0-56). We analyzed data using univariable and multivariable linear regression models, with time in upright position as dependent variable. We recorded physical activity in a consecutive sample of thirty-eight geriatric patients. Their (mean age 82.9 years, SD 6.3) mean time in upright position one day early after admission was 117.1 min (SD 90.1, n = 38). Mean SPPB score was 4.3 (SD 3.3, n = 34). Mean MMSE score was 19.3 (SD 5.3, n = 30), 73% had a diagnosis of cognitive impairment (n = 38). Mean BI score was 16.4 (SD 4.4, n = 36). Mean CIRS score was 17.0 (SD 4.2, n = 38). There was a significant association between SPPB score and time in upright position (p = 0.048): For each one unit increase in SPPB, the expected increase in upright time was 11.7 min. There was no significant association between age (p = 0.608), diagnosis of cognitive impairment (p = 0.794), p-ADL status (p = 0.127), CIRS score (p = 0.218) and time in upright position. The overall model fit was R 2 0.431. Participants' mean time in upright position one day early after admission was almost two hours, indicating a high level of physical activity compared to results from similar studies. Physical

  9. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score for Evaluating Organ Failure and Outcome of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Obstetric Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score in cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM. Design. Retrospective study of diagnostic validation. Setting. An obstetric intensive care unit (ICU in Brazil. Population. 673 women with SMM. Main Outcome Measures. mortality and SOFA score. Methods. Organ failure was evaluated according to maximum score for each one of its six components. The total maximum SOFA score was calculated using the poorest result of each component, reflecting the maximum degree of alteration in systemic organ function. Results. highest total maximum SOFA score was associated with mortality, 12.06 ± 5.47 for women who died and 1.87 ± 2.56 for survivors. There was also a significant correlation between the number of failing organs and maternal mortality, ranging from 0.2% (no failure to 85.7% (≥3 organs. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC confirmed the excellent performance of total maximum SOFA score for cases of SMM (AUC = 0.958. Conclusions. Total maximum SOFA score proved to be an effective tool for evaluating severity and estimating prognosis in cases of SMM. Maximum SOFA score may be used to conceptually define and stratify the degree of severity in cases of SMM.

  10. High fatigue scores among older Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Vera; Hoekman, Jaap; van Zundert, André

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, hospital care production pressure recently increased substantially, while the number of nurse anesthetists available did not match this rise. The longtime existing norm of no night shifts for nurses beyond the age of 55 years was increased to age 57 to meet the demand for more nurse anesthetists. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the level of fatigue and its correlation with demographic items among this category of employees. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all Dutch nurse anesthetists above 50 years of age working in Dutch hospitals, which asked for their level of fatigue. The Checklist Individual Strength Questionnaire was used to measure fatigue. Overall, 105 of 115 potential participants completed the questionnaire (response rate, 91%). The mean scores (+/- standard deviation) were as follows: total fatigue, 81.3 +/- 8.3; subjective fatigue, 31.4 +/- 3.2; physical activity, 13.1 +/- 2.2; motivation, 16.8 +/- 2.6; and concentration, 20.0 +/- 3.8. No correlation could be demonstrated between demographic characteristics and fatigue. Dutch nurse anesthetists above the age of 50 years show a high fatigue score and therefore need special attention to prevent them from harmful physical and psychological effects and to sustain maximal patient safety.

  11. 3-year changes in physical activity and physical performance decline over 9 years of follow-up in older adults: The InCHIANTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Bandinelli, Stefania; Del-Panta, Vieri; Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the associations of cumulative physical activity (PA) and its changes over 3-year with changes over 9 years of follow-up in physical performance in older adults. DESIGN Longitudinal. SETTING Community-based. PARTICIPANTS Men and women, aged 65 years and older, from the InCHIANTI study (N=782). MEASUREMENTS Physical performance was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6- and 9-year follow-up with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). PA was assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, cancer, lung disease, lower extremity osteoarthritis, depression, and Mini-mental state examination. RESULTS Over 3-year of follow-up, the prevalence of participants inactive, minimally active and active was 27.8%, 52.2% and 20.0%, respectively. The prevalence of participants who decreased, no change or increased PA over 3-year of follow-up was 37.2%, 50.1% and 12.7%, respectively. Compared with participants who spent most of the time inactive and after adjustment for potential covariates (−2.60 score, 95%CI: −2.92, −2.27), being mostly active (−1.08 score, 95%CI: −1.43, −0.73) and even minimally active (−1.33 score, 95%CI: −1.53, −1.12) over 3 years of follow-up was associated with lower declines in the SPPB score. When analyzing changes, increasing PA (−0.57 score, 95%CI: −1.01, −0.12) was associated with lower declines in the SPPB score over 9 years as compared with those who decreased PA (−2.16 score, 95%CI: −2.42, −1.89). CONCLUSION Maintaining or increasing PA levels may attenuate age-associated physical performance decline. PMID:28248412

  12. Evaluation of the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, S; van der Woude, L H V; Niezen, A; Smit, C A J; Post, M W M

    2010-07-01

    Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities (PASIPD) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. The PASIPD was examined by comparing group scores of people with different personal (age, gender and body mass index) and lesion characteristics (level (paraplegia/tetraplegia), completeness, time since injury (TSI)) in 139 persons with SCI 1 year after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation. Relationships between PASIPD scores and measures of activities (wheelchair skills, Utrecht Activity List, mobility range and social behavior subscales of the SIP68) and fitness (peak oxygen uptake, peak power output and muscular strength) were determined. Persons with tetraplegia had significantly lower PASIPD scores than those with paraplegia (PPASIPD scores than persons with shorter TSI (PPASIPD scores showed moderate correlations with activities (0.36-0.51, PPASIPD showed weak-to-moderate relationships with activity and fitness parameters. There seems to be a limited association between self-reported activity level and fitness in people with SCI.

  13. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2. Short-term prognostic scores for acute exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2014-01-22

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is a slowly progressive disease whose course is frequently the subject of acute episodes, of variable severity, although, in general, reversible, called acute exacerbations. In the past five years (between 2008 and 2013), seven prognostic scores have been published to try to assess the short-term risk of these acute exacerbations. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon. An Internet program with a detailed compilation of the main features of these scores (www.medhyg.ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  14. Dutch validation of the low anterior resection syndrome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, B J P; Breukink, S O; Olde Reuver Of Briel, C; Tanis, P J; de Noo, M E; van Duijvendijk, P; van Westreenen, H L; Dekker, J W T; Chen, T Y T; Juul, T

    2018-04-21

    The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch translation of the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score in a population of Dutch rectal cancer patients. Patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer received the LARS score questionnaire, a single quality of life (QoL) category question and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire. A subgroup of patients received the LARS score twice to assess the test-retest reliability. A total of 165 patients were included in the analysis, identified in six Dutch centres. The response rate was 62.0%. The percentage of patients who reported 'major LARS' was 59.4%. There was a high proportion of patients with a perfect or moderate fit between the QoL category question and the LARS score, showing a good convergent validity. The LARS score was able to discriminate between patients with or without neoadjuvant radiotherapy (P = 0.003), between total and partial mesorectal excision (P = 0.008) and between age groups (P = 0.039). There was a statistically significant association between a higher LARS score and an impaired function on the global QoL subscale and the physical, role, emotional and social functioning subscales of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The test-retest reliability of the LARS score was good, with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. The good psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the LARS score are comparable overall to the earlier validations in other countries. Therefore, the Dutch translation can be considered to be a valid tool for assessing LARS in Dutch rectal cancer patients. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Literature in focus: How to Score

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    What is the perfect way to take a free kick? Which players are under more stress: attackers, midfielders or defenders? How do we know when a ball has crossed the goal-line? And how can teams win a penalty shoot out? From international team formations to the psychology of the pitch and the changing room... The World Cup might be a time to forget about physics for a while, but not for Ken Bray, a theoretical physicist and visiting Fellow of the Sport and Exercise Science Group at the University of Bath who specializes in the science of football. Dr Bray will visit CERN to talk exclusively about his book: How to Score. As a well-seasoned speaker and advisor to professional football teams, this presentation promises to be a fascinating and timely insight into the secret science that lies behind 'the beautiful game'. If you play or just watch football, don't miss this event! Ken Bray - How to Score Thursday 22 June at 3 p.m. (earlier than usual to avoid clashes with World Cup matches!) Central Library reading ...

  16. The influence of iliotibial band syndrome history on running biomechanics examined via principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Eric; Milner, Clare E

    2014-01-03

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common knee overuse injury among female runners. Atypical discrete trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during running may be associated with the etiology of ITBS. Examining discrete data points limits the interpretation of a waveform to a single value. Characterizing entire kinematic and kinetic waveforms may provide additional insight into biomechanical factors associated with ITBS. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine whether female runners with previous ITBS exhibited differences in kinematics and kinetics compared to controls using a principal components analysis (PCA) approach. Forty participants comprised two groups: previous ITBS and controls. Principal component scores were retained for the first three principal components and were analyzed using independent t-tests. The retained principal components accounted for 93-99% of the total variance within each waveform. Runners with previous ITBS exhibited low principal component one scores for frontal plane hip angle. Principal component one accounted for the overall magnitude in hip adduction which indicated that runners with previous ITBS assumed less hip adduction throughout stance. No differences in the remaining retained principal component scores for the waveforms were detected among groups. A smaller hip adduction angle throughout the stance phase of running may be a compensatory strategy to limit iliotibial band strain. This running strategy may have persisted after ITBS symptoms subsided. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Higher Mobility Scores in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Are Associated with Better Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesha Thobani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF. Design. This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Main Outcome Measures. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Results. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r=0.42 and P=0.03, and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r=0.51 and P=0.007. LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Conclusions. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  18. Higher mobility scores in patients with cystic fibrosis are associated with better lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobani, Aneesha; Alvarez, Jessica A; Blair, Shaina; Jackson, Kaila; Gottlieb, Eric R; Walker, Seth; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r = 0.42 and P = 0.03), and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r = 0.51 and P = 0.007). LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  19. Goal or gold: overlapping reward processes in soccer players upon scoring and winning money.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Niklas Häusler

    Full Text Available Social rewards are important incentives for human behavior. This is especially true in team sports such as the most popular one worldwide: soccer. We investigated reward processing upon scoring a soccer goal in a standard two-versus-one situation and in comparison to winning in a monetary incentive task. The results show a strong overlap in brain activity between the two conditions in established reward regions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, including the ventral striatum and ventromedial pre-frontal cortex. The three main components of reward-associated learning, i.e., reward probability (RP, reward reception (RR and reward prediction errors (RPE showed highly similar activation in both con-texts, with only the RR and RPE components displaying overlapping reward activity. Passing and shooting behavior did not correlate with individual egoism scores, but we observe a positive correlation be-tween egoism and activity in the left middle frontal gyrus upon scoring after a pass versus a direct shot. Our findings suggest that rewards in the context of soccer and monetary incentives are based on similar neural processes.

  20. Goal or Gold: Overlapping Reward Processes in Soccer Players upon Scoring and Winning Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Alexander Niklas; Becker, Benjamin; Bartling, Marcel; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Social rewards are important incentives for human behavior. This is especially true in team sports such as the most popular one worldwide: soccer. We investigated reward processing upon scoring a soccer goal in a standard two-versus-one situation and in comparison to winning in a monetary incentive task. The results show a strong overlap in brain activity between the two conditions in established reward regions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, including the ventral striatum and ventromedial pre-frontal cortex. The three main components of reward-associated learning i.e. reward probability (RP), reward reception (RR) and reward prediction errors (RPE) showed highly similar activation in both con-texts, with only the RR and RPE components displaying overlapping reward activity. Passing and shooting behavior did not correlate with individual egoism scores, but we observe a positive correlation be-tween egoism and activity in the left middle frontal gyrus upon scoring after a pass versus a direct shot. Our findings suggest that rewards in the context of soccer and monetary incentives are based on similar neural processes. PMID:25875594

  1. Validation of the FOUR Score (Spanish Version) in acute stroke: an interobserver variability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Luis; Fuentes, Blanca; Medina, Josmarlin; Gabaldón, Laura; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Abenza, María José; Aguilar-Amat, María José; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Luis; Cazorla, Rubén; Martínez, Marta; Tafur, Alfonso; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2010-01-01

    Methods to assess impaired consciousness in acute stroke typically include the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), but the verbal component has limitations in aphasic or intubated patients. The FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score, a new coma scale, evaluates 4 components: eye and motor responses, brainstem reflexes and respiration. We aimed to study the interobserver variability of the FOUR score in acute stroke patients. We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted from February to July 2008 to the stroke unit of our Neurology Department. Patients were evaluated by neurology residents and nurses using the FOUR score and the GCS. For both scales, we obtained paired and total weighted kappa values (Kw) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). NIH stroke scale was also recorded on admission. We obtained a total of 75 paired evaluations in 60 patients (41 cerebral infarctions, 15 cerebral hemorrhages and 4 transient ischemic attacks). Thirty-three (55%) patients were alert, 17 (28.3%) drowsy and 10 (16.7%) stuporous or comatose. The overall rater agreement was excellent in the FOUR score (Kw 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.97) with an ICC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.96) and in the GCS (Kw 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98) with an ICC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). A good correlation was found between the FOUR score and the GCS (rho 0.83; p FOUR score and the NIH stroke scale (rho -0.78; p FOUR score is a reliable scale for evaluating the level of consciousness in acute stroke patients, showing a good correlation with the GCS and the NIH stroke scale. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Emergency Medicine Evaluation of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: History, Examination, Imaging and Laboratory Assessment, and Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brit; Long, Drew; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Pneumonia is a common infection, accounting for approximately one million hospitalizations in the United States annually. This potentially life-threatening disease is commonly diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. To investigate emergency medicine evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia including history, physical examination, imaging, and the use of risk scores in patient assessment. Pneumonia is the number one cause of death from infectious disease. The condition is broken into several categories, the most common being community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis centers on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. However, all are unreliable when used alone, and misdiagnosis occurs in up to one-third of patients. Chest radiograph has a sensitivity of 46-77%, and biomarkers including white blood cell count, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein provide little benefit in diagnosis. Biomarkers may assist admitting teams, but require further study for use in the emergency department. Ultrasound has shown utility in correctly identifying pneumonia. Clinical gestalt demonstrates greater ability to diagnose pneumonia. Clinical scores including Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI); Confusion, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, age 65 score (CURB-65); and several others may be helpful for disposition, but should supplement, not replace, clinical judgment. Patient socioeconomic status must be considered in disposition decisions. The diagnosis of pneumonia requires clinical gestalt using a combination of history and physical examination. Chest radiograph may be negative, particularly in patients presenting early in disease course and elderly patients. Clinical scores can supplement clinical gestalt and assist in disposition when used appropriately. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Treated Coconut Coir Pith as Component of Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Polozhiy, Kirill; Reiterman, Pavel; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presented paper deals with utilization of raw and treated coir pith as potential component of cementitious composites. The studied material is coir pith originating from a coconut production. Its applicability as cement mixture component was assessed in terms of the physical properties of concrete containing different amount of coir pith. Basic physical properties, compressive and bending strength, and hygric transport characteristics as well as thermal properties belong among the studied...

  4. Non-laboratory-based self-assessment screening score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: development, validation and comparison with other scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ho Lee

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent and rapidly increasing disease worldwide; however, no widely accepted screening models to assess the risk of NAFLD are available. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for NAFLD in the general population using two independent cohorts.The development cohort comprised 15676 subjects (8313 males and 7363 females who visited the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea in 2008-2010. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were examined during regular health check-ups and fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of prevalent NAFLD and to derive risk scores/models. We validated our models and compared them with other existing methods using an external cohort (N = 66868.The simple self-assessment score consists of age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index, history of diabetes and dyslipidemia, alcohol intake, physical activity and menopause status, which are independently associated with NAFLD, and has a value of 0-15. A cut-off point of ≥ 8 defined 58% of males and 36% of females as being at high-risk of NAFLD, and yielded a sensitivity of 80% in men (77% in women, a specificity of 67% (81%, a positive predictive value of 72% (63%, a negative predictive value of 76% (89% and an AUC of 0.82 (0.88. Comparable results were obtained using the validation dataset. The comprehensive NAFLD score, which includes additional laboratory parameters, has enhanced discrimination ability, with an AUC of 0.86 for males and 0.91 for females. Both simple and comprehensive NAFLD scores were significantly increased in subjects with higher fatty liver grades or severity of liver conditions (e.g., simple steatosis, steatohepatitis.The new non-laboratory-based self-assessment score may be useful for identifying individuals at high-risk of NAFLD. Further studies are warranted to evaluate

  5. Proposal for the Award of Two Contracts for the Technical Services for Work on Components of CERN Particle Accelerators and High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the technical services for work on components of CERN particle accelerators and high energy physics experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 73 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3156/SPL) was sent on 4 November 2002 to three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two contracts with: 1) the consortium SERCO FACILITIES MANAGEMENT (NL) - GERARD PERRIER INDUSTRIE (FR) - INEO ALPES (FR), the lowest bidder, for approximately 55% of the technical services for work on components of CERN particle accelerators and high energy physics experiments, for an initial period of five years and for a total amount not exceeding 37 435 270 euros (54 902 500 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2005. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-...

  6. Chronicling a successful secondary implementation of Studio Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Vincent Kuo, H.

    2012-09-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics I) using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format since the spring of 1997. Starting in the fall of 2007, we have been converting the second semester of our calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format, beginning from a traditional lecture/lab/recitation course. In this paper, we document the stages of this transformation, highlighting what has worked and what has not, and the challenges and benefits associated with the switch to Studio Physics. A major goal in this study is to develop a method for secondary implementations of Studio physics that keeps the time and resource investments manageable. We describe the history of Studio at CSM and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), exam scores, failure rates, and a variety of qualitative observations. Results suggest that Studio has increased student performance and satisfaction despite an aggressive expansion of class sizes in the past few years. Gains have been concentrated mostly in problem-solving skills and exam performance (as opposed to conceptual survey gains), in contrast to what has sometimes been seen in other studies.

  7. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  8. Harvard Project Physics Newsletter 10. The Project Physics Course, Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    A short description of the availability of Harvard Project Physics course components is given as is a discussion of the growth of the use of Project Physics in schools, including some enrollment data and survey results. Locations of the 1970 and 1971 Summer Institutes are listed. Adaptations of Project Physics course outside the United States are…

  9. A simple, sufficient, and consistent method to score the status of threats and demography of imperiled species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob W. Malcom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managers of large, complex wildlife conservation programs need information on the conservation status of each of many species to help strategically allocate limited resources. Oversimplifying status data, however, runs the risk of missing information essential to strategic allocation. Conservation status consists of two components, the status of threats a species faces and the species’ demographic status. Neither component alone is sufficient to characterize conservation status. Here we present a simple key for scoring threat and demographic changes for species using detailed information provided in free-form textual descriptions of conservation status. This key is easy to use (simple, captures the two components of conservation status without the cost of more detailed measures (sufficient, and can be applied by different personnel to any taxon (consistent. To evaluate the key’s utility, we performed two analyses. First, we scored the threat and demographic status of 37 species recently recommended for reclassification under the Endangered Species Act (ESA and 15 control species, then compared our scores to two metrics used for decision-making and reports to Congress. Second, we scored the threat and demographic status of all non-plant ESA-listed species from Florida (54 spp., and evaluated scoring repeatability for a subset of those. While the metrics reported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS are often consistent with our scores in the first analysis, the results highlight two problems with the oversimplified metrics. First, we show that both metrics can mask underlying demographic declines or threat increases; for example, ∼40% of species not recommended for reclassification had changes in threats or demography. Second, we show that neither metric is consistent with either threats or demography alone, but conflates the two. The second analysis illustrates how the scoring key can be applied to a substantial set of species to

  10. A Worksheet to Enhance Students’ Conceptual Understanding in Vector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutchana, Umporn; Emarat, Narumon

    2017-09-01

    With and without physical context, we explored 59 undergraduate students’conceptual and procedural understanding of vector components using both open ended problems and multiple choice items designed based on research instruments used in physics education research. The results showed that a number of students produce errors and revealed alternative conceptions especially when asked to draw graphical form of vector components. It indicated that most of them did not develop a strong foundation of understanding in vector components and could not apply those concepts to such problems with physical context. Based on the findings, we designed a worksheet to enhance the students’ conceptual understanding in vector components. The worksheet is composed of three parts which help students to construct their own understanding of definition, graphical form, and magnitude of vector components. To validate the worksheet, focus group discussions of 3 and 10 graduate students (science in-service teachers) had been conducted. The modified worksheet was then distributed to 41 grade 9 students in a science class. The students spent approximately 50 minutes to complete the worksheet. They sketched and measured vectors and its components and compared with the trigonometry ratio to condense the concepts of vector components. After completing the worksheet, their conceptual model had been verified. 83% of them constructed the correct model of vector components.

  11. Exploring physics concepts among novice teachers through CMAP tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Prahani, B. K.; Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Admoko, S.

    2018-03-01

    Concept maps are graphical tools for organising, elaborating and representing knowledge. Through Cmap tools software, it can be explored the understanding and the hierarchical structuring of physics concepts among novice teachers. The software helps physics teachers indicated a physics context, focus questions, parking lots, cross-links, branching, hierarchy, and propositions. By using an exploratory quantitative study, a total 13-concept maps with different physics topics created by novice physics teachers were analysed. The main differences of scoring between lecturer and peer-teachers’ scoring were also illustrated. The study offered some implications, especially for physics educators to determine the hierarchical structure of the physics concepts, to construct a physics focus question, and to see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map.

  12. Associations of Socioeconomic Status with Diet and Physical Activity in Migrant Bougainvilleans in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.

  13. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  14. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  15. Lossy compression of quality scores in genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Rodrigo; Moffat, Alistair; Turpin, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing medicine. Data from sequencing technologies are typically represented as a string of bases, an associated sequence of per-base quality scores and other metadata, and in aggregate can require a large amount of space. The quality scores show how accurate the bases are with respect to the sequencing process, that is, how confident the sequencer is of having called them correctly, and are the largest component in datasets in which they are retained. Previous research has examined how to store sequences of bases effectively; here we add to that knowledge by examining methods for compressing quality scores. The quality values originate in a continuous domain, and so if a fidelity criterion is introduced, it is possible to introduce flexibility in the way these values are represented, allowing lossy compression over the quality score data. We present existing compression options for quality score data, and then introduce two new lossy techniques. Experiments measuring the trade-off between compression ratio and information loss are reported, including quantifying the effect of lossy representations on a downstream application that carries out single nucleotide polymorphism and insert/deletion detection. The new methods are demonstrably superior to other techniques when assessed against the spectrum of possible trade-offs between storage required and fidelity of representation. An implementation of the methods described here is available at https://github.com/rcanovas/libCSAM. rcanovas@student.unimelb.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Physical Frailty Is Associated with Longitudinal Decline in Global Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Older Adults: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Honda, T; Narazaki, K; Chen, T; Kishimoto, H; Haeuchi, Y; Kumagai, S

    2018-01-01

    To assess the relationship between physical frailty and subsequent decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented elderly. A prospective population-based study in a west Japanese suburban town, with two-year follow-up. Community-dwellers aged 65 and older without placement in long-term care, and not having a history of dementia, Parkinson's disease and depression at baseline, who participated in the cohort of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study and underwent follow-up assessments two years later (N = 1,045). Global cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical frailty was identified according to the following five components: weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, slow gait speed and low physical activities. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between baseline frailty status and the MoCA scores at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of cognitive decline (defined as at least two points decrease of MoCA score) according to baseline frailty status. Seven hundred and eight non-demented older adults were included in the final analyses (mean age: 72.6 ± 5.5 years, male 40.3%); 5.8% were frail, and 40.8% were prefrail at baseline. One hundred and fifty nine (22.5%) participants experienced cognitive decline over two years. After adjustment for baseline MoCA scores and all confounders, being frail at baseline was significantly associated with a decline of 1.48 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.37 to -0.59) in MoCA scores, as compared with non-frailty. Frail persons were over two times more likely to experience cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.08), compared to non-frail persons. Physical frailty is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented older adults over a period of two years. Physically frail older community-dwellers should be closely monitored for cognitive decline that can be

  17. Multi-component controllers in reactor physics optimality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, T.

    1978-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the optimality analysis of thermal reactor assemblies with multi-component control vectors. The neutronics of the system under consideration is assumed to be described by the two-group diffusion equations and constraints are imposed upon the state and control variables. It is shown that if the problem is such that the differential and algebraic equations describing the system can be cast into a linear form via a change of variables, the optimal control components are piecewise constant functions and the global optimal controller can be determined by investigating the properties of the influence functions. Two specific problems are solved utilizing this approach. A thermal reactor consisting of fuel, burnable poison and moderator is found to yield maximal power when the assembly consists of two poison zones and the power density is constant throughout the assembly. It is shown that certain variational relations have to be considered to maintain the activeness of the system equations as differential constraints. The problem of determining the maximum initial breeding ratio for a thermal reactor is solved by treating the fertile and fissile material absorption densities as controllers. The optimal core configurations are found to consist of three fuel zones for a bare assembly and two fuel zones for a reflected assembly. The optimum fissile material density is determined to be inversely proportional to the thermal flux

  18. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Component Tests Predict Severe Contact Injuries in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga

    2016-11-01

    Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.

  19. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  20. Development of website for studying modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, S.; Wahyono, U.; Darmadi, I. W.; Kendek, Y.; Widyawati, W.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a website in modern physics courses in order to increase student interest in physics learning. To determine the feasibility level of learning media then feasibility test to the product. The feasibility test carried out on the product is divided into three parts: material feasibility test, media feasibility test, and student response test. Based on the results of the test conducted the material obtained an average score of 3.72 and categorized very well. The result of media test that was obtained got the average score of 3.25 and categorized well. The result of the analysis of student's response to the twenty students of class A (fifth semester) of physics education program FKIP UniversitasTadulako obtained an average score of 3.16 with the good category. The results showed that the website developed can be used as one of the learning media that can support the learning process of students.

  1. Learning physics: A comparative analysis between instructional design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Easow

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in the control group which may indicate that traditional teaching methods

  2. Measurements for stresses in machine components

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, V F

    1964-01-01

    Measurements for Stresses in Machine Components focuses on the state of stress and strain of components and members, which determines the service life and strength of machines and structures. This book is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes the physical basis of several methods of measuring strains, which includes strain gauges, photoelasticity, X-ray diffraction, brittle coatings, and dividing grids. The basic concepts of the electric strain gauge method for measuring stresses inside machine components are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III elaborates on the results of experim

  3. Experiment planning using high-level component models at W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewerentz, Marc; Spring, Anett; Bluhm, Torsten; Heimann, Peter; Hennig, Christine; Kühner, Georg; Kroiss, Hugo; Krom, Johannes G.; Laqua, Heike; Maier, Josef; Riemann, Heike; Schacht, Jörg; Werner, Andreas; Zilker, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Introduction of models for an abstract description of fusion experiments. ► Component models support creating feasible experiment programs at planning time. ► Component models contain knowledge about physical and technical constraints. ► Generated views on models allow to present crucial information. - Abstract: The superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is a fusion device, which is capable of steady state operation. Furthermore W7-X is a very complex technical system. To cope with these requirements a modular and strongly hierarchical component-based control and data acquisition system has been designed. The behavior of W7-X is characterized by thousands of technical parameters of the participating components. The intended sequential change of those parameters during an experiment is defined in an experiment program. Planning such an experiment program is a crucial and complex task. To reduce the complexity an abstract, more physics-oriented high-level layer has been introduced earlier. The so-called high-level (physics) parameters are used to encapsulate technical details. This contribution will focus on the extension of this layer to a high-level component model. It completely describes the behavior of a component for a certain period of time. It allows not only defining simple value ranges but also complex dependencies between physics parameters. This can be: dependencies within components, dependencies between components or temporal dependencies. Component models can now be analyzed to generate various views of an experiment. A first implementation of such an analyze process is already finished. A graphical preview of a planned discharge can be generated from a chronological sequence of component models. This allows physicists to survey complex planned experiment programs at a glance.

  4. A Comparison of Two Scoring Methods for an Automated Speech Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Higgins, Derrick; Zechner, Klaus; Williamson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative scoring methods--multiple regression and classification trees--for an automated speech scoring system used in a practice environment. The two methods were evaluated on two criteria: construct representation and empirical performance in predicting human scores. The empirical performance of the two scoring models…

  5. Science Understanding through Playground Physics: Organized Recess Teaching (SUPPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Russell

    2010-03-01

    From 1995-2007, U.S. science students in grade four scored higher than the scaled TIMSS average, but their scores did not improve over this time. Moreover, in the area of physical science, the U.S. scored significantly lower than several Asian countries, as well as Russia, England, and Latvia (TIMSS). Methods to enhance student achievement in science are still being sought. An approach to utilizing playground equipment as a teaching tool for a variety of physics concepts was developed as a physical science teaching method. This program established an appropriate set of experiments, coordinated the effort with local school districts, and implemented a brief pilot study to test the teaching methodology. The program assigned undergraduate middle school science education majors to teach small groups of fourth grade students. The experimental group used the newly developed ``Playground Physics'' methodology while the control group used traditional approaches. Follow up activities will include an expansion of the duration and the scope of the program.

  6. Theoretical physics 8 statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to statistical physics, one of the core components of advanced undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, using methods of probability theory and statistics to solve physical problems. The first part of the book gives a detailed overview on classical statistical physics and introduces all mathematical tools needed. The second part of the book covers topics related to quantized states, gives a thorough introduction to quantum statistics, followed by a concise treatment of quantum gases. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successf...

  7. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004

  8. Relationship between sport participation and the physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of a selected group of grade 10 adolescents / Ninette Duvenhage

    OpenAIRE

    Duvenhage, Ninette

    2012-01-01

    Sport participation is positively associated with an increase in various physical, motor performance and anthropometric components, however, these benefits are influenced by the gender, race and the type of sport children participate in. Despite this, no researchers have investigated this association and the possible role of gender, race and the nature of sport participation on the possible benefits that can be derived among South African adolescents. It is against this background...

  9. Physical activity for osteoarthritis management: a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Marlene; Nairn, Lillias; Winstanley, Julie; Lam, Paul; Edmonds, John

    2007-04-15

    To determine whether Tai Chi or hydrotherapy classes for individuals with chronic symptomatic hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) result in measurable clinical benefits. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 152 older persons with chronic symptomatic hip or knee OA. Participants were randomly allocated for 12 weeks to hydrotherapy classes (n = 55), Tai Chi classes (n = 56), or a waiting list control group (n = 41). Outcomes were assessed 12 and 24 weeks after randomization and included pain and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), general health status (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 Health Survey [SF-12], version 2), psychological well-being, and physical performance (Up and Go test, 50-foot walk time, timed stair climb). At 12 weeks, compared with controls, participants allocated to hydrotherapy classes demonstrated mean improvements (95% confidence interval) of 6.5 (0.4, 12.7) and 10.5 (3.6, 14.5) for pain and physical function scores (range 0-100), respectively, whereas participants allocated to Tai Chi classes demonstrated improvements of 5.2 (-0.8, 11.1) and 9.7 (2.8, 16.7), respectively. Both class allocations achieved significant improvements in the SF-12 physical component summary score, but only allocation to hydrotherapy achieved significant improvements in the physical performance measures. All significant improvements were sustained at 24 weeks. In this almost exclusively white sample, class attendance was higher for hydrotherapy, with 81% attending at least half of the available 24 classes, compared with 61% for Tai Chi. Access to either hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes can provide large and sustained improvements in physical function for many older, sedentary individuals with chronic hip or knee OA.

  10. The HiSCORE experiment and its potential for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tluczykont, M; Hampf, D; Einhaus, U; Horns, D; Büker, M; Epimakhov, S; Kunnas, M; Maurer, A; Brückner, M; Budnev, N; Chvalaev, O; Dyachok, A; Gress, O; Ivanova, A; Konstantinov, E; Mirgazov, R; Korosteleva, E; Kuzmichev, L; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lubsandorzhiev, N B

    2013-01-01

    The HiSCORE (Hundred*i Square-km Cosmic ORigin Explorer) detector aims at the exploration of the accelerator sky, using indirect air-shower observations of cosmic rays from 100 TeV to 1 EeV and gamma rays in the last remaining observation window of gamma-ray astronomy from 10 TeV to several PeV. The main questions addressed by HiSCORE are cosmic ray composition and spectral measurements in the Galactic/extragalactic transition range, and the origin of cosmic rays via the search for gamma rays from Galactic PeV accelerators, the pevatrons. HiSCORE is based on non-imaging Cherenkov light-front sampling with sensitive large-area detector modules of the order of 0.5 m 2 . A prototype station was deployed on the Tunka cosmic ray experiment site in Siberia, where an engineering array of up to 1km 2 is planned for deployment in 2012/2013. Here, we address the expected physics potential of HiSCORE, the status of the project, and further plans.

  11. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. The performance assessment of undergraduate students in physics laboratory by using guided inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarok, H.; Lutfiyah, A.; Kholiq, A.; Suprapto, N.; Putri, N. P.

    2018-03-01

    The performance assessment of basic physics experiment among undergraduate physics students which includes three stages: pre-laboratory, conducting experiment and final report was explored in this study. The research used a descriptive quantitative approach by utilizing guidebook of basic physics experiment. The findings showed that (1) the performance of pre-laboratory rate among undergraduate physics students in good category (average score = 77.55), which includes the ability of undergraduate physics students’ theory before they were doing the experiment. (2) The performance of conducting experiment was in good category (average score = 78.33). (3) While the performance of final report was in moderate category (average score = 73.73), with the biggest weakness at how to analyse and to discuss the data and writing the abstract.

  13. CUSTOMIZED ACETABULAR COMPONENTS IN REVISION HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kavalersky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a trend of increasing demand for revision hip arthroplasty. Among these patients there are many with complex acetabular defects, including patients with pelvic discontinuity. To ensure stability for revised acetabular components in such cases becomes a challenging or unachievable task. Such defects give indications for printing customized tri-flange acetabular component. The authors analysed own experience of creating and applying custom made acetabular components in 3 patients with complex acetabular defects. Material and methods. Among the patients there were 2 women and 1 man. Average age was 60,3±19,4 years (38 to 78 years. Two patients had III B defects with pelvic discontinuity and one patient had III A defect by Paprosky classification. As the first step, the authors in collaboration with engineers printed a plaster full size pelvic 3D model, as the second step a customized tri-flange acetabular component was designed and printed. Harris Hip Score was evaluated preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results. Average follow-up period was 5,3±2,5 months (3 to 8 months. The authors observed no cases of implant loosening, dislocation or deep periprosthetic infection. Average Harris Hip Score before surgery was 27,13 and after surgery – 74,1 indicating a significant improvement in 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion. Indications for use of individual acetabular components in reported patients correspond to indications formulated by Berasi et al. The authors obtained encouraging early follow-up outcomes that correspond to data of other authors. In one patient certain difficulties were reported due to insufficient pelvic distraction. Component’s flanges prevented achieving adequate pelvic distraction. Nevertheless, good primary stability was achieved. Modern software and 3D metal printers can significantly reduce the production cost of customized acetabular components. Application of this technology can be

  14. A whole brain volumetric approach in overweight/obese children: Examining the association with different physical fitness components and academic performance. The ActiveBrains project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Contreras-Rodriguez, Oren; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Mora-Gonzalez, Jose; Migueles, Jairo H; Henriksson, Pontus; Davis, Catherine L; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Catena, Andrés; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-10-01

    Obesity, as compared to normal weight, is associated with detectable structural differences in the brain. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association of physical fitness with gray matter volume in overweight/obese children using whole brain analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the key components of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility and muscular fitness) and brain structural volume, and to assess whether fitness-related changes in brain volumes are related to academic performance in overweight/obese children. A total of 101 overweight/obese children aged 8-11 years were recruited from Granada, Spain. The physical fitness components were assessed following the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery. T1-weighted images were acquired with a 3.0 T S Magnetom Tim Trio system. Gray matter tissue was calculated using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). Academic performance was assessed by the Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz Tests of Achievement. All analyses were controlled for sex, peak high velocity offset, parent education, body mass index and total brain volume. The statistical threshold was calculated with AlphaSim and further Hayasaka adjusted to account for the non-isotropic smoothness of structural images. The main results showed that higher cardiorespiratory fitness was related to greater gray matter volumes (P structures; besides, some of these brain structures may be related to better academic performance. Importantly, the identified associations of fitness and gray matter volume were different for each fitness component. These findings suggest that increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility may positively influence the development of distinctive brain regions and academic indicators, and thus counteract the harmful effect of overweight and obesity on brain structure during childhood. Copyright

  15. Predicting Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection using risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase urine dipsticks among asymptomatic women attending a family planning clinic in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, M W; Kidula, N; Sande, J; Ombette, J; Temmerman, M

    1999-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to exert a tremendous health burden on women in developing countries. Poor socioeconomic status, inadequate knowledge, lack of diagnostic facilities, and shortages of effective treatment all contribute to the high incidence of STIs. The use of clinical algorithms for the detection and management of STIs has gained widespread acceptance in settings where there are limited resources. Evaluation of these algorithms have been few, especially in women who are not recognized as members of high-risk groups. To develop a simple scoring system based on historical and demographic data, physical findings, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase (LE) urine dipsticks to predict cervical gonococcal and chlamydial infection among asymptomatic women. One thousand and forty-eight women attending an urban family planning clinic in Nairobi were randomly selected to participate. After the identification of factors that were associated with infection, we assigned one point each for: age 25 or younger, single status, two or more sex partners in the past year, cervical discharge, cervical swab leukocytes, and a positive LE urine dipstick. Identification of any one of these six factors gave a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 30% for the detection of cervical infections. A positive LE urine dipstick had a sensitivity of 63 % and a specificity of 47% when used alone and did not contribute to the identification of infection if a physical examination was performed. The application of existing clinical algorithms to this population performed poorly. The use of risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and the urine LE dipstick, used alone or in combination, as predictors of gonococcal or chlamydial cervical infection was of limited utility in low-risk, asymptomatic women. Accurate diagnostic testing is necessary to optimize treatment.

  16. Quality of life, symptom status and physical performance in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy: an exploratory analysis of secondary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallwani, Shirin M; Simmonds, Maureen J; Kasymjanova, Goulnar; Spahija, Jadranka

    2016-09-01

    Our objectives were: (a) to identify predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing chemotherapy; and (b) to characterize symptom status, nutritional status, physical performance and HRQOL in this population and to estimate the extent to which these variables change following two cycles of chemotherapy. A secondary analysis of a longitudinal observational study of 47 patients (24 men and 23 women) with newly diagnosed advanced NSCLC receiving two cycles of first-line chemotherapy was performed. Primary outcomes were changes in HRQOL (physical and mental component summaries (PCS and MCS) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)). Predictors in the models included pre-chemotherapy patient-reported symptoms (Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale (SCFS) and Lung Cancer Subscale), nutritional screening (Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment) and physical performance measures (6-min Walk Test (6MWT), one-minute chair rise test and grip strength). Mean SF-36 PCS score, 6MWT distance and grip strength declined following two cycles of chemotherapy (pmental component of HRQOL accounting for 13% and 9% of the variance, respectively. No significant predictors were found for change in the physical component of HRQOL. Pre-chemotherapy 6MWT distance and fatigue severity predicted change in the mental component of HRQOL in patients with advanced NSCLC undergoing chemotherapy, while physical performance declined during treatment. Clinical management of these factors may be useful for HRQOL optimization in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karina S S; Dias, João M D; Araújo, Marília C; Pinheiro, Ana C; Moreira, Bruno S; Dias, Rosângela C

    2016-07-11

    Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  18. Influence of physical activity on psychosomatic health in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzyk, K; Cajdler, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent the known psychosomatic benefits of exercise hold true for the obese. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the psychosomatic health and components of general intelligence, such as the capacity for logical-deductive tasks, would be better in regularly exercising than non-exercising obese women. We addressed the issue in a self-reported survey study, comprising two groups of middle-aged obese women (age 30-50 years, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) of 25 persons each. The criterion for the group division was regular exercise, minimum twice a week, for at least 2 months. The following psychometric tools were used: Physical Fitness and Exercise Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Life Satisfaction Scale, General Health Inventory-28, Raven's Matrices Test for intelligence, and a test for selfcontentment with one's body figure shape. The exercising obese women scored significantly better in Life Satisfaction Scale (17.1 +/- 1.2 vs.12.0 +/- 0.9), had a lower level of depression (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.4 +/- 0.7), and a better assessment of the health status (24.6 +/- 1.6 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.2) (reversed score) compared with non-exercising ones (Pexercising obese women also appreciably better assessed their bodily looks. Interestingly, if depression was present in exercising women, it had more detrimental health effects than in physically inactive ones. The study failed to substantiate appreciable changes in general intelligence between active and non-active obese women. In conclusion, physical activity is of benefit for the psychosomatic health in obese women, which should be considered in behavioral counseling.

  19. Interpreting Quality of Life after Brain Injury Scores: Cross-Walk with the Short Form-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lindsay; Marsden-Loftus, Isaac; Koskinen, Sanna; Bakx, Wilbert; Bullinger, Monika; Formisano, Rita; Maas, Andrew; Neugebauer, Edmund; Powell, Jane; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Sasse, Nadine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; von Wild, Klaus; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) instruments are traumatic brain injury (TBI)-specific assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with established validity and reliability. The purpose of the study is to help improve the interpretability of the two QOLIBRI summary scores (the QOLIBRI Total score and the QOLBRI Overall Scale [OS] score). An analysis was conducted of 761 patients with TBI who took part in the QOLIBRI validation studies. A cross-walk between QOLIBRI scores and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary norm-based scoring system was performed using geometric mean regression analysis. The exercise supports a previous suggestion that QOLIBRI Total scores GOSE), as a measure of global function, are presented in the form of means and standard deviations that allow comparison with other studies, and data on age and sex are presented for the QOLIBRI-OS. While bearing in mind the potential imprecision of the comparison, the findings provide a framework for evaluating QOLIBRI summary scores in relation to generic HRQoL that improves their interpretability.

  20. Physical limitations, walkability, perceived environmental facilitators and physical activity of older adults in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li Tang

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland...... were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist...... environmental facilitators (p physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p

  1. Usage of Parameterized Fatigue Spectra and Physics-Based Systems Engineering Models for Wind Turbine Component Sizing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Taylor; Guo, Yi; Veers, Paul; Dykes, Katherine; Damiani, Rick

    2016-01-26

    Software models that use design-level input variables and physics-based engineering analysis for estimating the mass and geometrical properties of components in large-scale machinery can be very useful for analyzing design trade-offs in complex systems. This study uses DriveSE, an OpenMDAO-based drivetrain model that uses stress and deflection criteria to size drivetrain components within a geared, upwind wind turbine. Because a full lifetime fatigue load spectrum can only be defined using computationally-expensive simulations in programs such as FAST, a parameterized fatigue loads spectrum that depends on wind conditions, rotor diameter, and turbine design life has been implemented. The parameterized fatigue spectrum is only used in this paper to demonstrate the proposed fatigue analysis approach. This paper details a three-part investigation of the parameterized approach and a comparison of the DriveSE model with and without fatigue analysis on the main shaft system. It compares loads from three turbines of varying size and determines if and when fatigue governs drivetrain sizing compared to extreme load-driven design. It also investigates the model's sensitivity to shaft material parameters. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate how fatigue considerations in addition to extreme loads can be brought into a system engineering optimization.

  2. Area-efficient physically unclonable function circuit architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrieri, Thomas; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2015-04-28

    Generating a physically a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit value includes comparing each of first identification components in a first bank to each of second identification components in a second bank. A given first identification component in the first bank is not compared to another first identification component in the first bank and a given second identification component in the second bank is not compared to another second identification component in the second bank. A digital bit value is generated for each comparison made while comparing each of the first identification components to each of the second identification components. A PUF circuit value is generated from the digital bit values from each comparison made.

  3. Peach Bottom HTGR decommissioning and component removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, E.J.; Steward, K.P.; Iacono, J.V.

    1977-07-01

    The prime objective of the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program was to validate specific HTGR design codes and predictions by comparison of actual and predicted physics, thermal, fission product, and materials behavior in Peach Bottom. Three consecutive phases of the program provide input to the HTGR design methods verifications: (1) Nondestructive fuel and circuit gamma scanning; (2) removal of steam generator and primary circuit components; and (3) Laboratory examinations of removed components. Component removal site work commenced with establishment of restricted access areas and installation of controlled atmosphere tents to retain relative humidity at <30%. A mock-up room was established to test and develop the tooling and to train operators under simulated working conditions. Primary circuit ducting samples were removed by trepanning, and steam generator access was achieved by a combination of arc gouging and grinding. Tubing samples were removed using internal cutters and external grinding. Throughout the component removal phase, strict health physics, safety, and quality assurance programs were implemented. A total of 148 samples of primary circuit ducting and steam generator tubing were removed with no significant health physics or safety incidents. Additionally, component removal served to provide access fordetermination of cesium plateout distribution by gamma scanning inside the ducts and for macroexamination of the steam generator from both the water and helium sides. Evaluations are continuing and indicate excellent performance of the steam generator and other materials, together with close correlation of observed and predicted fission product plateout distributions. It is concluded that such a program of end-of-life research, when appropriately coordinated with decommissioning activities, can significantly advance nuclear plant and fuel technology development

  4. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  5. Sport and physical activity following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Wenzel; Kolbitsch, Paul; Koller, Ulrich; Boettner, Friedrich; Windhager, Reinhard

    2017-03-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) can be a surgical treatment option for patients with high expectations regarding the post-operative level of physical activity. A systematic review was undertaken to answer three research questions: (1) is there an improvement of physical activity based on validated activity scores following UKA? (2) What are the sport disciplines and the sport patterns of UKA patients? (3) What are the pre- and post-operative sport participation rates and the return to activity rates of UKA patients? Following the PRISMA guidelines, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies reporting the level of sport and/or physical activity before and after UKA, and/or included at least one activity score before and after UKA. Seventeen studies were identified reporting on 2972 UKAs, of which 89 % were medial UKAs and 92 % were mobile-bearing implants, respectively. Ten studies reported a statistically significant improvement of physical activity following UKA according to the UCLA activity score, the Tegner activity score or the High Activity Arthroplasty Score, respectively. Hiking, cycling and swimming are the most common activities following UKA. Sport participation before the onset of restricting symptoms ranged from 64 to 93 % and slightly decreased by 2-9 % following UKA. The return to activity rate ranged from 87 to 98 %. Patients following UKA are physically active according to validated activity scores. A significant increase in low-impact activities and a decrease in high-impact activities after UKA was observed. Patients with a UKA regularly participate in sports; however, sport participation slightly decreased compared to pre-arthritic levels. This systematic review helps physicians to manage the expectations of patients regarding the level of physical activity following UKA. III.

  6. Effects of extra school-based physical education on overall physical fitness development--the CHAMPS study DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Møller, N C; Klakk, H; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L B

    2015-10-01

    First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline. This study was a longitudinal controlled school-based study. The study population consisted of 10 Danish public schools with children in preschool to fourth grade (cohorts 0-4) with 2.5-year follow-up. Six schools had extra PE and four schools had normal PE. In total 1247 children were included (normal PE = 536, extra PE = 711). Development in fitness was analyzed using a composite z-score from six fitness tests. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the association between school type and development in fitness. Extra PE increased the total development of composite z-score units among children enrolled in cohort 4 and borderline in cohort 3 with 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.48-1.65) and 0.52 z-score units (-0.06 to 1.09), respectively. Children in the lower 50 percentiles increased their development with 0.47 (0.08-0.85) z-score units. Extra PE in schools improved development in fitness for cohort 4 and borderline for cohort 3 among all children. Extra PE improved fitness development across all cohorts among children with low fitness levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and inflammatory markers among Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, S N; Falcon, L M; Gao, X; Tucker, K L; Mattei, J

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45-75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range = 0-190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β ± SE = -0.55 ± 0.13; P markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n = 600; β ± SE = -0.58 ± 0.16; -0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n = 743; β ± SE = -0.59 ± 0.13; -0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n = 187) or heart disease (n = 192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasan Machfoed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  9. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  10. Concurrent Hypoparathyroidism Is Associated With Impaired Physical Function and Quality of Life in Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikjaer, Tanja; Moser, Emil; Rolighed, Lars; Underbjerg, Line; Bislev, Lise Sofie; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Total thyroidectomy causes postsurgical hypothyroidism (HypoT). Besides HypoT, as a complication patients may also develop hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT). The aim of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL), muscle function, and postural stability in patients with postsurgical hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism (HypoT+PT) as compared to patients with postsurgical HypoT and healthy controls. Age- and gender-matched patients on treatment for HypoT+PT and HypoT were recruited from our outpatient clinic. Matched healthy controls were recruited from the general background population. Compared with controls, HypoT was associated with a significantly lower mental summary score, whereas patients with HypoT+PT had a significantly lower physical summary score (Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire version 2). Moreover, the physical component score was significantly lower in patients with HypoT+PT compared with HypoT. WHO-5 well-being index was significantly lower in both groups of patients compared with controls, but did not differ between groups of patients. Compared with controls, muscle strength and maximal force production was significantly reduced in HypoT+PT, but not in HypoT. In HypoT+PT, the time spent on the Timed Up & Go test and the Repeated Chair Stands test were significantly longer than in the HypoT group and the control group. Postsurgical HypoT+PT is associated with a more severe impairment of QoL, in particular regarding physical functioning, than HypoT. HypoT+PT patients are also hampered by impaired muscle function. Studies on how to improve well-being and muscle function in HypoT+PT patients are warranted. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Application of virtual reality tools for assembly of WEST components: Comparison between simulations and physical mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilia, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.pilia@cea.fr; Brun, Cyril; Doceul, Louis; Gargiulo, Laurent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Keller, Delphine; Le, Roland; Poli, Serge; Zago, Bertrand

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • VR technologies applied to Fusion enable better and faster understanding of integration issues. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mockup. • Integration and accessibility issues can be identified in the earliest design on numerical mockup. • Problems are solved and validated on a physical mockup. • VR technologies are very helpful for assembly and maintenance operation simulations. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is an upgrade of the existing fusion machine, Tore Supra. The goal is to equip the tokamak with a fully cooled tungsten divertor and to transform the machine in a test platform open to all ITER partners. The main assembly challenge of this project consists of an implementation of two magnet systems, called divertors, with an accuracy of 1 mm. Indeed, each divertor has about 4 m as diameter and has a heavy weight of 10 tons; also it introduces piece by piece in the original vessel through tight ports then assembled inside. To ensure a perfect fitting between these new components and a very constrained environment, it is necessary to use the latest CAD technologies available. Beyond conventional CAD tools, the virtual reality (VR) room of the institute provides several useful tools. Thanks to the 185″ stereoscopic 3D screen and a force feedback arm linked to clash detection software developed by the CEA LIST, a new way to carry out design and assembly studies was performed. In order to improve VR results, metrology data (3D scan) enhance simulations. Therefore, it becomes possible to be aware of the real size of a component and future difficulties in assembling it. At last, performance of such simulations is evaluated and compared to physical mockup in order to bring enhancement to the VR tools, before to be compared to the real operations on Tore Supra. The aim is to build a design tool that helps the designer since early stage of the design of complex systems

  12. Application of virtual reality tools for assembly of WEST components: Comparison between simulations and physical mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilia, Arnaud; Brun, Cyril; Doceul, Louis; Gargiulo, Laurent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Keller, Delphine; Le, Roland; Poli, Serge; Zago, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • VR technologies applied to Fusion enable better and faster understanding of integration issues. • Assembly problems are solved and validated on a numerical mockup. • Integration and accessibility issues can be identified in the earliest design on numerical mockup. • Problems are solved and validated on a physical mockup. • VR technologies are very helpful for assembly and maintenance operation simulations. - Abstract: The WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is an upgrade of the existing fusion machine, Tore Supra. The goal is to equip the tokamak with a fully cooled tungsten divertor and to transform the machine in a test platform open to all ITER partners. The main assembly challenge of this project consists of an implementation of two magnet systems, called divertors, with an accuracy of 1 mm. Indeed, each divertor has about 4 m as diameter and has a heavy weight of 10 tons; also it introduces piece by piece in the original vessel through tight ports then assembled inside. To ensure a perfect fitting between these new components and a very constrained environment, it is necessary to use the latest CAD technologies available. Beyond conventional CAD tools, the virtual reality (VR) room of the institute provides several useful tools. Thanks to the 185″ stereoscopic 3D screen and a force feedback arm linked to clash detection software developed by the CEA LIST, a new way to carry out design and assembly studies was performed. In order to improve VR results, metrology data (3D scan) enhance simulations. Therefore, it becomes possible to be aware of the real size of a component and future difficulties in assembling it. At last, performance of such simulations is evaluated and compared to physical mockup in order to bring enhancement to the VR tools, before to be compared to the real operations on Tore Supra. The aim is to build a design tool that helps the designer since early stage of the design of complex systems

  13. Disassembly and physical separation of electric/electronic components layered in printed circuit boards (PCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeryeong; Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jae-chun

    2012-11-30

    Although printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain various elements, only the major elements (i.e., those with content levels in wt% or over grade) of and precious metals (e.g., Ag, Au, and platinum groups) contained within PCBs can be recycled. To recover other elements from PCBs, the PCBs should be properly disassembled as the first step of the recycling process. The recovery of these other elements would be beneficial for efforts to conserve scarce resources, reuse electric/electronic components (EECs), and eliminate environmental problems. This paper examines the disassembly of EECs from wasted PCBs (WPCBs) and the physical separation of these EECs using a self-designed disassembling apparatus and a 3-step separation process of sieving, magnetic separation, and dense medium separation. The disassembling efficiencies were evaluated by using the ratio of grinding area (E(area)) and the weight ratio of the detached EECs (E(weight)). In the disassembly treatment, these efficiencies were improved with an increase of grinder speed and grinder height. 97.7% (E(area)) and 98% (E(weight)) could be accomplished ultimately by 3 repetitive treatments at a grinder speed of 5500 rpm and a grinder height of 1.5mm. Through a series of physical separations, most groups of the EECs (except for the diode, transistor, and IC chip groups) could be sorted at a relatively high separation efficiency of about 75% or more. To evaluate the separation efficiency with regard to the elemental composition, the distribution ratio (R(dis)) and the concentration ratio (R(conc)) were used. 15 elements could be separated with the highest R(dis) and R(conc) in the same separated division. This result implies that the recyclability of the elements is highly feasible, even though the initial content in EECs is lower than several tens of mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring relationships between hospital patient safety culture and Consumer Reports safety scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott Alan; Yount, Naomi; Sorra, Joann

    2017-02-16

    A number of private and public companies calculate and publish proprietary hospital patient safety scores based on publicly available quality measures initially reported by the U.S. federal government. This study examines whether patient safety culture perceptions of U.S. hospital staff in a large national survey are related to publicly reported patient safety ratings of hospitals. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS) assesses provider and staff perceptions of hospital patient safety culture. Consumer Reports (CR), a U.S. based non-profit organization, calculates and shares with its subscribers a Hospital Safety Score calculated annually from patient experience survey data and outcomes data gathered from federal databases. Linking data collected during similar time periods, we analyzed relationships between staff perceptions of patient safety culture composites and the CR Hospital Safety Score and its five components using multiple multivariate linear regressions. We analyzed data from 164 hospitals, with patient safety culture survey responses from 140,316 providers and staff, with an average of 856 completed surveys per hospital and an average response rate per hospital of 56%. Higher overall Hospital SOPS composite average scores were significantly associated with higher overall CR Hospital Safety Scores (β = 0.24, p Consumer Reports Hospital Safety Score, which is a composite of patient experience and outcomes data from federal databases. As hospital managers allocate resources to improve patient safety culture within their organizations, their efforts may also indirectly improve consumer-focused, publicly reported hospital rating scores like the Consumer Reports Hospital Safety Score.

  15. Parents' global rating of mental health correlates with SF-36 scores and health services satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Tough, Suzanne; Fung, Thomas; Douglas-England, Kathleen; Verhoef, Marja

    2006-10-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are often used to measure quality of care. However, patient satisfaction may not be a reliable indicator of service quality because satisfaction can be influenced by clients' characteristics such as their health status. Parents of children attending a pediatric neurology clinic completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and global ratings of their physical and mental health. They also completed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC), and the Family-Centered Care Survey (FCCS). 104 parents completed the survey. The correlation between the global rating of physical or mental health and their corresponding SF-36 scores was high. The majority (88%) of parents were satisfied, with a median CSQ score of 28 (IQR, 24 to 31) and a FCCS score of 4.7 (IQR, 4.2 to 4.9). Logistic regression identified parents' mental health as a significant predictor of client satisfaction (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14). Given the positive association between parents' mental health and satisfaction with care, it is important to consider mental status as a covariate in interpreting satisfaction surveys. Parents' global rating of mental health appears to be a reasonable indicator of their SF-36 mental scores.

  16. Determinants and benefits of physical activity maintenance in hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Sounan, Charles; Martin, Kara; Trudel, Julie G; Lavigne, Genevieve L; Grover, Steven A; Lowensteyn, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the positive behavioral and anthropometric outcomes of a pedometer-based physical activity 8-week challenge were maintained 6 months after the end of the program. It further investigated the motivational profile of those who maintained their physical activity levels in the months following the end of the program and of those who did not. Hospital employees from a university-affiliated multisite health care center in Canada participated using a questionnaire. Of the 235 participants who completed the 8-week challenge, 157 questionnaires were returned 6 months later. Paired-samples t tests were conducted between the baseline and follow-up scores as well as between the postprogram and follow-up scores to detect significant differences between the measurement points. This study shows that the pedometer-based physical activity helped hospital employees maintain a high level of physical activity as well as maintain a healthy body mass index after 6 months. The results demonstrated that during maintenance the high physical activity group obtained higher scores for identified regulation and intrinsic regulation compared with the other groups. The results of the study revealed that identified and intrinsic regulations are important contributors to maintaining physical activity among hospital employees.

  17. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Moxley, Victor Ba; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-07-13

    Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend themselves well to inclusion of theory and any

  18. [Preoperative, neuropathic component in patients with back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-J; Koch, E M W; Breidebach, J B; Bornemann, R; Wirtz, D C; Pflugmacher, R

    2017-04-01

    The objectification of pain is essential for evaluation, treatment plan and follow-up; therefore, it is necessary to find reliable clinical parameters. The goal of the study was the preoperative screening of a neuropathic component in patients with vertebral compression fracture (WKF), herniated disc (NPP) or spinal cord compression (SKS). Depending on the preoperative condition on admittance, patients were classified into three groups: group 1 WKF, group 2 NPP and group 3 SKS. To characterize the pain we used the painDETECT questionnaire, the Oswestry questionnaire and further questionnaires. All patients were surgically treated according to the diagnosis, e.g. radiofrequency kyphoplasty, nucleotomy or spondylodesis. We evaluated the data from 139 patients (45% WKF, 34% NPP and 21% SKS). There were no differences in preoperative pain intensity (median ordinal scale 0-10) with a mean preoperative score of 7 for all groups. The total score of the painDETECT questionnaire showed significantly higher results in group 2 (median 18) and in group 3 (median 14) than in group 1 (median 9). There was even a significant difference between groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.03). The highest pain intensity was detected in group 1 with a median visual analog scale (VAS) of 71 mm. The total scores in the painDETECT questionnaire and the scores in the Oswestry questionnaire correlated in groups 2 and 3. The painDETECT questionnaire was shown to be a very suitable instrument for evaluating the neuropathic pain component in patients with dorsalgia. This could be very useful in planning further therapy.

  19. Hearing aid use and long-term health outcomes: hearing handicap, mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, physical health and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To clarify the impact of hearing aids on mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, and physical health outcomes in older adults with hearing impairment. Design We assessed hearing handicap (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly; HHIE-S), cognition (Mini Mental State Exam, Trail Making, Auditory Verbal Learning, Digit-Symbol Substitution, Verbal Fluency, incidence of cognitive impairment), physical health (SF-12 physical component, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, mortality), social engagement (hours per week spent in solitary activities) and mental health (SF-12 mental component) at baseline, 5 years prior to baseline, and 5 and 11 years after baseline. Study sample Community-dwelling older adults with hearing impairment (N=666) from the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Results There were no significant differences between hearing aid users and non-users in cognitive, social engagement or mental health outcomes at any time point. Aided HHIE-S was significantly better than unaided HHIE-S. At 11 years hearing aid users had significantly better SF-12 physical health scores (46.2 versus 41.2; p=0.03). There was no difference in incidence of cognitive impairment or mortality. Conclusion There was no evidence that hearing aids promote cognitive function, mental health, or social engagement. Hearing aids may reduce hearing handicap and promote better physical health. PMID:26140300

  20. Fitness Parks: A Comparative Study of the Components of Jakarta-Manila Parks and their Responsiveness to Support Physical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanoza, Franklin S., Jr.; Navarra, Nappy L.; Engg, D.

    2017-10-01

    Fitness has become more popular due to the cultural phenomenon that being fit can enhance one’s perception of beauty. The sprouting of various outlets for physical activity such as bodybuilding gyms that cater to weightlifting, outdoor group dance classes, sports camps and cause-oriented marathons can be noticed in numerous parts of the world. But slowly its concept, that being fit is a mere physical representation of beauty, is shifting into a more health-oriented consciousness. Annual reports have shown that coronary heart disease is still in the top rank of the death causes in the world. This information has led more people to protect their health through several lifestyle improvements, with regular exercise being one of these methods to achieve health goals. Its numerous benefits range from the lowering of blood pressure, heightened learning capacity to the improvement of mood. The health-rooted awareness of the need for physical activities to support one’s daily requirement has spread worldwide and has now been recognized by a lot of people. Parks are usually designed with amenities such as playgrounds, pathways and wide open spaces where people from all walks of life convene, interact with each other and do various physical activities. With this in mind, the capacity of parks to host such activities has to be studied to determine which components do people who engage in active healthy lifestyles find highly attractive and usable. An analysis of such could lead to effective space programming of our local neighborhood parks making it more perceptive to the physical needs of the people. Two major sports complexes from South East Asia have been used as case studies to assess the responsiveness of the locals to the amenities offered in each complex to address health goals. The comparison revealed that the Gelora Bung Karno Complex in Jakarta, Indonesia has more activity-oriented amenities and longer operating hours, making it more receptive to meet the

  1. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  2. Are Low Patient Satisfaction Scores Always Due to the Provider?: Determinants of Patient Satisfaction Scores During Spine Clinic Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Shau, David N; Kay, Harrison F; Cheng, Joseph S; Aaronson, Oran S; Devin, Clinton J

    2018-01-01

    A prospective study. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of various components on patient satisfaction scores SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Patient satisfaction has become an important component of quality assessments. However, with many of these sources collecting satisfaction data reluctant to disclose detailed information, little remains known about the potential determinants of patient satisfaction. Two hundred patients were contacted via phone within 3 weeks of new patient encounter with 11 spine providers. Standardized patient satisfaction phone survey consisting of 25 questions (1-10 rating scale) was administered. Questions inquired about scheduling, parking, office staff, teamwork, wait-time, radiology, provider interactions/behavior, treatment, and follow-up communication. Potential associations between these factors and three main outcome measures were investigated: (1) provider satisfaction, (2) overall clinic visit satisfaction, and (3) quality of care. Significant associations (P  0.05).In multivariate regression analysis, explanation of medical condition/treatment (P = 0.002) and provider empathy (P = 0.04) were significantly associated with provider satisfaction scores, while the amount of time spent with the provider was not. Conversely, teamwork of staff/provider and follow-up communication were significantly associated with both overall clinic visit satisfaction and quality of care (P ≤ 0.03), while provider behaviors or satisfaction were not. Satisfaction with the provider was associated with better explanations of the spine condition/treatment plan and provider empathy, but was not a significant factor in either overall clinic visit satisfaction or perceived quality of care. Patients' perception of teamwork between staff and providers along with reliable follow-up communication were found to be significant determinants of overall patient satisfaction and perceived quality of care. 3.

  3. Scoring of the radiological picture of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: a study to verify the reliability of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocova, Eva; Vanasek, Jiri; Koblizek, Vladimir; Novosad, Jakub; Elias, Pavel; Bartos, Vladimir; Sterclova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical form of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Computed chest tomography (CT) has a fundamental role in the multidisciplinary diagnostics. However, it has not been verified if and how a subjective opinion of a radiologists or pneumologists can influence the assessment and overall diagnostic summary. To verify the reliability of the scoring system. Assessment of conformity of the radiological score of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of lungs in patients with IPF was performed by a group of radiologists and pneumologists. Personal data were blinded and the assessment was performed independently using the Dutka/Vasakova scoring system (modification of the Gay system). The final score of the single assessors was then evaluated by means of the paired Spearman’s correlation and analysis of the principal components. Two principal components explaining cumulatively a 62% or 73% variability of the assessment of the single assessors were extracted during the analysis. The groups did not differ both in terms of specialty and experience with the assessment of the HRCT findings. According to our study, scoring of a radiological image using the Dutka/Vasakova system is a reliable method in the hands of experienced radiologists. Significant differences occur during the assessment performed by pneumologists especially during the evaluation of the alveolar changes

  4. Ganga hospital open injury score in management of open injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Sabapathy, S R; Dheenadhayalan, J; Sundararajan, S R; Venkatramani, H; Devendra, A; Ramesh, P; Srikanth, K P

    2015-02-01

    Open injuries of the limbs offer challenges in management as there are still many grey zones in decision making regarding salvage, timing and type of reconstruction. As a result, there is still an unacceptable rate of secondary amputations which lead to tremendous waste of resources and psychological devastation of the patient and his family. Gustilo Anderson's classification was a major milestone in grading the severity of injury but however suffers from the disadvantages of imprecise definition, a poor interobserver correlation, inability to address the issue of salvage and inclusion of a wide spectrum of injuries in Type IIIb category. Numerous scores such as Mangled Extremity Severity Score, the Predictive Salvage Index, the Limb Salvage Index, Hannover Fracture Scale-97 etc have been proposed but all have the disadvantage of retrospective evaluation, inadequate sample sizes and poor sensitivity and specificity to amputation, especially in IIIb injuries. The Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) was proposed in 2004 and is designed to specifically address the outcome in IIIb injuries of the tibia without vascular deficit. It evaluates the severity of injury to the three components of the limb--the skin, the bone and the musculotendinous structures separately on a grade from 0 to 5. Seven comorbid factors which influence the treatment and the outcome are included in the score with two marks each. The application of the total score and the individual tissue scores in management of IIIB injuries is discussed. The total score was shown to predict salvage when the value was 14 or less; amputation when the score was 17 and more. A grey zone of 15 and 16 is provided where the decision making had to be made on a case to case basis. The additional value of GHOIS was its ability to guide the timing and type of reconstruction. A skin score of more than 3 always required a flap and hence it indicated the need for an orthoplastic approach from the index procedure. Bone

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the MPAM-R to Brazilian Portuguese and Proposal of a New Method to Calculate Factor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Lopes, Mariana C.; de Paula, Jonas J.; Faria, Larissa O.; Pereira, Eveline T.; da Costa, Varley T.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the reasons that lead individuals to practice physical activity, researchers developed the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) scale. In 2010, a translation of MPAM-R to Portuguese and its validation was performed. However, psychometric measures were not acceptable. In addition, factor scores in some sports psychology scales are calculated by the mean of scores by items of the factor. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate that items with higher factor loadings, extracted by Factor Analysis, have greater weight in the factor score, as items with lower factor loadings have less weight in the factor score. The aims of the present study are to translate, validate the MPAM-R for Portuguese versions, and investigate agreement between two methods used to calculate factor scores. Three hundred volunteers who were involved in physical activity programs for at least 6 months were collected. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 30 items indicated that the version did not fit the model. After excluding four items, the final model with 26 items showed acceptable model fit measures by Exploratory Factor Analysis, as well as it conceptually supports the five factors as the original proposal. When two methods are compared to calculate factors scores, our results showed that only “Enjoyment” and “Appearance” factors showed agreement between methods to calculate factor scores. So, the Portuguese version of the MPAM-R can be used in a Brazilian context, and a new proposal for the calculation of the factor score seems to be promising. PMID:28293203

  6. Menstruation, objectification and health-related quality of life: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís

    2018-02-01

    To explore young women's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and investigate whether menstrual and menarche experiences and objectification predict mental and physical health components of HRQOL. Menstruation plays a fundamental role in female biology, in women's relationship to their bodies and consequently in women's health and their HRQOL. Cross-sectional explorative survey design. A questionnaire that included the SF-36v2, the Self-objectification Questionnaire (SOQ), the Body Surveillance and Body Shame subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Belief and Attitudes Towards Menstruation Questionnaire (four subscales), and questions on menarche and menstruation was administered at the end of 2013 to 319 Icelandic women who represented the population by age. The SF-36v2 includes eight dimensions addressing the mental and physical components of HRQOL. Scores are presented as raw data scores and scores based on standardised score of American women and range from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating better HRQL. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model was employed to calculate significant predictors of mental and physical health components of HRQOL. Mean raw data scores on SF36-v2 dimensions ranged from 54.7 to 91.5. The participants scored below the standardised, mean norm-based score for all dimensions. Secrecy of menstruation, experience of body shame and pain during menstruation predicted worse mental HRQOL. To believe in the proscriptive role and the unpleasantness of menstruation, experience of body shame, medication for menstrual pain and not holding a university education predicted worse physical HRQOL. These two models explained 30% and 22% of the variance of the mental and physical components of SF36-v2, respectively. Young women's mental and physical HRQOL is influenced by the specific context of their lives. Women's health education should take into account the various relationships women may have with their bodies. © 2017

  7. A study of VHI scores and acoustic features in street vendors as occupational voice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natour, Yaser S; Darawsheh, Wesam B; Bashiti, Sara; Wari, Majd; Taha, Juhayna; Odeh, Thair

    to investigate acoustic features of phonation and perception of voice handicap in street vendors. Eighty-eight participants (44 street vendors, 44 controls) were recruited. The mean age of the group was 38.9±16.0 years (range: 20-78 years). Scores of the Arabic version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-Arab) were used for analysis. Acoustic measures of fundamental frequency (F 0 ), jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were also analyzed. Analysis showed a significant difference between street vendors and controls in the total score of the VHI-Arab (p<0.001) as well as scores of all three VHI-Arab subsections: functional (p<0.001), physical (p<0.001), and emotional (p=0.025). Weak correlations were found among all of the VHI scores and acoustic measures (-0.219≤ r≤0.355), except for SNR where a moderate negative correlations were found (r=-0.555; -0.4) between the VHI (physical and total) scores and SNR values. Significant differences also were found in F 0 , jitter, and SNR among specific subgroups of street vendors when stratified by weekly hours worked (p<0.05), and in jitter (p=0.39) when stratified by educational level. Perception of voice handicap and a possible effect on vocal quality in street vendors were noted. The effect of factors, namely work hours and educational level, on voice quality should be further studied. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of sex composition by class and instructor's sex on physical self-efficacy of college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, E S; Rust, D M; Blassingame, C L; Reed, J L

    2000-02-01

    The relationship of sex composition of class and instructor's sex to Physical Self-efficacy has yielded conflicting results in several studies. This study examined the relationship of sex composition of class and instructor's sex to scores on Physical Self-efficacy, Perceived Physical Ability, and Physical Self-presentation Confidence of 80 male students enrolled in one of four sections of a strength training class. Analysis indicated no significant difference on Physical Self-efficacy between male students who were enrolled in all male classes or in coeducational classes; improvements in scores on Physical Self-efficacy were not specific to the sex composition of the class or sex of the instructor and no significant difference on Perceived Physical Ability and Physical Self-presentation Confidence between male students who joined an all male class or a coeducational class. Perceived Physical Ability improved from the pretest to the posttest in all classes; and no improvement in scores for Physical Self-presentation Confidence was found in all classes. In conclusion, the analysis showed sex composition of the class and sex of the instructor were not significantly related to scores for self-efficacy.

  9. External validation of the Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score : Ruling out significant abdominal injury in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Stoepker, Leon; Nellensteijn, David R.; Groen, Henk; El Moumni, Mostafa; Hulscher, Jan B.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the use of the Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score. The BATiC score uses only readily available laboratory parameters, ultrasound results, and results from physical examination and does therefore not carry any risk of additional

  10. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  11. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    world. Tablets are often split to modify dose strength, make swallowing easier, and reduce cost to the consumer. To better address product quality for this widely used practice, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Guidance for Industry that addresses tablet splitting. The guidance provides testing criteria for scored tablets, which is a part of the FDA review process for drugs. The model drugs selected for this study were amlodipine and gabapentin, which have different sizes, shapes, and tablet scores. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for drug content because of a concern that the low-dose strength may cause greater variability. Whole and split gabapentin tablets were tested for weight variation because of their higher dosage strength of 600 mg. All whole tablets met the acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units based on the guidance recommendations. When unscored amlodipine tablets were split by a splitter, all formulations did not meet the acceptance criteria. When fully scored gabapentin tablets were split by hand and by splitter, they met the acceptance criteria. The findings of this FDA study indicated physical characteristics such as size, shape, and tablet score can affect the uniformity of split tablets. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  12. Correlation between cardiac autonomic modulation in response to orthostatic stress and indicators of quality of life, physical capacity, and physical activity in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thiago R; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras; Gurgel, Jonas L; da Silva Soares, Pedro P

    2015-05-01

    Increased heart rate variability (HRV) at rest is frequently associated to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), physical activity, and markers of quality of life (QoL). However, the HRV has not been observed during physical exercise or orthostatic (ORT) challenge. This study investigated the associations of HRV changes (ΔHRV) from rest at supine (SUP) to ORT positions with (VO2max), physical activity level, and QoL in young adults. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed by spectral analysis of R-R time series measured from SUP to ORT positions in 15 healthy volunteers (26 ± 7 years). Questionnaires were applied for evaluation of QoL (SF-36 score), to estimate (VO2max), and to quantify physical activity (Baecke Sport Score). All HRV indices at SUP, but not ORT, strongly correlated to QoL, estimated (VO2max), and physical activity. The ΔHRV from SUP to ORT showed significant correlations with all questionnaire scores (r = 0.52-0.61 for low frequency and r = -0.61 to -0.65 for high frequency, p ≤ 0.05). Higher vagal activity at rest and greater changes in adrenergic and parasympathetic modulation from SUP to ORT were detected in the volunteers exhibiting higher scores of QoL, estimated (VO2max), and physical activity. Taken together, the level of neural adaptations from resting SUP position to active standing, and physical activity and QoL questionnaires seem to be a simple approach to understand the physiological and lifestyle adaptations to exercise that may be applied to a large sample of subjects in almost any sports facilities at a low cost.

  13. Predictors of mortality and short-term physical and cognitive dependence in critically ill persons 75 years and older: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubin, Cédric; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Séguin, Amélie; Gaillard, Cathy; Valette, Xavier; Prévost, Fabrice; Terzi, Nicolas; Ramakers, Michel; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien; Charbonneau, Pierre

    2011-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of 3-month mortality in critically ill older persons under medical care and to assess the clinical impact of an ICU stay on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status in survivors. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all older persons 75 years and older consecutively admitted into ICU during a one-year period, except those admitted after cardiac arrest, All patients were followed for 3 months or until death. Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson index and physical dependence was evaluated using the Katz index of Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Cognitive dependence was determined by a score based on the individual components of the Lawton index of Daily Living and subjective health status was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) score. One hundred patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 79.3 ± 3.4 years. The median Charlson index was 6 [IQR, 4 to 7] and the mean ADL and cognitive scores were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.4, respectively, corresponding to a population with a high level of comorbidities but low physical and cognitive dependence. Mortality was 61/100 (61%) at 3 months. In multivariate analysis only comorbidities assessed by the Charlson index [Adjusted Odds Ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; p physical (p = 0.04), and cognitive (p = 0.62) dependence in survivors had changed very little at 3 months. In addition, the mean NHP score was 213.1 ± 132.8 at 3 months, suggesting an acceptable perception of their quality of life. In a selected population of non surgical patients 75 years and older, admission into the ICU is associated with a 3-month survival rate of 38% with little impact on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status. Nevertheless, a high comorbidity level (ie, Charlson index), multi-organ failure, and the need for extra-renal support at the early phase of intensive care could be considered as

  14. Grip strength as a frailty diagnostic component in geriatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzińska-Griszek J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Dudzińska-Griszek, Karolina Szuster, Jan Szewieczek Department of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Frailty has emerged as a key medical syndrome predictive of comorbidity, disability, institutionalization and death. As a component of the five frailty phenotype diagnostic criteria, patient grip strength deserves attention as a simple and objective measure of the frailty syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess conditions that influence grip strength in geriatric inpatients.Patients and methods: The study group consisted of 80 patients aged 78.6±7.0 years ( X ± SD, with 68.8% women, admitted to the Department of Geriatrics. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was complemented with assessment for the frailty phenotype as described by Fried et al for all patients in the study group. Functional assessment included Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination.Results: Three or more frailty criteria were positive in 32 patients (40%, while 56 subjects (70% fulfilled the frailty criterion of weakness (grip strength test. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that two independent measures showed positive association with grip strength – Mini-Mental State Examination score (β=0.239; P=0.001 and statin use (β=0.213; P=0.002 – and four independent measures were negatively associated with grip strength – female sex (β=–0.671; P<0.001, C-reactive protein (β=–0.253; P<0.001, prior myocardial infarction (β=–0.190; P=0.006 and use of an antidepressant (β=–0.163; P=0.018. Low physical activity was identified as the only independent qualitative frailty component associated with 2-year mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio =6.000; 95% CI =1.357–26.536; P=0.018.Conclusion: Cognitive

  15. Relation between self-image score of SRS-22 with deformity measures in female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, Y P; Yu, B; Zhang, J G; Shen, J X; Qiu, G X; Li, Y

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a pathology which affects the individual's functioning in the widely understood physical, psychic, and social aspects. More attention should be paid to patients' perception of self-image when evaluating the spine deformity. The present retrospective study evaluated the associations between the deformity measures and self-image score as determined by the SRS-22 questionnaire in Chinese female AIS patients. The self-image score correlates significantly with deformity measures. The location of main curve apex and the number of curve could affect the self-image score. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 202 female patients, collected data on patient's age, body mass index, radiographic and physical measures and self-image score of SRS-22 questionnaire. According to the location of main curve apex and the number of curve, the patients were divided to different subgroups. Correlations between deformity measures and self-image score of different groups were evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. The self-image score correlated negatively with the main Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation (AVT), and razor hump height. There is no significant difference of self-image score between thoracic curve (TC) and thoracolumbar curve (TL/LC) subgroups. And the self-image scores of one-curve, two-curve and three-curve subgroups are similar. For Chinese female AIS patients in our study, self-image was found to correlate negatively with the main Cobb angle, AVT and razor hump height. And the location of scoliosis apex and the number of curve are not influencing factors of self-image perception. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the impact of integrating physical activity on fluid intelligence and academic performance in an elementary school setting: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Julian A; Einstein, Gilles; Hahn, Erin; Hooker, Steven P; Gross, Virginia P; Kravitz, Jen

    2010-05-01

    To examine the impact of integrating physical activity with elementary curricula on fluid intelligence and academic achievement. A random sample of 3rd grade teachers integrated physical activity into their core curricula approximately 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week from January 2008 to April 2008. Noninvasive fluid intelligence cognitive measures were used along with State-mandated academic achievement tests. Experimental Group children averaged close to 1200 pedometer steps per integration day, thus averaging 3600 steps per week. Children in the Experimental Group performed significantly better on the SPM Fluid Intelligence Test. Children in the Experimental Group also performed significantly better on the Social Studies State mandated academic achievement test. Experimental Group children also received higher scores on the English/Language Arts, Math and Science achievements tests, but were not statistically significant compared with Control Group children. Children classified in Fitnessgram's Healthy Fitness Zone for BMI earned lower scores on many of the SPM Fluid Intelligence components. This investigation provides evidence that movement can influence fluid intelligence and should be considered to promote cognitive development of elementary-age children. Equally compelling were the differences in SPM Fluid Intelligence Test scores for children who were distinguished by Fitnessgram's BMI cut points.

  17. Assessment of calcium scoring performance in cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulzheimer, Stefan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam tomography (EBT) has been used for cardiac diagnosis and the quantitative assessment of coronary calcium since the late 1980s. The introduction of mechanical multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners with shorter rotation times opened new possibilities of cardiac imaging with conventional CT scanners. The purpose of this work was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance for EBT and MSCT for the task of coronary artery calcium imaging as a function of acquisition protocol, heart rate, spiral reconstruction algorithm (where applicable) and calcium scoring method. A cardiac CT semi-anthropomorphic phantom was designed and manufactured for the investigation of all relevant image quality parameters in cardiac CT. This phantom includes various test objects, some of which can be moved within the anthropomorphic phantom in a manner that mimics realistic heart motion. These tools were used to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the accuracy of coronary calcium imaging using typical protocols for an electron beam (Evolution C-150XP, Imatron, South San Francisco, Calif.) and a 0.5-s four-slice spiral CT scanner (Sensation 4, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). A special focus was put on the method of quantifying coronary calcium, and three scoring systems were evaluated (Agatston, volume, and mass scoring). Good reproducibility in coronary calcium scoring is always the result of a combination of high temporal and spatial resolution; consequently, thin-slice protocols in combination with retrospective gating on MSCT scanners yielded the best results. The Agatston score was found to be the least reproducible scoring method. The hydroxyapatite mass, being better reproducible and comparable on different scanners and being a physical quantitative measure, appears to be the method of choice for future clinical studies. The hydroxyapatite mass is highly correlated to the Agatston score. The introduced phantoms can be used to quantitatively assess the

  18. Psychometric properties of the PROMIS Physical Function item bank in patients receiving physical therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine H P Crins

    Full Text Available The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS is a universally applicable set of instruments, including item banks, short forms and computer adaptive tests (CATs, measuring patient-reported health across different patient populations. PROMIS CATs are highly efficient and the use in practice is considered feasible with little administration time, offering standardized and routine patient monitoring. Before an item bank can be used as CAT, the psychometric properties of the item bank have to be examined. Therefore, the objective was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank (DF-PROMIS-PF in Dutch patients receiving physical therapy.Cross-sectional study.805 patients >18 years, who received any kind of physical therapy in primary care in the past year, completed the full DF-PROMIS-PF (121 items.Unidimensionality was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis and local dependence and monotonicity were evaluated. A Graded Response Model was fitted. Construct validity was examined with correlations between DF-PROMIS-PF T-scores and scores on two legacy instruments (SF-36 Health Survey Physical Functioning scale [SF36-PF10] and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability-Index [HAQ-DI]. Reliability (standard errors of theta was assessed.The results for unidimensionality were mixed (scaled CFI = 0.924, TLI = 0.923, RMSEA = 0.045, 1th factor explained 61.5% of variance. Some local dependence was found (8.2% of item pairs. The item bank showed a broad coverage of the physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.28-2.33 and good construct validity (correlation with SF36-PF10 = 0.84 and HAQ-DI = -0.85. Furthermore, the DF-PROMIS-PF showed greater reliability over a broader score-range than the SF36-PF10 and HAQ-DI.The psychometric properties of the DF-PROMIS-PF item bank are sufficient. The DF-PROMIS-PF can now be used as short forms or CAT to measure the level of

  19. Logistic regression models for predicting physical and mental health-related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Bayat, Noushin; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Tavallaii, Seyed Abbas; Assari, Shervin; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop two logistic regression models capable of predicting physical and mental health related quality of life (HRQOL) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In this cross-sectional study which was conducted during 2006 in the outpatient rheumatology clinic of our university hospital, Short Form 36 (SF-36) was used for HRQOL measurements in 411 RA patients. A cutoff point to define poor versus good HRQOL was calculated using the first quartiles of SF-36 physical and mental component scores (33.4 and 36.8, respectively). Two distinct logistic regression models were used to derive predictive variables including demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each model were calculated. Poor physical HRQOL was positively associated with pain score, disease duration, monthly family income below 300 US$, comorbidity, patient global assessment of disease activity or PGA, and depression (odds ratios: 1.1; 1.004; 15.5; 1.1; 1.02; 2.08, respectively). The variables that entered into the poor mental HRQOL prediction model were monthly family income below 300 US$, comorbidity, PGA, and bodily pain (odds ratios: 6.7; 1.1; 1.01; 1.01, respectively). Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved at a cutoff point of 0.39 for the estimated probability of poor physical HRQOL and 0.18 for mental HRQOL. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the physical and mental models were 73.8, 87, 83.7% and 90.38, 70.36, 75.43%, respectively. The results show that the suggested models can be used to predict poor physical and mental HRQOL separately among RA patients using simple variables with acceptable accuracy. These models can be of use in the clinical decision-making of RA patients and to recognize patients with poor physical or mental HRQOL in advance, for better management.

  20. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  1. Validity of Walk Score® as a measure of neighborhood walkability in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Sugiyama, Takemi; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Oka, Koichiro

    2018-03-01

    Objective measures of environmental attributes have been used to understand how neighborhood environments relate to physical activity. However, this method relies on detailed spatial data, which are often not easily available. Walk Score® is a free, publicly available web-based tool that shows how walkable a given location is based on objectively-derived proximity to several types of local destinations and street connectivity. To date, several studies have tested the concurrent validity of Walk Score as a measure of neighborhood walkability in the USA and Canada. However, it is unknown whether Walk Score is a valid measure in other regions. The current study examined how Walk Score is correlated with objectively-derived attributes of neighborhood walkability, for residential addresses in Japan. Walk Scores were obtained for 1072 residential addresses in urban and rural areas in Japan. Five environmental attributes (residential density, intersection density, number of local destinations, sidewalk availability, and access to public transportation) were calculated using geographic information systems for each address. Pearson's correlation coefficients between Walk Score and these environmental attributes were calculated (conducted in May 2017). Significant positive correlations were observed between Walk Score and environmental attributes relevant to walking. Walk Score was most closely associated with intersection density ( r  = 0.82) and with the number of local destinations ( r  = 0.77). Walk Score appears to be a valid measure of neighborhood walkability in Japan. Walk Score will allow urban designers and public health practitioners to identify walkability of local areas without relying on detailed geographic data.

  2. Benign multiple sclerosis: physical and cognitive impairment follow distinct evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajofatto, A; Turatti, M; Bianchi, M R; Forlivesi, S; Gobbin, F; Azzarà, A; Monaco, S; Benedetti, M D

    2016-03-01

    Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) definitions rely on physical disability level but do not account sufficiently for cognitive impairment which, however, is not rare. To study the evolution of physical disability and cognitive performance of a group of patients with BMS followed at an University Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center. A consecutive sample of 24 BMS cases (diagnosis according to 2005 McDonald's criteria, relapsing-remitting course, disease duration ≥ 10 years, and expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score ≤ 2.0) and 13 sex- and age-matched non-BMS patients differing from BMS cases for having EDSS score 2.5-5.5 were included. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) baseline and 5-year follow-up cognitive impairment defined as failure of at least two tests of the administered neuropsychological battery; (ii) EDSS score worsening defined as confirmed increase ≥ 1 point (or 0.5 point if baseline EDSS score = 5.5). At inclusion, BMS subjects were 41 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 1.5 (range 0-2), while non-BMS patients were 46 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 3.0 (2.5-5.5). At baseline 16% of patients in both groups were cognitively impaired. After 5 years, EDSS score worsened in 8% of BMS and 46% of non-BMS patients (P = 0.008), while the proportion of cognitively impaired subjects increased to 25% in both groups. Patients with BMS had better physical disability outcome at 5 years compared to non-BMS cases. However, cognitive impairment frequency and decline over time appeared similar. Neuropsychological assessment is essential in patients with BMS given the distinct pathways followed by disease progression in cognitive and physical domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fear of failure and self-handicapping in college physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fear of failure and self-handicapping within the context of physical education. Participants were 103 college freshmen enrolled in aerobic dance physical education classes in Taiwan. They completed the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory and Self-Handicapping Scale for Sport 3 mo. after entering the class. Hierarchical regression indicated that scores on fear of failure predicted self-handicapping scores.

  4. Assessing Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2

  5. Identification of physical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    of the model with the available prior knowledge. The methods for identification of physical models have been applied in two different case studies. One case is the identification of thermal dynamics of building components. The work is related to a CEC research project called PASSYS (Passive Solar Components......The problem of identification of physical models is considered within the frame of stochastic differential equations. Methods for estimation of parameters of these continuous time models based on descrete time measurements are discussed. The important algorithms of a computer program for ML or MAP...... design of experiments, which is for instance the design of an input signal that are optimal according to a criterion based on the information provided by the experiment. Also model validation is discussed. An important verification of a physical model is to compare the physical characteristics...

  6. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power.

  7. What do seniors remember from freshman physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pawl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have given a group of 56 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT seniors who took mechanics as freshmen a written test similar to the final exam they took in their freshman course as well as the Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT and the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS. Students in majors unrelated to physics scored 60% lower on the written analytic part of the final than they would have as freshmen. The mean score of all participants on the MBT was insignificantly changed from their average on the posttest they took as freshmen. However, the students’ performance on 9 of the 26 MBT items (with 6 of the 9 involving graphical kinematics represents a gain over their freshman posttest score (a normalized gain of about 70%, while their performance on the remaining 17 questions is best characterized as a loss of approximately 50% of the material learned in the freshman course. On multiple-choice questions covering advanced physics concepts, the mean score of the participants was about 50% lower than the average performance of freshmen. Although attitudinal survey results indicate that almost half the seniors feel the specific mechanics course content is unlikely to be useful to them, a significant majority (75%–85% feel that physics does teach valuable problem solving skills, and an overwhelming majority believe that mechanics should remain a required course at MIT.

  8. How does preclinical laboratory training impact physical examination skills during the first clinical year? A retrospective analysis of routinely collected objective structured clinical examination scores among the first two matriculating classes of a reformed curriculum in one Polish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerszcz, Jolanta; Stalmach-Przygoda, Agata; Kuźma, Marcin; Jabłoński, Konrad; Cegielny, Tomasz; Skrzypek, Agnieszka; Wieczorek-Surdacka, Ewa; Kruszelnicka, Olga; Chmura, Kaja; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Surdacki, Andrzej; Nowakowski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    As a result of a curriculum reform launched in 2012 at our institution, preclinical training was shortened to 2 years instead of the traditional 3 years, creating additional incentives to optimise teaching methods. In accordance with the new curriculum, a semester-long preclinical module of clinical skills (CS) laboratory training takes place in the second year of study, while an introductory clinical course (ie, brief introductory clerkships) is scheduled for the Fall semester of the third year. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are carried out at the conclusion of both the preclinical module and the introductory clinical course. Our aim was to compare the scores at physical examination stations between the first and second matriculating classes of a newly reformed curriculum on preclinical second-year OSCEs and early clinical third-year OSCEs. Analysis of routinely collected data. One Polish medical school. Complete OSCE records for 462 second-year students and 445 third-year students. OSCE scores by matriculation year. In comparison to the first class of the newly reformed curriculum, significantly higher (ie, better) OSCE scores were observed for those students who matriculated in 2013, a year after implementing the reformed curriculum. This finding was consistent for both second-year and third-year cohorts. Additionally, the magnitude of the improvement in median third-year OSCE scores was proportional to the corresponding advancement in preceding second-year preclinical OSCE scores for each of two different sets of physical examination tasks. In contrast, no significant difference was noted between the academic years in the ability to interpret laboratory data or ECG - tasks which had not been included in the second-year preclinical training. Our results suggest the importance of preclinical training in a CS laboratory to improve students' competence in physical examination at the completion of introductory clinical clerkships during

  9. Properties of the cold components of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luud, L.; Leedyarv, L.

    1986-01-01

    The basic physical parameters of the cold components of symbiotic stars and comparison red giants have been determined from the data of infrared photometry by means of the Blackwell-Shallis method. It is found that the cold components of the symbiotic stars do not differ from normal red giants of the asymptotic branch. The masses of the cold components of the symbiotic stars are close to 3M. The red components of the symbiotic stars do not fill their Roche lobes. Among the cold components of the symbiotic stars, there are approximately ten times as many carbon stars as among the red giants in the neighborhood of the Sun

  10. Physical therapist management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Linda S; Harrington, Kendra L; Haskvitz, Esther M

    2010-12-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) negatively affects quality of life and sexual function in men of all ages. Typical treatment with antibiotic and antimicrobial drugs often is not successful. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multimodal physical therapy intervention that included manual therapy techniques applied to the pelvic floor in 2 patients who were unsuccessfully treated with the biomedical model of prescription drug therapies. Two men, aged 45 years and 53 years and diagnosed with chronic prostatitis, were referred for physical therapy following unsuccessful pharmacological treatment. The patients were treated with manual therapy techniques applied to the pelvic floor and instructed in progressive muscle relaxation, flexibility exercises, and aerobic exercises. Changes in the patients' National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index revealed differences between preintervention and postintervention scores reflecting decreased pain and improved quality of life. One patient improved from a score of 25 (total possible score = 43) before treatment to a score of 0 after treatment, and the other patient improved from a score of 29 to a score of 21. Manual therapy techniques applied to the pelvic floor and performed by a physical therapist specially trained in these techniques, along with progressive muscle relaxation, flexibility exercises, and aerobic exercises, appeared to be beneficial to both patients in reducing pain and improving sexual function.

  11. Computerized summary scoring: crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Cai, Zhiqiang; Graesser, Arthur C

    2017-11-03

    In this study we developed and evaluated a crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis (LSA) approach to computerized summary scoring (CSS). LSA is a frequently used mathematical component in CSS, where LSA similarity represents the extent to which the to-be-graded target summary is similar to a model summary or a set of exemplar summaries. Researchers have proposed different formulations of the model summary in previous studies, such as pregraded summaries, expert-generated summaries, or source texts. The former two methods, however, require substantial human time, effort, and costs in order to either grade or generate summaries. Using source texts does not require human effort, but it also does not predict human summary scores well. With human summary scores as the gold standard, in this study we evaluated the crowdsourcing LSA method by comparing it with seven other LSA methods that used sets of summaries from different sources (either experts or crowdsourced) of differing quality, along with source texts. Results showed that crowdsourcing LSA predicted human summary scores as well as expert-good and crowdsourcing-good summaries, and better than the other methods. A series of analyses with different numbers of crowdsourcing summaries demonstrated that the number (from 10 to 100) did not significantly affect performance. These findings imply that crowdsourcing LSA is a promising approach to CSS, because it saves human effort in generating the model summary while still yielding comparable performance. This approach to small-scale CSS provides a practical solution for instructors in courses, and also advances research on automated assessments in which student responses are expected to semantically converge on subject matter content.

  12. Spectral characterization of the fluorescent components present in humic substances, fulvic acid and humic acid mixed with pure benzo(a)pyrene solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fallah, Rawa; Rouillon, Régis; Vouvé, Florence

    2018-06-01

    The fate of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous contaminant reported to be persistent in the environment, is largely controlled by its interactions with the soil organic matter. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of fluorophores present in the physical fractions of the soil organic matter were investigated in the presence of pure BaP solution. After extraction of humic substances (HSs), and their fractionation into fluvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), two fluorescent compounds (C1 and C2) were identified and characterized in each physical soil fraction, by means of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). Then, to each type of fraction having similar DOC content, was added an increasing volume of pure BaP solution in attempt to assess the behavior of BaP with the fluorophores present in each one. The application of FEEMs-PARAFAC method validated a three-component model that consisted of the two resulted fluorophores from HSs, FA and HA (C1 and C2) and a BaP-like fluorophore (C3). Spectral modifications were noted for components C2HSs (C2 in humic substances fraction) (λex/λem: 420/490-520 nm), C2FA (C2 in fulvic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 400/487(517) nm) and C1HA (C1 in humic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 350/452(520) nm). We explored the impact of increasing the volume of the added pure BaP solution on the scores of the fluorophores present in the soil fractions. It was found that the scores of C2HSs, C2FA, and C1HA increased when the volume of the added pure BaP solution increased. Superposition of the excitation spectra of these fluorophores with the emission spectrum of BaP showed significant overlaps that might explain the observed interactions between BaP and the fluorescent compounds present in SOM physical fractions.

  13. Prehospital score for acute disease: a community-based observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara Hidekazu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulance usage in Japan has increased consistently because it is free under the national health insurance system. The introduction of refusal for ambulance transfer is being debated nationally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between prehospital data and hospitalization outcome for acute disease patients, and to develop a simple prehospital evaluation tool using prehospital data for Japan's emergency medical service system. Methods The subjects were 9,160 consecutive acute disease patients aged ≥ 15 years who were transferred to hospital by Kishiwada City Fire Department ambulance between July 2004 and March 2006. The relationship between prehospital data (age, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, level of consciousness, SpO2 level and ability to walk and outcome (hospitalization or non-hospitalization was analyzed using logistic regression models. The prehospital score component of each item of prehospital data was determined by beta coefficients. Eligible patients were scored retrospectively and the distribution of outcome was examined. For patients transported to the two main hospitals, outcome after hospitalization was also confirmed. Results A total of 8,330 (91% patients were retrospectively evaluated using a prehospital score with a maximum value of 14. The percentage of patients requiring hospitalization rose from 9% with score = 0 to 100% with score = 14. With a cut-off point score ≥ 2, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97%, 16%, 39% and 89%, respectively. Among the 6,498 patients transported to the two main hospitals, there were no deaths at scores ≤ 1 and the proportion of non-hospitalization was over 90%. The proportion of deaths increased rapidly at scores ≥ 11. Conclusion The prehospital score could be a useful tool for deciding the refusal of ambulance transfer in Japan's emergency medical

  14. Development and Validation of the OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Tenosynovitis Scoring System in a Multireader Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Bird, Paul; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Peterfy, Charles G; Vital, Edward M; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-11-01

    To develop and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tenosynovitis (TS) score for tendons at the wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Axial T1-weighted precontrast and postcontrast fat-saturated MR image sets of the hands of 43 patients with RA initiating rituximab therapy were obtained at baseline and after 14, 26, 38, or 52 weeks. The MR images were scored twice by 4 readers. Nine tendon compartments of the wrist and 4 flexor tendon compartments at the MCP joints were assessed. Tenosynovitis was scored as follows: 0: No; 1: The overall PEA/PCA intrareader and interreader agreements for change scores in all tendons were 73.8%/97.6% and 47.9%/85.0%, respectively. Average SRM was moderate for total scores and 60.5% of the patients had a tenosynovitis change score ≥ SDC. The TS score showed high intrareader and interreader agreement for wrist and finger tendons, with moderate responsiveness, and the majority of the patients showed a change above the SDC. This scoring system may be included as a component of the RAMRIS.

  15. Associating Physical Activity Levels with Motor Performance and Physical Function in Childhood Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Stanley H; Rankin, Anne; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Pritchard, Sheila; Fryer, Christopher; Campbell, Kristin L

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional, observational study investigated whether physical activity (PA) levels are associated with motor performance and physical function in children after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method: Participants aged 8-13 years who had completed treatment for ALL (3-36 months post-treatment) were tested at their oncology long-term follow-up appointment at the British Columbia Children's Hospital. PA level was measured using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Motor performance was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and physical function was measured using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: Thirteen children completed testing. PAQ-C scores were not associated with BOT-2 SF or 6MWT performance. Eleven children (85%) performed below the norm for the 6MWT. Children with elevated body mass index had poorer 6MWT but similar PAQ-C scores. Conclusion: PA was not found to be associated with motor performance and physical function. Participants who were overweight or obese had poorer 6MWT performance, which may indicate the need for closer monitoring of post-treatment weight status and physical function in the oncology follow-up setting.

  16. Automated outcome scoring in a virtual reality simulator for endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Myat Su; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rhienmora, Phattanapon

    2018-01-01

    We address the problem of automated outcome assessment in a virtual reality (VR) simulator for endodontic surgery. Outcome assessment is an essential component of any system that provides formative feedback, which requires assessing the outcome, relating it to the procedure, and communicating in a language natural to dental students. This study takes a first step toward automated generation of such comprehensive feedback. Virtual reference templates are computed based on tooth anatomy and the outcome is assessed with a 3D score cube volume which consists of voxel-level non-linear weighted scores based on the templates. The detailed scores are transformed into standard scoring language used by dental schools. The system was evaluated on fifteen outcome samples that contained optimal results and those with errors including perforation of the walls, floor, and both, as well as various combinations of major and minor over and under drilling errors. Five endodontists who had professional training and varying levels of experiences in root canal treatment participated as raters in the experiment. Results from evaluation of our system with expert endodontists show a high degree of agreement with expert scores (information based measure of disagreement 0.04-0.21). At the same time they show some disagreement among human expert scores, reflecting the subjective nature of human outcome scoring. The discriminatory power of the AOS scores analyzed with three grade tiers (A, B, C) using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC values are generally highest for the {AB: C} cutoff which is cutoff at the boundary between clinically acceptable (B) and clinically unacceptable (C) grades. The objective consistency of computed scores and high degree of agreement with experts make the proposed system a promising addition to existing VR simulators. The translation of detailed level scores into terminology commonly used in dental surgery supports natural

  17. Student effort expectations and their learning in first-year introductory physics: A case study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Emarat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX survey was designed to probe students’ expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge—cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course during academic years 2007 and 2008, to assess their expectations at the beginning of the course. The precourse MPEX results were compared and correlated with two separate measures of student learning: (1 individual students’ normalized gains from pre and post Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE results, which measure students’ conceptual understanding, and (2 student’s scores on the final exam, which measure their more general problem-solving ability. The results showed a significant positive correlation between their overall MPEX score and five of the six MPEX cluster scores, with their normalized learning gains on the FMCE for both academic years. The results also showed significant positive correlations between student MPEX scores and their final exam scores for the overall MPEX score and all MPEX cluster scores except for the effort cluster. We interviewed two groups of five students each, one group with small favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster and one with high favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster, to see how the students’ learning efforts compared with their MPEX results. We concluded from the interviews that what the students think or expect about the MPEX effort involved in learning physics does not match what they actually do.

  18. Student effort expectations and their learning in first-year introductory physics: A case study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wutchana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX survey was designed to probe students’ expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge—cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course during academic years 2007 and 2008, to assess their expectations at the beginning of the course. The precourse MPEX results were compared and correlated with two separate measures of student learning: (1 individual students’ normalized gains from pre and post Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE results, which measure students’ conceptual understanding, and (2 student’s scores on the final exam, which measure their more general problem-solving ability. The results showed a significant positive correlation between their overall MPEX score and five of the six MPEX cluster scores, with their normalized learning gains on the FMCE for both academic years. The results also showed significant positive correlations between student MPEX scores and their final exam scores for the overall MPEX score and all MPEX cluster scores except for the effort cluster. We interviewed two groups of five students each, one group with small favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster and one with high favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster, to see how the students’ learning efforts compared with their MPEX results. We concluded from the interviews that what the students think or expect about the MPEX effort involved in learning physics does not match what they actually do.

  19. Student effort expectations and their learning in first-year introductory physics: A case study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutchana, U.; Emarat, N.

    2011-06-01

    The Maryland Physics Expectations (MPEX) survey was designed to probe students’ expectations about their understanding of the process of learning physics and the structure of physics knowledge—cognitive expectations. This survey was administered to first-year university students in Thailand in the first semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course during academic years 2007 and 2008, to assess their expectations at the beginning of the course. The precourse MPEX results were compared and correlated with two separate measures of student learning: (1) individual students’ normalized gains from pre and post Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) results, which measure students’ conceptual understanding, and (2) student’s scores on the final exam, which measure their more general problem-solving ability. The results showed a significant positive correlation between their overall MPEX score and five of the six MPEX cluster scores, with their normalized learning gains on the FMCE for both academic years. The results also showed significant positive correlations between student MPEX scores and their final exam scores for the overall MPEX score and all MPEX cluster scores except for the effort cluster. We interviewed two groups of five students each, one group with small favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster and one with high favorable scores on the precourse MPEX effort cluster, to see how the students’ learning efforts compared with their MPEX results. We concluded from the interviews that what the students think or expect about the MPEX effort involved in learning physics does not match what they actually do.

  20. An Automatic Assessment System of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Based on Wound Area Determination, Color Segmentation, and Healing Score Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Pedersen, Peder C; Strong, Diane M; Tulu, Bengisu; Agu, Emmanuel; Ignotz, Ron; He, Qian

    2015-08-07

    For individuals with type 2 diabetes, foot ulcers represent a significant health issue. The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a wound assessment system to help wound clinics assess patients with foot ulcers in a way that complements their current visual examination and manual measurements of their foot ulcers. The physical components of the system consist of an image capture box, a smartphone for wound image capture and a laptop for analyzing the wound image. The wound image assessment algorithms calculate the overall wound area, color segmented wound areas, and a healing score, to provide a quantitative assessment of the wound healing status both for a single wound image and comparisons of subsequent images to an initial wound image. The system was evaluated by assessing foot ulcers for 12 patients in the Wound Clinic at University of Massachusetts Medical School. As performance measures, the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value for the wound area determination algorithm tested on 32 foot ulcer images was .68. The clinical validity of our healing score algorithm relative to the experienced clinicians was measured by Krippendorff's alpha coefficient (KAC) and ranged from .42 to .81. Our system provides a promising real-time method for wound assessment based on image analysis. Clinical comparisons indicate that the optimized mean-shift-based algorithm is well suited for wound area determination. Clinical evaluation of our healing score algorithm shows its potential to provide clinicians with a quantitative method for evaluating wound healing status. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  2. Health Status and Psychological Distress in Patients with Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Caliskan, Kadir; Bos, Sven

    2015-01-01

    patients and 42 DCM patients. Outcome measures were health status (Short Form Health Survey-12), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale). RESULTS: NCCM patients showed significantly worse health status (Physical Component Score F(1...... from DCM patients (Physical Component Score F(1,82) = 2,61, P = .11; Mental Component Score F(1,82) = .55, P = .46), anxiety (F(1,82) = 1.16, P = .28) and depression scores (F(1,82) = 1,95, P = .17). CONCLUSION: Cardiac symptoms are likely to play a role in the observed poor health status and elevated......BACKGROUND: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular tribeculae and deep intertrabecular recesses. Because of its genetic underpinnings and physical disease burden, noncompaction cardiomyopathy is expected to be associated with a lower health status...

  3. Physical activity assessment and counseling in Quebec family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Paré, Alex; Poder, Thomas G; Brown, Christine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2018-05-01

    To determine how often primary health care providers (PHCPs) in family medicine groups (FMGs) assess physical activity (PA) levels, provide PA counseling (PAC), and refer patients to exercise professionals; to describe patients' PA levels, physical fitness, and satisfaction regarding their PA management in FMGs; to describe available PA materials in FMGs and PHCPs' PAC self-efficacy and PA knowledge; and to identify characteristics of patients and PHCPs that determine the assessment of PA and PAC provided by PHCPs. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires and a medical chart audit. Ten FMGs within the Integrated University Health Network of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Forty FPs, 24 nurses, and 439 patients. Assessment of PA level and PAC provided by PHCPs. Overall, 51.9% of the patients had had their PA level assessed during the past 18 months, but only 21.6% received PAC from at least 1 of the PHCPs. Similar percentages were found among the inactive (n = 244) and more active (n = 195) patients. The median PAC self-efficacy score of PHCPs was 70.2% (interquartile range 52.0% to 84.7%) and the median PA knowledge score was 45.8% (interquartile range 41.7% to 54.2%), with no significant differences between nurses and FPs. In multivariate analysis, 34% of the variance in PAC provided was explained by assessment of PA level, overweight or obese status, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, less FP experience, lower patient annual family income, more nurse encounters, and a higher patient physical component summary of quality of life. The rates of assessment of PA and provision of PAC in Quebec FMGs were low, even though most of the patients were inactive. Initiatives to support PHCPs and more resources to assess PA levels and provide PAC should be implemented. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. Acupuncture and physical exercise for affective symptoms and health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Holm, Göran; Janson, Per Olof; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda

    2013-06-13

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have symptoms of depression and anxiety and impaired health related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we test the post-hoc hypothesis that acupuncture and exercise improve depression and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL in PCOS women. Seventy-two PCOS women were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of 1) acupuncture (n = 28); 2) exercise (n = 29); or 3) no intervention (control) (n = 15). Outcome measures included: change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S), Swedish Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS Questionnaire (PCOSQ) scores from baseline to after 16-week intervention, and to 16-week post-intervention follow-up. A reduction in MADRS-S and BSA-S from baseline to 16-weeks post-intervention follow-up was observed for the acupuncture group. The SF-36 domains role physical, energy/vitality, general health perception and the mental component of summary scores improved in the acupuncture group after intervention and at follow-up. Within the exercise group the role physical decreased after treatment, while physical functioning and general health perception scores increased at follow-up. The emotion domain in the PCOSQ improved after 16-weeks of intervention within all three groups, and at follow-up in acupuncture and exercise groups. At follow-up, improvement in the infertility domain was observed within the exercise group. There was a modest improvement in depression and anxiety scores in women treated with acupuncture, and improved HRQoL scores were noted in both intervention groups. While not a primary focus of the trial, these data suggest continued investigation of mental health outcomes in women treated for PCOS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00484705.

  5. Specific associations between types of physical activity and components of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Melinda; Wijndaele, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Philippaerts, Renaat; Matton, Lynn; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Thomis, Martine; Duquet, William; Lefevre, Johan; Cardon, Greet

    2009-07-01

    Findings of previous studies suggest that the relationship between physical activity and mental health may change across different domains of physical activity, different dimensions of mental health, and different population subgroups. The present study examined associations between five types of physical activity with different contents: housework, leisure active transportation, biking to/from work, walking to/from work, and sports participation, and two dimensions of mental health: perceived stress and psychological distress, in 1919 participants aged 20-65 years, using the data from the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with the total sample, and with the sample stratified by gender, age, and occupational category. Further, separate models were used in the gender and age subgroups of each occupational category. Sports participation was the only type of physical activity inversely associated with both stress (OR=0.375; CI: 0.200-0.704) and distress (OR=0.480; CI: 0.253-0.910). Sports participation related to less distress in unemployed mid-aged adults, and to less stress in unemployed women, unemployed young adults, and young adults with blue-collar jobs. Housework was associated with more stress and more distress in women with blue-collar jobs. In young adults with white-collar jobs, however, an inverse association between housework and distress was found. Biking to and from work was associated with more stress in men with blue-collar jobs. Results invite consideration for the utility, and perhaps the necessity, of differentiated health recommendations for physical health and for mental health in different population subgroups.

  6. Physical fitness in persons with hemiparetic stroke: its structure and longitudinal changes during an inpatient rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tetsuya; Liu, Meigen; Hase, Kimitaka; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Hara, Yukihiro; Chino, Naoichi

    2004-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the structure of fitness in patients with hemiparetic stroke can be categorized into impairment/disability, cardiopulmonary, muscular and metabolic domains, and to study longitudinal changes in their fitness during an inpatient rehabilitation programme. Structure analysis of multiple fitness parameters with principal component analysis (PCA), and a before and after trial. Tertiary rehabilitation centre in Japan. One hundred and seven consecutive inpatients with hemiparetic stroke. A conventional stroke rehabilitation programme consisting of 80 minutes of physical therapy and occupational therapy sessions five days a week, and daily rehabilitation nursing for a median duration of 105.5 days. Principal component scores extracted from measurement of paresis/daily living (the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)); muscular (grip strength (GS), knee extensor torque, and cross-sectional areas of thigh muscles); metabolic (body mass index (BMI) and fat accumulation on CT); cardiopulmonary (heart rate oxygen coefficient (HR-O2-Coeff) obtained with a graded bridging activity and a 12-minute propulsion distance). PCA categorized the original 15 variables into four factors corresponding to paresis/activities of daily living, muscular, metabolic and cardiopulmonary domains, and explained 78.1% of the total variance at admission and 69.6% at discharge. Except the metabolic domain, PCA scores for the other three domains improved significantly at discharge (paired t-test, p < 0.05). The hypothetical structure of fitness was confirmed, and the PCA scores were useful in following longitudinal changes of fitness during inpatient rehabilitation.

  7. Physical model experiment for wave field measurements by means of laser Doppler vibrometer. Measurement of three components; Laser Doppler shindokei ni yoru butsuri model jikken. Hado sanseibun no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, O; Sato, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X [DIA Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In this experiment, a beam incident from an oblique direction is reflected by a spherical lens toward the direction of incidence. When the surface of a matter is vibrated by elastic waves, the spherical lens comes into a translation motion that accompanies the vibration. It follows accordingly that the vibration on the surface of the matter may be detected by sensing the spherical lens travelling speed. Three components of the vibration may be determined if beams are focused at one spot from three directions. Detection of the S-wave component by LDV (laser Doppler vibrometer) discloses the complicated wave field in a heterogeneous material, and this physical model experiment may be utilized in various fields of study. For instance, information about problems that may surface in the field work may be collected beforehand in a physical model experiment for developing an S-wave-aided probing method. For the study of seismic wave propagation in a complicated three-dimensional ground structure, a numerical model is not enough, and a physical model experiment will be an effective method to fulfill the purpose. In the monitoring of cracks in a rock, again, not only elastic wave velocity but also waveform information collected from a physical model experiment should be fully utilized. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Conservative management and health-related quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chang, Ray-E; Hung, Kuan-Yu; COGENT Study Group

    2017-06-26

    Few studies have addressed health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients who chose conservative management over dialysis. This systematic review aims to better define the role of conservative management in improving health-related QoL in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Medline, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for prospective or retrospective studies published until June 30, 2016, that examined QoL of ESRD patients. The primary outcome was health-related QoL. Four studies were included (405 patients received dialysis and 332 received conservative management). Two studies that used the Short Form-36 Survey (SF-36) showed that the dialysis group had higher physical component scores, but the conservative management group had similar, or better, mental component scores at the end of intervention. Another study using the SF-36 showed that the physical and mental component scores of the dialysis group did not significantly change after intervention. In the conservative management group, the physical component scores did not change, but the mental component scores increased significantly over time (0.12 ± 0.32, p management group. Although there are only a limited number of published articles, ESRD patients who receive conservative management may have improved mental health-related QoL when compared with those who receive dialysis.

  9. Evaluating observer agreement of scoring systems for foot integrity and footrot lesions in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foddai Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scoring scale with five ordinal categories is used for visual diagnosis of footrot in sheep and to study its epidemiology and control. More recently a 4 point ordinal scale has been used by researchers to score foot integrity (wall and sole horn damage in sheep. There is no information on observer agreement using either of these scales. Observer agreement for ordinal scores is usually estimated by single measure values such as weighted kappa or Kendall’s coefficient of concordance which provide no information where the disagreement lies. Modeling techniques such as latent class models provide information on both observer bias and whether observers have different thresholds at which they change the score given. In this paper we use weighted kappa and located latent class modeling to explore observer agreement when scoring footrot lesions (using photographs and videos and foot integrity (using post mortem specimens in sheep. We used 3 observers and 80 photographs and videos and 80 feet respectively. Results Both footrot and foot integrity scoring scales were more consistent within observers than between. The weighted kappa values between observers for both footrot and integrity scoring scales ranged from moderate to substantial. There was disagreement between observers with both observer bias and different thresholds between score values. The between observer thresholds were different for scores 1 and 2 for footrot (using photographs and videos and for all scores for integrity (both walls and soles. The within observer agreement was higher with weighted kappa values ranging from substantial to almost perfect. Within observer thresholds were also more consistent than between observer thresholds. Scoring using photographs was less variable than scoring using video clips or feet. Conclusions Latent class modeling is a useful method for exploring components of disagreement within and between observers and this information could

  10. Physical fitness and injury reporting among active duty and National Guard/Reserve women: associations with risk and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazman, Josh B; de la Motte, Sarah; Bramhall, Elizabeth M S; Purvis, Dianna L; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As more women enter the military, it is important to understand how different risks and lifestyle factors influence physical fitness and injury among women in both active duty (AD) and National Guard/Reserve (NG/R). Women in military service are less fit and more likely to suffer musculoskeletal injuries during physical training than men. They also use more medical care during deployment than men. Using data from the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Global Assessment Tool 2.0 (GAT 2.0), self-reported health and lifestyle and behavioral risk factors were analyzed in nondeployed Army personnel, with the goals of examining (1) service-component differences across traditional risk and lifestyle factors, and (2) correlates of physical performance and physical activity-related injury. Self-report GAT 2.0 data included health risk factors (overall perceived health, sleep, diet, tobacco and alcohol use), self-reported health metrics (height, weight, Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores), and history of physical activity-related injury. The GAT 2.0 was completed by 1,322 AD and 1,033 NG/R women, and APFT data were available for a subsample of 605 AD and 582 NG/R women. Initial analyses of GAT 2.0 data indicated that AD had higher rates of fair/poor perceived health, poor sleep, and unhealthy diet compared to NG/R women. However, AD women had a lower APFT fail rate (8%) than NG (27%) and R (28%). Active duty women were more likely to experience a physical injury in the past 6 months (38%) than NG (19%) and R (22%) women, and more likely to seek medical care than NG/R women. Across all service components, predictive factors for APFT failure included high