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Sample records for physical activity interact

  1. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the biological...... the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes....... Finally, we will discuss the existing and emerging strategies that might enhance our ability to identify and exploit gene-physical activity interactions in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  2. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished...... in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self...... combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39...

  3. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  4. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  5. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL, which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%, vicarious interactive (20% (involving questions to and from the lecturer, and noninteractive (55%. As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B, although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12% or on individual learning (10% and 7%. These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Interaction between leptin and leisure-time physical activity and development of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2011-01-01

    was a prospective cohort study of 744 women and 367 men, who were normotensive in the third Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) examination, performed 1991-94. Based on questionnaire items, the participants were divided into two groups with low (n = 674) and high (n = 437) levels of leisure-time physical activity......OBJECTIVE. The mechanisms by which overweight and physical inactivity lead to hypertension are complex. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has been linked with hypertension. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leptin, physical activity and new-onset hypertension. METHODS. The study......, body mass index, SBP, DBP, level of physical activity and leptin, we found a significant interaction between leptin and level of physical activity with new-onset hypertension as outcome variable (p = 0.012). When we entered the interaction variables, effect of leptin with low level of physical activity...

  7. Interaction between leptin and leisure-time physical activity and development of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The mechanisms by which overweight and physical inactivity lead to hypertension are complex. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has been linked with hypertension. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leptin, physical activity and new-onset hypertension. METHODS. The study...... was a prospective cohort study of 744 women and 367 men, who were normotensive in the third Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) examination, performed 1991−94. Based on questionnaire items, the participants were divided into two groups with low (n = 674) and high (n = 437) levels of leisure-time physical activity......, body mass index, SBP, DBP, level of physical activity and leptin, we found a significant interaction between leptin and level of physical activity with new-onset hypertension as outcome variable (p = 0.012). When we entered the interaction variables, effect of leptin with low level of physical activity...

  8. Interactive multimodal ambulatory monitoring to investigate the association between physical activity and affect

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    Ulrich W. Ebner-Priemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a wealth of evidence that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, a large proportion of people are inactive. Data regarding counts, steps, and movement patterns are limited in their ability to explain why people remain inactive. We propose that multimodal ambulatory monitoring, which combines the assessment of physical activity with the assessment of psychological variables, helps to elucidate real world physical activity. Whereas physical activity can be monitored continuously, psychological variables can only be assessed at discrete intervals, such as every hour. Moreover, the assessment of psychological variables must be linked to the activity of interest. For example, if an inactive and overweight person is physically active once a week, psychological variables should be assessed during this episode. Linking the assessment of psychological variables to episodes of an activity of interest can be achieved with interactive monitoring. The primary aim of our interactive multimodal ambulatory monitoring approach was to intentionally increase the number of e-diary assessments during active episodes.We developed and tested an interactive monitoring algorithm that continuously monitors physical activity in everyday life. When predefined thresholds are surpassed, the algorithm triggers a signal for participants to answer questions in their electronic diary.Using data from 70 participants wearing an accelerative device for 24 hours each, we found that our algorithm quadrupled the frequency of e-diary assessments during the activity episodes of interest compared to random sampling. Multimodal interactive ambulatory monitoring appears to be a promising approach to enhancing our understanding of real world physical activity and movement.

  9. Interaction of physical activity and interoception in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleana eGeorgiou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA is associated with positive health outcomes, whereas physical inactivity is related to an increased risk for various health issues including obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the perception of bodily processes (interoceptive sensitivity, IS interact with the degree of PA in adults. Whether there is a similar relationship between PA and IS in children has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between IS and PA during physical performance tasks and in everyday situations. Methods: IS was assessed using a heartbeat perception task in a sample of 49 children within the health promotion program Join the Healthy Boat which is implemented in several primary schools in the southwest of Germany. PA was examined using a physical performance task, assessing the distance covered during a standardized 6-minute run. In a subsample of 21 children, everyday PA was measured by a multi-sensor device (Actiheart, CamNtech, Cambridge, UK during five consecutive days with more than 10 hours of daily data collection.Results: Children with higher IS performed better in the physical performance task. Additionally, based on energy expenditure defined as metabolic equivalents, IS was positively correlated with the extent of light PA levels in the morning and afternoon. Conclusions: Our finding reveal that IS interacts with the degree of PA in children supporting the idea that interoception is important for the self-regulation of health-related behavior.

  10. Cross-sectional interactions between quality of the physical and social environment and self-reported physical activity in adults living in income-deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexia D M; Jones, Russell; Ucci, Marcella; Smith, Lee; Kearns, Ade; Fisher, Abi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental determinants of physical activity in populations at high risk of inactivity could contribute to the development of effective interventions. Socioecological models of activity propose that environmental factors have independent and interactive effects of physical activity but there is a lack of research into interactive effects. This study aimed to explore independent and interactive effects of social and physical environmental factors on self-reported physical activity in income-deprived communities. Participants were 5,923 adults in Glasgow, United Kingdom. Features of the social environment were self-reported. Quality of the physical environment was objectively-measured. Neighbourhood walking and participation in moderate physical activity [MPA] on ≥5 days/week was self-reported. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression models tested independent and interactive effects of environmental factors on activity. 'Social support' (walking: OR:1.22,95%CI = 1.06-1.41,psocial interaction' (walking: OR:1.25,95%CI = 1.10-1.42,pInteractive effects of social and physical factors on walking and MPA were revealed. Findings suggest that intervening to create activity-supportive environments in deprived communities may be most effective when simultaneously targeting the social and physical neighbourhood environment.

  11. Teacher Feedback and Interactions in Physical Education: Effects of Student Gender and Physical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Cogerino, Genevieve; Fairclough, Stuart; Bois, Julien; Davis, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Previous research conducted in both classroom and physical education (PE) settings has examined the impact of student gender on teacher-student interactions. The purpose of this study was to extend this line of research by analysing the influence of student gender and different types of physical activity on the frequency and nature of teacher…

  12. Interaction between leptin and leisure-time physical activity and development of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asferg, Camilla; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L; Appleyard, Merete; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B; Jeppesen, J Rgen

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. The mechanisms by which overweight and physical inactivity lead to hypertension are complex. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has been linked with hypertension. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leptin, physical activity and new-onset hypertension. METHODS. The study was a prospective cohort study of 744 women and 367 men, who were normotensive in the third Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) examination, performed 1991−94. Based on questionnaire items, the participants were divided into two groups with low (n = 674) and high (n = 437) levels of leisure-time physical activity, respectively. RESULTS. Between the third and the fourth CCHS examination, performed 2001?03, 304 had developed hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication. In a logistic regression model, including age, sex, body mass index, SBP, DBP, level of physical activity and leptin, we found a significant interaction between leptin and level of physical activity with new-onset hypertension as outcome variable (p = 0.012). When we entered the interaction variables, effect of leptin with low level of physical activity and with high level of physical activity, respectively, in the original model, leptin predicted new-onset hypertension in participants with low level of physical activity [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.16 (1.01−1.33) for one unit increase in log-transformed leptin levels, p = 0.038], but not in participants with high level of physical activity [0.88 (0.74−1.05), p = 0.15]. CONCLUSION. We found that leptin predicted new-onset hypertension but only in participants with low level of physical activity.

  13. Get up and move : An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.A.; Stappers, P.J.; Jongert, T.

    2009-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  14. Get up and move: An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.; Stappers, P.-J.; Jongert, T.

    2010-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  15. SNPs in PPARG associate with type 2 diabetes and interact with physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Lakka, Timo A; Laaksonen, David E

    2008-01-01

    To study the associations of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the interactions of the SNPs with physical activity (PA).......To study the associations of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the interactions of the SNPs with physical activity (PA)....

  16. Active Learning in PhysicsTechnology and Research-based Techniques Emphasizing Interactive Lecture Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in lecture sessions. This presentation will demonstrate the use of sequences of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) that use real experiments often involving real-time data collection and display combined with student interaction to create an active learning environment in large or small lecture classes. Interactive lecture demonstrations will be done in the area of mechanics using real-time motion probes and the Visualizer. A video tape of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of a number of research studies at various institutions (including international) to measure the effectiveness of ILDs and guided inquiry conceptual laboratories will be presented.

  17. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ahmad

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies, and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015. However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans. In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003 and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025 variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  18. The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengxian; Chen, Shihui

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, F = 8.425, p = 0.001 ( p social interaction, and self-control subdomains ( p 0.005). The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression.

  19. The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengxian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, F = 8.425, p = 0.001 (p social interaction, and self-control subdomains (p 0.005). The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression. PMID:29568743

  20. Promoting Active Learning in Calculus and General Physics through Interactive and Media-Enhanced Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Tang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach of incorporating interactive and media-enhanced lectures to promote active learning in Calculus and General Physics courses. The pedagogical practice of using interactive techniques in lectures to require "heads-on" and "hands-on" learning, and involve students more as active participants than passive receivers is a part of academic curricular reform efforts undertaken currently by the mathematics, physics and chemistry departments at North Carolina A&T State University under the NSF funded project "Talent-21: Gateway for Advancing Science and Mathematics Talents."

  1. Efficacy of sequential or simultaneous interactive computer-tailored interventions for increasing physical activity and decreasing fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sallis, James F; Spittaels, Heleen; Brug, Johannes

    2005-04-01

    Little evidence exists about the effectiveness of "interactive" computer-tailored interventions and about the combined effectiveness of tailored interventions on physical activity and diet. Furthermore, it is unknown whether they should be executed sequentially or simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effectiveness of interactive computer-tailored interventions for increasing physical activity and decreasing fat intake and (b) which intervening mode, sequential or simultaneous, is most effective in behavior change. Participants (N = 771) were randomly assigned to receive (a) the physical activity and fat intake interventions simultaneously at baseline, (b) the physical activity intervention at baseline and the fat intake intervention 3 months later, (c) the fat intake intervention at baseline and the physical activity intervention 3 months later, or (d) a place in the control group. Six months postbaseline, the results showed that the tailored interventions produced significantly higher physical activity scores, F(2, 573) = 11.4, p physical activity intervention, the simultaneous mode appeared to work better than the sequential mode.

  2. The Effects of Structured Physical Activity Program on Social Interaction and Communication for Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxian Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Fifty children with ASD from a special school were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. 25 children with ASD were placed in the experimental group, and the other 25 children as the control group participated in regular physical activity. A total of forty-one participants completed the study. A 12-week structured physical activity program was implemented with a total of 24 exercise sessions targeting social interaction and communication of children with ASD, and a quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative instruments. SSIS and ABLLS-R results showed that an overall improvement in social skills and social interaction for the experimental group across interim and posttests, F=8.425, p=0.001 (p0.005. The study concluded that the special structured physical activity program positively influenced social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD, especially in social skills, communication, prompt response, and frequency of expression.

  3. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelisa Graff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423 or other ancestry (n = 20,029. We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.

  4. Effect of Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

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    Anthony Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. Design and Methods Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO , age, and their interactions on trunk fat percentage. Dietary information and other environmental factors were not considered. Results Higher levels of physical activity tend to reduce trunk fat percentage in all individuals. Furthermore, in males, rs9939609 and rs1421085 were significant (α = 0.05 in explaining central body fat, but no SNPs were significant in females. For highly active males, trunk fat percentage varied significantly between variants of rs9939609 and rs1421085, but there is no significant effect among individuals with low activity. The other SNPs examined were not significant in explaining trunk fat percentage. Conclusions Homozygous male carriers of non-obesity risk alleles at rs9939609 and rs1421085 will have significant reduction in central body fat from physical activity in contrast to homozygous males of the obesity-risk alleles. The additive effect of these SNPs is found in males with high physical activity only.

  5. Contextual and individual predictors of physical activity: Interactions between environmental factors and health cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Wurm, Susanne; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf; Tesch-Römer, Clemens

    2012-11-01

    Although health behavior theories assume a role of the context in health behavior self-regulation, this role is often weakly specified and rarely examined. The two studies in this article test whether properties of the environment (districts) affect if and how health-related cognitions are translated into physical activity. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the assumed cross-level interactions. Study 1 is a large-scale survey representative of the German adult population (N = 6,201). Gross domestic product (GDP) on the level of administrative districts was used to indicate environmental opportunities and barriers. Study 2 examined cross-level interactions of proximal predictors of physical activity (intentions, action planning, and coping planning) in older adults with multiple illnesses (N = 309), a high-risk group for health deteriorations. Study 1 showed that on the individual level, health attitudes (B = .11) and education (B = .71) were significantly associated with physical activity. GDP moderated the attitudes-behavior relation (B = .01), with higher attitude-behavior relations in districts with higher GDP. Study 2 finds that intention (B = .16), action planning (B = .17), and coping planning (B = .13) significantly predict activity. In addition, district-level GDP significantly moderated the relations between action planning and coping planning, but not intention, on physical activity. Results suggest that the effects of health attitudes and planning on physical activity are moderated by environmental factors. Districts with higher GDP provide better contextual opportunities for the enactment of concrete if-then plans for physical activity. This has implications for both theory and health promotion.

  6. Interaction of a genetic risk score with physical activity, physical inactivity, and body mass index in relation to venous thromboembolism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kraft, Peter; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Harrington, Laura B; Lindstroem, Sara; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable. Physical activity, physical inactivity and body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors, but evidence of interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors is limited. Data on 2,134 VTE cases and 3,890 matched controls were obtained from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with VTE risk in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Data on three risk factors, physical activity (metabolic equivalent [MET] hours per week), physical inactivity (sitting hours per week) and BMI, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. VTE cases were incident since cohort inception; controls were matched to cases on age, cohort, and genotype array. Using conditional logistic regression, we assessed joint effects and interaction effects on both additive and multiplicative scales. We also ran models using continuous wGRS stratified by risk-factor categories. We observed a supra-additive interaction between wGRS and BMI. Having both high wGRS and high BMI was associated with a 3.4-fold greater risk of VTE (relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.69, p = 0.046). However, we did not find evidence for a multiplicative interaction with BMI. No interactions were observed for physical activity or inactivity. We found a synergetic effect between a genetic risk score and high BMI on the risk of VTE. Intervention efforts lowering BMI to decrease VTE risk may have particularly large beneficial effects among individuals with high genetic risk. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] i...

  8. Interaction Effects of Happiness and Physical Activity on Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchyan, Armen A; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A; Aleid, Yazeed S; Nagshbandi, Ahmed A; Almousa, Fahad; Papikyan, Satenik L; Gosadi, Ibrahim M

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Of the 406 students surveyed (208 boys, 198 girls), 86 (21.1%) had initiated smoking. We found an interaction between physical activity (PA) and happiness on smoking initiation (p-interaction = .012). Among boys with low levels of PA, lower levels of happiness were associated with a greater likelihood of smoking initiation (OR = 5.8, 95%CI = 1.9 - 17.5). Also, high levels of PA increased the chance of smoking initiation among male students with high levels of happiness (OR = 5.6, 95%CI = 2.1 - 14.5). Our results suggest that young men with low levels of happiness and low levels of PA, as well as high levels of PA and high levels of happiness, may be targeted as a priority population in tobacco control intervention programs.

  9. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity ― A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Barata, Llilda; Chu, Audrey Y.; Mahajan, Anubha; Hadley, David; Xue, Luting; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; den Hoed, Marcel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Qi, Qibin; Ngwa, Julius S.; Quaye, Lydia; Eicher, John D.; Hayes, James E.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lim, Elise; Luan, Jian’an; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Wei; Griffin, Paula J.; Haller, Toomas; Ahmad, Shafqat; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M.; Bien, Stephanie; Yengo, Loic; Teumer, Alexander; Smith, Albert Vernon; Kumari, Meena; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Kleber, Marcus E.; Hollensted, Mette; Lohman, Kurt; Rivera, Natalia V.; Whitfield, John B.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Stringham, Heather M.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Huppertz, Charlotte; Willemsen, Gonneke; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Wu, Ying; Kristiansson, Kati; Demirkan, Ayse; Fornage, Myriam; Hassinen, Maija; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Cadby, Gemma; Tanaka, Toshiko; Mägi, Reedik; van der Most, Peter J.; Jackson, Anne U.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Vitart, Veronique; Marten, Jonathan; Navarro, Pau; Bellis, Claire; Pasko, Dorota; Johansson, Åsa; Snitker, Søren; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Eriksson, Joel; Lim, Unhee; Aadahl, Mette; Adair, Linda S.; Amin, Najaf; Balkau, Beverley; Auvinen, Juha; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Bertoni, Alain G.; Blangero, John; Bonnefond, Amélie; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Borja, Judith B.; Brage, Søren; Busonero, Fabio; Buyske, Steve; Campbell, Harry; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Corre, Tanguy; Smith, George Davey; Delgado, Graciela E.; Dueker, Nicole; Dörr, Marcus; Ebeling, Tapani; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Esko, Tõnu; Faul, Jessica D.; Fu, Mao; Færch, Kristine; Gieger, Christian; Gläser, Sven; Gong, Jian; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Grarup, Niels; van Grootheest, Gerard; Harald, Kennet; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hernandez, Dena; Hindorff, Lucia; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holmens, Oddgeir L.; Holzapfel, Christina; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Tao; Hui, Jennie; Huth, Cornelia; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; James, Alan L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jhun, Min A.; Juonala, Markus; Kinnunen, Leena; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Kähönen, Mika; Lakka, Timo A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehne, Benjamin; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Marre, Michel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Monda, Keri L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, A. W.; Männikkö, Reija; Männistö, Satu; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Olden, Matthias; Ong, Ken K.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perez, Jeremiah; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Peters, Ulrike; Peyser, Patricia A.; Prokopenko, Inga; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rawal, Rajesh; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Rudan, Igor; Sarti, Cinzia; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Savonen, Kai; Scott, William R.; Sanna, Serena; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sidney, Steve; Silbernagel, Günther; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Sternfeld, Barbara; Swift, Amy J.; Tammelin, Tuija; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Thuillier, Dorothée; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vestergaard, Henrik; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wild, Sarah; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Zubair, Niha; Haiman, Christopher A.; Lemarchand, Loic; Gyllensten, Ulf; Ohlsson, Claes; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pérusse, Louis; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Cucca, Francesco; Hveem, Kristian; Hartman, Catharina A.; Tönjes, Anke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Palmer, Lyle J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mangino, Massimo; Laakso, Markku; Bouchard, Claude; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kuh, Diana; Liu, Yongmei; Linneberg, Allan; März, Winfried; Strauch, Konstantin; Kivimäki, Mika; Harris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Völzke, Henry; Qi, Lu; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Froguel, Philippe; Kooperberg, Charles; Vollenweider, Peter; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Metspalu, Andres; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Weir, David R.; Porteous, David J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chasman, Daniel I.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Boehnke, Michael; Heid, Iris M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Franks, Paul W.; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery. PMID:28448500

  10. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  11. Activity-Based Introductory Physics Reform *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2004-05-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to those of good traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). RealTime Physics promotes interaction among students in a laboratory setting and makes use of powerful real-time data logging tools to teach concepts as well as quantitative relationships. An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions and Workshop Physics and Scale-Up largely eliminate lectures in favor of collaborative student activities. Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) make lectures more interactive in complementary ways. This presentation will introduce these reforms and use Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) with the audience to illustrate the types of curricula and tools used in the curricula above. ILDs make use real experiments, real-time data logging tools and student interaction to create an active learning environment in large lecture classes. A short video of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of research studies at various institutions to measure the effectiveness of these methods will be presented.

  12. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  13. The physical environment, activity and interaction in residential care facilities for older people: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Susanna; McKee, Kevin; Wallinder, Maria; von Koch, Lena; Wijk, Helle; Elf, Marie

    2017-12-01

    The physical environment is of particular importance for supporting activities and interactions among older people living in residential care facilities (RCFs) who spend most of their time inside the facility. More knowledge is needed regarding the complex relationships between older people and environmental aspects in long-term care. The present study aimed to explore how the physical environment influences resident activities and interactions at two RCFs by using a mixed-method approach. Environmental assessments were conducted via the Swedish version of the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (S-SCEAM), and resident activities, interactions and locations were assessed through an adapted version of the Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). The Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS) was used to assess residents' affective states. Field notes and walk-along interviews were also used. Findings indicate that the design of the physical environment influenced the residents' activities and interactions. Private apartments and dining areas showed high environmental quality at both RCFs, whereas the overall layout had lower quality. Safety was highly supported. Despite high environmental quality in general, several factors restricted resident activities. To optimise care for older people, the design process must clearly focus on accessible environments that provide options for residents to use the facility independently. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  15. Behavioral science and the study of gene-nutrition and gene-physical activity interactions in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Myles S

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes emerging opportunities for behavioral science to help advance the field of gene-environment and gene-behavior interactions, based on presentations at The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Workshop, "Gene-Nutrition and Gene-Physical Activity Interactions in the Etiology of Obesity." Three opportunities are highlighted: (i) designing potent behavioral "challenges" in experiments, (ii) determining viable behavioral phenotypes for genetics studies, and (iii) identifying specific measures of the environment or environmental exposures. Additional points are underscored, including the need to incorporate novel findings from neuroimaging studies regarding motivation and drive for eating and physical activity. Advances in behavioral science theory and methods can play an important role in advancing understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in obesity onset.

  16. Interactions between stress and physical activity on Alzheimer's disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Yuede

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and stress are both environmental modifiers of Alzheimer's disease (AD risk. Animal studies of physical activity in AD models have largely reported positive results, however benefits are not always observed in either cognitive or pathological outcomes and inconsistencies among findings remain. Studies using forced exercise may increase stress and mitigate some of the benefit of physical activity in AD models, while voluntary exercise regimens may not achieve optimal intensity to provide robust benefit. We evaluated the findings of studies of voluntary and forced exercise regimens in AD mouse models to determine the influence of stress, or the intensity of exercise needed to outweigh the negative effects of stress on AD measures. In addition, we show that chronic physical activity in a mouse model of AD can prevent the effects of acute restraint stress on Aβ levels in the hippocampus. Stress and physical activity have many overlapping and divergent effects on the body and some of the possible mechanisms through which physical activity may protect against stress-induced risk factors for AD are discussed. While the physiological effects of acute stress and acute exercise overlap, chronic effects of physical activity appear to directly oppose the effects of chronic stress on risk factors for AD. Further study is needed to identify optimal parameters for intensity, duration and frequency of physical activity to counterbalance effects of stress on the development and progression of AD. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid, Stress, Exercise, Physical activity

  17. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Scott, Robert A; Justice, Anne E; Young, Kristin L; Feitosa, Mary F; Barata, Llilda; Winkler, Thomas W; Chu, Audrey Y; Mahajan, Anubha; Hadley, David; Xue, Luting; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; den Hoed, Marcel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Qi, Qibin; Ngwa, Julius S; Renström, Frida; Quaye, Lydia; Eicher, John D; Hayes, James E; Cornelis, Marilyn; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lim, Elise; Luan, Jian'an; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Wei; Griffin, Paula J; Haller, Toomas; Ahmad, Shafqat; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Bien, Stephanie; Yengo, Loic; Teumer, Alexander; Smith, Albert Vernon; Kumari, Meena; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Kleber, Marcus E; Hollensted, Mette; Lohman, Kurt; Rivera, Natalia V; Whitfield, John B; Zhao, Jing Hua; Stringham, Heather M; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Huppertz, Charlotte; Willemsen, Gonneke; Peyrot, Wouter J; Wu, Ying; Kristiansson, Kati; Demirkan, Ayse; Fornage, Myriam; Hassinen, Maija; Bielak, Lawrence F; Cadby, Gemma; Tanaka, Toshiko; Mägi, Reedik; van der Most, Peter J; Jackson, Anne U; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Vitart, Veronique; Marten, Jonathan; Navarro, Pau; Bellis, Claire; Pasko, Dorota; Johansson, Åsa; Snitker, Søren; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Eriksson, Joel; Lim, Unhee; Aadahl, Mette; Adair, Linda S; Amin, Najaf; Balkau, Beverley; Auvinen, Juha; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Bertoni, Alain G; Blangero, John; Bonnefond, Amélie; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borja, Judith B; Brage, Søren; Busonero, Fabio; Buyske, Steve; Campbell, Harry; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Corre, Tanguy; Smith, George Davey; Delgado, Graciela E; Dueker, Nicole; Dörr, Marcus; Ebeling, Tapani; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Esko, Tõnu; Faul, Jessica D; Fu, Mao; Færch, Kristine; Gieger, Christian; Gläser, Sven; Gong, Jian; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Grarup, Niels; van Grootheest, Gerard; Harald, Kennet; Hastie, Nicholas D; Havulinna, Aki S; Hernandez, Dena G; Hindorff, Lucia; Hocking, Lynne J; Holmens, Oddgeir L; Holzapfel, Christina; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Tao; Hui, Jennie; Huth, Cornelia; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; James, Alan L; Jansson, John-Olov; Jhun, Min A; Juonala, Markus; Kinnunen, Leena; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kolcic, Ivana; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Kähönen, Mika; Lakka, Timo A; Launer, Lenore J; Lehne, Benjamin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Marre, Michel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Monda, Keri L; Montgomery, Grant W; De Moor, Marleen H M; Mulas, Antonella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, A.W.; Männikkö, Reija; Männistö, Satu; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Nolte, Ilja M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Olden, Matthias; Ong, Ken K; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perez, Jeremiah; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Peters, Ulrike; Peyser, Patricia A; Prokopenko, Inga; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rawal, Rajesh; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Rudan, Igor; Sarti, Cinzia; Sarzynski, Mark A; Savonen, Kai; Scott, William R; Sanna, Serena; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sidney, Steve; Silbernagel, Günther; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Sternfeld, Barbara; Swift, Amy J; Tammelin, Tuija; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Thuillier, Dorothée; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vestergaard, Henrik; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wild, Sarah; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; Zubair, Niha; Haiman, Christopher A; Lemarchand, Loic; Gyllensten, Ulf; Ohlsson, Claes; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Pérusse, Louis; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Cucca, Francesco; Hveem, Kristian; Hartman, Catharina A; Tönjes, Anke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Palmer, Lyle J; Kardia, Sharon L R; Rauramaa, Rainer; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mangino, Massimo; Laakso, Markku; Bouchard, Claude; Martin, Nicholas G; Kuh, Diana; Liu, YongMei; Linneberg, Allan; März, Winfried; Strauch, Konstantin; Kivimäki, Mika; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Völzke, Henry; Qi, Lu; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Froguel, Philippe; Kooperberg, Charles; Vollenweider, Peter; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Metspalu, Andres; Wareham, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Weir, David R; Porteous, David J; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chasman, Daniel I; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Barroso, Inês; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boehnke, Michael; Heid, Iris M; Mohlke, Karen L; Strachan, David P; Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Ching-Ti; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Klein, Robert J; Johnson, Andrew D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; North, Kari E; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O

    Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults

  18. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity ― A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Scott, Robert A.; Justice, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adu...

  19. Increasing physical activity in stroke survivors using STARFISH, an interactive mobile phone application: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lorna; Wyke, Sally; Brewster, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R; Alexander, Gillian; Rafferty, Danny; McFadyen, Angus K; Ramsay, Andrew; Dybus, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Following stroke, people are generally less active and more sedentary which can worsen outcomes. Mobile phone applications (apps) can support change in health behaviors. We developed STARFISH, a mobile phone app-based intervention, which incorporates evidence-based behavior change techniques (feedback, self-monitoring and social support), in which users' physical activity is visualized by fish swimming. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of STARFISH in stroke survivors. Twenty-three people with stroke (12 women; age: 56.0 ± 10.0 years, time since stroke: 4.2 ± 4.0 years) from support groups in Glasgow completed the study. Participants were sequentially allocated in a 2:1 ratio to intervention (n = 15) or control (n = 8) groups. The intervention group followed the STARFISH program for six weeks; the control group received usual care. Outcome measures included physical activity, sedentary time, heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, Fatigue Severity Scale, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Scale, Ten-Meter Walk Test, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. The average daily step count increased by 39.3% (4158 to 5791 steps/day) in the intervention group and reduced by 20.2% (3694 to 2947 steps/day) in the control group (p = 0.005 for group-time interaction). Similar patterns of data and group-time interaction were seen for walking time (p = 0.002) and fatigue (p = 0.003). There were no significant group-time interactions for other outcome measures. Use of STARFISH has the potential to improve physical activity and health outcomes in people after stroke and longer term intervention trials are warranted.

  20. Interaction of a physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of the musculoskeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Hertsyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of cooperation and the interaction of an attending physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of musculoskeletal system. Material & Methods: physical rehabilitation is considered as a difficult system with the hierarchically-ordered structure. The analysis of references and the system analysis are applied. Results: the modern approaches to coordination of centers of decision-making and the management in hierarchical systems are analyzed. The ways of the interlevel coordination in organizational systems are revealed. The need of coordination of activity of an attending physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation is proved. The content and the direction of coordination signals for the system of physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of the musculoskeletal system are determined. Conclusions: the coordination of activity of an attending physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of the musculoskeletal system has to occur in certain ways: on purposes, on restrictions, in time, on input and output parameters.

  1. A retrospective study on changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after moving to a walkable community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lee, Chanam; Lu, Zhipeng; Mann, George

    2014-12-01

    This study is to examine changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after they moved to a walkable community in Austin, Texas. Retrospective surveys (N=449) were administered in 2013-2014 to collect pre- and post-move data about the outcome variables and relevant personal, social, and physical environmental factors. Walkability of each resident's pre-move community was measured using the Walk Score. T tests were used to examine the pre-post move differences in the outcomes in the whole sample and across sub-groups with different physical activity levels, neighborhood conditions, and neighborhood preferences before the move. After the move, total physical activity increased significantly in the whole sample and all sub-groups except those who were previously sufficiently active; lived in communities with high walkability, social interactions, or neighborhood cohesion; or had moderate preference for walkable neighborhoods. Walking in the community increased in the whole sample and all subgroups except those who were previously sufficiently active, moved from high-walkability communities, or had little to no preference for walkable neighborhoods. Social interactions and neighborhood cohesion increased significantly after the move in the whole sample and all sub-groups. This study explored potential health benefits of a walkable community in promoting physically and socially active lifestyles, especially for populations at higher risk of obesity. The initial result is promising, suggesting the need for more work to further examine the relationships between health and community design using pre-post assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity in adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Sawyer

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Inconsistent evidence of independent associations between environmental variables and physical activity could be partly due to unmeasured effect modification (e.g. interactive effects creating unaccounted variance in relationships between the environment and activity. Results supported multiple levels of environmental influence on physical activity. It is recommended that further research uses simultaneous or interaction analyses to gain insight into complex relationships between neighbourhood social and physical environments and physical activity, as there is currently limited research in this area.

  3. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)]. E-mail: tetsukaw@arc.sony.co.jp; Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)

    2005-09-15

    We have investigated the activation volume (V{sub ac}) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V{sub phy}) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V{sub phy}/V{sub ac} of advanced metal particles are 6x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M{sub r}.t (M{sub r}=remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced.

  4. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki; Kondo, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the activation volume (V ac ) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V phy ) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V phy /V ac of advanced metal particles are 6x10 -24 m 3 and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10 -24 m 3 when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M r .t (M r =remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced

  5. The Association between Belgian Older Adults' Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults' physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults' physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No

  6. Towards quantifying dynamic human-human physical interactions for robot assisted stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mayumi; Mendonca, Rochelle; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    Human-Robot Interaction is a prominent field of robotics today. Knowledge of human-human physical interaction can prove vital in creating dynamic physical interactions between human and robots. Most of the current work in studying this interaction has been from a haptic perspective. Through this paper, we present metrics that can be used to identify if a physical interaction occurred between two people using kinematics. We present a simple Activity of Daily Living (ADL) task which involves a simple interaction. We show that we can use these metrics to successfully identify interactions.

  7. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  8. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  9. Interactions between smoking and other exposures associated with lung cancer risk in women: diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubík, A; Zatloukal, P; Tomásek, L; Pauk, N; Havel, L; Dolezal, J; Plesko, I

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the differences in the impact of diet and physical exercise on lung cancer risk in female nonsmokers vs. smokers, and reveal interactions, if any. In a hospital based case-control study, data collected by in-person interviews from 569 female lung cancer cases and 2120 controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression stratifying by appropriate factors. Protective effects were observed for intake of milk/dairy products (OR=0.57, 95%CI 0.35-0.94), vegetables (OR=0.60, 95%CI 0.40-0.91), apples (OR=0.69), wine (OR=0.77), and physical exercise (OR=0.59, 95%CI 0.42-0.83) among smokers only, while no similar effects were found among nonsmokers. In contrast, the intake of black tea was associated with a protective effect (OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.47-0.94) among nonsmokers only. Comparing the effects of dietary items and physical activity on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers versus smokers, statistically significant effect modifications were found for black tea (P 0.005), and milk/dairy products (P 0.047). Borderline effect modifications emerged for physical exercise (P 0.077). These results indicate protective effects of some components of healthful diet and physical exercise among smokers, and of the intake of black tea among nonsmokers. The observed interactions of the impact of black tea, milk/dairy products and physical activity upon lung cancer risk in women at different levels of the smoking habit deserve further studies.

  10. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo, Jaakkola; Sami, Yli-Piipari; Anthony, Watt; Jarmo, Liukkonen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents' perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE during their first year at middle school (Grade 7), and their PA engagement during their last year in high school (Grade 12). A sample of 333 students (200 girls, 133 boys; M age=12.41, years, SD=.27) participated in the study. Perceived physical competence in physical activity was assessed by the sport competence dimension of the Physical Self-Perception Profile, autonomous motivation in PE was assessed by the Sport Motivation Scale and enjoyment in PE by the Sport Enjoyment Scale. Students' self-reported metabolic equivalent (MET) and PA intensity (light [LPA], moderate [MPA], vigorous [VPA]) was calculated from the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity significantly predicted total METs (β=.28), MPA (β=.18) and VPA (β=.29) six years later. Autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE at Grade 7, however, were not significant predictors of later PA. The results of this study support the proposition that self-perception of an individual's abilities arising from interactions with the environment related to PA during early puberty has an influential effect on later PA behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Senior citizen's physical activity and welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria da Silva; Chaves Maia, Eulália M

    2009-01-01

    This work analysed senior citizens' perception of needs and social values involved in taking physical activity for their own benefit. This study's main aim was to investigate social representations of 3rd age physical activity. This was a cross-sectional, interdisciplinary qualitative study, underpinned by theoretical-methodological social representation theory. A convenience, non-probabilistic, census-dependent method was used for obtaining the sam-ple of 62 people aged 50 to 78 from north-eastern Brazil. The data were collected by using the free word association technique and analysed by EVOC/2000 software. Analysing the replies led to three types of elements being identified which were related to the social representation of physical activity as attributed by the elderly: a psychological dimension (represented by happiness, well-being), a social dimension (dancing) and a biophysical dimension (gymnastics, water-gymnastics and health). The term 'happiness' stood out most in the word recall tests. When relating old age to the sample's social representation of physical activity, the study showed that physical activity assumed a preponderant role in the life of the elderly through cyclical appreciation-depreciation, social representation simultaneously and gradually acquiring 'life having more health and quality' from social representation. The subjects reported a positive association between physical activity, social interaction and well-being. The elderly also believed in physical activity's effects on physical-motor aspects and health. The social representation of physical activity by the group being studied was close to the physical activity's biopsychosocial dimension.

  12. Independent Associations and Interactions of Perceived Neighborhood and Psychosocial Constructs on Adults' Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura A; Patel, Minal; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y

    2018-05-01

    Neighborhood and psychosocial variables are related to physical activity (PA), yet interactions between these factors in predicting PA are infrequently studied. This analysis examines the independent associations and interactions between self-reported neighborhood and psychosocial variables in relation to moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) among adults from a US panel sample. In adjusted models, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with meeting MVPA guidelines. Fewer barriers, greater self-efficacy, and greater autonomous motivation also corresponded with greater odds of meeting MVPA guidelines. An interaction between social capital and autonomous motivation showed that social capital was only associated with MVPA when autonomous motivation was high. Participants who reported both high autonomous motivation and high social capital were most likely to meet MVPA guidelines. Neighborhood social capital, barriers, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation may be important correlates in promoting adults' PA. Future directions include using objective neighborhood and PA data in similar analyses and investigating associations of neighborhood and psychosocial variables with multiple PA activities. Intervention research to promote PA should also examine whether effects of interventions targeting psychosocial constructs are moderated by features of an individual's neighborhood or whether perceived social capital can be addressed in interventions in conjunction with psychosocial variables.

  13. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  14. The Parkinson's experience of group physical activity: Understanding social support, social comparison, physical self-perceptions, and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Tammy L

    2014-01-01

    Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...

  15. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  16. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e + e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC

  17. Effects of interactive physical-activity video-game training on physical and cognitive function in older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Maillot , Pauline; Perrot , Alexandra; Hartley , Alan

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors de...

  18. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  19. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  20. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  1. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and vitamin D metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Elizabeth A; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Dai, Qi; Kohler, Lindsay N; Warren Anderson, Shaneda; Jurutka, Peter W; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity is associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). However, the influence of activity and/or sedentary behavior on the biologically active, seco-steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) randomized trial participants (n=876) to evaluate associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations. Continuous vitamin D metabolite measurements and clinical thresholds were evaluated using multiple linear and logistic regression models, mutually adjusted for either 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D and additional confounding factors. A statistically significant linear association between 1,25(OH)2D and moderate-vigorous physical activity per week was strongest among women (β (95% CI): 3.10 (1.51-6.35)) versus men (β (95% CI): 1.35 (0.79-2.29)) in the highest tertile of activity compared to the lowest (p-interaction=0.003). Furthermore, 25(OH)D was 1.54ng/ml (95% CI 1.09-1.98) higher per hour increase in moderate-vigorous activity (p=0.001) and odds of sufficient 25(OH)D status was higher among physically active participants (p=0.001). Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with either metabolite in linear regression models, nor was a statistically significant interaction by sex identified. The current study identified novel associations between physical activity and serum 1,25(OH)2D levels, adjusted for 25(OH)D concentrations. These results identify the biologically active form of vitamin D as a potential physiologic mechanism related to observed population-level associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity with bone health and chronic disease risk. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the role of physical activity and vitamin D metabolites in chronic disease prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of Physical Activity Level Using Processes of Change From the Transtheoretical Model: Experiential, Behavioral, or an Interaction Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Horwath, Caroline; Bernard, Paquito

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare prediction of physical activity (PA) by experiential or behavioral processes of change (POCs) or an interaction between both types of processes. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted using an online questionnaire. A total of 394 participants (244 women, 150 men), with a mean age of 35.12 ± 12.04 years and a mean body mass index of 22.97 ± 4.25 kg/m 2 were included. Participants completed the Processes of Change, Stages of Change questionnaires, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to evaluate self-reported PA level (total, vigorous, and moderate PA). Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to test the prediction of PA level. For both total PA (β = .261; P behavioral POCs were a significant predictor. Regarding moderate PA, only the interaction between experiential and behavioral POCs was a significant predictor (β = .123; P = .017). Our results provide confirmation that behavioral processes are most prominent in PA behavior. Nevertheless, it is of interest to note that the interaction between experiential and behavioral POCs was the only element predicting moderate PA level. Experiential processes were not associated with PA level.

  3. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  4. Momentary assessment of contextual influences on affective response during physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Higher positive and lower negative affective response during physical activity may reinforce motivation to engage in future activity. However, affective response during physical activity is typically examined under controlled laboratory conditions. This research used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine social and physical contextual influences on momentary affective response during physical activity in naturalistic settings. Participants included 116 adults (mean age = 40.3 years, 73% female) who completed 8 randomly prompted EMA surveys per day for 4 days across 3 semiannual waves. EMA surveys measured current activity level, social context, and physical context. Participants also rated their current positive and negative affect. Multilevel models assessed whether momentary physical activity level moderated differences in affective response across contexts controlling for day of the week, time of day, and activity intensity (measured by accelerometer). The Activity Level × Alone interaction was significant for predicting positive affect (β = -0.302, SE = 0.133, p = .024). Greater positive affect during physical activity was reported when with other people (vs. alone). The Activity Level × Outdoors interaction was significant for predicting negative affect (β = -0.206, SE = 0.097, p = .034). Lower negative affect during physical activity was reported outdoors (vs. indoors). Being with other people may enhance positive affective response during physical activity, and being outdoors may dampen negative affective response during physical activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Exergames for physical education: an overview about interaction design perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sgrò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exertion games represent an interesting, funny and innovative way to involve people in physical activities, fighting with troublesome phenomenon of obesity in children and young. In the educational context ICT technologies represent a basic instruments of the learning process. In literature several studies addressed the videogame’s implication in the learning process. In this work the interaction design aspects dealing with the use of exergames in physical activities educational process will be analysed using the same approach proposed by Mueller et al. (2011. In detail we will focus on the corporeal experience descended from the interaction procedure. An ideal graphical user interface for exergames is also presented. Moreover, an analysis of the most shared devices for exergames will be depictured. The paper infers the useful interaction elements that can improve the learning process of physical education, as well as transfer effect that may correlate with health and social outcomes. Furthermore, this work suggests the theoretical approach which has to guide the development of exergames for educational environment.

  6. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  7. Associations between children’s independent mobility and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Independent mobility describes the freedom of children to travel and play in public spaces without adult supervision. The potential benefits for children are significant such as social interactions with peers, spatial and traffic safety skills and increased physical activity. Yet, the health benefits of independent mobility, particularly on physical activity accumulation, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate associations of children’s independent mobility with light, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity accumulation. Methods In 2011 - 2012, 375 Australian children aged 8-13 years (62% girls) were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Children’s independent mobility (i.e. independent travel to school and non-school destinations, independent outdoor play) and socio-demographics were assessed through child and parent surveys. Physical activity intensity was measured objectively through an Actiheart monitor worn on four consecutive days. Associations between independent mobility and physical activity variables were analysed using generalized linear models, accounting for clustered sampling, Actiheart wear time, socio-demographics, and assessing interactions by sex. Results Independent travel (walking, cycling, public transport) to school and non-school destinations were not associated with light, moderate-to-vigorous and total physical activity. However, sub-analyses revealed a positive association between independent walking and cycling (excluding public transport) to school and total physical but only in boys (b = 36.03, p physical activity (b = 29.76, p physical activity. When assessing differences by sex, the observed significant associations of independent outdoor play with light and total physical activity remained in girls but not in boys. All other associations showed no significant differences by sex. Conclusions Independent outdoor play may boost children’s daily physical activity levels

  8. Effects of interactive physical-activity video-game training on physical and cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors developed an active video game training program using a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 × 1 hr of training) with a control group without treatment. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, assessing executive control, visuospatial functions, and processing speed, to measure the cognitive impact of the program. They were also given a battery of functional fitness tests to measure the physical impact of the program. The trainees improved significantly in measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in measures of physical function and cognitive measures of executive control and processing speed, but not on visuospatial measures. It was encouraging to observe that, engagement in physically simulated sport games yielded benefits to cognitive and physical skills that are directly involved in functional abilities older adults need in everyday living (e.g., Hultsch, Hertzog, Small, & Dixon, 1999).

  9. Non-Synonymous Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Physical Activity Interactions on Adiposity Parameters in Malaysian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Lisa Zaharan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs have been shown to be associated with obesity. Little is known about their associations and interactions with physical activity (PA in relation to adiposity parameters among adolescents in Malaysia.MethodsWe examined whether (a PA and (b selected nsSNPs are associated with adiposity parameters and whether PA interacts with these nsSNPs on these outcomes in adolescents from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (n = 1,151. Body mass indices, waist–hip ratio, and percentage body fat (% BF were obtained. PA was assessed using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C. Five nsSNPs were included: beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3 rs4994, FABP2 rs1799883, GHRL rs696217, MC3R rs3827103, and vitamin D receptor rs2228570, individually and as combined genetic risk score (GRS. Associations and interactions between nsSNPs and PAQ-C scores were examined using generalized linear model.ResultsPAQ-C scores were associated with % BF (β = −0.44 [95% confidence interval −0.72, −0.16], p = 0.002. The CC genotype of ADRB3 rs4994 (β = −0.16 [−0.28, −0.05], corrected p = 0.01 and AA genotype of MC3R rs3827103 (β = −0.06 [−0.12, −0.00], p = 0.02 were significantly associated with % BF compared to TT and GG genotypes, respectively. Significant interactions with PA were found between ADRB3 rs4994 (β = −0.05 [−0.10, −0.01], p = 0.02 and combined GRS (β = −0.03 [−0.04, −0.01], p = 0.01 for % BF.ConclusionHigher PA score was associated with reduced % BF in Malaysian adolescents. Of the nsSNPs, ADRB3 rs4994 and MC3R rs3827103 were associated with % BF. Significant interactions with PA were found for ADRB3 rs4994 and combined GRS on % BF but not on measurements of weight or circumferences. Targeting body fat represent prospects for molecular studies and lifestyle intervention

  10. Non-Synonymous Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Physical Activity Interactions on Adiposity Parameters in Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Muhamad, Nor Hanisah; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Su, Tin Tin; Mohamed, Zahurin; Mohamed, M N A; A Majid, Hazreen

    2018-01-01

    Several non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have been shown to be associated with obesity. Little is known about their associations and interactions with physical activity (PA) in relation to adiposity parameters among adolescents in Malaysia. We examined whether (a) PA and (b) selected nsSNPs are associated with adiposity parameters and whether PA interacts with these nsSNPs on these outcomes in adolescents from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study ( n  = 1,151). Body mass indices, waist-hip ratio, and percentage body fat (% BF) were obtained. PA was assessed using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Five nsSNPs were included: beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) rs4994, FABP2 rs1799883, GHRL rs696217, MC3R rs3827103, and vitamin D receptor rs2228570, individually and as combined genetic risk score (GRS). Associations and interactions between nsSNPs and PAQ-C scores were examined using generalized linear model. PAQ-C scores were associated with % BF (β = -0.44 [95% confidence interval -0.72, -0.16], p  = 0.002). The CC genotype of ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.16 [-0.28, -0.05], corrected p  = 0.01) and AA genotype of MC3R rs3827103 (β = -0.06 [-0.12, -0.00], p  = 0.02) were significantly associated with % BF compared to TT and GG genotypes, respectively. Significant interactions with PA were found between ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01], p  = 0.02) and combined GRS (β = -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01], p  = 0.01) for % BF. Higher PA score was associated with reduced % BF in Malaysian adolescents. Of the nsSNPs, ADRB3 rs4994 and MC3R rs3827103 were associated with % BF. Significant interactions with PA were found for ADRB3 rs4994 and combined GRS on % BF but not on measurements of weight or circumferences. Targeting body fat represent prospects for molecular studies and lifestyle intervention in this population.

  11. Development of Motivate4Change Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol: An Interactive Technology Physical Activity and Medication Adherence Promotion Program for Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterom-Calo, Rony; Te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Brug, Johannes

    2015-07-20

    It is important that heart failure (HF) patients adhere to their medication regimen and engage in physical activity. Evidence shows that adherence to these HF self-management behaviors can be improved with appropriate interventions. To further promote medication adherence and physical activity among HF patients, we developed an intervention for hospitalized HF patients. The intervention mapping protocol was applied in the development of the intervention. This entailed performing a needs assessment, defining change objectives, selecting determinants and strategies, and developing the materials. The resulting intervention, Motivate4Change, makes use of interactive technology and provides HF patients with personalized feedback and advice. Specific change objectives were defined. The relevant behavioral determinants for the physical activity program were practical knowledge on physical activity performance and self-efficacy for, and perceived benefits of, physical activity. For medication-taking, the selected determinants were practical knowledge on medication-taking, perceived barriers to medication-taking, beliefs about the necessity and harm regarding the medication prescribed, and beliefs about overprescribing and harm of medication in general. The change objectives and behavior change determinants were translated in feedback and advice strategies in an interactive technology program that included tailored feedback and advice, and role models in videos in which the behaviors and overcoming barriers were demonstrated. Relevant stakeholders were involved in the interventions development process. The intervention was pretested among HF patients and adjustments were made accordingly. The interactive technology physical activity and medication adherence promotion program for hospitalized HF patients was systematically developed using the intervention mapping protocol and was based on the available theory and evidence regarding HF self-management behavior change. The

  12. Interaction between BDNF Polymorphism and Physical Activity on Inhibitory Performance in the Elderly without Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Canivet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the elderly, physical activity (PA enhances cognitive performances, increases brain plasticity and improves brain health. The neurotrophic hypothesis is that the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is implicated in brain plasticity and cognition, is triggered by PA because motoneurons secrete BDNF into the bloodstream during exercise. Individual differences in cognitive performance may be explained by individual differences in genetic predisposition. A single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene, BDNFVal66Met, affects activity-dependent BDNF secretion. This study investigated the influence of the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism on the relationship between PA and controlled inhibition performance in older adults.Methods: A total of 114 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age = 71.53 years old were evaluated. Participants were genotyped for the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism. We evaluated inhibitory performance using choice reaction times (RT and error rates from a Simon-like task and estimated their PA using two self-reported questionnaires. We established four groups according to PA level (active vs. inactive and BDNFVal66Met genotype (Met carriers vs. Val-homozygous. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and ANCOVA, including age, gender and body mass index as covariates.Results: The BDNFVal66Met polymorphism interacted with PA on controlled inhibition performance. More specifically, inactive Val-homozygous participants exhibited a lower inhibition performance than active Val homozygotes and inactive Met carriers; the former had a higher error rate without differences in RT.Conclusion: Differences between individuals on inhibitory performance may be partially understood by the interaction between genetic influence in BDNF secretion and PA level. The results of this study clearly support the neurotrophic hypothesis that BDNF synthesis is an important mechanism underlying the influence of physical activity on brain

  13. Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Rosarie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings.

  14. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Active Adolescents via Facebook: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Test Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana; Hillman, Charles H; Huhman, Marian; McAuley, Edward

    2014-10-30

    The World Wide Web is an effective method for delivering health behavior programs, yet major limitations remain (eg, cost of development, time and resource requirements, limited interactivity). Social media, however, has the potential to deliver highly customizable and socially interactive behavioral interventions with fewer constraints. Thus, the evaluation of social media as a means to influence health behaviors is warranted. The objective of this trial was to examine and demonstrate the feasibility of using an established social networking platform (ie, Facebook) to deliver an 8 week physical activity intervention to a sample of low-active adolescents (N=21; estimated marginal mean age 13.48 years). Participants were randomized to either an experimental (ie, Behavioral) or attentional control (ie, Informational) condition. Both conditions received access to a restricted-access, study-specific Facebook group where the group's administrator made two daily wall posts containing youth-based physical activity information and resources. Primary outcomes included physical activity as assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Interactions and main effects were examined, as well as mean differences in effect sizes. Analyses revealed significant improvements over time on subjectively reported weekly leisure-time physical activity (F1,18=8.426, P=.009, η2 = .319). However, there was no interaction between time and condition (F1,18=0.002, P=.968, η2 = .000). There were no significant time or interaction effects among the objectively measured physical activity variables. Examination of effect sizes revealed moderate-to-large changes in physical activity outcomes. Results provide initial support for the feasibility of delivery of a physical activity intervention to low-active adolescents via social media. Whether by employing behavioral interventions via social media can result in statistically meaningful changes in health-related behaviors and outcomes remains to be

  15. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  16. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  17. Physical human-robot interaction of an active pelvis orthosis: toward ergonomic assessment of wearable robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Nicolò; Vanetti, Federica; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Parri, Andrea; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-04-14

    In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO). This device was designed to effectively assist in hip flexion-extension during locomotion with a minimum impact on the physiological human kinematics, owing to a set of passive degrees of freedom for self-alignment of the human and robotic hip flexion-extension axes. Five healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at different speeds without and with the APO under different levels of assistance. The user-APO physical interaction was evaluated in terms of: (i) the deviation of human lower-limb joint kinematics when wearing the APO with respect to the physiological behavior (i.e., without the APO); (ii) relative displacements between the APO orthotic shells and the corresponding body segments; and (iii) the discrepancy between the kinematics of the APO and the wearer's hip joints. The results show: (i) negligible interference of the APO in human kinematics under all the experimented conditions; (ii) small (i.e., ergonomics assessment of wearable robots.

  18. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E; Lakka, T A

    2010-01-01

    /L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change......Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect...... of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS...

  19. Work and Home Neighborhood Design and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Ulmer, Jared; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    To investigate relations of perceived worksite neighborhood environments to total physical activity and active transportation, over and above home neighborhood built environments. Observational epidemiologic study. Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC, and Seattle-King County, Washington metropolitan areas. One thousand eighty-five adults (mean age = 45.0 [10.2]; 46% women) recruited from 32 neighborhoods stratified by high/low neighborhood income and walkability. The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey assessed perceptions of worksite and home neighborhood environments. Accelerometers assessed total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed total active transportation and active transportation to and around work. Mixed-effects regression tested relations of home and worksite neighborhood environments to each physical activity outcome, adjusted for demographics. Home and worksite mixed land use and street connectivity had the most consistent positive associations with physical activity outcomes. Worksite traffic and pedestrian safety were also associated with multiple physical activity outcomes. The worksite neighborhood explained additional variance in physical activity outcomes than explained by the home neighborhood. Worksite and home neighborhood environments interacted in explaining active transportation to work, with the greatest impacts occurring when both neighborhoods were activity supportive. Both worksite and home neighborhood environments were independently related to total MVPA and active transportation. Community design policies should target improving the physical activity supportiveness of worksite neighborhood environments and integrating commercial and residential development.

  20. Physical activity levels and patterns of 11-14 year-old Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Asci, F Hulya; Altintas, Atakan; Guven-Karahan, Bengu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age and gender differences in physical activity levels and various physical activity patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents and also determined if these differ between genders. Six hundred and fifty girls and 666 boys between the ages of 11 and 14 years constituted the sample of this study. Participants self-reported physical activity levels and patterns were determined by a Weekly Activity Checklist. A 2 x 4 (Gender x Age) MANOVA revealed overall significant main effect of gender and age on the physical activity level of adolescents; however, gender x age interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an age-related decline in physical activity level, an increase in participation in low activities, and a decrease in participation in moderate and vigorous activities in 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. In addition it was found that boys were more active than girls and participated more in moderate and vigorous activities.

  1. Interacting psychosocial and environmental correlates of leisure-time physical activity: a three-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    The main study objective was to examine the moderating effects of perceived enjoyment, barriers/benefits, perceived social support and self-efficacy, on the associations of perceived environmental attributes with walking for recreation and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and whether these potential moderating effects differed by gender and study site. Data from three observational studies in the United States (Seattle and Baltimore), Australia (Adelaide), and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkable and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, a validated questionnaire on psychosocial attributes, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. General additive mixed models were conducted in R. Enjoyment of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived benefits of physical activity, social support from family and friends, and self-efficacy for physical activity moderated the relationships of specific perceived environmental characteristics with walking for recreation and/or leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Overall, moderating effects were in the same direction: environmental perceptions were positively associated with leisure-time activity, but associations were strongest in adults with less positive scores on psychosocial attributes. The findings were fairly consistent across gender and study sites. The present study findings are promising, as it seems that those who might benefit most from environmental interventions to promote physical activity, may mainly be adults at risk of being insufficiently active or those difficult to reach through individual health promotion programs.

  2. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  3. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  4. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  5. PHYSICAL DISABILITY, STIGMA, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN: A REPLICA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus GEBHARDT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stereotypes can be reduced through positive descriptions. A stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with physical disability can be reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. The study found out that a sporty active child, who uses a wheelchair, is perceived as more competent than the sporty active able-bodied child. Objective: This study is a replica study to support the hypotheses and to examine the stereotypes of able-bodied adults towards children with and without (physical disabilities. Methods: This study presents two experimental replica studies using a 2 (physical activity x 2 (sporty activities. The dependent variables were the perception of competencies and warmth according to Stereotype Content Model (SCM. Study 1 is an online experiment with 355 students of the Open University of Hagen. Study 2 surveys 1176 participants (from Munich and Graz with a paper-pencil-questionnaire. Results: The significant interaction effect was not supported by our studies. The sporty able-bodied child was rated higher in competences than the sporty child, who use a wheelchair. Sporting activity only reduces the stigma towards children with a physical disability slightly. Conclusion: The stigma towards children with physical disability can be reduced when the child is portrayed as being active, but the effect was not strong enough to chance the original classification by the SCM.

  6. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were......Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact...... dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (ß = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were...

  7. APPLICATION OF INTERACTIVE ONLINE SIMULATIONS IN THE PHYSICS LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P. Dementievska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Physics teachers should have professional competences, aimed at the use of online technologies associated with physical experiments. Lack of teaching materials for teachers in Ukrainian language leads to the use of virtual laboratories and computer simulations by traditional methods of education, not by the latest innovative modern educational technology, which may limit their use and greatly reduce their effectiveness. Ukrainian teaching literature has practically no information about the assessment of competencies, research skills of students for the laboratory activities. The aim of the article is to describe some components of instructional design for the Web site with simulations in school physical experiments and their evaluation.

  8. Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca; Gallagher, Catherine L; Dowling, N M; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Rowley, Howard A; Christian, Brad T; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2014-11-04

    To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults. Three hundred seventeen enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent T1 MRI; a subset also underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 186) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (n = 152) imaging. Participants' responses on a self-report measure of current physical activity were used to classify them as either physically active or physically inactive based on American Heart Association guidelines. They also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the adverse effect of age on imaging and cognitive biomarkers was modified by physical activity. There were significant age × physical activity interactions for β-amyloid burden (p = 0.014), glucose metabolism (p = 0.015), and hippocampal volume (p = 0.025) such that, with advancing age, physically active individuals exhibited a lesser degree of biomarker alterations compared with the physically inactive. Similar age × physical activity interactions were also observed on cognitive domains of Immediate Memory (p = 0.042) and Visuospatial Ability (p = 0.016). In addition, the physically active group had higher scores on Speed and Flexibility (p = 0.002) compared with the inactive group. In a middle-aged, at-risk cohort, a physically active lifestyle is associated with an attenuation of the deleterious influence of age on key biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. However, because our observational, cross-sectional design cannot establish causality, randomized controlled trials/longitudinal studies will be necessary for determining whether midlife participation in structured physical exercise forestalls the development of AD and related disorders in later life. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Better physical activity classification using smartphone acceleration sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Bilal, Mohsin; Kattan, Ahmed; Ahamed, S Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is becoming one of the serious problems for the health of worldwide population. Social interactions on mobile phones and computers via internet through social e-networks are one of the major causes of lack of physical activities. For the health specialist, it is important to track the record of physical activities of the obese or overweight patients to supervise weight loss control. In this study, acceleration sensor present in the smartphone is used to monitor the physical activity of the user. Physical activities including Walking, Jogging, Sitting, Standing, Walking upstairs and Walking downstairs are classified. Time domain features are extracted from the acceleration data recorded by smartphone during different physical activities. Time and space complexity of the whole framework is done by optimal feature subset selection and pruning of instances. Classification results of six physical activities are reported in this paper. Using simple time domain features, 99 % classification accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, attributes subset selection is used to remove the redundant features and to minimize the time complexity of the algorithm. A subset of 30 features produced more than 98 % classification accuracy for the six physical activities.

  10. Longitudinal follow-up of fitness during childhood: interaction with physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, G.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Kemper, H.C.G.; van Praagh, E.; Berthoin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Health-related fitness values during childhood (from age 11 to 16 years) were analyzed in relation to changes in physical activity level. One hundred fifty-eight children were monitored over a 4-year period. Twice a year, they performed six physical fitness tests: standing broad jump, 10 × 5-meter

  11. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  13. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  14. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child

  15. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  16. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and

  17. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1996-1997 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Physics at LEP; 3 - Experiments preparation for the LHC; 4 - Hadronic and nuclear matter; 5 - Astro-particles; 6 - Theoretical physics; 7 - Ions/clusters-matter and physics-chemistry of ion-solids interaction; 8 - Technical services (electronics, Mechanics, Computers, Accelerators, experiments support, radiation protection, health and safety, administration, documentation); 9 - IPNL's scientific life (Training, PhDs, publications, conferences, reports, seminars, staff)

  18. Interactive fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    THE REAL STUFF is an Expanded Media Physics Course aimed at students still in the formative early years of secondary school. Its consists of a working script for an interactive multimedia study unit in basic concepts of physics. The unit begins with a prologue on the Big Bang that sets the stage, and concludes with a lesson on Newton's first law of motion. The format is interactive, placing the individual student in control of a layered ''hypermedia'' structure that enables him or her to find a level of detail and difficulty that is comfortable and meaningful. The intent is to make physics relevant, intellectually accessible and fun. On-screen presenters and demonstrators will be females and males of various ages, ethnicities and backgrounds, and will include celebrities and physicists of note. A lean, layered design encourages repeated, cumulative study and makes the material useful for self-directed Teaming even by college students. THE REAL STUFF introduces a new science teaching paradigm, a way to teach science that will engage even students who have ''declined'' to be interested in science in the past. Increased participation in science by women, African-Americans and Spanish-speaking students is a particular goal

  19. Use of active video games to increase physical activity in children: a (virtual) reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

  20. Adults' future time perspective predicts engagement in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2012-07-01

    Our aim was to examine how the relations among known predictors of physical activity, such as age, sex, and body mass index, interact with future time perspective (FTP) and perceived functional limitation to explain adults' engagement in physical activity. Self-report data from 226 adults (range 20-88 years) were collected to examine the hypothesis that a more expansive FTP is associated with engagement in physical activity. Results indicated a good fit of the data to the model χ(2) (4, N = 226) = 7.457, p = .14 and accounted for a moderate amount of variance in adults' physical activity (R(2) = 15.7). Specifically, results indicated that perceived functional limitation (β = -.140) and FTP (β = .162) were directly associated with physical activity. Age was indirectly associated with physical activity through its association with perceived functional limitation (β = -.264) and FTP (β = .541). Results indicate that FTP may play an important role in explaining engagement in health promoting behaviors across the life span. Researchers should consider additional constructs and perhaps adopt socioemotional selectivity theory when explaining adults' engagement in physical activity.

  1. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  2. The different roles of perceived stress in the association between older adults' physical activity and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, Rebecca; Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E

    2012-03-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined the different roles of perceived stress in the association between older adults' physical activities and physical health. We hypothesized that physical activities would exert beneficial effects on physical health by preventing chronically high levels of perceived stress. We assessed baseline levels of physical activities and repeated measures of perceived stress and physical symptoms in 3 waves of data from a sample of 157 older adults. Among participants with high (but not low) baseline levels of perceived stress, physical activity predicted a 2-year reduction of perceived stress and a 4-year prevention of physical health symptoms. Moreover, the interaction effect on 4-year changes in physical symptoms was mediated by 2-year changes in perceived stress. Physical health benefits of physical activity are particularly pronounced among older adults who perceive high levels of stress, and this effect is mediated by a prevention of chronically high perceptions of stress.

  3. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2006-2007 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks, Leptons and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Astro-particles; Hadronic and nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 3 - Research support (administration, documentation, partnership and valorisation, quality assurance, permanent training, open university); 4 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  4. Designing Interactions for Learning: Physicality, Interactivity, and Interface Effects in Digital Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to better understand the role of physicality, interactivity, and interface effects in learning with digital content. Drawing on work in cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and multimedia learning, the study argues that interfaces that promote physical interaction can provide "conceptual leverage"…

  5. Social cognitive correlates of leisure time physical activity among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X; McAuley, Edward

    2006-06-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of leisure time physical activity, Latinos are reported to be highest among all ethnic groups in leisure time inactivity. The present study examined the relationship between leisure time physical activity and exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers self-efficacy, exercise social support, and perceived importance of physical activity. Data were obtained from 153 Latinos (n = 86 female, n = 67 male). Comparisons were made between Latinos with high and low levels of leisure time physical activity and between men and women. Results revealed that Latinos high in leisure time physical activity had significantly greater exercise and barriers self-efficacy, received more social support from friends to exercise, and placed greater importance on physical activity outcomes than did Latinos low in leisure time physical activity. No significant differences were revealed for social support from family, nor between men and women on the psychosocial variables. Physical activity interventions targeting sources of self-efficacy, increasing social support, and emphasizing the importance of regular physical activity should be helpful in increasing leisure time physical activity of Latinos. Future research should examine the influence of environmental and cultural variables on the leisure time physical activity of Latinos and how they interact with psychosocial factors.

  6. Interaction of FTO and physical activity level on adiposity in African-American and European-American adults: the ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Ellen W; Lutsey, Pam L; Monda, Keri L; Linda Kao, Wen Hong; Bressler, Jan; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Folsom, Aaron R

    2011-09-01

    Physical inactivity accentuates the association of variants in the FTO locus with obesity-related traits but evidence is largely lacking in non-European populations. Here we tested the hypothesis that physical activity (PA) modifies the association of the FTO single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 with adiposity traits in 2,656 African Americans (AA) (1,626 women and 1,030 men) and 9,867 European Americans (EA) (5,286 women and 4,581 men) aged 45-66 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Individuals in the lowest quintile of the sport activity index of the Baecke questionnaire were categorized as low PA. Baseline BMI, waist circumference (WC), and skinfold measures were dependent variables in regression models testing the additive effect of the SNP, low PA, and their interaction, adjusting for age, alcohol use, cigarette use, educational attainment, and percent European ancestry in AA adults, stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. rs9939609 was associated with adiposity in all groups other than AA women. The SNP × PA interaction was significant in AA men (P ≤ 0.002 for all traits) and EA men (P ≤ 0.04 for all traits). For each additional copy of the A (risk) allele, WC in AA men was higher in those with low PA (β(lowPA): 5.1 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6-7.5) than high PA (β(highPA): 0.7 cm, 95% CI: -0.4 to 1.9); P (interaction) = 0.002). The interaction effect was not observed in EA or AA women. FTO SNP × PA interactions on adiposity were observed for AA as well as EA men. Differences by sex require further examination.

  7. Gene-environment interactions in considering physical activity for the prevention of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Alissa Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, ranks as one of the most feared diseases in the world. Similarly, recent studies suggest that AD may be the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind heart disease and cancer. In the absence of a cure or effective treatment, strategies to prevent or delay the onset and progression of the disease are desperately needed. Decades of research have identified key risk and protective factors including genetic polymorphism in the APOE gene, age and lifestyle factors. Physical activity (PA is emerging as an attractive primary prevention strategy. This review will summarise the latest findings supporting the role of physical activity in the prevention of AD, including possible mechanisms and the influence of genetics on disease prevention. Given that AD and other dementias are recognised as a world health priority, public health strategies are needed to incorporate promoting the health benefits of physical activity across the lifespan.

  8. PHYSICAL AND SPORT ACTIVITIES OF INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Stanišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The low level of physical fitness of intellectually disabled individuals is most often the result of a sedentary lifestyle and the lack of the possibility for these individuals to take part in various forms of physical activity, and as a consequence these individuals are often unable to take part in any form of planned physical activities, are unable to adequately perform everyday activities and have limited abilities for performing workrelated duties. Regular physical activity can have a preventive effect, can reduce health risks and prevent the onset of various illnesses, as well as to promote an active lifestyle and increase physical and work capacities among the members of this particular population. Sport can play an important role in the life of individuals with intellectual disability as it represents a good basis for the development of physical and cognitive abilities. Team sports, which include interaction among a large number of people, a decision-making processes in a variety of situations and the understanding of the game itself in its constituent parts can be used as an effective and practical treatment of individuals with intellectual disability.

  9. Social and Environmental Factors Related to Boys’ and Girls’ Park-Based Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Myron F.; Smith, William R.; Edwards, Michael B.; Schultz, Courtney L.; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A.; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. Methods The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Results Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys’ and girls’ physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls’ activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0–5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Conclusion Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls’ physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys’ physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity. PMID:26086610

  10. Social and Environmental Factors Related to Boys' and Girls' Park-Based Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Smith, William R; Edwards, Michael B; Schultz, Courtney L; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J

    2015-06-18

    Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls' activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0-5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls' physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys' physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity.

  11. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Johnstone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, ‘Go2Play Active Play’ intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015–16. Participants (n = 172; mean age = 7 years were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention (n = 102 and comparison (n = 21 groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was ‘group’ on ‘time’ from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA (all p < 0.01 for school day physical activity. There was a significant interaction for gross motor quotient (GMQ score (p = 0.02 and percentile (p = 0.04, locomotor skills score and percentile (both p = 0.02, but no significant interaction for object control skills score (p = 0.1 and percentile (p = 0.3. The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  12. Between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A large proportion of a child's day is spent at school interacting with certain physical surroundings, teachers, and school friends. Thus, schools could have a marked impact on establishing physical activity habits. The aim of the present study was to assess between-school variation...... between-school variation in physical activity provides information about the extent to which children adjust their physical activity habits according to the social and environmental circumstances that they share, and helps to plan future school-based physical activity studies, especially in terms...... of sample size and power calculation....

  13. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  14. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  15. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  16. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2010-2011 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Research activities: Quarks and Leptons, Astro-particles, Hadronic and nuclear matter, Theoretical physics, trans-disciplinary activities, publications, communications, partnerships; 3 - Teaching and research training; 4 - Technical services: electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service; 5 - Laboratory administration; 6 - Communication and scientific mediation (seminars, conferences, exhibitions..)

  17. The physics of collective neutrino-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Silva, L.O.; Dawson, J.M.; Bethe, H.; Bingham, R.; Stenflo, L.; Mendonca, J.T.; Dalhed, S.

    1999-01-01

    A review of recent work on collective neutrino-plasma interactions is presented. The basic physical concepts of this new field as well as some possible astrophysical problems where the physics of collective neutrino-plasma interactions can have a radical impact, are discussed. (author)

  18. Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Puente, S.M.; Swagten, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and

  19. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  20. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including: Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

  1. Diet and physical activity--interactions for health; public health nutrition in the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, M; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Warm, D; Ekelund, U

    1999-09-01

    For the majority of European adults, who neither smoke nor drink excessively, the most significant controllable risk factors affecting their long-term health are what they eat, and how physically active they are. Scientists are supposed to clarify to policy makers and health professionals the usefulness of their health messages. However, to be able to do that, a more detailed understanding is needed of the basic mechanisms behind the effects on health of diet and physical activity and, especially, the two in combination. Further, better methods for assessment of nutrition and physical activity in the population have to be developed, and more and better baseline data have to be collected. Increased and more efficient interventions are then needed. People trained and competent in the new discipline of Public Health Nutrition are required. Through the stimulating support that the European Commission, as well as other national and international partners, are presently giving to the development of Public Health Nutrition across Europe, we can hope for an increased mobility, networking and understanding between European nutrition and physical activity professionals. This will most likely result in greater and better policy making, strategy development, implementation and evaluation. We now have a great possibility to develop the integrated field of preventive nutrition and health enhancing physical activity.

  2. "Strong interaction" for particle physics laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A new Web site pooling the communications resources of particle physics centres all over the world has just been launched. The official launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org during the Lepton-Proton 2003 Conference at the American laboratory Fermilab was accompanied by music and a flurry of balloons. On the initiative of Fermilab, the site was created by a collaboration of communication teams from over fifteen of the world's particle physics laboratories, including KEK, SLAC, INFN, JINR and, of course, CERN, who pooled their efforts to develop the new tool. The spectacular launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org at Fermilab on 12 August 2003. A real gateway to particle physics, the site not only contains all the latest news from the laboratories but also offers images, graphics and a video/animation link. In addition, it provides information about scientific policies, links to the universities, a very useful detailed glossary of particle physics and astrophysic...

  3. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  4. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  5. Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

  6. Leisure-time physical activity and associated factors in fitness zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n2p185   Fitness zones (FZ are a great alternative to physical activity practice. The aim of this study was verify physical activity practice and associated factors among FZ users of Pelotas. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, health and on the use of FZs. A long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the level of physical activity and those who reported at least 150 minutes / week of PA in the leisure time were considered sufficiently active. The study included 323 subjects (65.3% women, mean age 52.5 years, 83.6% white skin color and 61.9% married. Almost half of respondents were overweight (48.0%, 45.8% had high blood pressure, 10.5% had diabetes and 64.4% used medications. About 77.7% of respondents were classified as sufficiently active. Health perception was associated to leisure physical activity, and the better the health perception, the higher the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Collective programs with participation of Physical Education teacher can contribute to interaction of practitione with the use of fitness zones and increase the level of physical activity of individuals.

  7. Background risk of breast cancer and the association between physical activity and mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thang; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Bonn, Stephanie E; Brand, Judith S; Cuzick, Jack; Czene, Kamila; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina; Hall, Per

    2015-04-02

    High physical activity has been shown to decrease the risk of breast cancer, potentially by a mechanism that also reduces mammographic density. We tested the hypothesis that the risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years according to the Tyrer-Cuzick prediction model influences the association between physical activity and mammographic density. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 38,913 Swedish women aged 40-74 years. Physical activity was assessed using the validated web-questionnaire Active-Q and mammographic density was measured by the fully automated volumetric Volpara method. The 10-year risk of breast cancer was estimated using the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) prediction model. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between physical activity and volumetric mammographic density and the potential interaction with the TC breast cancer risk. Overall, high physical activity was associated with lower absolute dense volume. As compared to women with the lowest total activity level (association was seen for any type of physical activity among women with association between total activity and absolute dense volume was modified by the TC breast cancer risk (P interaction = 0.05). As anticipated, high physical activity was also associated with lower non-dense volume. No consistent association was found between physical activity and percent dense volume. Our results suggest that physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk through reducing mammographic density, and that the physical activity needed to reduce mammographic density may depend on background risk of breast cancer.

  8. Shape Displays: Spatial Interaction with Dynamic Physical Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithinger, Daniel; Follmer, Sean; Olwal, Alex; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Shape displays are an emerging class of devices that emphasize actuation to enable rich physical interaction, complementing concepts in virtual and augmented reality. The ability to render form introduces new opportunities to touch, grasp, and manipulate dynamic physical content and tangible objects, in both nearby and remote environments. This article presents novel hardware, interaction techniques, and applications, which point to the potential for extending the ways that we traditionally interact with the physical world, empowered by digital computation.

  9. The relationship between leisure time, physical activities and musculoskeletal symptoms and disability in worker populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V. H.; Bongers, P. M.; Dul, J.; van Dijk, F. J.; Kemper, H. C.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the association between leisure time physical activity and musculoskeletal morbidity, as well as possible interactions with physical activity at work. A literature search was performed to collect all studies on musculoskeletal disorders in which physical activity was involved as a

  10. Effect of structured physical activity and nutritional supplementation on physical function in mobility-limited older adults: results from the VIVE2 randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The interactions between nutritional supplementation and physical activity on changes in physical function among older adults remain unclear. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of nutritional supplementation plus structured physical activity on 400M walk capaci...

  11. Contextual factors related to physical activity during daily middle school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You

    2016-09-01

    Given the importance of optimizing physical activity in adolescents, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of activity mode, environment, and semester on step counts/minute and MVPA during daily middle-school physical education (PE). A prospective and observational research design. Participants included 232 students (Mean age=13.3±0.4 years) recruited from the seventh and eighth grades from one public middle-school in the U.S. Activity modes were employed across the school year including motor skills, games, and fitness activities located in indoor and outdoor environments. Step counts/minute and MVPA were monitored across 132 PE lessons during Fall and Spring semesters using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. A three-way Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was employed to examine the effect of activity mode (skill games vs. fitness), environment (indoors vs. outdoors), and semester (Fall vs. Spring) on student step counts/minute and MVPA. MANCOVA was followed by separate ANCOVA tests. MANCOVA yielded a statistically significant three-way interaction (Wilks' Λ=0.98 F(2, 1153)=8.9, PDaily middle-school physical activity was the highest during outdoor fitness activities in the Fall and the lowest during indoor motor skill games in the Spring. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Interactions of Relationships, Interest, and Self-Efficacy in Undergraduate Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Remy

    This collected papers dissertation explores students' academic interactions in an active learning, introductory physics settings as they relate to the development of physics self-efficacy and interest. The motivation for this work extends from the national call to increase participation of students in the pursuit of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Self-efficacy and interest are factors that play prominent roles in popular, evidence-based, career theories, including the Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the identity framework. Understanding how these constructs develop in light of the most pervasive characteristic of the active learning introductory physics classroom (i.e., peer-to-peer interactions) has implications on how students learn in a variety of introductory STEM classrooms and settings structured after constructivist and sociocultural learning theories. I collected data related to students' in-class interactions using the tools of social network analysis (SNA). Social network analysis has recently been shown to be an effective and useful way to examine the structure of student relationships that develop in and out of STEM classrooms. This set of studies furthers the implementation of SNA as a tool to examine self-efficacy and interest formation in the active learning physics classroom. Here I represent a variety of statistical applications of SNA, including bootstrapped linear regression (Chapter 2), structural equation modeling (Chapter 3), and hierarchical linear modeling for longitudinal analyses (Chapter 4). Self-efficacy data were collected using the Sources of Self-Efficacy for Science Courses - Physics survey (SOSESC-P), and interest data were collected using the physics identity survey. Data for these studies came from the Modeling Instruction sections of Introductory Physics with Calculus offered at Florida International University in the fall of 2014 and 2015. Analyses support the idea that students

  13. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2002-2003 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks and Leptons; Astro-particles; Hadronic matter; Nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Accelerators, Instrumentation, Radiation protection, LABRADOR metrology service, Administration); 3 - Transverse activities (Training, Science and society, Communication, Documentation); 4 - Scientific life (Scientific production, participation to scientific bodies); 5 - Manpower (Permanent training, Staff)

  14. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2004-2005 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks and Leptons; Astro-particles; Hadronic and nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Radiation protection, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service, Administration); 3 - Transverse activities (Training, Science and society, Communication, Documentation); 4 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..); 5 - Manpower (Permanent training, Staff)

  15. Acculturation is Not Related to Physical Activity Stage of Change for Children in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Markus; Nigg, Claudio R; Renda, Gloria A; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between acculturation and physical activity stages of change is unexplored. Stages of change conceptualize behavior change as a progression through a series of five stages indicating the readiness to change behavior. The level of acculturation can be assessed using the Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI) which is based on three factors: Cultural Activities, Social Interaction and Language Opportunities. The purpose of this project was to explore the relationship between parental acculturation and physical activity stages of change in Hawai'i children. Participants (N = 85; 62% female; aged 5-8 years; 22% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, 42% Asian, 25% White, and 11% Other) completed the EIBI and a physical activity stages of change measure. Acculturation factor means were: Cultural Activities = 4 (SD = 1.26), Social Interaction = 3 (SD = 1.04), and Language Opportunities = 4 (SD = 1.29). The physical activity stages of change distribution was Precontemplation = 11 (13%), Contemplation/Preparation = 15 (18%), and Action/Maintenance = 59 (69%). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for Cultural Activities F(3, 81) = 0.77, P = .47, Social Interaction F(3, 81) = 0.93, P = .40; and Language Opportunities F(3, 81) = 1.34, P = .27 showed no significant differences between physical activity stages of change. The results of our study do not show an association between acculturation and readiness to change for physical activity. The lack of differences may be due to participants being moderately acculturated, possibly lessening the differentiation of acculturation by physical activity stages of change.

  16. Longitudinal examination of social and environmental influences on motivation for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on physical activity among black and white adults: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Brownson, Ross C; Clark, Eddie M; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2006-02-01

    Social ecological models suggest that conditions in the social and physical environment, in addition to individual factors, play important roles in health behavior change. Using structural equation modeling, this study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of physical activity to examine theorized direct and indirect effects of individual (e.g., motivation and self-efficacy), social environmental (e.g., social support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood quality and availability of facilities). A community-based sample of adults (N = 910) was recruited from 2 public health centers (67% female, 43% African American, 43% motivation for physical activity, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the physical environment. Results indicated that (a) perceptions of the physical environment had direct effects on physical activity, (b) both the social and physical environments had indirect effects on physical activity through motivation and self-efficacy, and (c) social support influenced physical activity indirectly through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For all forms of activity, self-efficacy was the strongest direct correlate of physical activity, and evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between self-efficacy and intensity of physical activity. Findings from this research highlight the interactive role of individual and environmental influences on physical activity.

  18. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a systematic review of studies published in or after 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauner Annette

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, obesity increases the risk for several health disorders. In turn, many factors including genetic variations and environmental influences (e.g. physical activity increase the risk of obesity. For instance, 25 to 40 percent of people inherit a predisposition for a high body mass index (BMI. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize current cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents and to identify mediator and moderator effects by evaluating the interaction between these three parameters. Methods The electronic academic databases PubMed, SportDiscus, WEB OF KNOWLEDGE and Ovid were searched for studies on physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents aged 11 to 19 years (cross-sectional studies and in adolescents up to 23 years old (longitudinal studies published in English in or after 2000. Results Twelve cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies were included. Only four studies analyzed the interaction among physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents and reported inconsistent results. All other studies analyzed the relationship between either physical activity and overweight, or between fitness and overweight. Overweight—here including obesity—was inversely related to physical activity. Similarly, all studies reported inverse relations between physical fitness and overweight. Mediator and moderator effects were detected in the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity. Overall, a distinction of excessive body weight as cause or effect of low levels of physical activity and fitness is lacking. Conclusions The small number of studies on the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies that would reveal 1 the causality between physical activity and overweight / fitness and overweight and 2 the causal

  20. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  1. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  2. IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vi Q; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-12-08

    We introduce IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations, an object oriented, easy-to-use, high performance, C++ program for three-dimensional simulations of complex physical systems that can benefit a large variety of research areas, especially in cell mechanics. The program implements cross-communication between locally interacting particles and continuum models residing in the same physical space while a network facilitates long-range particle interactions. Message Passing Interface is used for inter-processor communication for all simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  4. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  5. Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren

    2011-01-01

    Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute......>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were.......20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1...

  6. The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Glapa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9–11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos during the test period. Students’ attitudes toward physical activities were assessed before and after the intervention using the “Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale”. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to examine the change from pre- to post-intervention. Overall, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated time-by-group interaction effects in ‘Self-efficacy on learning with video exercises’, F(1.32 = 75.28, p = 0.00, η2 = 0.19. Although the changes are minor, there were benefits of the intervention. It may be concluded that HOPSports Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Program contributes to better self-efficacy on learning while using video exercise of primary school children.

  7. The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glapa, Agata; Grzesiak, Joanna; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Chin, Ming-Kai; Edginton, Christopher R; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Bronikowski, Michal

    2018-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9-11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos during the test period. Students' attitudes toward physical activities were assessed before and after the intervention using the "Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale". Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to examine the change from pre- to post-intervention. Overall, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated time-by-group interaction effects in 'Self-efficacy on learning with video exercises', F(1.32) = 75.28, p = 0.00, η2 = 0.19. Although the changes are minor, there were benefits of the intervention. It may be concluded that HOPSports Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Program contributes to better self-efficacy on learning while using video exercise of primary school children.

  8. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartoire, M.; Flores, S.; Hernaus, Z.; Jarroux-Declais, D.; Kibler, M.; Martin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2000-2001 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - High-density hadronic matter; 5 - Nuclear matter; 6 - Theoretical physics; 7 - pluri-disciplinary activities; 8 - Technical services (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, experiments support, radiation protection, health and safety, administration); 9 - Training, communication, documentation; 10 - Scientific production (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..); 11 - Staff and visitors; 12 - Organigram

  9. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2008-2009 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - Hadronic and nuclear matter; 5 - Theoretical physics; 6 - Radiation sciences; 7 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 8 - Laboratory administration; 9 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  10. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1992-1993 years: 1 - Quarks and Leptons; 2 - Hadronic matter; 3 - Hadrons and Astro-particles; 4 - Theoretical physics; 5 - Ions/clusters-matter; 6 - Surface treatment/characterization; 7 - R and D, Instrumentation; 8 - Technical services (Accelerators, Computers, electronics, Mechanics); 9 - Training, communication; 10 - PhDs, publications, conferences, reports; 11 - Conference papers, lectures, seminars

  11. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  12. [Effect of physical activity on functional performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, T

    2001-02-01

    Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.

  13. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Friend Support on Adolescent Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to test social cognitive theory's notion that self-efficacy relates to intention that translates into behavior and to investigate whether friend support and self-efficacy synergize, interfere, or compensate for one another to predict vigorous physical activity in adolescents-a population at risk of rapid decreases in physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 226 students aged 12 to 16 years. In a conditional process analysis, friend support and physical activity self-efficacy were specified as interacting predictors of intention. The latter was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and later vigorous physical activity, controlling for sex and age. Self-efficacy emerged as the dominant predictor of intention, followed by friend support, and an interaction between support and self-efficacy. In adolescents with high self-efficacy, intention was independent of support. In those with low self-efficacy, receiving friend support partly compensated for lack of self-efficacy. The effect of self-efficacy on vigorous physical activity was mediated by intention. Adolescent vigorous physical activity was indirectly predicted by self-efficacy via intention, and this mediation was further moderated by levels of friend support, indicating that friend support can partly buffer lack of self-efficacy.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  18. Interaction between Mathematics and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitchin, Nigel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There is at the moment a highly active interface between mathematics and theoretical physics, which extends into completely new areas of both disciplines. This article, based on a round table discussion which took place as part of the activities around the 2006 International Congress of Mathematicians in Madrid, explores some of the issues involved: the differing goals and backgrounds of the two communities, today’s interactions and their precedents, the possibilities for the future and the role of mathematics itself in understanding the world in which we live.Actualmente existe una importante interfaz entre matemáticas y física teórica, que ha producido áreas completamente nuevas. Este artículo está basado en un debate en una mesa redonda organizada en el entorno del International Congress of Mathematicians en 2006 de Madrid, explora algunos de estos temas: los diferentes objetivos y pasado de ambas disciplinas, las interacciones actuales y sus precedentes, las posibilidades para el futuro y el papel de las matemáticas para entender el mundo en que vivimos.

  19. Physical activity and asthma: A longitudinal and multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa A; Janson, Christer; Real, Francisco Gómez; Johannessen, Ane; Waatevik, Marie; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndis; Holm, Mathias; Lindberg, Eva; Schlünssen, Vivi; Raza, Wasif; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Svanes, Cecilie

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the impact of physical activity on asthma in middle-aged adults, in one longitudinal analysis, and one multi-centre cross-sectional analysis. The Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) is a population-based postal questionnaire cohort study. Physical activity, height and weight were self-reported in Bergen, Norway, at RHINE II (1999-2001) and all centres at RHINE III (2010-2012). A longitudinal analysis of Bergen data investigated the association of baseline physical activity with follow-up asthma, incident asthma and symptoms, using logistic and zero-inflated Poisson regression (n = 1782). A cross-sectional analysis of all RHINE III centres investigated the association of physical activity with concurrent asthma and symptoms (n = 13,542) using mixed-effects models. Body mass index (BMI) was categorised (asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22, 0.89), whilst an effect from undertaking vigorous activity 3+ times/week was not detected (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.44, 2.76). The associations were attenuated with BMI adjustment. In the all-centre cross-sectional analysis an interaction was found, with the association between physical activity and asthma varying across BMI categories. These findings suggest potential longer-term benefit from lighter physical activity, whilst improvement in asthma outcomes from increasing activity intensity was not evident. Additionally, it appears the benefit from physical activity may differ according to BMI.

  20. The Arabidopsis SOS2 protein kinase physically interacts with and is activated by the calcium-binding protein SOS3

    OpenAIRE

    Halfter, Ursula; Ishitani, Manabu; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2000-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 and SOS3 genes are required for intracellular Na+ and K+ homeostasis and plant tolerance to high Na+ and low K+ environments. SOS3 is an EF hand type calcium-binding protein having sequence similarities with animal neuronal calcium sensors and the yeast calcineurin B. SOS2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase in the SNF1/AMPK family. We report here that SOS3 physically interacts with and activates SOS2 protein kinase. Genetically, sos2sos3 double mutant analysis ...

  1. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  2. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Steven; Schippers, Mandy

    2012-04-23

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals

  3. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail Steven

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Discussion Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. Summary It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research

  4. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  6. Direct observation of children's preferences and activity levels during interactive and online electronic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H P; Lam, Jessica W K; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2010-07-01

    Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children's physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls. Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute recreation sessions and recorded their game mode choices and PA levels. During Session One children could play either an interactive or an online electronic bowling game and during Session Two they could play an interactive or an online electronic running game. Children chose to play the games during 94% of session time and split this time between interactive (52%) and online (48%) versions. They engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during interactive games than their online electronic versions (70% vs. 2% of game time). Boys and nonoverweight children expended relatively more energy during the interactive games than girls and overweight children, respectively. New-generation interactive games can facilitate physical activity in children, and given the opportunity children may select them over sedentary versions.

  7. Could strength of exposure to the residential neighbourhood modify associations between walkability and physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Pearce, Jamie; Witten, Karen; Bagheri, Nasser; Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2015-12-01

    The importance of neighbourhoods for health and wellbeing may vary according to an individual's reliance on their local resources, but this assertion is rarely tested. We investigate whether greater neighbourhood 'exposure' through reliance on or engagement with the residential setting magnifies neighbourhood-health associations. Three built environment characteristics (destination density, streetscape (attractiveness of built environment) and street connectivity) and two physical activity components (weekday and weekend accelerometer counts) were measured for 2033 residents living in 48 neighbourhoods within four New Zealand cities in 2009-2010, giving six different built environment-physical activity associations. Interactions for each built environment-physical activity association with four individual-level characteristics (acting as proxies for exposure: gender, working status, car access, and income) were assessed with multi-level regression models; a total of 24 'tests'. Of the 12 weekday built environment-physical activity tests, 5 interaction terms were significant (p physical activity among those with restricted car access). For weekend tests, one association was statistically significant. No significant tests were contradictory. Pooled across the 12 weekday physical activity 'tests', a 1 standard deviation increase in the walkability of the built environment was associated with an overall 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6%-4.1%) greater increase in weekday physical activity across all the types of people we hypothesised to spend more time in their residential neighbourhood, and for weekend physical activity it was 4.2% (95% CI 3.9%-4.5%). Using multiple evaluation methods, interactions were in line with our hypothesis, with a stronger association seen for proxy exposure indicators (for example, restricted car access). Added to the wider evidence base, our study strengthens causal evidence of an effect of the built environment on physical activity, and highlights that

  8. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  9. Physical and functional interactions of Caenorhabditis elegans WRN-1 helicase with RPA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Moonjung; Park, Sojin; Kim, Eunsun; Kim, Do-Hyung; Lee, Se-Jin; Koo, Hyeon-Sook; Seo, Yeon-Soo; Ahn, Byungchan

    2012-02-21

    The Caenorhabditis elegans Werner syndrome protein, WRN-1, a member of the RecQ helicase family, has a 3'-5' DNA helicase activity. Worms with defective wrn-1 exhibit premature aging phenotypes and an increased level of genome instability. In response to DNA damage, WRN-1 participates in the initial stages of checkpoint activation in concert with C. elegans replication protein A (RPA-1). WRN-1 helicase is stimulated by RPA-1 on long DNA duplex substrates. However, the mechanism by which RPA-1 stimulates DNA unwinding and the function of the WRN-1-RPA-1 interaction are not clearly understood. We have found that WRN-1 physically interacts with two RPA-1 subunits, CeRPA73 and CeRPA32; however, full-length WRN-1 helicase activity is stimulated by only the CeRPA73 subunit, while the WRN-1(162-1056) fragment that harbors the helicase activity requires both the CeRPA73 and CeRPA32 subunits for the stimulation. We also found that the CeRPA73(1-464) fragment can stimulate WRN-1 helicase activity and that residues 335-464 of CeRPA73 are important for physical interaction with WRN-1. Because CeRPA73 and the CeRPA73(1-464) fragment are able to bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the stimulation of WRN-1 helicase by RPA-1 is most likely due to the ssDNA binding activity of CeRPA73 and the direct interaction of WRN-1 and CeRPA73.

  10. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  11. Hydrodynamic Interactions in Active and Passive Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Ryan C.

    Active matter is present at all biological length scales, from molecular apparatuses interior to cells, to swimming microscopic organisms, to birds, fish, and people. Its properties are varied and its applications diverse, but our understanding of the fundamental driving forces of systems with these constituents remains incomplete. This thesis examines active matter suspensions, exploring the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the unique and emergent properties therein. Both qualitative and quantitative impacts are considered, and care is taken in determining the physical origin of the results in question. It is found that fluid dynamical interactions are fundamentally, qualitatively important, and much of the properties of a system can be explained with an effective energy density defined via the fluid fields arising from the embedded self-propelling entities themselves.

  12. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  13. Effects of BDNF polymorphism and physical activity on episodic memory in the elderly: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Anne; Albinet, Cédric T; André, Nathalie; Pylouster, Jean; Rodríguez-Ballesteros, Montserrat; Kitzis, Alain; Audiffren, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration is highest in the hippocampus compared with that in other brain structures and affects episodic memory, a cognitive function that is impaired in older adults. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis, BDNF released during physical activity enhances brain plasticity and consequently brain health. However, even if the physical activity level is involved in the secretion of neurotrophin, this protein is also under the control of a specific gene. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the interaction between physical activity and BDNF Val66Met (rs6265), a genetic polymorphism, on episodic memory. Two hundred and five volunteers aged 55 and older with a Mini Mental State Examination score ≥ 24 participated in this study. Four groups of participants were established according to their physical activity level and polymorphism BDNF profile (Active Val homozygous, Inactive Val homozygous, Active Met carriers, Inactive Met carriers). Episodic memory was evaluated based on the delayed recall of the Logical Memory test of the MEM III battery. As expected, the physical activity level interacted with BDNF polymorphism to affect episodic memory performance (p physical activity and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism that affects episodic memory in the elderly and confirms that physical activity contributes to the neurotrophic mechanism implicated in cognitive health. The interaction shows that only participants with Val/Val polymorphism benefited from physical activity.

  14. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  15. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  17. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  18. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Avril; Hughes, Adrienne R; Janssen, Xanne; Reilly, John J

    2017-09-01

    Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, 'Go2Play Active Play' intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015-16. Participants ( n  = 172; mean age = 7 years) were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention ( n  = 102) and comparison ( n  = 21) groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was 'group' on 'time' from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (all p  skills score and percentile (both p  = 0.02), but no significant interaction for object control skills score ( p  = 0.1) and percentile ( p  = 0.3). The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  19. Addressing key concepts in physical geography through interactive learning activities in an online geo-ICT environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Steegen, An; Martens, Lotte

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of geospatial datasets and free online geo-ICT tools offers new opportunities for education in Earth Sciences. Geospatial technology indeed provides an environment through which interactive learning can be introduced in Earth Sciences curricula. However, the effectiveness of such e-learning approaches in terms of learning outcomes has rarely been addressed. Here, we present our experience with the implementation of digital interactive learning activities within an introductory Physical Geography course attended by 90 undergraduate students in Geography, Geology, Biology and Archaeology. Two traditional lectures were replaced by interactive sessions (each 2 h) in a flexible classroom where students had to work both in team and individually in order to explore some key concepts through the integrated use of geospatial data within Google EarthTM. A first interactive lesson dealt with the classification of river systems and aimed to examine the conditions under which rivers tend to meander or to develop a braided pattern. Students were required to collect properties of rivers (river channel pattern, channel slope, climate, discharge, lithology, vegetation, etc). All these data are available on a global scale and have been added as separate map layers in Google EarthTM. Each student collected data for at least two rivers and added this information to a Google Drive Spreadsheet accessible to the entire group. This resulted in a database of more than one hundred rivers spread over various environments worldwide. In a second phase small groups of students discussed the potential relationships between river channel pattern and its controlling factors. Afterwards, the findings of each discussion group were presented to the entire audience. The same set-up was followed in a second interactive session to explore spatial variations in ecosystem properties such as net primary production and soil carbon content. The qualitative evaluation of both interactive

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  1. Naturally-occurring changes in social-cognitive factors modify change in physical activity during early adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod K Dishman

    Full Text Available To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children's motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence.Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades.Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for gender and maturity differences, physical activity declined less in children who reported the least decreases in self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to activity and perceived parental support. Physical activity also declined less in students who persistently felt they had more parental and friend support for activity compared to those who reported the largest decrease in support from friends. After further adjustment for race, the decline in physical activity was less in those who had the largest decrease in perceived barriers and maintained a favorable perception of their neighborhood environment. Changes in enjoyment and social motives were unrelated to change in physical activity.Using an objective measure of physical activity, we confirm that naturally-occurring changes in children's beliefs about barriers to physical activity and their ability to overcome them, as well as perceptions of their neighborhood environment and social support, are concurrent with age-related declines in children's physical activity. The longitudinal findings confirm these putative social-cognitive mediators as plausible, interacting targets of interventions designed to mitigate the marked decline in physical activity that occurs during the transition between elementary and middle schools.

  2. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  3. Safe physical human robot interaction- past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, Aslam; Ryu, Jeha

    2008-01-01

    When a robot physically interacts with a human user, the requirements should be drastically changed. The most important requirement is the safety of the human user in the sense that robot should not harm the human in any situation. During the last few years, research has been focused on various aspects of safe physical human robot interaction. This paper provides a review of the work on safe physical interaction of robotic systems sharing their workspace with human users (especially elderly people). Three distinct areas of research are identified: interaction safety assessment, interaction safety through design, and interaction safety through planning and control. The paper then highlights the current challenges and available technologies and points out future research directions for realization of a safe and dependable robotic system for human users

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  5. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2000-2001 years: 1 - Scientific activities: exotic and hot nuclei; nucleon sub-structure; Mesons, Quarks and Gluons; Astro-particles; Theoretical physics (nuclear structure and reactions - N-body systems, fields theory applied to particle physics and to condensed matter physics); Radiochemistry; Physics of Downstream Cycle and Spallation Reactions; Particle Matter Interactions; Physics-Biology-Medicine Interfaces in Neurobiology, Oncology and Genomic; Science, Education, History and Society; 2 - Technical activities: General and technical departments; Detectors and associated instrumentation; Accelerators; Scientific and technical activities

  6. Using a dual safeguard web-based interactive teaching approach in an introductory physics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie-Ming Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities both in the classroom and on a designated web site. An experimental study with control groups evaluated the effectiveness of the DGWI teaching method. The results indicate that the DGWI method is an effective way to improve students’ understanding of physics concepts, develop students’ problem-solving abilities through instructor-student interactions, and identify students’ misconceptions through a safeguard framework based on questions that satisfy teaching requirements and cover all of the course material. The empirical study and a follow-up survey found that the DGWI method increased student-teacher interaction and improved student learning outcomes.

  7. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  8. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Julie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-03

    Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls' participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=-0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=-0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the development of family-based interventions to improve

  9. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  10. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. July 2007 - December 2009 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the July 2007 - December 2009 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Physics Research: Nuclear physics (Nuclear structure, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, Theoretical physics and phenomenology); interdisciplinary research (Back-end of the fuel cycle, Medical and industrial applications); FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature (NEMO3 and SuperNEMO experiments, β-ν correlations, n-EDM experiment); 2 - Technical and administrative activities (Administration, technical design and mechanics, electronics and microelectronics, computers and information technology, instrumentation, library, projects support and quality, health and safety); 3 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, seminars, valorisation, publications, conferences and scientific meetings); 4 - General information (permanent staff, organigram, research fellows, glossary)

  11. Walkability and physical activity: findings from Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Reis, Rodrigo; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Ricardo Rech, Cassiano; Kerr, Jacqueline; Curi Hallal, Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18-65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥ 150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥ 150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1-10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.06, 2.32, p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with physical activity. People living in high

  12. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. July 2005 - June 2007 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the July 2005 - June 2007 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Physics Research (Medical and industrial applications, Back-end of Nuclear waste management, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature, Theoretical physics and phenomenology, Nuclear structure); 2 - Technical and administrative activities (Administration, technical design and mechanics, electronics and detectors, computers and information technology, library, health and safety); 3 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, seminars, valorisation, publications, books, conferences and scientific meetings); 4 - General information (glossary, organigram, permanent staff, research fellows)

  13. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. July 2003 - June 2005 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the July 2003 - June 2005 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Physics Research (Medical and industrial applications, Back-end of the fuel cycle, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature, Theoretical physics and phenomenology, Nuclear structure); 2 - Technical and administrative activities (Administration, technical design and mechanics, electronics and detectors, computers and information technology, library, health and safety); 3 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, seminars, valorisation, publications, books, conferences and scientific meetings); 4 - General information (glossary, organigram, permanent staff, research fellows)

  14. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  16. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  17. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  18. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children’s physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design. Methods Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer at one year follow up. Pupils’ impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. Results A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76% completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate – vigorous activity (B = −1.4, 95% CI, −7.1, 4.2 min/d, light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, −17.9, 26.1, or sedentary time (B = −3.8, 95% CI, −29.2, 21.6 min/d between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002 and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008. We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (−28.0, 95% CI, −1.9, −54.1 min/d, p = 0.037 and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047 for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Conclusion Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new

  19. Assessing the effect of interaction between an FTO variant (rs9939609) and physical activity on obesity in 15,925 Swedish and 2,511 Finnish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Anna Elisabet; Renström, F; Lyssenko, V

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that genotypes at the FTO locus interact with physical activity to modify levels of obesity-related traits. We tested this hypothesis in two non-diabetic population-based cohorts, the first from southern Sweden and the second from the Botnia region of western Finland....

  20. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  1. PREFACE: Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Panchenko, Anna R.; Przytycka, Teresa

    2011-06-01

    we have assembled a representative set of papers written by experts with diverse scientific backgrounds, each offering a unique viewpoint on using computational and physics methods to study biological systems at different levels of organization. We start with studies that aim to decipher the mechanisms of molecular recognition using biophysics methods and then expand our scale, concluding the issue with studies of interaction networks at cellular and population levels. Biomolecules interact with each other in a highly specific manner and selectively recognize their partners among hundreds of thousands of other molecules. As the paper by Zhang et al points out, this recognition process should be fast and guided by long-range electrostatic forces that select and bring the interacting partners together. The authors show that the increase of salt concentration leads to destabilization of protein complexes, suggesting an optimization of the charge-charge interactions across the protein binding interfaces. The following paper by Berezovsky further explores the balance of different interactions in protein complexes and uses physical concepts to explain the entire spectrum of protein structural classes, from intrinsically disordered to hyperthermostable proteins. The author describes highly unstructured viral proteins at one end of the spectrum and discusses the balance of stabilizing interactions in protein complexes from thermophilic organisms at the other. Recently accumulated evidence has indicated that native proteins do not necessarily require a unique structure to be biologically active, and in some cases structural disorder or intrinsic flexibility can be a prerequisite for their function. From the physical point of view, these disordered/flexible proteins exist in dynamic equilibrium between different conformational states, some of which could be selected upon binding to another partner. Such a property allows disordered proteins to achieve specific binding and at

  2. Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small groups. Individual formative feedback was introduced as a rapid assessment tool to provide an overview on progress and identify gaps by means of questioning students at three levels: conceptual; prior knowledge; homework exercises. The setup of Quantum Physics has been developed as a result of several loops of adjustments and improvements from a traditional-like type of teaching to an interactive classroom. Results of this particular instructional arrangement indicate significant gains in students' achievements in comparison with the traditional structure of this course, after recent optimisation steps such as the implementation of an individual feedback system.

  3. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2002-2003 years: 1 - Scientific activities: Nuclear structure; Hadronic physics and matter; Astro-particles; Theoretical physics; Hot nuclei; Energy and Environment; Particle Matter Interactions; Physics-Biology-Medicine Interfaces in Neurobiology, Oncology and Genomic; Knowledge dissemination and communication; 2 - Technical activities: General and technical departments; Instrumentation/Detectors; Accelerators Division; 3 - Appendixes: Publications, meetings, seminars, workshops, PhDs, Staff

  4. "It's all about incentive": Social technology as a potential facilitator for self-determined physical activity participation for young people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, Tara Joy; McPherson, Amy C; Gladstone, Brenda; Biddiss, Elaine

    2017-09-29

    To investigate the perceived role of social technologies in promoting physical activity participation for young people with physical disabilities and to identify design considerations that should be addressed when creating social technologies to promote physical activity. Interactive design workshops for young people with physical disabilities aged 12-18 (n = 8) were held. Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Young people perceived significant benefit for social technologies to promote physical activity as they have the potential to overcome many barriers to physical activity participation. Design features recommended by the participants included (1) options for diverse interests and preferences, (2) provision of informational support, (3) support through equitable technology design, (4) incentive through competition and play, and (5) opportunities to develop community. Social technology has potential to provide tailored, equitable opportunities for social engagement and physical activity participation for young people with physical disabilities through needs- and preference-specific design.

  5. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p < .005). The association between the school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p < .001). The difference in physical environments equated to about 20 minutes/week of MVPA for students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  6. Gelsolin negatively regulates the activity of tumor suppressor p53 through their physical interaction in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Jung-Woong; Jang, Sang-Min; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kang, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The actin binding protein Gelsolin (GSN) interacts with transcription factor p53. → GSN interacts with transactivation- and DNA binding domains of p53. → GSN represses transactivity of p53 via inhibition of nuclear translocation of p53. → GSN inhibits the p53-mediated apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: As a transcription factor, p53 modulates several cellular responses including cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we have shown that an actin regulatory protein, gelsolin (GSN), can physically interact with p53. The nuclear localization of p53 is inhibited by GSN overexpression in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that GSN negatively regulates p53-dependent transcriptional activity of a reporter construct, driven by the p21-promoter. Furthermore, p53-mediated apoptosis was repressed in GSN-transfected HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that GSN binds to p53 and this interaction leads to the inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis by anchoring of p53 in the cytoplasm in HepG2 cells.

  7. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    children’s physiological signals, an estimator of the degree to which games provided by the playground engage the players. For this purpose children’s heart rate (HR) signals, and their expressed preferences of how much “fun” particular game variants are, are obtained from experiments using games...... that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64...

  8. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  9. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. 2012-2013 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the 2012-2013 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Nuclear Physics Research (Nuclear structure, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, Theoretical physics and phenomenology); 2 - Interdisciplinary Research (Nuclear waste management, Medical and industrial applications); 3 - Group 'FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature - GRIFON (Precise correlation measurements in nuclear beta decay, High resolution study of low energy charge exchange collisions with a MOT (magneto-optical trapped) target, Towards a new measurement of the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM), Search for neutrinoless double beta decay); 4 - Technical and administrative activities (technical design, mechanics, electronics and microelectronics, computers and information technology, instrumentation); library, program management and quality, health and safety); 5 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, valorisation, communication, conferences and scientific meetings); 6 - General information (permanent staff, organigram, research fellows, glossary)

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  11. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  12. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  13. A project proposal on Patterns and correlates of physical activity in families on Lolland-Falster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Therese; Jepsen, Randi; Grøntved, Anders

    explanations for the inconsistent findings might be the use of different methodology for assessment of-as well as use of different definitions of physical activity. Current studies suggest that parental modeling effects in regard to physical activity differ by gender. Furthermore the influence of one versus...... two physically active parents may contribute positively to the physical activity level of the children in the family. Use of screen-based electronic media (e.g. smartphone-and tablet) may have considerably changed the way the families interact with each other. Research on these newer forms of media...... and correlates of physical activity in 1250 families on Lolland and Falster. Physical activity will be assessed objectively by using two accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Questionnaire about physical activity will be applied. Perspectives: Understanding whether or how primary caregivers influence...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  15. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  16. A new approach to physical activity maintenance: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Keep Active Minnesota trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crain A Lauren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since many individuals who initiate physical activity programs are highly likely to return to a sedentary lifestyle, innovative strategies to efforts to increase the number of physically active older adults who successfully maintain beneficial levels of PA for a substantial length of time are needed. Methods/Design The Keep Active Minnesota Trial is a randomized controlled trial of an interactive phone- and mail-based intervention to help 50–70 year old adults who have recently increased their physical activity level, maintain that activity level over a 24-month period in comparison to usual care. Baseline, 6, 12, and 24 month measurement occurred via phone surveys with kilocalories expended per week in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (CHAMPS Questionnaire as the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes include hypothesized mediators of physical activity change (e.g., physical activity enjoyment, self-efficacy, physical activity self-concept, body mass index, and depression. Seven day accelerometry data were collected on a sub-sample of participants at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Discussion The Keep Active Minnesota study offers an innovative approach to the perennial problem of physical activity relapse; by focusing explicitly on physical activity maintenance, the intervention holds considerable promise for modifying the typical relapse curve. Moreover, if shown to be efficacious, the use of phone- and mail-based intervention delivery offers potential for widespread dissemination. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00283452.

  17. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeutic categories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic, bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  18. The next step in health behavior research: the need for ecological moderation analyses - an application to diet and physical activity at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave Hh; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2014-04-17

    The ecological perspective holds that human behavior depends on the interaction of different environmental factors and personal characteristics, but it lacks validation and operationalization. In the current paper, an ecological view was adopted to examine the interactive impact of several ecological systems on children's dietary intake and physical activity at childcare or similar facilities. The ecological view was operationalized into three types of interaction: 1) interaction between types of childcare environment (physical, social, political, economic); 2) interaction between micro-systems (the childcare and home environment) in meso-systems; and 3) interaction between childcare environment and child characteristics. The predictive value of each of these interactions was tested based on a systematic review of the literature. Several studies support the hypothesis that the influence of the childcare environment on children's physical activity and diet is moderated by child characteristics (age, gender), but interaction between environmental types as well as between micro-systems is hardly examined in the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. Qualitative studies and general child development research provide some valuable insights, but we advocate quantitative research adopting an ecological perspective on environmental influences. Empirical studies operationalizing a true ecological view on diet and physical activity are scarce. Theorizing and assessment of interaction is advocated to become common practice rather than an exception in behavioral nutrition and physical activity research, in order to move the field forward.

  19. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    G. Ganesh; A. Takagi; R. Osu; T. Yoshioka; M. Kawato; E. Burdet

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor...

  20. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2008/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2008-2009 years: 1 - Scientific activities: Nuclear structure; Hadronic physics and Astro-particles; Theoretical physics; Particle Matter Interactions; Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics; Energy and Environment; 2 - Technical activities: Technical departments; Accelerators Division; Instrumentation division; 3 - Knowledge dissemination; 4 - General services; 5 - Appendixes: Publications, Proceedings, Conferences, workshops, collaboration meetings, Seminars, PhDs, accreditations to supervise research, Staff, Visitors, Work experiences

  1. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2006/2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2006-2007 years: 1 - Scientific activities: Nuclear structure; Hadronic physics and matter; Astro-particles; Theoretical physics; Hot nuclei; Energy and Environment; Particle Matter Interactions; Knowledge dissemination and communication; 2 - Administration; 3 - Technical activities: General and technical departments; Accelerators Division; 4 - Appendixes: Publications, Proceedings, Conferences, workshops, collaboration meetings, Seminars, Schools and lectures, PhDs, accreditations to supervise research, Books and works, Staff, Visitors

  2. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  3. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  4. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  5. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  6. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  7. Healthy hearts--and the universal benefits of being physically active: physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N; Morris, Jeremy N

    2009-04-01

    Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes. Recent research has extended the earlier findings on activity or fitness and heart disease to a wide variety of health outcomes. We now know that regular physical activity of 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases, preserves health and function (both physical and mental) into old age, and extends longevity. The current challenge is to develop programs and interventions to promote physical activity for all in our increasingly sedentary societies.

  8. Convolution product construction of interactions in probabilistic physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsimbarison, H.M.; Raboanary, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to give a probabilistic construction of interactions which may be relevant for building physical theories such as interacting quantum field theories. We start with the path integral definition of partition function in quantum field theory which recall us the probabilistic nature of this physical theory. From a Gaussian law considered as free theory, an interacting theory is constructed by nontrivial convolution product between the free theory and an interacting term which is also a probability law. The resulting theory, again a probability law, exhibits two proprieties already present in nowadays theories of interactions such as Gauge theory : the interaction term does not depend on the free term, and two different free theories can be implemented with the same interaction.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  10. Automated analysis of short responses in an interactive synthetic tutoring system for introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Christopher M.; Murphy, Sytil K.; Christel, Michael G.; Stevens, Scott M.; Zollman, Dean A.

    2016-06-01

    Computer-automated assessment of students' text responses to short-answer questions represents an important enabling technology for online learning environments. We have investigated the use of machine learning to train computer models capable of automatically classifying short-answer responses and assessed the results. Our investigations are part of a project to develop and test an interactive learning environment designed to help students learn introductory physics concepts. The system is designed around an interactive video tutoring interface. We have analyzed 9 with about 150 responses or less. We observe for 4 of the 9 automated assessment with interrater agreement of 70% or better with the human rater. This level of agreement may represent a baseline for practical utility in instruction and indicates that the method warrants further investigation for use in this type of application. Our results also suggest strategies that may be useful for writing activities and questions that are more appropriate for automated assessment. These strategies include building activities that have relatively few conceptually distinct ways of perceiving the physical behavior of relatively few physical objects. Further success in this direction may allow us to promote interactivity and better provide feedback in online learning systems. These capabilities could enable our system to function more like a real tutor.

  11. Automated analysis of short responses in an interactive synthetic tutoring system for introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Nakamura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer-automated assessment of students’ text responses to short-answer questions represents an important enabling technology for online learning environments. We have investigated the use of machine learning to train computer models capable of automatically classifying short-answer responses and assessed the results. Our investigations are part of a project to develop and test an interactive learning environment designed to help students learn introductory physics concepts. The system is designed around an interactive video tutoring interface. We have analyzed 9 with about 150 responses or less. We observe for 4 of the 9 automated assessment with interrater agreement of 70% or better with the human rater. This level of agreement may represent a baseline for practical utility in instruction and indicates that the method warrants further investigation for use in this type of application. Our results also suggest strategies that may be useful for writing activities and questions that are more appropriate for automated assessment. These strategies include building activities that have relatively few conceptually distinct ways of perceiving the physical behavior of relatively few physical objects. Further success in this direction may allow us to promote interactivity and better provide feedback in online learning systems. These capabilities could enable our system to function more like a real tutor.

  12. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  13. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  15. Physical activity and mental health in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, Lauren K; Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Polman, Remco; Teede, Helena J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-03-27

    Physical activity is prescribed as a component of primary management for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the association between physical activity and mental health as well as the exercise barriers, motivators and support providers for younger women with and without PCOS to assist in physical activity uptake and prescription for these women. Women aged 18-50 years with (n = 153) and without PCOS (n = 64) completed a questionnaire at one time point. The questionnaire included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a survey regarding levels of physical activity, physical activity barriers, motivators and supports. A MANCOVA assessed associations between physical activity, PCOS and mental health (specifically depression and anxiety). Descriptive and Chi square goodness of fit statistics assessed the differences in perceived barriers, motivators and support providers amongst women with and without PCOS. Women with PCOS displayed higher severity of depression (F(1,210) = 8.32, p = 0.004) and anxiety (F(1,210) = 17.37, p physically active women, depression was significantly less severe than in their inactive counterparts (F(2,210) = 13.62, p physical activity status and no interaction effects between PCOS and activity status for depression or anxiety. Women with PCOS were more likely to report a lack of confidence about maintaining physical activity (Χ2 = 3.65; p = 0.046), fear of injury (Χ2 = 4.08; p = 0.043) and physical limitations (Χ2 = 11.92; p = 0.001) as barriers to physical activity and were more likely to be motivated to be active to control a medical condition (Χ2 = 7.48; p = 0.006). Women with PCOS identified more sources of support compared to women without PCOS. Physical activity is associated with lower depression in women with PCOS and differences exist in the self-reported physical activity barriers, motivators and support providers, compared to controls

  16. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  17. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  18. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during interventions

  19. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Julie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222 and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042 and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002 parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033 parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048 and week day (p=0.013 MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006; and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004, highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can

  20. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the

  1. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  2. Motivation for physical activity of psychiatric patients when physical activity was offered as part of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined motivation variables, self-determination and self-schema, in relation to physical activity, among psychiatric patients with experience with physical activity as part of their treatment. Participants were patients (N=109) from 15 psychiatric hospitals or day-care institutions. Data were collected by questionnaires. A positive relationship between physical activity level, positive experiences of the activity and higher degree of self-determination and exercise self-schema was expected. Intrinsically regulated motives (motivated by the experience of the activity in itself) were positively and significantly related to physical activity level and the experience of decrease in symptoms during physical activity, and extrinsically regulated motives were negatively correlated with physical activity level. Intrinsically regulated motives gave an odds ratio of 20.0 for being physically active rather than inactive. Holding an exercise self-schema gave an odds ratio of 6.1 for being physically active. The majority of the patients (57.4%) reported that physical activity decreased their illness symptoms, but a few (11.9%) reported negative effects. The findings demonstrated that psychiatric patients do not differ from the normal population in relation to motivational mechanisms, even if they may experience more barriers to physical activities because of their illness. Therefore, in trying to motivate psychiatric patients, it is important to make physical activity as intrinsically motivating as possible by focusing on the positive experiences of the activity itself, as well as helping to develop an exercise self-schema.

  3. Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F

    2013-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.

  4. Vigorous Physical Activity, Mental Health, Perceived Stress, and Socializing Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Nelson, Toben F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. Design A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Setting Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. Subjects A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Measures Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Analysis Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Conclusion Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions. PMID:23470187

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p

  6. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  7. Minimizing Teacher Stress. Structuring Positive Interactions for Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Children in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Nola R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Components of an integrated physical education program, which consists of handicapped and nonhandicapped students, include: (1) activities that promote interaction among all students; (2) strategies that place handicapped and nonhandicapped students together; and (3) reinforcement of cooperative behavior. (CJ)

  8. Changes in physical functioning in the Active Living Every Day program of the Active for Life Initiative®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Wegley, Stacy; Buchner, David M; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Alisa; Schwamberger, Karen; Bazzarre, Terry L

    2011-09-01

    Physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of physical functional limitations in older adults. There are limited data that evidence-based physical activity interventions can be successfully translated into community programs and result in similar benefits for physical functioning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of the Active Living Every Day program on physical functioning and physical functional limitations in a diverse sample of older adults. As a part of the Active for Life initiative, the Council on Aging of Southwestern Ohio implemented Active Living Every Day (ALED), a group-based lifestyle behavior change program designed to increase physical activity. Performance-based physical functioning tests (30-s Chair Stand Test, eight Foot Up-and-Go Test, Chair Sit-and-Reach Test, 30-Foot Walk Test) were administered to participants at baseline and posttest. Baseline to post-program changes in physical functioning and impairment status were examined with repeated measures analysis of covariance. Interactions tested whether change over time differed according to race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and baseline impairment status. Participants significantly increased their performance in all four physical functioning tests. The percentage of participants classified as "impaired" according to normative data significantly decreased over time. Physical functioning improved regardless of BMI, race/ethnicity, or baseline impairment status. ALED is an example of an evidenced-based physical activity program that can be successfully translated into community programs and result in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in performance-based measures of physical functioning.

  9. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  10. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena

    2009-01-01

    = 0.02 and girls and boys. Interactions were found between change in physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo......PURPOSE: To describe changes in objectively assessed physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) between 1999-2000 and 2005 in 9-yr-old children living in Oslo, Norway. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. The participation rate was 70.9% in 1999...

  11. FTO genotype, physical activity, and coronary heart disease risk in Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Jaana; Mehlig, Kirsten; Leander, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Nyberg, Fredrik

    2014-04-01

    Variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) predisposing to obesity and diabetes mellitus have also been associated with cardiovascular disease. Physical activity has been suggested to attenuate the FTO effect on obesity, but it is unknown whether this is also true for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we explored whether physical activity modifies the FTO association with coronary heart disease (CHD). FTO rs9939609 (T>A) polymorphism was genotyped in 2 Swedish population-based case-control studies with 1743 CHD cases and 4402 population controls (25-74 years of age; 41% women). Leisure time physical activity was assessed by questionnaires, and 3 levels were defined: low, medium, and high. Overall, carriers of the FTO A allele had an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.37) adjusted for age, sex, study, and body mass index. Although A-allele carriers with low physical activity had the highest CHD risk (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 2.44-4.46) compared with those with TT genotype and high activity, the effects of FTO genotype and physical activity on CHD risk were approximately additive, indicating the absence of additive interaction. The stratum-specific relative risks of CHD from the A allele in subjects with low, medium, and high physical activity were odds ratio 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.60), 1.22 (1.04-1.44), and 1.38 (1.06-1.80), respectively, but the suggested multiplicative interaction was not significant. FTO rs9939609 A-allele carriers have an increased CHD risk, and the association is not counteracted by increased physical activity.

  12. National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...

  13. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  14. Randomized controlled trial of physical activity, cognition, and walking in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Benedict, Ralph H B; Motl, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    The present study adopted a randomized controlled trial design and examined the effect of a physical activity behavioral intervention on cognitive and walking performance among persons with MS who have mild or moderate disability status. A total of 82 MS patients were randomly allocated into intervention or wait-list control conditions. The intervention condition received a theory-based program for increasing physical activity behavior that was delivered via the Internet, and one-on-one video chat sessions with a behavior-change coach. Participants completed self-report measures of physical activity and disability status, and underwent the oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and 6-minute walk (6MW) test before and after the 6-month period. Analysis using mixed-model ANOVA indicated a significant time × condition × disability group interaction on SDMT scores (p = 0.02, partial-η (2) = 0.08), such that persons with mild disability in the intervention condition demonstrated a clinically meaningful improvement in SDMT scores (~6 point change). There was a further significant time × condition interaction on 6MW distance (p = 0.02, partial-η (2) = 0.07), such that those in the intervention condition demonstrated an increase in 6MW distance relative to those in the control group. The current study supports physical activity as a promising tool for managing cognitive impairment and impaired walking performance in persons with MS, and suggests that physical activity might have specific effects on cognition and non-specific effects on walking performance in this population.

  15. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  16. Expectations Regarding Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Aili I.; Watts, Amber S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined how expectations regarding aging (ERA) influence physical activity participation and physical function. Method: We surveyed 148 older adults about their ERA (ERA-38), health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), and self-rated health (RAND-36). We tested the mediating effect of physical activity on the relationships between ERA and physical function. Results: Positive expectations were associated with more engagement in physical activity (B = 0.016, p physical function (B = 0.521, p Physical activity mediated the relationship between ERA and physical function (B = 5.890, p physically active lifestyles in older adults and may influence health outcomes, such as physical function. Future research should evaluate whether attempts to increase physical activity are more successful when modifications to ERA are also targeted. PMID:28491915

  17. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  18. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-01-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations.

  19. Physical Environment Correlates of Physical Activity in Developing Countries: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2018-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are considered problems of wealthy, developed countries. These conditions are rising dramatically in developing countries. Most existing research on the role of the physical environment to support physical activity examines developed countries only. This review identifies physical environment factors that are associated with physical activity in developing countries. This review is modeled on a highly cited review by Saelens and Handy in 2008. The current review analyzes findings from 159 empirical studies in the 138 developing countries. Results discuss the association of physical environment features and physical activity for all developing countries and identify the patterns within regions. The review supports the association of traffic safety with physical activity for transportation. Rural (vs urban) residence, distance to nonresidential land uses, and "composite" features of the physical environment are associated with general physical activity. Rural (vs urban) residence is associated with physical activity for work. More research is needed on associations between the physical environment and physical activity in developing countries. Research should identify specific physical environment features in urban areas that are associated with higher activity levels.

  20. Relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Cox, Cheryl; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland W

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with RA enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity. Data included patients' self-reported beliefs that physical activity can be beneficial for their disease, motivation for physical activity participation, worries about physical activity participation, and average daily accelerometer counts of activity over a week's time. Body mass index (BMI), sex, age, race, and disease activity were measured as potential statistical moderators of physical activity. Physical activity participation was greater for those with higher scores on scales measuring beliefs that physical activity is beneficial for their disease (P for trend = 0.032) and motivation for physical activity participation (P for trend = 0.007) when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, race, and disease activity. There was a positive but nonsignificant trend in physical activity participation in relation to worries. Stronger beliefs that physical activity can be helpful for managing disease and increased motivation to engage in physical activity are related to higher levels of physical activity participation. These data provide a preliminary empirical rationale for why interventions targeting these concepts should lead to improved physical activity participation in adults with RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. The Relationship of Self-Concept and Perceived Athletic Competence to Physical Activity Level and Gender among Turkish Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, F. Hulya Asci S. Nazan; Isler, Ayse Kin

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level but no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant…

  2. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  3. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  5. Physical root-soil interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legué, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2017-12-01

    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to aerial organs, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex.

  6. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  7. The development of a bilingual interactive video to improve physical activity and healthful eating in a head start population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piziak, Veronica

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic preschool population remains elevated, particularly among children in low income families below the poverty level. Obesity leads to the early onset of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely comprised of this high risk group. Their physical activity level is suboptimal in part due to lack of available outside play areas and time spent watching television and playing sedentary video games. Dietary intake is frequently high in sugar sweetened beverages and low in vegetables. The group is frequently bilingual with limited vocabulary and has not learned to read. Preserving their Mexican American culture is a concern. This article describes the development and assessment of a group of bilingual interactive video interventions to improve age appropriate physical activity while providing basic nutrition education focusing on increasing vegetable and water intake and decreasing sugar sweetened beverages. Suggestions for development and assessment of content were provided by focus groups of Head Start teachers, managers and dietitians in the Texas counties of Bastrop, Hidalgo and McLennon. A demonstration of the videos was conducted in Bastrop County. Teachers, students and managers felt that the videos provided excellent information, improved exercise participation and engaged the children.

  8. The Development of a Bilingual Interactive Video to Improve Physical Activity and Healthful Eating in a Head Start Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Piziak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic preschool population remains elevated, particularly among children in low income families below the poverty level. Obesity leads to the early onset of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely comprised of this high risk group. Their physical activity level is suboptimal in part due to lack of available outside play areas and time spent watching television and playing sedentary video games. Dietary intake is frequently high in sugar sweetened beverages and low in vegetables. The group is frequently bilingual with limited vocabulary and has not learned to read. Preserving their Mexican American culture is a concern. This article describes the development and assessment of a group of bilingual interactive video interventions to improve age appropriate physical activity while providing basic nutrition education focusing on increasing vegetable and water intake and decreasing sugar sweetened beverages. Suggestions for development and assessment of content were provided by focus groups of Head Start teachers, managers and dietitians in the Texas counties of Bastrop, Hidalgo and McLennon. A demonstration of the videos was conducted in Bastrop County. Teachers, students and managers felt that the videos provided excellent information, improved exercise participation and engaged the children.

  9. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  10. Hyperfine interactions, the key to multiquark physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likpink, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Clues in the search for a fundamental description of hadron physics based on QCD may be obtained from a phenomenological constituent quark model in which the color-electric force binds quarks into saturated color-singlet hadrons, and finer details of the spectrum and multiquark physics are dominated by the color-magnetic hyperfine interaction. 47 refs

  11. Hyperfine interactions, the key to multiquark physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likpink, H.J.

    1988-08-08

    Clues in the search for a fundamental description of hadron physics based on QCD may be obtained from a phenomenological constituent quark model in which the color-electric force binds quarks into saturated color-singlet hadrons, and finer details of the spectrum and multiquark physics are dominated by the color-magnetic hyperfine interaction. 47 refs.

  12. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2004-2005 years: 1 - Scientific activities: Nuclear structure; Hadronic physics and matter; Astro-particles; Theoretical physics; Hot nuclei; Energy and Environment; Particle Matter Interactions; Physics-Biology-Medicine Interfaces in Neurobiology, Oncology and Genomic; Knowledge dissemination and communication; 2 - Technical activities: General and technical departments; Accelerators Division; 3 - Appendixes: Publications, Proceedings, Conferences, workshops, collaboration meetings, Internal seminars, External seminars, Heavy ions seminars, Theoretical seminars, Radiochemistry seminars, Seminars of general interest, Scientific events, Schools and lectures, Thesis, accreditations to supervise research, Books and works, 'Journal club', Staff, Visitors

  13. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K

    2008-01-01

    -tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive...... Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A...... of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped...

  14. Gender differences in leisure-time versus non-leisure-time physical activity among Saudi adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobayel, Hana; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nanda A; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gender differences and predictors of leisure versus non-leisure time physical activities among Saudi adolescents aged 14-19 years. The multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. A sample of 1,388 males and 1,500 females enrolled in secondary schools in three major cities in Saudi Arabia was included. Anthropometric measurements were performed and Body Mass Index was calculated. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were measured using a self-reported validated questionnaire. The total time spent in leisure and non-leisure physical activity per week was 90 and 77 minutes, respectively. The males spent more time per week in leisure-time physical activities than females. Females in private schools spent more time during the week in leisure-time physical activities, compared to females in Stateschools. There was a significant difference between genders by obesity status interaction in leisure-time physical activity. Gender, and other factors, predicted total duration spent in leisure-time and non-leisure-time physical activity. The study showed that female adolescents are much less active than males, especially in leisure-time physical activities. Programmes to promote physical activity among adolescents are urgently needed, with consideration of gender differences.

  15. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...

  16. Interactive modeling activities in the classroom—rotational motion and smartphone gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörn, Ray; Braskén, Mats

    2016-11-01

    The wide-spread availability of smartphones makes them a valuable addition to the measurement equipment in both the physics classroom and the instructional laboratory, encouraging an active interaction between measurements and modeling activities. In this paper we illustrate this interaction by making use of the internal gyroscope of a smartphone to study and measure the rotational dynamics of objects rotating about a fixed axis. The workflow described in this paper has been tested in a classroom setting and found to encourage an exploratory approach to both data collecting and modeling.

  17. AN OUTLINE OF INTERACTION TYPES IN PHYSICAL SERIOUS GAMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    This poster explores a perspective in interaction design for physical serious games. It introduces a model for interaction types: horizontal, vertical and collaborative interaction at user level and developer's level. The thesis is that the richer and more meaningful the interaction is the better...

  18. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  19. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1996-1997 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1996-1997 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Antares, Atlas, CPLear, H1), the training, teaching and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  20. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1989-1991 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1989-1991 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Bugey, CPLear, Delphi, LHC), the teaching and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  1. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1994-1995 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1994-1995 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Atlas, Bugey, CPLear, Delphi, H1, Particle astrophysics), the training, teaching, industrial relations/valorisation and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  2. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1992-1993 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1992-1993 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Atlas, Bugey, CPLear, Delphi), the training, teaching, industrial relations/valorisation and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of internal seminars and of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  3. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...

  4. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E

    2017-01-13

    Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire ( n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  5. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  7. Alcoholic liver disease patients’ perspective on coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention after hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjær; Hendriksen, Carsten; Schiødt, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: To identify and describe the impact of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients after hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives. Background: Patients who have experienced...... were conducted with 10 alcoholic liver disease patients who were diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy and participated in a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention. Richard S. Lazarus's theory of stress and coping inspired the interview guide. Results: The significance...... of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients’ ability to cope with problems after surviving alcohol-induced hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives was characterised by the core category ‘regain control...

  8. Evaluation of active transition, a website-delivered physical activity intervention for university students: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew; Faulkner, Guy; Bray, Steven

    2013-04-29

    While physical activity in individuals tends to decline steadily with age, there are certain periods where this decline occurs more rapidly, such as during early adulthood. Interventions aimed at attenuating the declines in physical activity during this transition period appear warranted. The purpose of the study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of a theoretically informed, website-delivered physical activity intervention aimed at students entering university. Using a quasi-experimental design, 65 participants (44 females; mean age 18.51, SD 0.91) were assigned to either an intervention (receiving website access plus weekly prompts) or comparison condition (receiving unprompted website access only), completing questionnaires at baseline and follow-up 8 weeks later. The intervention website, "Active Transition", was specifically designed to target students' physical activity cognitions and self-regulatory skills. Intervention usage was low, with only 47% (18/38) of participants assigned to the intervention condition logging into the website 2 or more times. Among the broader student sample, there were significant declines in students' physical activity behaviors (F1,63=18.10, Pusers (29/65, individuals logging in 2 or more times) and non-users (36/65, individuals logging in once or not at all), there was a significant interaction effect for intervention usage and time on perceived behavioral control (F1,62=5.13, P=.03). Poor intervention usage suggests that future efforts need to incorporate innovative strategies to increase intervention uptake and better engage the student population. The findings, however, suggest that a website-delivered intervention aimed at this critical life stage may have positive impact on students' physical activity cognitions. Future studies with more rigorous sampling designs are required.

  9. Teaching Radiology Physics Interactively with Scientific Notebook Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael L; Amini, Behrang

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the teaching of radiology physics can be enhanced with the use of interactive scientific notebook software. We used the scientific notebook software known as Project Jupyter, which is free, open-source, and available for the Macintosh, Windows, and Linux operating systems. We have created a scientific notebook that demonstrates multiple interactive teaching modules we have written for our residents using the Jupyter notebook system. Scientific notebook software allows educators to create teaching modules in a form that combines text, graphics, images, data, interactive calculations, and image analysis within a single document. These notebooks can be used to build interactive teaching modules, which can help explain complex topics in imaging physics to residents. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  13. Barriers to and motivators for physical activity among people with Type 2 diabetes: patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidegaard, L P; Schwennesen, N; Willaing, I; Faerch, K

    2016-12-01

    To explore barriers to and motivators for physical activity in a group of overweight and obese individuals with dysregulated Type 2 diabetes. Data were collected from the Steno Diabetes Center's outpatient clinic in Denmark. Four focus groups were conducted including 28 individuals with Type 2 diabetes aged 39-71 years. The facilitators used open-ended questions and probes such as images, statements and quotations about physical activity to foster active participation and interaction among participants. Focus groups were recorded on video and the discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically. We identified four main themes: 1) the body as a barrier to physical activity because of functional limitations; 2) logistical challenges, including lack of time and awareness of where to exercise in the local area; 3) being physically active with others, providing a sense of mutual commitment and enjoyment; and 4) goal-setting and self-tracking, which was seen as an opportunity to track physical improvement over time. The findings suggest that, once people are active, a high level of social interaction may help maintain their activity levels. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of combining individually tailored exercise plans with the establishment of customized and locally based exercise communities that offer enjoyment and support. Additionally, it is relevant to explore experiences of using self-tracking technologies to review short- and long-term goals. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  14. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  15. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  16. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  17. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  19. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  20. Elementary particles and physics interaction unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite-Lopes, J.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum theory and relativity theory are fundamental of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, which is the base of elementary particle physics, gauge field theory and basic force unification models. After a short introduction of relativistic equations of the main fields, the free scalar field, the free vector field, the free electromagnetic field and the free spinor field, and of elementary particles and basic interactions, gauge invariance and electromagnetic gauge field are detailed. Then the presentation of internal degrees of freedom, especially isospin, introduces gauge field theory of Yang-Mills. At last weak interactions and strong interactions are presented and lead to grand unification theory in conclusion [fr

  1. Validation of the Physical Activity Scale for individuals with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; L'Ortye, Annemiek A; Buffart, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Nooijen, Carla F; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes B

    2011-06-01

    To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability. Cross-sectional. Participants' home environment. Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124). Not applicable. Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor. Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean ± SD, 3.9±2.9 vs 1.5±0.9h/d; PPASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  3. Prefrontal Hemodynamics of Physical Activity and Environmental Complexity During Cognitive Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Mehta, Ranjana; Ayaz, Hasan; Scheldrup, Melissa; Parasuraman, Raja

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess performance and cognitive states during cognitive work in the presence of physical work and in natural settings. Authors of previous studies have examined the interaction between cognitive and physical work, finding performance decrements in working memory. Neuroimaging has revealed increases and decreases in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin during the interaction of cognitive and physical work. The effect of environment on cognitive-physical dual tasking has not been previously considered. Thirteen participants were monitored with wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as they performed an auditory 1-back task while sitting, walking indoors, and walking outdoors. Relative to sitting and walking indoors, auditory working memory performance declined when participants were walking outdoors. Sitting during the auditory 1-back task increased oxygenated hemoglobin and decreased deoxygenated hemoglobin in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Walking reduced the total hemoglobin available to bilateral prefrontal cortex. An increase in environmental complexity reduced oxygenated hemoglobin and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Wireless fNIRS is capable of monitoring cognitive states in naturalistic environments. Selective attention and physical work compete with executive processing. During executive processing loading of selective attention and physical work results in deactivation of bilateral prefrontal cortex and degraded working memory performance, indicating that physical work and concomitant selective attention may supersede executive processing in the distribution of mental resources. This research informs decision-making procedures in work where working memory, physical activity, and attention interact. Where working memory is paramount, precautions should be taken to eliminate competition from physical work and selective attention.

  4. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Recommendations for Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiangli; Zhang, Tao; Keller, Jean; Chen, Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) aim to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles among school-age children and adolescents. Physical educators are highly qualified individuals taking on the role of certified physical activity leaders. Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs should consider preparing…

  5. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  6. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  7. Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the areas of plasma physics, atomic physics, surface physics, bulk material properties and fusion experiments and theory, the following topics are presented: the plasma sheath; plasma flow in the sheath and presheath of a scrape-off layer; probes for plasma edge diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion devices; atomic and molecular collisions in the plasma boundary; physical sputtering of solids at ion bombardment; chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation of carbon; ion backscattering from solid surfaces; implantation, retention and release of hydrogen isotopes; surface erosion by electrical arcs; electron emission from solid surfaces;l properties of materials; plasma transport near material boundaries; plasma models for impurity control experiments; neutral particle transport; particle confinement and control in existing tokamaks; limiters and divertor plates; advanced limiters; divertor tokamak experiments; plasma wall interactions in heated plasmas; plasma-wall interactions in tandem mirror machines; and impurity control systems for reactor experiments

  8. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  9. Association between perceived built environmental attributes and physical activity among adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the association between perceived environmental attributes and leisure-time and transport-related physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey involving 671 South Africans aged ≥35 years from urban and rural settings. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Neighbourhood Walkability Scale were used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to investigate the associations. Results Significant urban vs. rural differences were apparent in the distribution of most attributes of neighborhood environment. After adjusting for gender, age, setting and relevant interaction terms, proximity to local stores was significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity (OR: 4.26; 95% CI, 1.00–18.08; while proximity to transit stops (2.44; 1.48–4.02, pleasant scenery (1.93; 1.07–3.46, sidewalks (2.36; 1.25–4.44, shade from trees (2.14; 1.19–3.85, traffic (2.17; 91.21–3.91 and well-lit streets (2.01; 1.04–3.89 were significantly associated with walking for leisure. Four-way intersections (4.54; 1.54–13.43, pleasant scenery (3.84; 1.35–10.99, traffic (0.28; 0.09–0.89, sidewalks (3.75; 1.06-13.27 and crosswalks were associated with transport related physical activity. Proximity to transit stops (2.12; 1.17–3.84 and well maintained sidewalks (2.69; 2.20–10.02 were significantly associated with total physical activity. Significant interactions by setting were apparent in some of the associations. Conclusion Some, but not all attributes of a neighborhood environment were significantly associated in expected directions with the three physical activity domains in this mixed urban and rural population. This study highlights the need for policy strategies aimed at improving or maintaining these perceived environmental attributes to promote physical activity.

  10. Sustainability of a physical activity and nutrition program for seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, M; Lee, A H; Jancey, J; Burke, L; Howat, P

    2013-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to determine the impact of a low cost, home-based physical activity and nutrition program for older adults at 6 months follow-up. A follow-up survey was conducted 6 months after program completion via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Fat and Fibre Barometer were used to measure physical activity levels and dietary behaviours, respectively. Self-reported height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were obtained. Changes over three time points of data collection (baseline, post-program, follow-up) and differences between the intervention and control groups were assessed. The use of program materials was also evaluated. Community and home-based. Insufficiently active 60 to 70 year olds (n = 176, intervention and n = 198, control) residing in suburbs within the Perth metropolitan area. A sustained improvement was observed for the intervention group in terms of fat avoidance behaviours (p interaction = .007). Significant improvements were found for strength exercises, fibre intake, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio at either post-program or follow-up, however the overall effect was not significant. At post-program, the intervention group increased time spent participating in moderate activity by 50 minutes (p > .05), which was followed by a significant decline at follow-up (p nutrition intervention resulted in a sustained improvement in fat avoidance behaviours and overall short-term gains in physical activity. Future studies for older adults are recommended to investigate gender-specific behavioural barriers as well as booster interventions which focus on physical activity.

  11. Using interactive Internet technology to promote physical activity in Latinas: Rationale, design, and baseline findings of Pasos Hacia La Salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H; Hartman, Sheri J; Pekmezi, Dori; Dunsiger, Shira I; Linke, Sarah E; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Rojas, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Internet-based interventions show promise as an effective channel for promoting physical activity. However, a paucity of research has been conducted among underserved groups despite recent increases in Internet access and physical activity-related health disparities in these communities. Thus, the current randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an individually tailored, Internet-based physical activity intervention for Latinas. This program was culturally and linguistically adapted for the target population through extensive formative research. Two hundred eighteen sedentary Latinas were randomly assigned to the Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or the Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. The Physical Activity Internet Intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model, utilizes a website with features including self-monitoring, goal setting, discussion forum, links to online resources, individually tailored and motivation-matched physical activity feedback reports, and exercise tip sheets. Participants receive regular emails over the first 6months with a tapered dose during the second 6months (maintenance phase) to alert them to new content on the website. The main outcome is differences in minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity at six months as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall and accelerometer data. High reach, low cost, culturally relevant Internet-based interventions that encourage physical activity among Latinas could help reduce health disparities and thus have a substantial positive impact on public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. INTERFACING INTERACTIVE DATA ANALYSIS TOOLS WITH THE GRID: THE PPDG CS-11 ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    For today's physicists, who work in large geographically distributed collaborations, the data grid promises significantly greater capabilities for analysis of experimental data and production of physics results than is possible with today's ''remote access'' technologies. The goal of letting scientists at their home institutions interact with and analyze data as if they were physically present at the major laboratory that houses their detector and computer center has yet to be accomplished. The Particle Physics Data Grid project (www.ppdg.net) has recently embarked on an effort to ''Interface and Integrate Interactive Data Analysis Tools with the grid and identify Common Components and Services''. The initial activities are to collect known and identify new requirements for grid services and analysis tools from a range of current and future experiments to determine if existing plans for tools and services meet these requirements. Follow-on activities will foster the interaction between grid service developers, analysis tool developers, experiment analysis framework developers and end user physicists, and will identify and carry out specific development/integration work so that interactive analysis tools utilizing grid services actually provide the capabilities that users need. This talk will summarize what we know of requirements for analysis tools and grid services, as well as describe the identified areas where more development work is needed

  13. Physically active families - de-bunking the myth? A qualitative study of family participation in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L; Jago, R; Brockman, R; Cartwright, K; Page, A S; Fox, K R

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of physical activity for reducing obesity and related chronic diseases are well known. The need for more family-based interventions to increase physical activity is frequently cited in the literature; however, little is known about if and how families are physically active together, and what factors might influence family-based participation in regular physical activity. This study examined the types of activities (physical and sedentary) engaged in as a family and explored parents' perceptions of the importance, frequency, nature and barriers to family physical activity. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 30 parents (26 female, four male) of 10- to 11-year-old schoolchildren who attended either low, middle or high socio-economic status schools in Bristol, UK. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, anonymized and analysed using conventional content analysis. The majority of parents rated family engagement in physical activity as important, and identified benefits such as increased parent-child communication, spending time together, enjoyment, enhanced mental health, weight control and physical fitness. Despite these benefits most parents reported their families did little or no physical activity together as a family unit during the week, and any activities performed together were usually sedentary in nature. They reported increased family physical activity on the weekends but rarely including the full family unit simultaneously. Parents in two-parent households commonly paired off with one or more children because of complexities of schedules. Commonly reported barriers were busy lifestyles, diverse ages and interests of children and adults, bad weather, and lack of access to facilities, transportation and money to support activities. Family-based interventions might be more effective if they are designed to accommodate the complex demands and needs of two-parent and single-parent families and provide affordable, diverse activities

  14. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  15. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  16. Perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity: two primary-care physical activity prescription programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Asmita; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S; Keogh J, W L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

  17. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  18. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  19. DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING SCHOOL RECESS COMBINING MEASUREMENTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CHILDREN’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez Bogantes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine physical activity levels of children during school recess, taking into account children’s perceptions as well as observations during recess. A mixed method was used, including the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY and focus groups. Participants included students from 3 public schools with regular and alternating schedules, who were observed during their school breaks. In addition, focus groups were held and descriptive statistics were used.  A factorial variance test (2x2 was also used to determine if there were differences between levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity among school types. Results of focus groups were organized into categories. Students exhibited 47.98 sedentary activity and 52.02 moderate-vigorous physical activity during school recess, with girls being more sedentary than boys. Students with an alternating schedule are more active than those with a regular schedule. Participants perceived reduced space to play and little support from teachers as barriers to do physical activity. In conclusion, this study showed that a little over 50% of students perform physical activity during school recess, with children in alternating schedules being more active than those with a regular schedule. Participants perceive that school environment does not favor physical activity, due to environmental barriers. Based on the results of this study, physical activity should be promoted during school recess, taking into consideration barriers in natural, social, physical, and organizational environments.

  20. Characteristics of 'tween' participants and non-participants in the VERB™ summer scorecard physical activity promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Alfonso, Moya L; McDermott, Robert J; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Bryant, Carol A; Baldwin, Julie A

    2011-04-01

    Creating community-based opportunities for youth to be physically active is challenging for many municipalities. A Lexington, Kentucky community coalition designed and piloted a physical activity program, 'VERB™ summer scorecard (VSS)', leveraging the brand equity of the national VERB™--It's What You Do! campaign. Key elements of VSS subsequently were adopted in Sarasota County, FL. This study identified characteristics of Sarasota's VSS participants and non-participants. Students in Grades 5-8 from six randomly selected public schools completed a survey assessing VSS participation, physical activity level, psychosocial variables, parental support for physical activity and demographics. Logistic regression showed that VSS participants were more likely to be from Grades 5 to 6 versus Grades 7 and 8 [odds ratio (OR) = 6.055] and perceive high versus low parental support for physical activity (OR = 4.627). Moreover, for each unit rise in self-efficacy, the odds of VSS participation rose by 1.839. Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) analysis suggested an interaction effect between grade and school socioeconomic status (SES), with a large proportion of seventh and eighth graders from high SES schools being non-participants (76.6%). A VSS-style program can be expected to be more effective with tweens who are younger, in a middle SES school, having high self-efficacy and high parental support for physical activity.

  1. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  2. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  3. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  4. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  5. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  6. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  7. To Take the Stairs or Not to Take the Stairs? Employing the Reflective–Impulsive Model to Predict Spontaneous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Daou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reflective–impulsive model (RIM has been employed to explain various health behaviors. The present study used RIM to predict a spontaneous physical activity behavior. Specifically, 107 participants (75 females; Mage = 20.6 years, SD = 1.92 years completed measures of (1 reflections about spontaneous physical activity, as indexed by self-report questionnaire; (2 impulse toward physical activity, as indexed by the manikin task; and (3 (state self-control, as indexed by the Stroop task. The dependent variable was whether participants took the stairs or the elevator to the study laboratory. Results revealed reflections toward spontaneous physical activity positively predicted stair-taking. Further, a significant impulse toward physical activity × self-control interaction was observed. This interaction revealed that participants with high self-control who had a high impulse toward PA were more likely to take the stairs than their counterparts with a low impulse toward PA, whereas the opposite was the case for participants with low self-control. However, the impulse × self-control interaction was not significant when employing a self-report measure of trait self-control. Thus, RIM may be a good framework with which to consider spontaneous physical activity, but careful consideration must be given when examining variables within RIM (e.g., the boundary condition of self-control.

  8. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  9. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  10. Gender differences in objectively assessed physical activity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Economou, Mary; Kolokotroni, Ourania; Savva, Savvas C; Gavatha, Marina; Ioannou, Phivos; Karpathios, Themistoclis; Middleton, Nicos

    2015-04-01

    To compare objectively assessed physical activity levels, between asthmatic children and non-asthmatic controls. From a random community sample of 794 children aged 8-9 years, in a case-control design, 104 children with ever doctor's diagnosis of asthma and 99 non-asthmatic controls were recruited and had assessment of physical activity with biaxial accelerometers for 7 days. Children with active (also reporting at least one episode of wheezing in the last 12 months) and inactive (no wheezing in past 12 months) asthma appeared to have similar physical activity and sedentary activity levels compared to non-asthmatic children. However, girls with active asthma had significantly lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels than their peers with adjusted geometric mean ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.369, 0.929, P-value = 0.024). No difference in physical and sedentary activity levels was observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic boys. The difference between genders in the comparison of MVPA levels in asthmatics and controls was statistically significant (P-value of likelihood ratio test [LRT] for effect modification by gender = 0.034). Unlike boys, girls with active asthma appear to be less active than their healthy peers, and this gender difference might explain the inconsistent evidence from previous reports on physical activity levels in asthmatic children. Further studies are needed to confirm the gender interaction in the childhood asthma-physical activity relation and the implications on current guidelines for physical exercise prescriptions in asthmatic children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  12. Change in physical education motivation and physical activity behavior during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E; Smith, Alan L; Williams, Lavon

    2008-11-01

    To test a mediational model of the relationships among motivation-related variables in middle-school physical education and leisure-time physical activity behavior. Sixth- and seventh-grade physical education students from five middle schools in the midwest United States completed a survey containing measures of study variables on two occasions, 1 year apart. Motivation-related constructs positively predicted leisure-time physical activity behavior. Enjoyment of activities in physical education and physical activity during class mediated the relationship between self-determined motivation in physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness were important antecedent variables in the model, with autonomy and relatedness showing less stability over time and positively predicting self-determined motivation. Students' leisure-time physical activity is linked to motivation-related experiences in physical education. Perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness, self-determined motivation, enjoyment, and physical activity in the physical education setting directly or indirectly predict leisure-time physical activity. The associations suggest that more adaptive motivation corresponds to transfer of behavior across contexts. Also, the findings suggest that the efficacy of school-based physical activity interventions, within and outside of school, is linked to the degree of support for students' self-determined motivation.

  13. Outside-school physical activity participation and motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Experience in non-school contexts can shape and reshape students' motivation and mediate their learning in school. Outside-school physical activity may provide students with an extensive cognitive and affective foundation and influence their motivation in physical education. Although a trans-contextual effect of physical education has been explored, very little empirical research has examined the impact from outside-school context to physical education. Using self-determination theory and a hierarchical model of motivation, this study was designed to examine the association between participation in organized outside-school physical activity programmes and self-determination process in physical education. Participants included 545 9th graders (305 males and 240 females, age range = 14-16 years, mean age = 14.66 years) enrolled in required physical education classes in three suburban high schools in a large Midwest metropolitan area in the United States. Self-determination variables were measured using relevant instruments, and information on organized outside-school physical activity experiences was gathered in a survey. Structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. Students who participated in organized outside-school physical activity programmes displayed overall higher motivation; however, the strength of associations among the self-determination variables (i.e., pathways from perceived autonomy support to relatedness, from autonomy to competence, and from self-determined motivation to in-class physical activity engagement) was stronger for their non-participant counterparts. There are dynamic relationships between participation in organized outside-school physical activity programmes and self-determination process in physical education. Physical educators need to identify, appreciate, and instructionally address individual students' differences during teaching and learning. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities.......g. Biesta, 2010; Standal, 2015) I will argue that the focus on learning outcome and effects on physical activity has gone too far in order to reach the objectives. If the notion of ‘keeping pupils physically active’ is understood as a representation of the core quality of physical activity, it seems...

  15. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  16. Influence of Physical Activities to Science Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Wilson DR. Constantino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical activities of fifth and sixth graders that projected correlations to science performance and how these physical activities may be utilized for classroom purposes in the context of science-related play activities. Descriptive survey correlational design directed the data collection and analysis of the physical activities of purposively selected 133 fifth and sixth graders. Primarily, the study used a researcher-developed and validated instrument (Physical Activity Questionnaire [PAQ], and standard instruments: Philippine National Physical Activity Guide (PNPAG and General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. The latter classified the physical activities into five domains which directed the interpretation of the participants‟ responses. The Pearson-r Moment of Correlation described the level of correlation of the frequency of engagement to physical activities (limited to local and localized activities and the science grade of the respondents. Results show that each of the physical activity domains showed specific correlations to science performance of the respondents. For further research, enrichment of the relationship of the physical activities and the science performance may focus on possible moderating variables like economic status, and time allotment for physical activities.

  17. Obesity and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradinuk, Mia; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Goldman, Ran D

    2011-07-01

    What advice should I give parents of overweight children about physical activity? How can we encourage these children to become more physically active? The Canadian Paediatrics Society 2002 position statement on healthy living for children and youth, which is currently being revised, recommends that physicians advise children and adolescents to increase the time they spend on physical activities by at least 30 minutes a day, with at least 10 minutes involving vigorous activities, and that goals should be reset to reach at least 90 minutes a day of total physical activity. The extent to which children and youth are physically active is influenced by a multitude of complex, interrelated factors. Addressing physical inactivity and its contribution to childhood obesity requires a comprehensive and holistic approach.

  18. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  19. Physical activity improves cognition: possible explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koščak Tivadar, Blanka

    2017-08-01

    Good cognitive abilities (CA) enable autonomy, improve social inclusion and act preventively. Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and, at the same time, it reduces the decline of CA and stimulates neurogenesis. So PA in connection with cognitive training, nutrition and social interaction has a positive effect on general CA and the central nervous system, the central executor, memory and attention, and reduces the likelihood of developing dementia. Our objective was to examine which sort and intensity of PA is preferred. We did a review, restricted only to human studies, of transparent scientific articles and sample surveys carried out and published in the period between 2001 and 2016 based on the keywords: age, aging, physical activity, physical abilities, cognitive abilities, memory and Alzheimer's disease. According to results CA and PA interact, as an increasing PA of only 10% reduces the risk of dementia and AD significantly. However, there is a question of appropriate intensity of exercise. Low-intensity aerobic exercise has a positive effect on the visual spatial perception and attention, whereas moderate PA has a positive impact on general CA, working memory and attention, verbal memory and attention and vice versa. While the majority of experts recommends vigorous or moderate exercise, many of them warn that higher intensity requires more attention to PA and less to cognitive processes, particularly in terms of reducing reactions, selective attention and flexibility to tasks. There is also a further question what PA should be like. Although some experts believe that the best combination is aerobic PA and exercises against resistance, it is not entirely clear whether the improvement in CA is a result of cardiac vascular fitness. On the other hand, for most elderly it is more suitable to perform an alternative form (not anaerobic) of PA due to comorbidity and actual fragility. We can conclude that PA has a

  20. Measuring presence in a collaborative physics learning activity in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos; Natsis, Antonios

    2010-01-01

    interacting with and via virtual environments and seems to play an important role in learning. This paper presents empirical data gathered from an exploratory study regarding a problem-based physics learning activity in Second Life (SL). Our aim is to gain knowledge and experience about the sense of presence...... found between dimensions of presence, subjective computer expertise and tendency to become involved in activities....

  1. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  3. Social Organization, Physical Environment, and Infant-Caretaker Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, R. H.; da Costa-Woodson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships of infant/caretaker interaction with the social organization and the physical environment of the home were examined in rural Malay and Chinese families living in Malaysia. Findings are discussed in terms of the integration of behavioral characteristics, patterns of social organization, and arrangements of the physical environment…

  4. Interaction of ultrashort pulses with molecules and solids: Physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-26

    energy materials. Abstract. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with molecules and solids is an extremely complex area of science research encompassing the fields of physics, chemistry, and materials science. The physics ...

  5. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerens, L.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Bourdeaudhuij, I.D.; Craeynest, M.; Maes, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  6. Students' experiences with interactivity and learning in a high school physics multimedia distance learning course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Stewart, Irene

    The purpose guiding this research has been to learn about and describe the phenomena of interactivity from the learners' perspectives and to learn which of the interactivity affordances and practices were actually used by students and why in the process of learning physics using an interactive multimedia distance learning course system. The bigger purpose behind learning about and describing interactivity has been to gain knowledge and perspective for its instructional design to benefit the learner, the school as curriculum implementer, and instructional media designers to create better products. Qualitative methodology in the interpretivist tradition was used, that is, in-depth interviews and on-site observations, to gain understanding of interactivity from the learners' perspective and to gain understanding of the student learning context impacting and shaping the students' interactivity experiences. NVivo was used to sort, organize and index data. All data were read on three levels: literally, interpretively, and reflexively; and were read comparatively to other perspectives to get descriptions and interpretations that were holistic to the implementation and had potential insight to improve practice for instructional designers, teachers, administrators, specifically to improve the learning experience for students. Site-Specific Findings: Students watched videos, resisted using phone and e-mail, and worked math problems to demonstrate learning, which resulted in very little interactivity, virtually no dialogue about physics, no physical activity, one-way communication, multifaceted dissatisfaction, student need for teacher involvement in the learning enterprise, student appreciation for interactivity, and expressed desire for a real, live teacher. I also found that some students did experience the system as interactive, did experience learner control and self-directed learning, and despite dissatisfaction, liked and appreciated the course. Wider Applications

  7. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  8. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  9. The effectiveness of a web 2.0 physical activity intervention in older adults - a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie J; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Savage, Trevor N; Maeder, Anthony J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Tague, Rhys; Van Itallie, Anetta K; Kerry Mummery, W; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2018-01-12

    Interactive web-based physical activity interventions using Web 2.0 features (e.g., social networking) have the potential to improve engagement and effectiveness compared to static Web 1.0 interventions. However, older adults may engage with Web 2.0 interventions differently than younger adults. The aims of this study were to determine whether an interaction between intervention (Web 2.0 and Web 1.0) and age group (Web 2.0, Web 1.0 and logbook) and age group (Web 1.0 (n = 165) or a Web 2.0 (n = 168) physical activity intervention. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was measured using ActiGraph monitors at baseline 3, 12 and 18 months. Website usage statistics including time on site, number of log-ins and number of step entries were also recorded. Generalised linear and intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to test interactions between intervention and age groups (Web 2.0 compared to the Web 1.0 intervention from baseline to 3 months, and this difference was significantly greater in the older group (OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.01-2.14, p = .047). Participants in the Web 2.0 group increased their activity more than the logbook group at 3 months, and this difference was significantly greater in the older group (moderate to vigorous physical activity adjusted mean difference = 13.74, 95%CI = 1.08-26.40 min per day, p = .03). No intervention by age interactions were observed for Web 1.0 and logbook groups. Results partially support the use of Web 2.0 features to improve adults over 55 s' engagement in and behaviour changes from web-based physical activity interventions. ACTRN ACTRN12611000157976 , Registered 7 March 2011.

  10. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  11. Weekday and weekend sedentary time and physical activity in differentially active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Boddy, Lynne M; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Ramirez-Rico, Elena

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether weekday-weekend differences in sedentary time and specific intensities of physical activity exist among children categorised by physical activity levels. Cross-sectional observational study. Seven-day accelerometer data were obtained from 810 English children (n=420 girls) aged 10-11 years. Daily average minday(-1) spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity were calculated for each child. Sex-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity quartile cut-off values categorised boys and girls separately into four graded groups representing the least (Q1) through to the most active (Q4) children. Sex- and activity quartile-specific multilevel linear regression analyses analysed differences in sedentary time, light physical activity, moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity between weekdays and weekends. On weekdays Q2 boys spent longer in light physical activity (pboys (pphysical activity, and Q1-Q3 boys accumulated significantly more vigorous physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity than at weekends. There were no significant differences in weekday and weekend sedentary time or physical activity for Q4 boys. On weekdays Q2 and Q3 girls accumulated more sedentary time (pgirls did significantly more moderate physical activity (pgirls engaged in more vigorous physical activity (pphysical activity (pgirls' sedentary time and physical activity varied little between weekdays and weekends. The most active children maintained their sedentary time and physical activity levels at weekends, while among less active peers weekend sedentary time and physical activity at all intensities was lower. Low active children may benefit most from weekend intervention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, John

    2017-01-01

    Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over many orders of magnitude. The frequency range extends from a few tens of Hz for sea communications to hundreds of petaHz (1015 s–1) for X-ray imaging systems. Length scales range from thousands of kilometres to a few hundred picometres. Although the present work does not offer an exhaustive treatise on this vast subject, it does aim to provide advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers from these diverse disciplines the principal tools required to understand and contribute to rapidly advancing developments in light–matter interaction centred at optical frequencies and length scales. Classical electrodynamics, with an emphasis on the macroscopic expressions of Maxwell’s equations, physical optics, and quantum mechanics provide unique perspectives to the interaction of light and matter at these...

  13. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... are more physically active have lower levels of body fat than those who are less active. Active behaviours have been displaced by more sedentary pursuits which have contributed to reductions in physical activity energy expenditure. Without appropriate activity engagement there is an increased likelihood...

  14. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  15. Exercising the hepatobiliary-gut axis. The impact of physical activity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Molina, Emilio; Lunardi Baccetto, Raquel; Wang, David Q-H; de Bari, Ornella; Krawczyk, Marcin; Portincasa, Piero

    2018-05-24

    Physical inactivity puts the populations at risk of several health problems, while regular physical activity brings beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, mortality and other health outcomes, including obesity, glycaemic control and insulin resistance. The hepatobiliary tract is greatly involved in several metabolic aspects which include digestion and absorption of nutrients in concert with intestinal motility, bile acid secretion and flow across the enterohepatic circulation and intestinal microbiota. Several metabolic abnormalities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver as well as cholesterol cholelithiasis, represent two conditions explained by changes of the aforementioned pathways. This review defines different training modalities and discusses the effects of physical activity in two metabolic disorders, that is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cholelithiasis. Emphasis is given to pathogenic mechanisms involving intestinal bile acids, microbiota and inflammatory status. A full definition of physical activity includes the knowledge of aerobic and endurance exercise, metabolic equivalent tasks, duration, frequency and intensity, beneficial and harmful effects. Physical activity influences the hepatobiliary-gut axis at different levels and brings benefits to fat distribution, liver fat and gallbladder disease while interacting with bile acids as signalling molecules, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory changes in the body. Several beneficial effects of physical activity are anticipated on metabolic disorders linking liver steatosis, gallstone disease, gut motility, enterohepatic circulation of signalling bile acids in relation to intestinal microbiota and inflammatory changes. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  16. Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in diet and physical activity in the U.S. started in very different traditions, with behavioral science input being uneven in their development. Investigators and policy makers in Europe have recognized the complementarity of diet and physical activity and incorporated them both under the label Public Health Nutrition. Joining these disciplines internationally offers the opportunity to benefit all, since the problems addressed are human, not specific to any one country. In regard to why combine diet and physical activity, at the biological level, there is reason to believe that diet and physical activity working in concert can remodel physiological structures and processes toward healthful ends. The diet and physical activity behaviors themselves vary in characteristics and are similar in others. The behavioral science components of these two disciplines face similar problems, and can learn from the advances made by the other, in the areas of measurement, correlates and intervention. By working together, knowledge will be enhanced from uncovering complementary and interactive relationships between diet and physical activity, and in relation to disease risks, that may result in designing more effective and efficient interventions and policies. Since the behavioral sciences are at a disadvantage in comparison to the biological sciences in terms of scientific advances and thereby capturing the popular imagination for solutions to health problems, we must redouble our efforts to enhance funding for behavioral research in regard to diet and physical activity and to make the research advances necessary to prevent the medicalizing of essentially social and behavioral problems. Nutrition and physical activity should most effectively do this together.

  17. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  18. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  19. Matter and Interactions: a particle physics perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    In classical mechanics matter and fields are completely separated. Matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case. Both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this paper we explain why particle physicists believe in such a picture, introducing the technique of Feynman diagrams starting from very basic and popular analogies with classical mechanics, making the physics ...

  20. More playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest advances in playful user interfaces – interfaces that invite social and physical interaction. These new developments include the use of audio, visual, tactile and physiological sensors to monitor, provide feedback and anticipate the behavior of human users. The decreasing cost of sensor and actuator technology makes it possible to integrate physical behavior information in human-computer interactions. This leads to many new entertainment and game applications that allow or require social and physical interaction in sensor- and actuator-equipped smart environments. The topics discussed include: human-nature interaction, human-animal interaction and the interaction with tangibles that are naturally integrated in our smart environments. Digitally supported remote audience participation in artistic or sport events is also discussed. One important theme that emerges throughout the book is the involvement of users in the digital-entertainment design process or even design and implement...

  1. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  2. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  3. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Min: 5/ ... D. Chair, NAEPP School Subcommittee Working Group on Physical Activity and School American Medical Association Karen Huss, Ph. ...

  4. Relationships of occupational and non-occupational physical activity to abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, J A; Bassett, D R; Thompson, D L; Fitzhugh, E C

    2012-01-01

    Physically active occupations may protect against the risk of abdominal obesity. This study assessed the interaction between non-occupational physical activity (NOA) (leisure-time, transport and domestic activity) and occupational activity (OA) in relation to abdominal obesity. A total of 3539 adults over the age of 20, with no work limitations, employed in one of the 17 occupations classified as low OA (LOA) or high OA (HOA) were identified in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Waist circumference (WC) was used to categorize individuals into either non-obese or abdominally obese (WC>88 cm in women and >102 cm in men) categories. NOA was divided into three categories based upon physical activity guidelines: (1) no NOA; (2) insufficient NOA; and (3) sufficient NOA. Logistic regression was used to examine possible associations between NOA, OA and abdominal obesity. In those who are sedentary outside of work, a high-activity occupation reduces the odds risk ratio of being categorized with abdominal obesity to 0.37 in comparison with those who work in low-activity occupations. For people working in low-activity occupations, there was a clear association with activity outside of work and the odds risk ratio of being categorized with abdominal obesity. In these adults, a reduced odds ratio was found only among those who met the physical activity guidelines through NOA (odds ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.40-0.75). HOA is associated with a reduced risk of abdominal obesity. Thus, it is important to include OA in studies seeking to understand the association between physical activity and abdominal adiposity.

  5. Using ecological momentary assessment to examine antecedents and correlates of physical activity bouts in adults age 50+ years: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Atienza, Audie A; Castro, Cynthia M; King, Abby C

    2009-12-01

    National recommendations supporting the promotion of multiple short (10+ minute) physical activity bouts each day to increase overall physical activity levels in middle-aged and older adults underscore the need to identify antecedents and correlates of such daily physical activity episodes. This pilot study used Ecological Momentary Assessment to examine the time-lagged and concurrent effects of empirically supported social, cognitive, affective, and physiological factors on physical activity among adults age 50+ years. Participants (N = 23) responded to diary prompts on a handheld computer four times per day across a 2-week period. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), self-efficacy, positive and negative affect, control, demand, fatigue, energy, social interactions, and stressful events were assessed during each sequence. Multivariate results showed that greater self-efficacy and control predicted greater MVPA at each subsequent assessment throughout the day (p positive social interaction was concurrently related to higher levels of MVPA (p = 0.052). Time-varying multidimensional individual processes predict within daily physical activity levels.

  6. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  7. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Santos Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

  8. Activity report of the theoretical Physics Service. June 1988 to May 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The activity report of the theoretical Physics Service. (Nuclear Studies Center, Saclay, France) is presented. The research programs were carried out in the following fields: astrophysics, hadronic structure, nuclei microscopic calculus, nuclear collisions, basic interactions, general structural properties of the quantum physics concerning fields and particles, conformal invariance, statistical physics, disordered systems, magnetic correlations in supraconductors at high T C , phases of the quantum spin systems, classical aspects of quantum mechanics, physics of non-linear problems. Research programs are also developed in the fields of biology (membranes, proteins, neural systems), materials (stacking faults, rupture), and two-dimensional conformal invariance and quantum gravity [fr

  9. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...... cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors....

  10. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  11. Self-determined motivation in physical education and its links to motivation for leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and well-being in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagøien, Tor Egil; Halvari, Hallgeir; Nesheim, Hallgeir

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a trans-contextual model based on self-determination theory of the relations between motivation in physical education, motivation in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and psychological well-being. Participants were 329 Norwegian upper secondary school students (M age = 16.5 yr., SD = 0.7). Students' perceptions of autonomy-supportive teachers in physical education were expected to be positively associated with students' psychological needs satisfaction in physical education, which was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation for physical education participation. In turn, autonomous motivation for physical education was expected to be positively associated with perceived competence and autonomous motivation for leisure-time physical activity, which both were expected to be positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in general. Structural equation models and bootstrapping supported the hypotheses and the indirect links between variables. Sex differences indicate that more research is needed on how to motivate girls to be more physically active in leisure time.

  12. Can a school physical activity intervention improve physical self-perception and enjoyment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Smedegaard, Søren

    Purpose Physical activity at school can improve mental health of all children – especially if it is targeted to children’s needs and executed in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity intervention...... activity in recess. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 Danish schools were randomized to either intervention or control. Study population included 3.136 children aged 10-13 years at baseline. Survey data (socio-demographics, physical activity, self-efficacy, physical enjoyment, physical self...... on physical self-perception and enjoyment of physical activity among children aged 10-13 years. Methods An intervention based on Self-Determination Theory was developed and pilot tested in close co-operation with schools and targeted 1) physical education lessons, 2) in-class activity, and 3) physical...

  13. Self-reported sitting time and physical activity: interactive associations with mental well-being and productivity in office employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ribera, Anna; Martínez-Lemos, Iván; Giné-Garriga, Maria; González-Suárez, Ángel Manuel; Bort-Roig, Judit; Fortuño, Jesús; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; McKenna, Jim; Gilson, Nicholas D

    2015-01-31

    Little is known about how sitting time, alone or in combination with markers of physical activity (PA), influences mental well-being and work productivity. Given the need to develop workplace PA interventions that target employees' health related efficiency outcomes; this study examined the associations between self-reported sitting time, PA, mental well-being and work productivity in office employees. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Spanish university office employees (n = 557) completed a survey measuring socio-demographics, total and domain specific (work and travel) self-reported sitting time, PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version), mental well-being (Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-Being Scale) and work productivity (Work Limitations Questionnaire). Multivariate linear regression analyses determined associations between the main variables adjusted for gender, age, body mass index and occupation. PA levels (low, moderate and high) were introduced into the model to examine interactive associations. Higher volumes of PA were related to higher mental well-being, work productivity and spending less time sitting at work, throughout the working day and travelling during the week, including the weekends (p employees, higher sitting times on work days and occupational sitting were associated with decreased mental well-being (p employees. Employees' PA levels exerts different influences on the associations between sitting time, mental well-being and work productivity. The specific associations and the broad sweep of evidence in the current study suggest that workplace PA strategies to improve the mental well-being and productivity of all employees should focus on reducing sitting time alongside efforts to increase PA.

  14. Television watching, leisure time physical activity, and the genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Chomistek, Andrea K; Kang, Jae H; Curhan, Gary C; Pasquale, Louis R; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2012-10-09

    Previous studies on gene-lifestyle interaction and obesity have focused mostly on the FTO gene and physical activity, whereas little attention has been paid to sedentary behavior as indicated by television (TV) watching. We analyzed interactions between TV watching, leisure time physical activity, and genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 7740 women and 4564 men from 2 prospective cohorts: The Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Data on physical activity and TV watching were collected 2 years before assessment of BMI. A weighted genetic risk score was calculated on the basis of 32 established BMI-associated variants. In both women and men, the genetic associations with BMI strengthened with increased hours of TV watching. An increment of 10 points in the weighted genetic risk score was associated with 0.8 (SE, 0.4), 0.8 (SE, 0.2), 1.4 (SE, 0.2), 1.5 (SE, 0.2), and 3.4 (SE, 1.0) kg/m(2) higher BMI across the 5 categories of TV watching (0-1, 2-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40 h/wk; P for interaction=0.001). In contrast, the genetic association with BMI weakened with increased levels of physical activity. An increment of 10 points in the weighted genetic risk score was associated with 1.5 (SE, 0.2), 1.3 (SE, 0.2), 1.2 (SE, 0.2), 1.2 (SE, 0.2), and 0.8 (SE, 0.2) kg/m(2) higher BMI across the quintiles of physical activity. The interactions of TV watching and physical activity with genetic predisposition in relation to BMI were independent of each other. A sedentary lifestyle, indicated by prolonged TV watching, may accentuate the predisposition to elevated adiposity, whereas greater leisure time physical activity may attenuate the genetic association.

  15. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  16. Association of sitting time and physical activity with CKD: a cross-sectional study in family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharakhada, Nilesh; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Wilmot, Emma G; Edwardson, Charlotte; Henson, Joe; Webb, David; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a significant and growing health care burden globally. Lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and sitting-related sedentary behavior, have been hypothesized to be directly associated with CKD; however, epidemiologic research is limited. Cross-sectional analysis. A population-level diabetes screening program conducted across 20 family practices in Leicester, United Kingdom, August 2004 to December 2007. Self-reported sitting time and physical activity, obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. CKD, defined using NKF-KDOQI (National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) criteria. 6,379 (52% women) individuals were included. Lower levels of sitting time were associated with lower risk of CKD after controlling for physical activity, body mass index, and other potential confounding variables (OR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.92] for lowest vs highest tertile). Interaction analysis showed that women trended toward a significantly higher risk of CKD with higher levels of sitting time compared with men. Participating in levels of physical activity that were at least consistent with the minimum recommendations for health was associated with lower risk of CKD. A significant interaction with sex was observed, with men showing a lower risk of CKD with high levels of physical activity compared with women. Cross-sectional design, self-reported lifestyle data, CKD defined at a single time, and estimated glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria were the only measures used to define CKD. This study suggests that higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of sitting time are associated with a lower prevalence of CKD independently of each other and other risk factors. However, results may vary by sex, with sitting time being the more important factor in women and physical activity the more important factor in men. These results have important implications for future research

  17. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking.

  18. Complex evaluation of student‘s physical activity by physical health, physical fitness and body composition parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Šiupšinskas, Laimonas

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity level of students is decreasing. Students are specific population group with similar patterns of habitual physical activity influenced by study process. That formed requirement to search for a new ways to assess physical activity of the students indirectly. Offered method assesses level of physical health, measures physical fitness and evaluates body composition. The aim of the study is to evaluate indirectly measured health-enhanced physical activity of the students by phys...

  19. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Haddock, Christopher K; Jitnarin, Natinee; Hughey, Joseph; Berkel, LaVerne A; Poston, Walker S C

    2017-01-01

    Although few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity. This study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities. Data were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants ( N  = 582; ages 18-74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years) were more likely to be female (69.9%), Caucasian (65.6%), married (51.7%), and have some college education (72.8%). Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics. Leisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking ( p  = 0.036), moderate ( p  importance on facility quality ( p  = 0.022), variety of physical activity options offered ( p  = 0.003), and availability of special equipment and resources ( p  = 0.01). The facility characteristics of low or free cost ( p  = 0.02) and offering childcare ( p  = 0.028) were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity ( p  = 0.013). Findings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological model as well as for improving existing physical activity facilities.

  20. Urban Adolescents’ Physical Activity Experience, Physical Activity Levels, and Use of Screen-Based Media during Leisure Time: A Structural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the relationship between physical activity and use of screen-based media, two important behaviors associated with adolescents’ health outcomes. To understand this relationship, researchers may need to consider not only physical activity level but also physical activity experience (i.e., affective experience obtained from doing physical activity. Using a sample predominantly consisting of African and Latino American urban adolescents, this study examined the interrelationships between physical activity experience, physical activity level, and use of screen-based media during leisure time. Data collected using self-report, paper and pencil surveys was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that physical activity experience was positively associated with physical activity level and had a direct negative relationship with use of non-active video games for males and a direct negative relationship with use of computer/Internet for both genders, after controlling for physical activity level. Physical activity level did not have a direct relationship with use of non-active video games or computer/Internet. However, physical activity level had a direct negative association with use of TV/movies. This study suggests that physical activity experience may play an important role in promoting physical activity and thwarting use of screen-based media among adolescents.

  1. Urban Adolescents’ Physical Activity Experience, Physical Activity Levels, and Use of Screen-Based Media during Leisure Time: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Scott, Jason L.; Caldwell, Linda L.

    2018-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the relationship between physical activity and use of screen-based media, two important behaviors associated with adolescents’ health outcomes. To understand this relationship, researchers may need to consider not only physical activity level but also physical activity experience (i.e., affective experience obtained from doing physical activity). Using a sample predominantly consisting of African and Latino American urban adolescents, this study examined the interrelationships between physical activity experience, physical activity level, and use of screen-based media during leisure time. Data collected using self-report, paper and pencil surveys was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that physical activity experience was positively associated with physical activity level and had a direct negative relationship with use of non-active video games for males and a direct negative relationship with use of computer/Internet for both genders, after controlling for physical activity level. Physical activity level did not have a direct relationship with use of non-active video games or computer/Internet. However, physical activity level had a direct negative association with use of TV/movies. This study suggests that physical activity experience may play an important role in promoting physical activity and thwarting use of screen-based media among adolescents. PMID:29410634

  2. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  3. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  5. Goal adjustment, physical and sedentary activity, and well-being and health among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether goal adjustment capacities (i.e., goal disengagement and goal reengagement) would predict breast cancer survivors' emotional well-being and physical health by facilitating high levels of physical activity and low levels of sedentary activity. Self-reports of goal adjustment capacities were measured among 176 female breast cancer survivors at baseline. Self-reports of physical activity, sedentary activity, daily affect, and daily physical health symptoms (e.g., nausea or pain) were measured at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Goal reengagement predicted high levels of positive affect and low levels of physical symptoms at baseline and increases in positive affect over 3 months. The combination of high goal disengagement and high goal reengagement was associated with particularly large 3-month increases in positive affect. The effects of goal reengagement on baseline affect and physical health were mediated by high baseline levels of physical activity, and the interaction effect on 3-month changes in positive affect was mediated by low baseline levels of sedentary activity. Goal adjustment capacities can exert beneficial effects on breast cancer survivors' well-being and physical health by facilitating adaptive levels of physical and sedentary activity. Integrating goal adjustment processes into clinical practice may be warranted. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Physical Activity and Physical Function in Individuals Post-bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josbeno, Deborah A.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Sparto, Patrick J.; Otto, Amy D.; Jakicic, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the physical activity behavior of individuals who undergo bariatric surgery will enable the development of effective post-surgical exercise guidelines and interventions to enhance weight loss outcomes. This study characterized the physical activity profile and physical function of 40 subjects 2–5 years post-bariatric surgery and examined the association between physical activity, physical function, and weight loss after surgery. Methods Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with the BodyMedia SenseWear® Pro (SWPro) armband, and physical function (PF) was measured using the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (SF-36PF). Height and weight were measured. Results Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was associated with MVPA (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and PF (r = 0.38, p = 0.02); MVPA was not associated with PF (r = 0.24, p = 0.14). Regression analysis demonstrated that MVPA was associated with %EWL (β = 0.38, t = 2.43, p = 0.02). Subjects who participated in ≥150 min/week of MVPA had a greater %EWL (68.2 ± 19, p = 0.01) than those who participated in activities. However, the lack of an association between PF and MVPA suggests that a higher level of PF does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of MVPA participation. Thus, the barriers to adoption of a more physically active lifestyle may not be fully explained by the subjects’ physical limitations. Further understanding of this relationship is needed for the development of post-surgical weight loss guidelines and interventions. PMID:21153567

  7. Perception of built environmental factors and physical activity among adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents’ physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents’ physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental variables and adolescents’ physical activity (active transportation to school and leisure-time moderate-to- vigorous physical activity), and the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income on association between environmental variables and physical activity among Nigerian boys and girls. Methods Participants were 1006 adolescents (12–19 years, 50.4% girls) randomly selected from 11 secondary schools in Maiduguri city, Nigeria. Physical activity and perceptions of environmental characteristics were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Separate gender-based, hierarchical multiple moderated linear regression analyses were used to examine the direct associations between the environmental perceptions and physical activity variables (active transportation and leisure-time MVPA; dependent variables), as well as the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income. Results Only in boys were direct associations and interaction effect of neighborhood-level income found. Access to destinations was positively associated with active transportation to school (β = 0.18; CI = 0.67, 2.24); while residential density (β = 0.10; CI = 0.01, 1.74) and availability/quality of infrastructures (β = 0.14; CI = 0.49, 2.68) were positively associated with leisure-time MVPA. Also, neighborhood-level income moderated the association between perceived safety and leisure-time MVPA, with more perceived safety related to less MVPA (β = -0.16; CI = -0.01, -0.70) in boys living in high SES neighborhood but marginally related to more MVPA (β = 0.11; CI = -0.04, 2.88, p = 0

  8. Statistical physics of interacting neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Wolfgang; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido

    2001-12-01

    Recent results on the statistical physics of time series generation and prediction are presented. A neural network is trained on quasi-periodic and chaotic sequences and overlaps to the sequence generator as well as the prediction errors are calculated numerically. For each network there exists a sequence for which it completely fails to make predictions. Two interacting networks show a transition to perfect synchronization. A pool of interacting networks shows good coordination in the minority game-a model of competition in a closed market. Finally, as a demonstration, a perceptron predicts bit sequences produced by human beings.

  9. Alcoholic liver disease patients' perspective of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention after hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjaer; Hendriksen, Carsten; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2016-09-01

    To identify and describe the impact of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients after hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives. Patients who have experienced alcohol-induced hepatic encephalopathy have reduced quality of life, multiple complications, and social problems, and rehabilitation opportunities for these patients are limited. A grounded theory study and an evaluation study of a controlled intervention study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 alcoholic liver disease patients who were diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy and participated in a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention. Richard S. Lazarus's theory of stress and coping inspired the interview guide. The significance of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients' ability to cope with problems after surviving alcohol-induced hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives was characterised by the core category 'regain control over the diseased body'. This is subdivided into three separate categories: 'the experience of being physically strong', 'togetherness' and 'self-control', and they impact each other and are mutually interdependent. Alcoholic liver disease patients described the strength of the rehabilitation as regaining control over the diseased body. Professionals and relatives of patients with alcoholic liver disease may need to focus on strengthening and preserving patients' control of their diseased body by facilitating the experience of togetherness, self-control and physical strength when interacting with and supporting patients with alcoholic liver disease. A coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention may help alcoholic liver disease patients to regain control over their diseased body and give patients the experience

  10. A qualitative theory guided analysis of stroke survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sarah L; Donaghy, Marie; Johnston, Marie; Sniehotta, Falko F; van Wijck, Frederike; Johnston, Derek; Greig, Carolyn; McMurdo, Marion E T; Mead, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    After stroke, physical activity and physical fitness levels are low, impacting on health, activity and participation. It is unclear how best to support stroke survivors to increase physical activity. Little is known about the barriers and facilitators to physical activity after stroke. Thus, our aim was to explore stroke survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Semi-structured interviews with 13 ambulatory stroke survivors exploring perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity post stroke were conducted in participants' homes, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) informed content analysis of the interview transcripts. Data saturation was reached after interviews with 13 participants (median age of 76 years (inter-quartile range (IQR) = 69-83 years). The median time since stroke was 345 d (IQR = 316-366 d). The most commonly reported TDF domains were "beliefs about capabilities", "environmental context and resources" and "social influence". The most commonly reported perceived motivators were: social interaction, beliefs of benefits of exercise, high self-efficacy and the necessity of routine behaviours. The most commonly reported perceived barriers were: lack of professional support on discharge from hospital and follow-up, transport issues to structured classes/interventions, lack of control and negative affect. Stroke survivors perceive several different barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Stroke services need to address barriers to physical activity and to build on facilitators to promote physical activity after stroke. Physical activity post stroke can improve physical fitness and function, yet physical activity remains low among stroke survivors. Understanding stroke survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity is essential to develop targeted interventions to increase physical activity. Beliefs about capabilities, environmental

  11. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  12. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  13. Combined effects of interaction between physical activity and nutrition on bone health in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Almárcegui, C; Gómez-Cabello, A; Huybrechts, I; González-Agüero, A; Kaufman, J M; Casajús, J A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern worldwide. Understanding the roles of diet and physical activity in ensuring adequate bone mass accrual during childhood and adolescence may help identify strategies to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures later in life. The present systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the combined effects of physical activity and diet on bone mass accrual in children and adolescents. Data were obtained via searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and ISI Web of Science databases. Studies published in English and Spanish between 1887 and August 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Two investigators evaluated the studies against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 14 studies (7 cross-sectional and 7 experimental) were included in the review. The Pedro score and the Black and Down's checklist were used to evaluate the methodological quality of the experimental and the cross-sectional studies, respectively. Study characteristics were summarized in accordance with the review's PICO criteria. Significant exercise-by-calcium interaction was detected at several different bone sites. Although the results of cross-sectional studies were inconsistent, the results of randomized controlled trials showed that exercise has the potential to improve bone health under conditions of adequate calcium intake. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity. Group as ... than a higher physical activity level can keep the blood pressure in check in Indian ... Female - PVO2 max = 50.513 + 1.589 (PA-R) –.

  15. Barriers and motivators for physical activity among overweight and obese people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke; Schwennesen, Nete; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore barriers to and motivators for physical activity in a group of overweight and obese individuals with dysregulated Type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were collected from the Steno Diabetes Centre's outpatient clinic in Denmark. Four focus groups were conducted including 28 individuals...... with Type 2 diabetes aged 39–71 years. The facilitators used open-ended questions and probes such as images, statements and quotations about physical activity to foster active participation and interaction among participants. Focus groups were recorded on video and the discussions were transcribed...... and analysed thematically. Results We identified four main themes: 1) the body as a barrier to physical activity because of functional limitations; 2) logistical challenges, including lack of time and awareness of where to exercise in the local area; 3) being physically active with others, providing a sense...

  16. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  17. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  18. Physically-based interactive Schlieren flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccormick, Patrick S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brownlee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pegoraro, Vincent [UNIV OF UTAH; Shankar, Siddharth [UNIV OF UTAH; Hansen, Charles D [UNIV OF UTAH

    2009-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.

  19. Leisure-time physical activity behavior: structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.

  20. Physics of ionic and molecular interactions - 2006-2010 scientific report, 2012-2015 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoop, Martina; Champenois, Caroline; Hagel, Gaetan; Houssin, Marie; Morizot, Olivier; Pedregosa, Jofre; Vedel, Fernande; Vedel, Michel; Marciante, Mathieu; Calisti, A.; Calisti, Annette; Escarguel, Alexandre; Ferri, Sandrine; Godbert-Mouret, Laurence; Koubiti, Mohammed; Marandet, Yannick; Mosse, Caroline; Rosato, Joel; Stamm, Roland; Talin, Bernard; Boland, Denis; Mekkaoui, Abdessamad; Lefevre, Tony; Agullo, Olivier; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, P.; Dubuit, N.; Fuhr, G.; Futatani, S.; Guimarraes, Z.; Muraglia, M.; Pamela, Stanislas; Poye, Alexandre; Solminhac, F. de; Sugita, S.; Voslion, T.; Angot, Thierry; Bisson, Regis; Cartry, Gilles; Layet, Jean-Marc; Salomon, Eric; Areou, Etienne; Ahmad, Ahmad; Singh Katharria, Yashpal; Kumar, Pravin; Engeln, Richard; Abahazem, Alyen; Allouche, Alain; Bisson, R.; Borget, Fabien; Chiavassa, Thierry; Coussan, Stephane; Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Danger, Gregoire; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ferro, Yves; Marinelli, Francis; Martin, Celine; Morisset, Sabine; Pietri, Nathalie; Pardanaud, Cedric; Roubin, Pascale; Theule, Patrice; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Mispelaer, Florent; Ruffe, Remi; Arnas, Cecile; Cherigier-Kovacic, Laurence; Couedel, Lenaic; Claire, Nicolas; Doveil, Fabrice; Elskens, Yves; Escande, Dominique; Escarguel, Alexandre; Bernardi, Pierre; Lejeune, Aurelien

    2010-07-01

    The laboratory 'Physics of ionic and molecular interactions' (PIIM) is a mixed research unit (UMR6633) between the CNRS and the Provence University in Marseille. PIIM is in the Provence region the leading laboratory for the study of dilute matter, and brings together physicists and physico-chemists for studying gases and plasmas, and their interactions with matter and radiation. Our research activities are principally fundamental, and most often mobilize our interdisciplinary talent. They mainly belong to three research axis: atomic physics and radiation, plasma physics, and surface reactivity. The first axis corresponds to fundamental atomic physics experiments performed in ion traps, and to many studies using the atom and ion radiation for diagnosing the gases and plasmas. Experimental and theoretical researches of the dynamic and radiative properties of plasmas constitute the second research axis. The third axis concerns the analysis of reactivity on surfaces in a neutral or ionized environment. PIIM has a permanent staff of 14 CNRS researcher, 36 professors, and 19 engineers or technicians. Our flux of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows is of about twenty. The laboratory provides a management staff, and workshops for mechanics, electronics, instrumentation and computers. We are structured in six research teams developing 12 experiments. Ion confinement and laser manipulations (CIML): The research developed by this team consists in the confinement of ions in an electromagnetic trap. Experiments at the forefront of atomic physics master the confinement of a single ion. A metrology project aims to the achievement of a frequency standard in the optical range. Gas and plasma diagnosis (DGP): The modeling of radiative properties of different types of plasma is the main activity for this team. Numerous national and international collaborations result in the diagnostic of laboratory, astrophysical and thermonuclear fusion plasmas, and in the development of

  1. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  2. A narrative review of research on the effects of physical activity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores different types and effects of physical activity for people living with HIV. ... or recreational games, can improve psychosocial factors and generate holistic health effects for people living with HIV. ... provided that positive interaction and non-stigmatisation are guaranteed. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  4. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  5. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; van Leeuwen, Ninke; Bossema, Ercolie R.; Kruize, Aike A.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Geenen, Rinie

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjogren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjogren's

  6. Is physical activity a modifier of the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness in older adults: The SAPALDIA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, Simon; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Caviezel, Seraina; Dratva, Julia; Stolz, Daiana; Schindler, Christian; Künzli, Nino; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA). We assessed arterial stiffness as the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV [m/s]) with an oscillometric device. We administered a self-reported physical activity questionnaire to classify each subject's physical activity level. Air pollution exposure was estimated by the annual average individual home outdoor PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter air pollution exposure and physical activity while adjusting for relevant confounders. We found evidence that the association of air pollution exposure with baPWV was different between inactive and active participants. The probability of having increased baPWV was significantly higher with higher PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 , PNC and LDSA exposure in inactive, but not in physically active participants. We found some evidence of an interaction between physical activity and ambient air pollution exposure for PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 (p interaction =0.06, 0.09, and 0.04, respectively), but not PNC and LDSA (p interaction =0.32 and 0.35). Our study provides some indication that physical activity may protect against the adverse vascular effects of air pollution in low pollution settings. Additional research in large prospective cohorts is needed to assess whether the observed effect modification translates to high pollution settings in mega-cities of middle and low-income countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  8. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  9. Cardiovascular risk profile: cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schaalma, Herman; Kiers, Henri; Vanhees, Luc

    2010-10-07

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior.In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intensity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An important goal of our study was to

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  11. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  12. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Heinrich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity.PurposeThis study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities.MethodsData were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 582; ages 18–74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years were more likely to be female (69.9%, Caucasian (65.6%, married (51.7%, and have some college education (72.8%. Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics.ResultsLeisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking (p = 0.036, moderate (p < 0.001, and vigorous (p < 0.001 recommendations. Vigorous exercisers were more likely to use a gym/fitness center (p = 0.006 and to place higher importance on facility quality (p = 0.022, variety of physical activity options offered (p = 0.003, and availability of special equipment and resources (p = 0.01. The facility characteristics of low or free cost (p = 0.02 and offering childcare (p = 0.028 were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.013.ConclusionFindings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological

  13. Physical activity and depression symptom profiles in young men and women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Patton, George C; Schmidt, Michael D; Venn, Alison J; Dwyer, Terence; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-05-01

    This study explored whether young adults with major depression who are physically active differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive. Analyses included data from 950 (47.6%) men and 1045 women (mean [standard deviation] age = 31.5 [2.6] years) participating in a national study. Participants reported leisure physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and ambulatory activity (pedometer steps per day). Diagnosis and symptoms of major depression were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of major depression was 5.5% (n = 52) for men and 11.6% (n = 121) for women. Interactions between physical activity and sex were observed for depressed mood, appetite changes, vacillating thoughts, and suicidality (all, p physically active men were significantly less likely to endorse the presence of insomnia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-0.96), fatigue (PR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99), and suicidality (PR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96) compared with inactive men. Physically active women were significantly less likely to endorse hypersomnia (PR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.95), excessive/irrational guilt (PR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), vacillating thoughts (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), and suicidality (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.89) compared with inactive women. Associations were adjusted for age, physical health, educational attainment, depression severity, and other depressive symptoms. Among adults with major depression, those physically active seem to differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive.

  14. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  15. Subatomic Physics and Cosmology Laboratory - LPSC Grenoble. Activity report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, Corinne; Baylac, Maud; Cholat, Christine; Collot, Johann; Derome, Laurent; Kox, Serge; Lamy, Thierry; Pelletier, Jacques; Renault, Cecile; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Regairaz, William; Richard, Jean-Marc; Vernay, Emmanuelle; Favro, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The Grenoble Subatomic Physics and Cosmology Laboratory - LPSC aims to improve our knowledge about the most elementary particles and about the forces that govern their interactions. It helps to broaden our understanding of the universe, its structure and its evolution. The LPSC is a Mixed Teaching and Research Unit, affiliated to the National Nuclear and Particle Physics Institute (IN2P3), the National Institute of Universe Sciences (INSU) and the National Institute of Engineering Sciences and Systems (INSIS) from the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), as well as to the Joseph Fourier University and the Grenoble National Polytechnique Institute. The LPSC also plays a significant role at the national level and is involved in several international scientific and technical projects. Fundamental research is the driving force of LPSC activities. Among the themes studied at the LPSC, some are focused on the greatest unsolved mysteries of the universe, e.g. the unification of forces, the origin of the mass of particles, the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe and the search for dark matter and energy. Research starts at the scales of the nuclei of atoms and even much smaller, where quantum and relativistic physics laws prevail. The goal here is to understand the characteristics of the most elementary building blocks of matter and their interactions, to study the limits of existence of atoms and to discover new states of nuclear matter, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Research also extends towards the infinitely large; the goal here is to understand the origin of the structures of the universe and the cosmic phenomena that take place, and to understand the characteristics of the very first stages of the universe, just after the Big Bang. The branches of physics at these two extremes are actually closely linked. Infinitely small-scale physics plays an essential role in the first moments of the universe. Particle physics and cosmology both

  16. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  17. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential.

  18. Feasibility of a dynamic web guidance approach for personalized physical activity prescription based on daily information from wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L; Raymond, Stephen C; Hawkins, David A

    2015-06-04

    Computer tailored, Web-based interventions have emerged as an effective approach to promote physical activity. Existing programs, however, do not adjust activities according to the participant's compliance or physiologic adaptations, which may increase risk of injury and program attrition in sedentary adults. To address this limitation, objective activity monitor (AM) and heart rate data could be used to guide personalization of physical activity, but improved Web-based frameworks are needed to test such interventions. The objective of this study is to (1) develop a personalized physical activity prescription (PPAP) app that combines dynamic Web-based guidance with multi-sensor AM data to promote physical activity and (2) to assess the feasibility of using this system in the field. The PPAP app was constructed using an open-source software platform and a custom, multi-sensor AM capable of accurately measuring heart rate and physical activity. A novel algorithm was written to use a participant's compliance and physiologic response to aerobic training (ie, changes in daily resting heart rate) recorded by the AM to create daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions. In addition, the PPAP app was designed to (1) manage the transfer of files from the AM to data processing software and a relational database, (2) provide interactive visualization features such as calendars and training tables to encourage physical activity, and (3) enable remote administrative monitoring of data quality and participant compliance. A 12-week feasibility study was performed to assess the utility and limitations of the PPAP app used by sedentary adults in the field. Changes in physical activity level and resting heart rate were monitored throughout the intervention. The PPAP app successfully created daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions and an interactive Web environment to guide and promote physical activity by the participants. The varied compliance of the

  19. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  20. Green Care Farms as Innovative Nursing Homes, Promoting Activities and Social Interaction for People With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bram; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Tan, Frans E S; Beerens, Hanneke C; Verbeek, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Innovative care environments are developed for people with dementia to encourage person-centered care. This study aims to investigate whether residents of green care farms that provide 24-hour nursing care participate more in (physical) activities and social interaction compared with residents of other nursing homes. Longitudinal observation study. Nursing homes in the Netherlands (green care farms, traditional nursing homes, and regular small-scale living facilities). A total of 115 nursing home residents at baseline, 100 at follow-up. Ecological momentary assessments (n = 16,860) were conducted using the Maastricht Electronic Daily Life Observation Tool. Residents living at green care farms were compared with residents living in traditional nursing homes and regular small-scale living facilities. The following aspects were collected for this study: the activity performed by the participant or occurring in his or her vicinity, the engagement in the activity, the level of physical activity during the activity, the physical environment (location where the activity occurred), and the level of social interaction during the activity. In total, 9660 baseline observations and 7200 follow-up observations were conducted. Analyses showed that residents of green care farms significantly more often participated in domestic activities (P = .004, SE = 1.6) and outdoor/nature-related activities (P = .003, SE = 0.9), and significantly less often engaged in passive/purposeless activities (P social interaction (P = .006, SE = 1.1), and came outside significantly more (P = .010, SE = 1.1) than residents of traditional nursing homes. Residents of green care farms were significantly more physically active (P = .013, SE = 0.8) than were residents of regular small-scale living facilities. No other significant differences were found. Green care farms can be a valuable alternative to traditional nursing homes. They provide an attractive, homelike environment and

  1. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  2. Physical model and calculation code for fuel coolant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, H.; Kottowski, H.

    1976-01-01

    A physical model is proposed to describe fuel coolant interactions in shock-tube geometry. According to the experimental results, an interaction model which divides each cycle into three phases is proposed. The first phase is the fuel-coolant-contact, the second one is the ejection and recently of the coolant, and the third phase is the impact and fragmentation. Physical background of these phases are illustrated in the first part of this paper. Mathematical expressions of the model are exposed in the second part. A principal feature of the computational method is the consistent application of the fourier-equation throughout the whole interaction process. The results of some calculations, performed for different conditions are compiled in attached figures. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  4. Sociodemographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by sociodemographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested the moderating effects of sociodemographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-reported total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002 and 2003, adults from 9 countries (N = 10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short), perceived environment, and sociodemographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting (a) high PA levels and (b) minimum PA guidelines. Logistic models tested environment by sociodemographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction P environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA and maintain environmental sustainability.

  5. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (NZPAQ: A doubly labelled water validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Anthony

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ. The aim of this study was to validate the IPAQ and NZPAQ against doubly labelled water (DLW. Method: Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE was estimated by subtracting the energy expenditure from resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding from TEE. The IPAQ (long form and NZPAQ (short form were completed at the end of each 7-day period. Activity-related energy expenditure (IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE was calculated from each questionnaire and compared to DLWAEE. Results Thirty six adults aged 18 to 56 years (56% female completed all measurements. Compared to DLWAEE, IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE on average underestimated energy expenditure by 27% and 59%, respectively. There was good agreement between DLWAEE and both IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE at lower levels of physical activity. However there was marked underestimation of questionnaire-derived energy expenditure at higher levels of activity. Conclusion Both the IPAQ and NZPAQ instruments have a demonstrated systematic bias toward underestimation of physical activity-related energy expenditure at higher levels of physical activity compared to DLW. Appropriate calibration factors could be used to correct for measurement error in physical activity questionnaires and hence improve estimation of AEE.

  6. Comments on the interaction between theory and experiment in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses work being conducted in High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics where theory and experiment go hand in hand. Pion capture, proton-antiproton interactions, kaon-pion interactions and hypernuclei decay are discussed as examples

  7. A Comparison of Children's Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education, Recess, and Exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Stodden, David F

    2015-03-01

    To compare young children's different intensity physical activity (PA) levels in physical education, recess and exergaming programs. Participants were 140 first and second grade children (73 girls; Meanage= 7.88 years). Beyond the daily 20-minute recess, participants attended 75-minute weekly physical education classes and another 75-minute weekly exergaming classes. Children's PA levels were assessed by ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometers for 3 sessions in the 3 programs. The outcome variables were percentages of time spent in sedentary, light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). There were significant main effects for program and grade, and an interaction effect for program by grade. Specifically, children's MVPA in exergaming and recess was higher than in physical education. The 2nd-grade children demonstrated lower sedentary behavior and MVPA than the first-grade children during recess; less light PA in both recess and exergaming than first-grade children; and less sedentary behavior but higher MVPA in exergaming than first-grade children. Young children generated higher PA levels in recess and exergaming as compared with physical education. Hence, other school-based PA programs may serve as essential components of a comprehensive school PA program. Implications are provided for educators and health professionals.

  8. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical ...

  9. A pilot test of the Latin active hip hop intervention to increase physical activity among low-income Mexican-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a hip hop dance intervention, Latin Active, among low-income Mexican-American adolescents. Mexican-descent adolescents tend to have disproportionate rates of low physical activity, overweight status, and obesity. A 5-week intervention design with pretest and post-test self-report measures. Charter middle school (grades 6-9) health/science classes in a low-income neighborhood were the setting for the Latin Active intervention. Overall, 81 participants were recruited; 73 (n  =  41, female; n  =  32, male) provided active parental consent to complete pretest/post-test surveys. Intervention . The Latin Active program included 10 interactive 50-minute lessons that were delivered twice a week during science/health classes. The curriculum was created on the basis of Social Cognitive Theory, Critical Hip Hop Pedagogy, and feedback from key stakeholders. The lessons focused on increasing physical activity as well as neighborhood barriers. The self-report pretest (n  =  73) and post-test (n  =  56) surveys included measures for frequency of vigorous physical activity, self-efficacy, and neighborhood barriers. Analysis . Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences from pretest to post-test results for intervention outcomes by gender. The Latin Active program (with 77% retention at post-test) significantly increased vigorous physical activity and dance (p hip hop physical activity program, Latin Active demonstrated preliminary efficacy to increase girl's vigorous physical activity and boy's perception of neighborhood barriers to physical activity. Future research will need to use a randomized, controlled design and investigate the effect of the program on measures of body mass index.

  10. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  11. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Corella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fat mass and obesity (FTO and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA, and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. METHODS: Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet and physical activity (PA were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. RESULTS: FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and obesity (P<0.05 for all. A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR=1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.13. We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05 with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P=0.502 than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P=0.021 than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/-SE: -0.57+/-0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P=0.001. CONCLUSION: Statistical and biological interactions with PA

  12. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...

  13. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...

  14. Bidirectional associations between activity-related parenting practices, and child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and body mass index: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel

    2017-07-06

    of physical activity and child physical activity. Bidirectional parent-child interaction should be considered in future research in order to properly inform parenting-related intervention programs aimed at preventing or treating childhood overweight or obesity. System dynamic methods to explore the existence of reinforcing or balancing loops are needed in this regard.

  15. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity: a qualitative case study among the least physical active schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-06

    Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11-12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children's physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and

  16. Social capital, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity: A population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between social capital (trust) and leisure-time physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: The 2004 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: In total, 27,757 individuals aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire (59% participation). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between trust, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: ...

  17. Relation of Perceived Health Competence to Physical Activity in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Justin M; Mayberry, Lindsay S; Wallston, Kenneth A; Huang, Shi; Roumie, Christianne L; Muñoz, Daniel; Patel, Niral J; Kripalani, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    Physical inactivity is highly associated with mortality, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. We evaluated the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on cumulative physical activity levels in the Mid-South Coronary Heart Disease Cohort Study. The Mid-South Coronary Heart Disease Cohort Study consists of 2,587 outpatients (32% were female) with coronary heart disease at an academic medical center network in the United States. Cumulative physical activity was quantified in metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We investigated associations between the 2-item Perceived Health Competence Scale (PHCS-2) and MET-minutes/week after adjusting for co-morbidities and psychosocial factors with linear regression. Nearly half of participants (47%) exhibited low physical activity levels (Perceived health competence was highly associated with physical activity after multivariable adjustment. A nonlinear relation was observed, with the strongest effect on physical activity occurring at lower levels of perceived health competence. There was effect modification by gender (p = 0.03 for interaction). The relation between perceived health competence and physical activity was stronger in women compared with men; an increase in the PHCS-2 from 3 to 4 was associated with a 73% increase in MET-minutes/week in women (95% confidence interval 43% to 109%, p perceived health competence was strongly associated with less physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease and may represent a potential target for behavioral interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Obesity, physical activity and inactivity among adolescents in Morelos, Mexico: a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Claudia; Hernández, Bernardo; Moreno, Hortensia; Hernández-Girón, Carlos; Campero, Lourdes; Cruz, Aurelio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased in Mexico. This increase can be explained partly by a decrease in physical activity. The objective of this study was to assess the association between the prevalence of obesity and overweight with physical activity and inactivity among Mexican adolescents. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study with baseline and follow-up measures in 446 adolescents 12 to 17 years old, attending public schools in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. We collected information on weight, physical activity and demographic characteristics. Obesity and overweight were determined using as indicador the body mass index, and the cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The baseline prevalence of obesity or overweight was 37.22% (42.99% for males and 30.95% for females), and in the final measure 34.30% (38.46% for males and 32.28% for females). The median time of TV viewing was 3.90 h/d, with 0.73 h/d dedicated to vigorous physical activity and 0.58 h/d to moderate physical activity. Using logistic regression, after adjustment for obesity in the baseline measure, sex and clustering by school, we found no significant associations between the prevalence of obesity or overweight with time dedicated to TV viewing, vigorous or moderate physical activity. However, when conducting the analysis with an interaction term by sex, we found significantly lower risk of obesity or overweight associated with an increase in vigorous physical activity among males only (beta = 0.22, 95% CI (0.05, 0.89). Results suggest that vigorous physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity or overweight among male adolescents.

  19. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  20. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated in the IMPACT study. Endpoints examined included weight bearing physical activity (WBPA; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; vigorous physical activity (VPA; MET (metabolic equivalent – weighted WBPA and MVPA; sedentary activity; before/after-school physical activity; and weekend physical activity. Methods Primary data analysis using a pretest-posttest control group design was conducted utilizing mixed model analysis of covariance. Data gathered from the IMPACT cohort from 2000–2002 were analyzed to determine baseline versus follow-up differences in activity endpoints. Confounders investigated included ethnicity, body mass index, menarcheal status, participation in 7th grade PE/athletics, friend/familial support and neighborhood safety. Results Follow-up means were higher for participating intervention schools relative to control schools for all physical activity variables but were statistically significant only for the following variables: daily minutes of vigorous physical activity (mean difference between Intervention (I and Control (C = 6.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 5.82–6.18, p = 0.05, daily after school activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 8.95↑ minutes, 95% CI = 8.69–9.21, p = 0.04, and daily weekend activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 19.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 18.40–19.60, p = 0.05. The intervention significantly reduced duration of student daily TV/Video watching (mean difference between I and C = 12

  1. Physiological Responses and Hedonics During Prolonged Physically Interactive Videogame Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Barkley, Jacob E; Hafen, Paul S; Navalta, James

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to assess physiologic responses and hedonics (i.e., liking) during prolonged physically interactive videogame play. Participants (n = 24) completed three 30-minute videogame conditions on separate days in a random order. During two of the conditions participants played physically interactive videogames (Nintendo of America, Inc. [Redmond, WA] "Wii™ Fit" "Basic Run" and "Basic Step"). During the third condition participants played a traditional/sedentary game ("Tanks!"), which required minimal physical movement for gameplay. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was assessed using indirect calorimetry throughout each condition and averaged every 5 minutes. Liking was assessed via visual analog scale at the 15- and 30-minute time points during each condition. Mean VO2 was significantly (P videogame (5.39 ± 1.0 mL/kg/minute, 1.5 ± 0.1 METs). "Basic Step" was also greater (P videogame conditions. Furthermore, because liking was similar across all gaming conditions, participants may be willing to substitute the physically interactive videogames in place of the traditional/sedentary game.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  3. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holtermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  4. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  5. Effect of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Intervention on Improving Dementia Family Caregiver Physical Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Carol J; Etkin, Caryn D; Eisenstein, Amy; Paun, Olimpia; Rajan, Kumar B; Sweet, Cynthia M Castro; McCann, Judith J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Evans, Denis A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) affect more than five million Americans and their family caregivers. Caregiving creates challenges, may contribute to decreased caregiver health and is associated with $9.7 billion of caregiver health care costs. The purpose of this 12 month randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to examine if the Enhancing Physical Activity Intervention (EPAI), a moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) treatment group, versus the Caregiver Skill Building Intervention (CSBI) control, would have greater: (1) MVPA adherence; and (2) physical function. Methods Caregivers were randomly assigned to EPAI or CSBI (N=211). MVPA was assessed using a self-report measure; and physical function was objectively assessed using two measures. Intention-to-treat analyses used descriptive, categorical and generalized estimating equations (GEE), with an exchangeable working correlation matrix and a log link, to examine main effects and interactions in change of MVPA and physical function over time. Results At 12 months, EPAI significantly increased MVPA (p=caregiving hours and use of formal services; while CSBI increased hours of caregiving (p=caregivers had difficulties completing physical function tests. Conclusion The EPAI had a stronger 12 month effect on caregiver MVPA and physical function, as well as maintaining stability of caregiving hours and formal service use; while CSBI increased caregiving hours and use of formal services. A study limitation included greater EPAI versus CSBI attrition. Future directions are proposed for dementia family caregiver physical activity research. PMID:28752016

  6. Exoplanet Science in the Classroom: Learning Activities for an Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Rose, Devin; Carlson, Randall; de La Harpe, Kimberly; Novotny, Steven; Polsgrove, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Discovery of planets outside our solar system, known as extra-solar planets or exoplanets for short, has been at the forefront of astronomical research for over 25 years. Reports of new discoveries have almost become routine; however, the excitement surrounding them has not. Amazingly, as groundbreaking as exoplanet science is, the basic physics is quite accessible to first-year physics students, as discussed in previous TPT articles. To further illustrate this point, we developed an iOS application that generates synthetic exoplanet data to provide students and teachers with interactive learning activities. Using introductory physics concepts, we demonstrate how to estimate exoplanet mass, radius, and density from the app output. These calculations form the basis for a diverse range of classroom activities. We conclude with a summary of exoplanet science resources for teachers.

  7. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to fi