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Sample records for physical activity electronic

  1. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    and girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSION: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight...... among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines.......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  3. Effects of Home Access to Active Videogames on Child Self-Esteem, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Anxiety Related to Electronic Games: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J; Howie, Erin K; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Active-input videogames could provide a useful conduit for increasing physical activity by improving a child's self-confidence, physical activity enjoyment, and reducing anxiety. Therefore this study evaluated the impact of (a) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (b) their replacement with active-input videogames, on child self-perception, enjoyment of physical activity, and electronic game use anxiety. This was a crossover, randomized controlled trial, conducted over a 6-month period in participants' family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia, from 2007 to 2010. Children 10-12 years old were recruited through school and community media. Of 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, and 8 withdrew, leaving 66 children (33 girls) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomized order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: No home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games, and home access to active-input electronic games. Perception of self-esteem (Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children), enjoyment of physical activity (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaire), and anxiety toward electronic game use (modified Loyd and Gressard Computer Anxiety Subscale) were assessed. Compared with home access to traditional electronic games, neither removal of all electronic games nor replacement with active-input games resulted in any significant change to child self-esteem, enjoyment of physical activity, or anxiety related to electronic games. Although active-input videogames have been shown to be enjoyable in the short term, their ability to impact on psychological outcomes is yet to be established.

  4. Effect of Electronic Messaging on Physical Activity Participation among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Parker, Chantrell; Ellis, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA) among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n = 28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51?74 years). Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message) or the control condition (an evening text message). Participants sel...

  5. Effect of Electronic Messaging on Physical Activity Participation among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantrell Antoine Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n=28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51–74 years. Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message or the control condition (an evening text message. Participants self-reported min of completed aerobic PA by cell phone text. The 1-way within-subjects ANOVA showed significant group differences (p<0.05. Specifically, when participants were in the treatment condition, they reported significantly greater average weekly min of aerobic PA (M = 96.88 min, SD = 62.9 compared to when they completed the control condition (M = 71.68 min, SD = 40.98. Electronic messaging delivered via cell phones was effective at increasing min of aerobic PA among older adults.

  6. Does Preschool Physical Activity and Electronic Media Use Predict Later Social and Emotional Skills at 6 to 8 Years? A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the associations of preschoolers' health behaviors with their later psychosocial wellbeing. This study investigates the association of 3- to 5-year-old children's physical activity and electronic media use with their later social-emotional skills (6-8 years). Data were collected in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (HAPPY) Study in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were a random subsample (n = 108) of the 567 children at follow-up. Physical activity was objectively measured using ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers; electronic media use (television viewing, sedentary electronic games and active electronic games) was parent proxy-reported. Social and emotional skills were child-reported using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version. Regression analyses controlled for sex, clustering by center of recruitment, and accelerometer wear time (for physical activity analyses). Sedentary electronic games were positively associated with intrapersonal and stress management skills and total emotional quotient. Computer/internet use was inversely associated with interpersonal, and positively associated with stress management, skills. Findings suggest that physical activity is not associated with children's psychosocial health while some types of electronic media use are. Future research should investigate the contexts in which preschoolers participate in these behaviors and potential causal mechanisms of associations.

  7. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  8. Physics Laboratory technical activities, 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing, and data evaluation activities that were carried out during calendar year 1991 in the NIST Physics Laboratory. These activities fall in the areas of electron and optical physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, radiometric physics, quantum metrology, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, quantum physics, and fundamental constants

  9. Structure studies by electron microscopy and electron diffraction at Physics Department, University of Oslo, 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoennes, J.K.; Olsen, A.

    1985-08-01

    The paper describes the reasearch activities and plans at the electron microscopy laboratorium, Physics Departmen, University of Oslo. Since the first electron microscope was installed in 1968, the research has covered inorganic structures, physical metallurgy, as well as theory of electron scattering and the development of methods in this field. The current plans involve efforts in the development of crystallographic and spectroscopic methods

  10. ELEC-2005: Electronics in High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers in the format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series, and within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme. This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 will composed of four Terms throughout the year: Winter Term: Introduction to electronics in HEP (January-February, 6 lectures) Spring Term: Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics (March, 6 lectures) Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) Winter Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 10:00 to 12:30. The...

  11. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  12. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulvey, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.

  13. Electronic word of mouth on twitter about physical activity in the United States: exploratory infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-11-20

    Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users' past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04) were more likely to talk positively about

  14. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Continuation order customers for either of the original Advances will receiveVolume 90, the first combined volume.

  15. Technical Training: ELEC-2005: Electronics in High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! ELEC-2005: Electronics in High Energy Physics - Spring Term ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series. This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms: the Winter Term, Introduction to electronics in HEP, already took place; the next three Terms will run throughout the year: Spring Term: Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics (March, 6 lectures) - now open for registration Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) Autumn Term: Ele...

  16. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Results: Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day. Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β = −4.798 and the combination TV + computer (β = −3.233 were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Resumo: Objetivo: Descrever a associação entre equipamentos eletrônicos no quarto com tempo sedentário e atividade f

  17. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sede...

  18. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  19. Introduction to the physics of electron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kevin L

    2018-01-01

    Electron emission is both a fundamental phenomenon and an enabling component that lies at the very heart of modern science and technology. Written by a recognized authority in the field, with expertise in both electron emission physics and electron beam physics, An Introduction to Electron Emission provides an in-depth look at the physics behind thermal, field, photo, and secondary electron emission mechanisms, how that physics affects the beams that result through space charge and emittance growth, and explores the physics behind their utilization in an array of applications. The book addresses mathematical and numerical methods underlying electron emission, describing where the equations originated, how they are related, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams. Writing for the beam physics and solid state communities, the author explores applications of electron emission methodology to solid state, statistical, and quantum mechanical ideas and concepts r...

  20. Technical Training: ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Learning for the LHC! ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series. This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms that will run throughout the year: Winter Term: Introduction to electronics in HEP (January-February, 6 lectures) Spring Term: Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics (March, 6 lectures) Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) Autumn Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesdays an...

  1. Physical electronics handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 2, Physical Electronics, discusses the fundamentals of electric discharges in gases. Electrical discharges in gases is used generically to denote the passage of electricity through a gas and implicitly embraces the wide variety of physical phenomena which accompany such a discharge of electricity. The discharge currents may be as small as 10-16A in certain ionization growth studies, or be as large as megamperes in thermonuclear and plasma physics studies. Key topics discussed include collision phenomena in gases; surface phenomena and transport of charged par

  2. Advances in imaging and electron physics the scanning transmission electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.  This particular volume presents several timely articles on the scanning transmission electron microscope. Updated with contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends Provides an invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  3. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debu, Pascal; Bassler, Ursula; Boratav, Murat; Lacour, Didier; Lebbolo, Herve; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2004-2005: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific activities: Physics with accelerators (LHC, Tevatron, CP Violation, future linear electron collider, Neutrino beams); Physics without accelerators (Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy, extreme energy cosmic radiation, theoretical physics, physics-biology interface); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration, health and safety, radiation protection); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, internships and PhDs); 5 - Internal activities (seminars, meetings..); 6 - External activities (Public information, relations with the industry, valorisation..); 7 - List of publications; 8 - Appendixes: organigram, staff

  4. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  5. Development of activated carbon pore structure via physical and chemical activation of biomass fibre waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Paul T.; Reed, Anton R.

    2006-01-01

    Biomass waste in the form of biomass flax fibre, produced as a by-product of the textile industry was processed via both physical and chemical activation to produce activated carbons. The surface area of the physically activated carbons were up to 840 m 2 g -1 and the carbons were of mesoporous structure. Chemical activation using zinc chloride produced high surface area activated carbons up to 2400 m 2 g -1 and the pore size distribution was mainly microporous. However, the process conditions of temperature and zinc chloride concentration could be used to manipulate the surface area and porosity of the carbons to produce microporous, mesoporous and mixed microporous/mesoporous activated carbons. The physically activated carbons were found to be a mixture of Type I and Type IV carbons and the chemically activated carbons were found to be mainly Type I carbons. The development of surface morphology of physically and chemically activated carbons observed via scanning electron microscopy showed that physical activation produced activated carbons with a nodular and pitted surface morphology whereas activated carbons produced through chemical activation had a smooth surface morphology. Transmission electron microscopy analysis could identify mesopore structures in the physically activated carbon and microporous structures in the chemically activated carbons

  6. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  7. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, Pierre; Bassler, Ursula; Levy, Jean-Michel; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2002-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2000-2001: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, hadronic physics, proton-antiproton physics, Neutrino beams, LEP, LHC, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  8. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagoret-Campagne, Sylvie; Roos, Lydia; Schwemling, Philippe; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2004-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2002-2003: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, proton-antiproton physics, LHC, Neutrino beams, LEP, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - Appendix: staff

  9. Electron-positron annihilation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1990-01-01

    Electron-Positron Annihilation Physics is a detailed introduction to the main topics in e + e - annihilation, with particular emphasis on experimental work. Four main areas are covered, each in great detail, beginning with the Standard Model and its application to the production of lepton, quark and boson pairs. Secondly, the general features of fragmentation and different fragmentation models are explained. Chapter 3 is devoted to heavy quark and lepton physics, to which e + e - experiments have made an immense contribution. The final chapter, 'Where do we go from here?', looks for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Predictions of theory are compared with experimental results, highlighting shortcomings of some current theories. Details of instrumentation are included whenever possible. This ensures that the book is of maximum practical use to research workers. A comprehensive introduction to the major topics in the field, Electron-Positron Annihilation Physics is aimed at both graduate students studying high-energy physics and mature research workers. (author)

  10. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debu, Pascal; Ben-Haim, Eli; Hardin, Delphine; Laporte, Didier; Maurin, David; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2006-2007: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific activities: Physics with accelerators (LHC, Tevatron, CP Violation, ILC, Neutrino Physics); Physics without accelerators (Cosmology, high-energy gamma astronomy, extreme energy cosmic radiation, theoretical physics, physics-biology interface); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, internships and PhDs); 5 - Internal activities (seminars, meetings..); 6 - External activities (Public information, relations with the industry, valorisation..)

  11. Effect of Active Lessons on Physical Activity, Academic, and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie; Murtagh, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of classroom-based physical activity interventions that integrate academic content and assess the effectiveness of the interventions on physical activity, learning, facilitators of learning, and health outcomes. Method: Six electronic databases (ERIC, PubMed, Google Scholar,…

  12. Physical and social contextual influences on children's leisure-time physical activity: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Wolch, Jennifer; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study used real-time electronic surveys delivered through mobile phones, known as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), to determine whether level and experience of leisure-time physical activity differ across children's physical and social contexts. Children (N = 121; ages 9 to 13 years; 52% male, 32% Hispanic/Latino) participated in 4 days (Fri.-Mon.) of EMA during nonschool time. Electronic surveys (20 total) assessed primary activity (eg, active play/sports/exercise), physical location (eg, home, outdoors), social context (eg, friends, alone), current mood (positive and negative affect), and enjoyment. Responses were time-matched to the number of steps and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; measured by accelerometer) in the 30 minutes before each survey. Mean steps and MVPA were greater outdoors than at home or at someone else's house (all P affect was greater when alone and with family only than friends only (all P < .05). Results describing the value of outdoor and social settings could inform context-specific interventions in this age group.

  13. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Nefertiti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6, parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0, and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3 who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92. Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by

  14. What Motivates Young Adults to Talk About Physical Activity on Social Network Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Yang, Jingzhen; Eckler, Petya; Snetselaar, Linda; Janz, Kathleen; Leary, Emily

    2017-06-22

    Electronic word-of-mouth on social network sites has been used successfully in marketing. In social marketing, electronic word-of-mouth about products as health behaviors has the potential to be more effective and reach more young adults than health education through traditional mass media. However, little is known about what motivates people to actively initiate electronic word-of-mouth about health behaviors on their personal pages or profiles on social network sites, thus potentially reaching all their contacts on those sites. This study filled the gap by applying a marketing theoretical model to explore the factors associated with electronic word-of-mouth on social network sites about leisure-time physical activity. A Web survey link was sent to undergraduate students at one of the Midwestern universities and 439 of them completed the survey. The average age of the 439 participants was 19 years (SD=1 year, range: 18-24). Results suggested that emotional engagement with leisure-time physical activity (ie, affective involvement in leisure-time physical activity) predicted providing relevant opinions or information on social network sites. Social network site users who perceived stronger ties with all their contacts were more likely to provide and seek leisure-time physical activity opinions and information. People who provided leisure-time physical activity opinions and information were more likely to seek opinions and information, and people who forwarded information about leisure-time physical activity were more likely to chat about it. This study shed light on the application of the electronic word-of-mouth theoretical framework in promoting health behaviors. The findings can also guide the development of future social marketing interventions using social network sites to promote leisure-time physical activity. ©Ni Zhang, Shelly Campo, Jingzhen Yang, Petya Eckler, Linda Snetselaar, Kathleen Janz, Emily Leary. Originally published in the Journal of Medical

  15. Polarized target physics at the Bonn electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1988-12-01

    At the BONN 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron experiments with polarized nucleon targets have a long tradition. Starting with measurements of the target asymmetry in single pion photoproduction off polarized protons, resp. neutrons, the experiments have been concentrated on photodisintegration measurements of polarized deuterons. Parallel to these activities a considerable progress in the field of the target technology, e.g. cryogenics and target materials, has been made, by which all the measurements have profitted enormously. Especially the development of the new target material ammonia has allowed the first use of a polarized deuteron (ND 3 ) target in an intense electron beam. The construction of a frozen spin target, which will be used in combination with a tagged polarized photon beam, makes a new generation of polarized target experiments in photon induced reactions possible. Together with electron scattering off polarized deuterons and neutrons they will be a main activity in the physics program at the new stretcher accelerator ELSA in BONN. (orig.)

  16. CERN Technical Training 2005 - ELEC-2005: Electronics in High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Learning for the LHC!ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series. This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments.ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms that will run throughout the year:Winter Term: Introduction to electronics in HEP (January-February, 6 lectures) Spring Term: Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics (March, 6 lectures) Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) Winter Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesdays and Thursd...

  17. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Mark J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lonsdale, Chris; White, Rhiannon L; Lubans, David R

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that physical self-concept is associated with physical activity in children and adolescents, but no systematic review of this literature has been conducted. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the strength of associations between physical activity and physical self-concept (general and sub-domains) in children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to examine potential moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept. A systematic search of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, Web of Science and Scopus) with no date restrictions was conducted. Random effects meta-analyses with correction for measurement were employed. The associations between physical activity and general physical self-concept and sub-domains were explored. A risk of bias assessment was conducted by two reviewers. The search identified 64 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Thirty-three studies addressed multiple outcomes of general physical self-concept: 28 studies examined general physical self-concept, 59 examined perceived competence, 25 examined perceived fitness, and 55 examined perceived appearance. Perceived competence was most strongly associated with physical activity (r = 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.35, p self-concept (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p self-concept (p self-concept and its various sub-domains in children and adolescents. Age and sex are key moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept.

  18. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-01-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together ∼100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  19. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  20. Use of active video games to increase physical activity in children: a (virtual) reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

  1. The physical basis of electronics an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D J; Hammond, P

    1975-01-01

    The Physical Basis of Electronics: An Introductory Course, Second Edition is an 11-chapter text that discusses the physical concepts of electronic devices. This edition deals with the considerable advances in electronic techniques, from the introduction of field effect transistors to the development of integrated circuits. The opening chapters discuss the fundamentals of vacuum electronics and solid-state electronics. The subsequent chapters deal with the other components of electronic devices and their functions, including semiconductor diode and transistor as an amplifier and a switch. The d

  2. Electron and muon physics sessions: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1988-06-01

    The electromagnetic interaction needs no introduction as a probe of the structure of systems on many scales. The continued use of this technique dominated the sessions on Electron and Muon Physics at the Samoset Meeting. The experimental results continue to stimulate large numbers of theorists and the results on polarized deep inelastic muon scattering and their various interpretations permeated beyond these sessions. The breadth of physics attacked with electrons and muons makes a summary such as this rather peculiar. As one of my nuclear physics friends (I think) commented after my summary, ''it was interesting to see Nuclear Physics from a long distance with the telescope inverted.'' The comment may well be applied to this written version of the summary talk. 21 refs

  3. Transmission Electron Microscopy Physics of Image Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. Specimen damage and contamination by electron irradiation limits the resolution for biological and some inorganic specimens. This fifth edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the area of aberration correction and energy filtering; moreover, the topics introduced in the fourth edition have been updated. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation is written f...

  4. Validation of Using Fitness Center Attendance Electronic Records to Assess the Frequency of Moderate/Vigorous Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…

  5. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  6. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  7. ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Autumn Term (November-December 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the ELEC-2002 course series. This new, comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms. The Winter (Introduction to electronics in HEP), Spring (Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics), and Summer (System electronics for physics: Issues) Terms already took place. The Autumn Term - Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) is still open for registration, and has started on November 8th with the following programme: Tuesday 8.11 - Tracking (Geoff Hall). Thursday 10.11 - Calorimetr...

  8. Electron Linacs for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some of the basic physical principles underlying the operation of electron linear accelerators (electron linacs). Electron linacs have applications ranging from linacs with an energy of a few MeV, such that the electrons are approximately relativistic, to future electron-positron linear colliders having a collision energy in the several-TeV energy range. For the most part, only the main accelerating linac is treated in this article.

  9. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  10. Advances in imaging and electron physics time resolved electron diffraction for chemistry, biology and material science

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges two long-running serials-Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field.

  11. UWALK: the development of a multi-strategy, community-wide physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cally A; Berry, Tanya R; Carson, Valerie; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Duncan, Mitch J; Loitz, Christina C; McCormack, Gavin R; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Spence, John C; Vallance, Jeff K; Mummery, W Kerry

    2017-03-01

    UWALK is a multi-strategy, multi-sector, theory-informed, community-wide approach using e and mHealth to promote physical activity in Alberta, Canada. The aim of UWALK is to promote physical activity, primarily via the accumulation of steps and flights of stairs, through a single over-arching brand. This paper describes the development of the UWALK program. A social ecological model and the social cognitive theory guided the development of key strategies, including the marketing and communication activities, establishing partnerships with key stakeholders, and e and mHealth programs. The program promotes the use of physical activity monitoring devices to self-monitor physical activity. This includes pedometers, electronic devices, and smartphone applications. In addition to entering physical activity data manually, the e and mHealth program provides the function for objective data to be automatically uploaded from select electronic devices (Fitbit®, Garmin and the smartphone application Moves) The RE-AIM framework is used to guide the evaluation of UWALK. Funding for the program commenced in February 2013. The UWALK brand was introduced on April 12, 2013 with the official launch, including the UWALK website on September 20, 2013. This paper describes the development and evaluation framework of a physical activity promotion program. This program has the potential for population level dissemination and uptake of an ecologically valid physical activity promotion program that is evidence-based and theoretically framed.

  12. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  13. Surface and Interface Physics of Correlated Electron Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millis, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The {\\it Surface and Interface Physics of Correlated Electron Materials} research program provided conceptual understanding of and theoretical methodologies for understanding the properties of surfaces and interfaces involving materials exhibiting strong electronic correlations. The issues addressed in this research program are important for basic science, because the behavior of correlated electron superlattices is a crucial challenge to and crucial test of our understanding of the grand-challenge problem of correlated electron physics and are important for our nation's energy future because correlated interfaces offer opportunities for the control of phenomena needed for energy and device applications. Results include new physics insights, development of new methods, and new predictions for materials properties.

  14. Physical activity school intervention: context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, J D; Andersen, P T; von Seelen, J; Leppin, A

    2018-06-01

    School-based interventions for increasing physical activity among children are widespread, however there is still a lack of knowledge about how school context factors are linked to implementation quality and effectiveness of programmes. The aim of this paper is to examine teacher-perceived effectiveness of a Danish national classroom-based health programme 'Active Around Denmark' and in particular, to investigate whether perceptions vary as a function of school social context factors. After completion of the programme all teachers (N = 5.892) received an electronic questionnaire. 2.097 completed the questionnaire (response rate 36%) and 1.781 datasets could be used for analysis. The teachers were asked about their perceptions of changes in children's attitudes towards and levels of physical activity after the competition. Our results indicated that certain contextual factors, such as schools' prioritization of health promotion, teachers' support by their school principal in implementation as well as teacher's satisfaction with the school' physical environment made a significant difference in teacher-perceived effectiveness. To conclude, teacher-perceived effectiveness of the health programme does vary as a function of school social context factors.

  15. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams (with apologies to those who have studied neutrino interactions, polarized beam are defined to refer to the case in which the experimenter has control over the polarization direction). If the discussion is restricted to spin polarized electron beams, the number of experiments becomes countable with the fingers of one hand (with several to spare). There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject. The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons of genearlity and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron-positron collisions

  16. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities.

  17. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams. There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject? The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons, of generality and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron--positron collisions. 33 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs

  18. 1988 activity report of the Nuclear Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The 1988 activity report of the Nuclear Physics Institute (France) is presented. The report covers the scientific activities from the 1st October 1987 to the 30th September 1988 and the technical developments form the 1st October 1986 to the 30th September 1988. The main research fields include works on exotic nuclei, hot nuclei characteristics, physics of strangeness, nuclear structure studies by means of nuclear reactions, high spin states and radiochemistry. The project of an electron accelerator, delivering a 4 GeV beam (in a first step), is one of the Institute's priorities. The research works carried out in the Experimental Research and Theoretical Physics Divisions as well as technological projects are included [fr

  19. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaissiere, Christian de la; Banner, Marcel; Faivre, Maria; Moine, Marguerite; Dumas, Jean-Marc; Jos, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 1998-1999: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Physics experiments: LHC Physics with ATLAS, search for new physics at LEP, DIRAC experiment, Neutrinos oscillation with NOMAD, TONIC and HERA-H1 experiments, CP Violation (BaBar), DΦ experiment at Tevatron, high-energy gamma astronomy, Supernovae, Pierre Auger Laboratory); 3 - Technical activities and means (electronics, computers, mechanics departments); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, Administration and general services, Internal and external activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  20. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaissiere, Christian de la; Boniface, Nicole; Dumas, Jean-Marc; Jos, Jeanne

    1998-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 1996-1997: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Physics experiments: LHC Physics with ATLAS, search for new physics at LEP (DELPHI), Neutrinos oscillation DIRAC experiment, Neutrinos oscillation (NOMAD, TONIC), HERA-H1 experiment, CP Violation (BaBar), DΦ experiment at Tevatron, study of gamma radiation sources (CAT), Supernovae, Auger Laboratory project; 3 - Technical activities and means (electronics, computers, mechanics departments); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, Administration and general services, Internal and external activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  1. Technical Training: ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Summer Term (May 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series. This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms. The Winter (Introduction to electronics in HEP) and Spring (Integrated circuits and VLSI technology for physics) Terms already took place; the next two Terms will run with the following schedule: Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) - now open for registration Autumn Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesday...

  2. Prescribing of Electronic Activity Monitors in Cardiometabolic Diseases: Qualitative Interview-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellicha, Alice; Macé, Sandrine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-23

    The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, including those such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, so-called cardiometabolic diseases, is high and is increasing worldwide. Strong evidence supports the role of physical activity in management of these diseases. There is general consensus that mHealth technology, including electronic activity monitors, can potentially increase physical activity in patients, but their use in clinical settings remains limited. Practitioners' requirements when prescribing electronic activity monitors have been poorly described. The aims of this qualitative study were (1) to explore how specialist physicians prescribe electronic activity monitors to patients presenting with cardiometabolic conditions, and (2) to better understand their motivation for and barriers to prescribing such monitors. We conducted qualitative semistructured interviews in March to May 2016 with 11 senior physicians from a public university hospital in France with expertise in management of cardiometabolic diseases (type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). Interviews lasted 45 to 60 minutes and were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using directed content analysis. We report our findings following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist. Most physicians we interviewed had never prescribed electronic activity monitors, whereas they frequently prescribed blood glucose or blood pressure self-monitoring devices. Reasons for nonprescription included lack of interest in the data collected, lack of evidence for data accuracy, concern about work overload possibly resulting from automatic data transfer, and risk of patients becoming addicted to data. Physicians expected future marketing of easy-to-use monitors that will accurately measure physical activity duration and intensity and provide understandable motivating feedback. Features of electronic activity monitors

  3. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  4. Review of electron beam therapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed. (review)

  5. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EATING HABITS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, university professors engage in academic tasks often stressful and sedentary behaviors, making the practice of physical activity and healthier eating habits. The aim of this study was to review the literature Brazilian studies on physical activity and eating habits of university professors .The search was conducted between March and May 2013, in electronic databases. For the delimitation of the study, was used as descriptors: Physical Activity, University Teachers and Eating Habits. At the end of the article selection process, remaining 06 studies that have been described and discussed in the text. And all of a descriptive nature, with small samples with some robust and consistent methodology. The selected studies, regardless of their qualities, point to the need of this population to engage in more physical activity and healthy eating habits programs

  6. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EATING HABITS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, university professors engage in academic tasks often stressful and sedentary behaviors, making the practice of physical activity and healthier eating habits. The aim of this study was to review the literature Brazilian studies on physical activity and eating habits of university professors .The search was conducted between March and May 2013, in electronic databases. For the delimitation of the study, was used as descriptors: Physical Activity, University Teachers and Eating Habits. At the end of the article selection process, remaining 06 studies that have been described and discussed in the text. And all of a descriptive nature, with small samples with some robust and consistent methodology. The selected studies, regardless of their qualities, point to the need of this population to engage in more physical activity and healthy eating habits programs.

  7. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  8. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure.

  9. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Hidayati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the state of knowledge on factors associated with adolescents’ physical activity in Asian countries. Methods: Literature review on existing articles retrieved from electronic databases was conducted. The review on factors of physical activity was set based on the setting of study, adolescents as participants of the study and the year of publication ranged from 2002-2011. Result: The findings compiled the evidence of relationships between physical activity and several influencing factors. Intrapersonal factors age, gender, socioeconomic status, parental education, and perceptions related to physical activity- perceived self efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, interpersonal factors (family and peer influences and extra-personal factors (school policy and living arrangement were identified. Self efficacy was manifested as the strongest influencing factor in most studies. This review highlighted the cultural issues on physical activities of adolescents in Asian countries. Conclusion: This paper provided comprehensive knowledge related to factors influencing physical activity in Asian adolescents. The issue of cultural sensitivity should be considered in the future intervention program designed to improve physical activity of adolescents. Keyword: adolescent, physical activity, health Promotion, Asian countries

  10. The activity of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levedev, L.

    1994-01-01

    Various information about Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) structure and scientific activity are discussed. The four main faculties of MEPhI: the faculty of theoretical and experimental physics, the faculty of technical physics, the faculty of automatics and electronics and the faculty of cybernetics are being written in this report. The information about the research reactors and the scientific research laboratories is also presented. The participation of MEPhI in the state scientific technological programs such as 'High energy physics', 'High-temperature superconductivity', 'Controlled thermonuclear synthesis and plasma processes'. 'Informatization', 'Security of population and industrial objects on account of hazard of natural and technogenic accidents', 'Ecology of Russia', 'Synchrotron radiation and its application', 'Future technologies, machines and productions' and others are presented too. (author)

  11. How does the activity level of the parents influence their children's activity? The contemporary life in a world ruled by electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Strauss, Markus; Przybylek, Bianca; Dworrak, Tarja; Dworrak, Birgit; Leischik, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Apart from many positive changes associated with technical civilization, there are also - from the health point of view - some threats. The reduction in the level of physical activity is one of them. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are any relationships between children's physical activity and behaviors, and to assess the impact of the adults' activity on their children's habits. The study involved a group of 340 children aged 7-12 years (mean age: 9.81 ±1.7) and their parents. In order to evaluate children's physical activity and the amount of time that they spend with electronic devices, an original questionnaire and the IPAQ questionnaire were used. Children usually use electronic devices between 2 and 7 days per week (mean: 4.74 ±0.86), regardless of sex ( p > 0.09) and spend between 5 and 1620 min per week (mean: 459.46 ±308.1) with their mobile phone, tablet, PCs and TVs. 67.92% of boys and 69.61% of girls lead an active lifestyle. The children's activity level depends on their parents' level of activity ( p Parents of semi-active children lead a lifestyle with a moderate level of physical activity. The level of physical activity in younger children depends on the children's relationship with their parents and their level of activity. Children spend a lot of free time with their electronic devices. It is necessary to develop and implement activities intended to raise awareness of children and their families about the effects of hypokinesis.

  12. Physical-recreational activities and persons with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potić Srećko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational activities represent individual or organized group activities chosen by free will, which help individuals to maintain good health, physical and working condition. In addition to the required physical segment, recreation also includes mental component which refers to strengthening of the will and determination, acquisition and development of self-control. With physical and mental aspect of recreational activities, many authors especially emphasize the importance of socio-psychological component of recreation. The aim of this paper is to review the so far published scientific and professional works in which the problem of recreational activities of persons with cerebral palsy, sight impairment, intellectual disability and autism is discussed, by studying the available literature. During the research we used the electronic data base of Serbian Library Consortium for Coordinated Acquisition, Google Scholar, as well as published material available in print. The participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities in the community is determined by the individual characteristics of the person, but with the community factors as well. The results of many studies show that persons with disabilities participate less in leisure and physical recreational activities and that is largely related to the level of social integration of these persons. Taking into account the fact that the participation of persons with disabilities in physical-recreational activities largely correlates with the quality of life of these persons, it is necessary to increase the number of recreational services that the community offers, as well as to specialise, modify and adapt some of them in relation to the needs of these persons. Also, it is recommended that as an integral part of all therapeutic approaches to persons with disability, the training of these persons for the appropriate use of their leisure time be included.

  13. On the physics of electron beams in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the main physical processes related to the injection, the propagation and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the physical linear and nonlinear mechanisms involved in the generation, the stabilization and the saturation of the electromagnetic waves excited by the beams in wide frequency ranges. and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the

  14. Advances in imaging and electron physics optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends * Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  15. Advances in imaging and electron physics optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  16. The physics of radiotherapy X-rays and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, Peter; Hoban, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Physics of Radiotherapy X-Rays and Electrons is an updated successor to The Physics of Radiotherapy X-Rays from Linear Accelerators published in 1997. This new volume includes a significant amount of new material, including new chapters on electrons in radiotherapy and IMRT, IGRT, and tomotherapy, which have become key developments in radiation therapy. Also updated from the earlier edition are the physics beam modeling chapters, including Monte Carlo methods, adding those mysterious electrons, as well as discourse on radiobiological modeling including TCP, NTCP, and EUD and the impact of these concepts on plan analysis and inverse planning. This book is intended as a standard reference text for postgraduate radiation oncology medical physics students. It will also be of interest to radiation oncology registrars and residents, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists. The new text contains review questions at the end of each chapter and full bibliographic entries. Fully indexed. Selected questions and ans...

  17. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  19. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  20. Direct observation of children's preferences and activity levels during interactive and online electronic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H P; Lam, Jessica W K; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2010-07-01

    Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children's physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls. Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute recreation sessions and recorded their game mode choices and PA levels. During Session One children could play either an interactive or an online electronic bowling game and during Session Two they could play an interactive or an online electronic running game. Children chose to play the games during 94% of session time and split this time between interactive (52%) and online (48%) versions. They engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during interactive games than their online electronic versions (70% vs. 2% of game time). Boys and nonoverweight children expended relatively more energy during the interactive games than girls and overweight children, respectively. New-generation interactive games can facilitate physical activity in children, and given the opportunity children may select them over sedentary versions.

  1. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  2. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  3. Electronic screens in children's bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: do the number and type of electronic devices matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-07-11

    To examine whether the number and type of electronic screens available in children's bedrooms matter in their relationship to adiposity, physical activity and sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 502 children aged 9-11 years from Ottawa, Ontario. The presence (yes/no) of a television (TV), computer or video game system in the child's bedroom was reported by the parents. Percentage body fat was measured using bioelectrical impedance. An accelerometer was worn over seven days to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Screen time was self-reported by the child. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, annual household income and highest level of parental education, children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom had a significantly higher percentage of body fat than children with no screen in their bedroom. However, while children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom engaged in more screen time overall than those with no screen, total sedentary time and MVPA were not significantly different. Sleep duration was not related to the number of screens in the bedroom, but sleep efficiency was significantly lower in children with at least 2 screens in the bedroom. Finally, children having only a TV in their bedroom had significantly higher adiposity than those having no screen at all. In contrast, the presence of a computer in children's bedrooms was not associated with higher adiposity than that of children with no screen. A higher number of screens in a child's bedroom was associated with higher adiposity, more total screen time and lower sleep efficiency. Having a TV in the bedroom appears to be the type of screen presence associated with higher levels of adiposity. Given the popularity of screens among children, these findings are increasingly relevant to health promotion strategies.

  4. Electron accelerators and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1989-01-01

    The operating electron accelerators and their importance in the nuclear and in the particle physics developments, are underlined. The principles of probing the nucleus by applying electron scattering techniques and the main experimental results, are summarized. In order to understand hadron interactions and the dynamics of quark confinement in nuclei, the high energy electrons must provide quantitative data on the following topics: the structure of the nucleon, the role of non nucleonic components in nuclei, the nature of short-range nucleon correlations, the origin of the short-range part of nuclear forces and the effects of the nuclear medium on quark distributions. To progress in the nuclear structure knowledge it is necessary to build a coherent strategy of accelerator developments in Europe

  5. A compilation of energy costs of physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Karaolis, Nadine; Draper, Alizon; Shetty, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    There were two objectives: first, to review the existing data on energy costs of specified activities in the light of the recommendations made by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation of 1985. Second, to compile existing data on the energy costs of physical activities for an updated annexure of the current Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements. Electronic and manual search of the literature (predominantly English) to obtain published data on the energy costs of physical activities. The majority of the data prior to 1955 were obtained using an earlier compilation of Passmore and Durnin. Energy costs were expressed as physical activity ratio (PAR); the energy cost of the activity divided by either the measured or predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR). The compilation provides PARs for an expanded range of activities that include general personal activities, transport, domestic chores, occupational activities, sports and other recreational activities for men and women, separately, where available. The present compilation is largely in agreement with the 1985 compilation, for activities that are common to both compilations. The present compilation has been based on the need to provide data on adults for a wide spectrum of human activity. There are, however, lacunae in the available data for many activities, between genders, across age groups and in various physiological states.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  10. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  11. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  13. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  15. Examining acute bi-directional relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in free-living situations using electronic ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the relationship of physical activity with acute affective and physical feeling states is informed largely by lab-based studies, which have limited generalizability to the natural ecology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to assess subjective affective and physical feeling states in free-living settings across 4 days from 110 non-physically active adults (Age M = 40.4, SD = 9.7). Light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by an accelerometer. Multilevel modeling was used to test the bi-directional associations between affective and physical feeling states and LPA/MVPA minutes. Higher positive affect, lower negative affect and fatigue were associated with more MVPA over the subsequent 15 min, while higher negative affect and energy were associated with more LPA over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Additionally, more LPA and MVPA were associated with feeling more energetic over the subsequent 15 and 30 min, and more LPA was additionally associated with feeling more negative and less tired over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Positive and negative affective states might serve as antecedents to but not consequences of MVPA in adults' daily lives. Changes in LPA may be predicted and followed by negative affective states. Physical feeling states appear to lead up to and follow changes in both LPA and MVPA.

  16. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  17. A project proposal on Patterns and correlates of physical activity in families on Lolland-Falster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Therese; Jepsen, Randi; Grøntved, Anders

    explanations for the inconsistent findings might be the use of different methodology for assessment of-as well as use of different definitions of physical activity. Current studies suggest that parental modeling effects in regard to physical activity differ by gender. Furthermore the influence of one versus...... two physically active parents may contribute positively to the physical activity level of the children in the family. Use of screen-based electronic media (e.g. smartphone-and tablet) may have considerably changed the way the families interact with each other. Research on these newer forms of media...... and correlates of physical activity in 1250 families on Lolland and Falster. Physical activity will be assessed objectively by using two accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Questionnaire about physical activity will be applied. Perspectives: Understanding whether or how primary caregivers influence...

  18. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Cruz, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design

  19. A Systematic Scoping Review of Engagement in Physical Activity Among LGBTQ+ Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Shannon S C; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2018-03-01

    LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, etc) persons are subject to elevated rates of chronic diseases and health concerns that can be addressed through regular participation in physical activity. However, LGBTQ+ adults experience unique challenges to engaging in physical activity. Subsequently, the aim of this study is to describe the dominant narratives related to the complex intersection of sexual orientation, gender identity, and physical activity. A systematic search and scoping review of existing literature was conducted in June 2016. Studies were identified by searching 9 electronic databases. Data were then extracted, summarized, and organized by LGBTQ+ subgroups. Conceptual maps of prominent narratives were created. Separate narratives were identified for sexual minority men and women. The dominant trend for sexual minority men was increased physical activity levels, often motivated by a perceived body ideal of being thin and/or muscular. The dominant trend for sexual minority women was decreased physical activity levels, predicated on a social norm that emphasizes bodily acceptance. Sexual orientation affects engagement in physical activity differentially by gender. Our findings suggest that physical activity interventions should be targeted to unique subgroups of the LGBTQ+ population.

  20. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  1. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  3. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  4. Electron-positron colliders: looking at future physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-12-15

    With research and development work underway throughout the world towards high energy electron-positron linear colliders, interest turns to the new physics these machines would open up. The first International Workshop on Physics and Experiments with Linear Colliders was held recently in Selkirk's in Finnish Lapland - some 300 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle.

  5. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…

  6. Nutritional strategies of physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesini, Nadir; Adami, Fernando; Blake, Márcia de-Toledo; Monteiro, Carlos Bm; Abreu, Luiz C; Valenti, Vitor E; Almeida, Fernando S; Luciano, Alexandre P; Cardoso, Marco A; Benedet, Jucemar; de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, Francisco; Leone, Claudio; Frainer, Deivis Elton Schlickmann

    2013-05-26

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review. References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review. The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight. Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  8. Temporal trends in physical activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Alan G; Hallal, Pedro C

    2009-09-01

    In spite of all accumulated scientific knowledge on the benefits of physical activity (PA) for health, high rates of sedentary lifestyle are still observed worldwide. The aim of this study was to systematically review articles on temporal trends of PA and fitness, with emphasis on differences between children/ adolescents and adults. An electronic search at the Medline/PubMed database was carried out using the following combination of keywords: temporal trends or trends or surveillance or monitoring and PA or exercise or physical fitness or motor activity or sedentary or fitness. By using this strategy, 23,088 manuscripts were detected. After examination, 41 articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria, and were, therefore, included. The data currently available in the literature for adults shows that leisure-time activity levels tend to be increasing over time, while occupational-related PA is decreasing over time. Youth PA seems to be decreasing over time, including a lower level of activity in physical education classes. As a consequence, fitness levels are also declining. PA surveillance must be strongly encouraged in all settings and age groups. Special attention must be paid to low and middle-income countries, where PA surveillance is virtually inexistent.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  10. Electron-positron colliders: looking at future physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With research and development work underway throughout the world towards high energy electron-positron linear colliders, interest turns to the new physics these machines would open up. The first International Workshop on Physics and Experiments with Linear Colliders was held recently in Selkirk's in Finnish Lapland - some 300 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle

  11. Assessment of physical activity and inactivity in multiple domains of daily life: a comparison between a computerized questionnaire and the SenseWear Armband complemented with an electronic diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheers Tineke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although differences between paper-and-pencil questionnaires and accelerometers have been reported for overall physical activity and time spent in moderate and vigorous activity, few studies have looked at domain-specific behavior. This study compared estimates of domain-specific physical (inactivity obtained with the Flemish physical activity computerized questionnaire (FPACQ with those obtained from a combination of the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the correspondence between the two methods varied with gender and age. Methods Data were obtained from 442 Flemish adults (41.4±9.8 years. Physical activity was questioned with the FPACQ and measured for seven consecutive days using the SenseWear Armband together with an electronic activity diary (SWD. Analogous variables were calculated from the FPACQ and SWD. Mean differences and associations between FPACQ and SWD outcomes were examined with paired t-tests and Pearson correlations. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess the level of agreement between the two methods. Main effects and interaction of gender and age groups (20–34; 35–49; 50–64 years on differences between FPACQ and SWD outcomes were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs. Results All parameters of the FPACQ were significantly correlated with SWD assessments (r = 0.21 to 0.65. Reported activity was significantly different from SWD-obtained values for all parameters, except screen time. Physical activity level, total energy expenditure and time spent in vigorous activities were significantly higher (+0.14 MET, +25.09 METhours·week-1 and +1.66 hours·week-1, respectively, and moderate activities and sedentary behavior significantly lower (-5.20 and -25.01 hours·week-1, respectively with the FPACQ compared to SWD. Time and energy expenditure of job activities and active transport were significantly higher, while household chores, motorized transport

  12. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  13. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  14. Book of abstracts of the second Uzbekistan physical electronics conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The second Uzbekistan Physical Electronics Conference on was held on 3-5 November, 1999 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed both theoretical and experimental research results in the field of interaction of corpuscular beams with solid state surface: fundamental problem of adsorption; surface ionization; electron, ion, photon emission; scattering of the particles on the surface; action of ion and electron irradiation, plasma treatment of material surface and also the problems of solid state electronics and applications of fundamental problems of physical electronics to surface diagnostics, ecology, technology and agriculture. More than 300 talks were presented in the meeting on the subjects mentioned above(A.A.D.)

  15. Patient-reported physical activity questionnaires: A systematic review of content and format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic illness are limited in their physical activities. This systematic review evaluates the content and format of patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that measure physical activity in elderly and chronically ill populations. Methods Questionnaires were identified by a systematic literature search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO & CINAHL), hand searches (reference sections and PROQOLID database) and expert input. A qualitative analysis was conducted to assess the content and format of the questionnaires and a Venn diagram was produced to illustrate this. Each stage of the review process was conducted by at least two independent reviewers. Results 104 questionnaires fulfilled our criteria. From these, 182 physical activity domains and 1965 items were extracted. Initial qualitative analysis of the domains found 11 categories. Further synthesis of the domains found 4 broad categories: 'physical activity related to general activities and mobility', 'physical activity related to activities of daily living', 'physical activity related to work, social or leisure time activities', and '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity'. The Venn diagram showed that no questionnaires covered all 4 categories and that the '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity' category was often not combined with the other categories. Conclusions A large number of questionnaires with a broad range of physical activity content were identified. Although the content could be broadly organised, there was no consensus on the content and format of physical activity PRO questionnaires in elderly and chronically ill populations. Nevertheless, this systematic review will help investigators to select a physical activity PRO questionnaire that best serves their research question and context. PMID:22414164

  16. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  17. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  18. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  19. Physics with CMS and Electronic Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlf, James W. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The current funding is for continued work on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as part of the Energy Frontier experimental program. The current budget year covers the first year of physics running at 13 TeV (Run 2). During this period we have concentrated on commisioning of the μTCA electronics, a new standard for distribution of CMS trigger and timing control signals and high bandwidth data aquistiion as well as participating in Run 2 physics.

  20. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  1. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN, Physics, Machine, Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphson, C

    2011-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new electron-hadron collider, the LHeC, in which electrons of $60$ to possibly $140$\\,GeV collide with LHC protons of $7000$\\,GeV. With an $ep$ design luminosity of about $10^{33}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, the Large Hadron Electron Collider exceeds the integrated luminosity collected at HERA by two orders of magnitude and the kinematic range by a factor of twenty in the four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) measurements. These are projected to solve a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The LHeC thus becomes the world's cleanest high resolution microscope, designed to continue the path of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering into unknown areas of physics and kinematics. The physics ...

  2. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by physical activation with steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kang; Jiang, Jian chun

    2010-01-01

    The use of rubber-seed shell as a raw material for the production of activated carbon with physical activation was investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, Scanning electron microscope, Thermo-gravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric in order to understand the rubber-seed shell activated carbon. The results showed that rubber-seed shell is a good precursor for activated carbon. The optimal activation condition is: temperature 880 o C, steam flow 6 kg h -1 , residence time 60 min. Characteristics of activated carbon with a high yield (30.5%) are: specific surface area (S BET ) 948 m 2 g -1 , total volume 0.988 m 3 kg -1 , iodine number of adsorbent (q iodine ) 1.326 g g -1 , amount of methylene blue adsorption of adsorbent (q mb ) 265 mg g -1 , hardness 94.7%. It is demonstrated that rubber-seed shell is an attractive source of raw material for producing high capacity activated carbon by physical activation with steam.

  3. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  5. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2010-2011 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Research activities: Quarks and Leptons, Astro-particles, Hadronic and nuclear matter, Theoretical physics, trans-disciplinary activities, publications, communications, partnerships; 3 - Teaching and research training; 4 - Technical services: electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service; 5 - Laboratory administration; 6 - Communication and scientific mediation (seminars, conferences, exhibitions..)

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  7. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  8. The Musician as (In)Active Athlete?: Exploring the Association Between Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Complaints in Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadjou, Vera A E; Verbunt, Jeanine A M C F; van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D F; Huysmans, Stephanie M D; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2015-12-01

    Musicians are often compared to athletes because of the physical exertion required to play music. The aim of this study was to explore the physical activity level of music students and to study its relationship with musculoskeletal complaints. A second goal was to assess associations between physical activity and pain, quality of life, and disability. This cross-sectional study among third- and fourth-year music students used an electronic survey including measures for physical activity (SQUASH-Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-enhancing physical activity), musculoskeletal complaints (DMQ-Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire), disability (DASH-Disability Arm, Shoulder, Hand questionnaire) and quality of life (Short Form-12). Students were classified as compliers or non-compliers with moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity recommendations. Statistical analysis was done using (non)parametric tests (t-test, Pearson chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test) and correlational testing. Participants were 132 students, 63.6% female, with a median age of 23 yrs (range 21.3-25.0). 67% reported musculoskeletal complaints in the past 7 days. Their median physical activity level was 6,390 MET-min/wk, and 62% and 10% of the students accomplished recommendations for moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity levels, respectively. No significant differences were found in prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between students who met moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity recommendations and students who did not. Physical activity level was not associated with musculoskeletal complaints (r=0.12, p=0.26). Higher pain intensity was associated with a lower quality of life (r=-0.53 pMusic students are mainly involved in light- to moderate-intensity physical activities and rarely in vigorous-intensity activities. No correlation was found between physical activity level in the past months and musculoskeletal complaints in music students.

  9. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. Lastly, we review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  11. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  12. Effects of physical activity and sedentary time on the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Reynolds, Kristi; Sidell, Margo; Brar, Somjot; Ghai, Nirupa R; Sternfeld, Barbara; Jacobsen, Steven J; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Caan, Bette; Quinn, Virginia P

    2014-01-01

    Although the benefits of physical activity for risk of coronary heart disease are well established, less is known about its effects on heart failure (HF). The risk of prolonged sedentary behavior on HF is unknown. The study cohort included 82 695 men aged≥45 years from the California Men's Health Study without prevalent HF who were followed up for 10 years. Physical activity, sedentary time, and behavioral covariates were obtained from questionnaires, and clinical covariates were determined from electronic medical records. Incident HF was identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes recorded in electronic records. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years (646 989 person-years), 3473 men were diagnosed with HF. Controlling for sedentary time, sociodemographics, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, unfavorable lipid levels, body mass index, smoking, and diet, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) of HF in the lowest physical activity category compared with those in the highest category was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.39-1.68). Those in the medium physical activity category were also at increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.29]). Controlling for the same covariates and physical activity, the hazard ratio (95% CI) of HF in the highest sedentary category compared with the lowest was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.21-1.48). Medium sedentary time also conveyed risk (hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.04-1.24]). Results showed similar trends across white and Hispanic subgroups, body mass index categories, baseline hypertension status, and prevalent coronary heart disease. Both physical activity and sedentary time may be appropriate intervention targets for preventing HF.

  13. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-07

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design materials, processes and devices to transform advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics into flexible and stretchable one while retaining their high performance, energy efficiency, ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density, reliability and performance over cost benefit to expand its applications for wearable, implantable and Internet-of-Everything electronics.

  14. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  15. EUROPEAN NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Electron machine quest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, initial thinking on the construction of an electron accelerator for nuclear physics in France resulted in an initial plan for a 4 GeV machine with continuous output at 100 microamps. Subsequently a further study recommended a more ambitious European scheme going beyond 10 GeV

  16. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  17. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  18. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1996-1997 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1996-1997 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Antares, Atlas, CPLear, H1), the training, teaching and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  19. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1989-1991 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1989-1991 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Bugey, CPLear, Delphi, LHC), the teaching and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  20. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1994-1995 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1994-1995 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Atlas, Bugey, CPLear, Delphi, H1, Particle astrophysics), the training, teaching, industrial relations/valorisation and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  1. Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille. 1992-1993 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Center for particle physics of Marseilles (CPPM) is one of the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics of the CNRS which gathers the means of the particle physics studies. The laboratory is a mixed research unit which concerns at the same time the CNRS/IN2P3 and the Aix-Marseille University. The principal role of the laboratory is fundamental research in particle physics which deals with the elementary components of the matter and their interactions; astro-particles physics i.e. observation of the elementary particles in the Universe and in observational cosmology to understand the universe behaviour through the observation and study of supernovas. This document is the 1992-1993 Activity report of the CPPM. It presents the experiments in which the CPPM is involved (Aleph, Atlas, Bugey, CPLear, Delphi), the training, teaching, industrial relations/valorisation and technical activities (electronics, computers and information technology, mechanics), and the list of publications (seminars, conference papers, journal articles, dissertations) of the Centre. A list of internal seminars and of the CPPM staff is attached to the document

  2. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  3. Future directions in electron--ion collision physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, K.J.; Griffin, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary of session on synergistic co-ordination of theory and experiment; synergism between experiment and theory in atomic physics; comparison of theory and experiment for electron-ion excitation and ionization; summary of session on new theoretical and computational methods; new theoretical and computational methods-r-matrix calculations; the coulomb three-body problem: a progress report; summary of session on needs and applications for electron-ion collisional data; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; needs and applications of theoretical data for electron impact excitation; summary of session on relativistic effects, indirect effects, resonance, etc; direct and resonant processes in electron-ion collisions; relativistic calculations of electron impact ionization and dielectronic recombination cross section for highly charged ions; electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation; modified resonance amplitudes with strongly correlated channels; a density-matrix approach to the broadening of spectral lines by autoionization, radiative transitions and electron-ion collisions; towards a time-dependent description of electron-atom/ion collisions two electron systems; and comments on inclusion of the generalized bright interaction in electron impact excitation of highly charged ions

  4. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  5. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  6. Physical Activity Interventions With African American or Latino Men: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Bergner, Erin M; Cornish, Emily K; McQueen, Chelsea M

    2018-07-01

    Relatively little is known about what helps increase physical activity in African American men, and even less is known about promoting physical activity among Latino men. This systematic review aimed to address the key questions: (a) what is the state of the evidence on health-related behavior change interventions targeting physical activity among African American or Latino men? and (b) What factors facilitate physical activity for these men? For this review, nine electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2011-2017 that reported interventions to promote physical activity among African American or Latino men. Following PRISMA guidelines, nine articles representing seven studies that met our criteria were identified: six published studies that provided data for African American men, and one published study provided data for Latino men. Consistent with previous reviews, more research is needed to better understand how gender can be incorporated in physical activity interventions for African American and Latino men. Future interventions should explore how being an adult male and a man of color shapes motivations, attitudes, and preferences to be physically active. Studies should consider how race and ethnicity intersect with notions of masculinity, manhood and Machismo to enhance the effectiveness of physical activity interventions for these populations. Despite the health benefits of physical activity, rates of these behaviors remain low among African American and Latino men. It is essential to determine how best to increase the motivation and salience for these men to overcome the obesogenic environments and contexts in which they often live.

  7. Healthy hearts--and the universal benefits of being physically active: physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N; Morris, Jeremy N

    2009-04-01

    Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes. Recent research has extended the earlier findings on activity or fitness and heart disease to a wide variety of health outcomes. We now know that regular physical activity of 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases, preserves health and function (both physical and mental) into old age, and extends longevity. The current challenge is to develop programs and interventions to promote physical activity for all in our increasingly sedentary societies.

  8. Activity of flavonoids through λ sub max and electron cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, V.R.; Sreenivasulu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Flavonoids are widespread groups of natural constituents and present in the drugs in the form of mono or diglycosides. Being physiologically active, flavonoids are important in the field of pharmacological and clinical applications. Not many physical properties of flavonoids have been studied so far excepting UV and NMR studies. This paper deals with the evaluation of electron ionization cross section through λ sub max, a parameter available from UV studies. Electron ionization cross section was primarily conceived to be of use in radiation chemical data, mass spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies. But later attempts to correlate electron ionization cross-section with structural and related parameters prompted the authors to derive an explicit expression relating λ sub max and electron ionization cross-section (Q). The application of this method to correlate Q through λ sub max and interpret the results in terms of chemical activity are discussed

  9. Electron cooling and elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, G.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    This review is devoted to a new method in experimental physics - the electron cooling. This method opens possibilities in storing the intense and highly monochromatic beams of heavy particles and allows to carry out a wide series of experiments of a high luminocity and resolution. The method is based on the beam cooling by an accompanying flux of electrons. The cooling is due to Coulomb collisions of the beam particles with electrons. In the first part the theoretical aspects of the method are considered shortly. The layout of the NAP-M installation with electron cooling and results of successful experiments on cooling the proton beam are given. In the second part the new possibilities are discussed which appear due to application of electron cooling: storing the intense antiproton beams and realization of the proton - antiproton colliding beams, carrying out experiments with the super fine targets in storage rings, experiments with particles and antiparticles at ultimately low energies, storing the polarized antiprotons and other particles, production of antiatoms, antideuton storing, experiments with ion beams

  10. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Evaluate Current Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marszalek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ecological momentary assessment in evaluating physical activity among children, adolescents, and adults. It also determines whether ecological momentary assessment fulfills the criteria of validity, reliability, objectivity, norms, and standardization applied to the tools used for the evaluation of physical activity. Methods. The EBSCO-CINHAL, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, and SPORTDiscuss databases were reviewed in December 2012 for articles associated with EMA. Results. Of the 20 articles examined, half (10 used electronic methods for data collection, although various methods were used, ranging from pen and paper to smartphone applications. Ten studies used objective monitoring equipment. Nineteen studies were performed over 4 days. While the validity of the EMA method was discussed in 18 studies, only four found it to be objective. In all cases, the EMA procedures were precisely documented and confirmed to be feasible. Conclusions. Ecological momentary assessment is a valid, reliable, and feasible approach to evaluate activity and sedentary behavior. Researchers should be aware that while ecological momentary assessment offers many benefits, it simultaneously imposes many limitations which should be considered when studying physical activity.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  13. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  15. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  16. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  17. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  18. Motivation for physical activity of psychiatric patients when physical activity was offered as part of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined motivation variables, self-determination and self-schema, in relation to physical activity, among psychiatric patients with experience with physical activity as part of their treatment. Participants were patients (N=109) from 15 psychiatric hospitals or day-care institutions. Data were collected by questionnaires. A positive relationship between physical activity level, positive experiences of the activity and higher degree of self-determination and exercise self-schema was expected. Intrinsically regulated motives (motivated by the experience of the activity in itself) were positively and significantly related to physical activity level and the experience of decrease in symptoms during physical activity, and extrinsically regulated motives were negatively correlated with physical activity level. Intrinsically regulated motives gave an odds ratio of 20.0 for being physically active rather than inactive. Holding an exercise self-schema gave an odds ratio of 6.1 for being physically active. The majority of the patients (57.4%) reported that physical activity decreased their illness symptoms, but a few (11.9%) reported negative effects. The findings demonstrated that psychiatric patients do not differ from the normal population in relation to motivational mechanisms, even if they may experience more barriers to physical activities because of their illness. Therefore, in trying to motivate psychiatric patients, it is important to make physical activity as intrinsically motivating as possible by focusing on the positive experiences of the activity itself, as well as helping to develop an exercise self-schema.

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p

  20. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo, Jaakkola; Sami, Yli-Piipari; Anthony, Watt; Jarmo, Liukkonen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents' perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE during their first year at middle school (Grade 7), and their PA engagement during their last year in high school (Grade 12). A sample of 333 students (200 girls, 133 boys; M age=12.41, years, SD=.27) participated in the study. Perceived physical competence in physical activity was assessed by the sport competence dimension of the Physical Self-Perception Profile, autonomous motivation in PE was assessed by the Sport Motivation Scale and enjoyment in PE by the Sport Enjoyment Scale. Students' self-reported metabolic equivalent (MET) and PA intensity (light [LPA], moderate [MPA], vigorous [VPA]) was calculated from the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity significantly predicted total METs (β=.28), MPA (β=.18) and VPA (β=.29) six years later. Autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE at Grade 7, however, were not significant predictors of later PA. The results of this study support the proposition that self-perception of an individual's abilities arising from interactions with the environment related to PA during early puberty has an influential effect on later PA behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Reece

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  2. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  3. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1996-1997 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Physics at LEP; 3 - Experiments preparation for the LHC; 4 - Hadronic and nuclear matter; 5 - Astro-particles; 6 - Theoretical physics; 7 - Ions/clusters-matter and physics-chemistry of ion-solids interaction; 8 - Technical services (electronics, Mechanics, Computers, Accelerators, experiments support, radiation protection, health and safety, administration, documentation); 9 - IPNL's scientific life (Training, PhDs, publications, conferences, reports, seminars, staff)

  4. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2002-2003 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks and Leptons; Astro-particles; Hadronic matter; Nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Accelerators, Instrumentation, Radiation protection, LABRADOR metrology service, Administration); 3 - Transverse activities (Training, Science and society, Communication, Documentation); 4 - Scientific life (Scientific production, participation to scientific bodies); 5 - Manpower (Permanent training, Staff)

  5. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2004-2005 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks and Leptons; Astro-particles; Hadronic and nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Radiation protection, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service, Administration); 3 - Transverse activities (Training, Science and society, Communication, Documentation); 4 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..); 5 - Manpower (Permanent training, Staff)

  6. National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...

  7. Thermodynamics, Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Askerov, Bahram M

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.

  8. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  9. Physics results with polarized electrons at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1996-03-01

    Polarized electron beams can play an important role in the dynamics of interactions at high energies. Polarized electron beams at SLAC have been an important part of the physics program since 1970, when they were first proposed for use in testing the spin structure of the proton. Since 1992, the SLAC linear accelerator and the SLC have operated solely with polarized electrons, providing data for tests of QCD in studies of the spin structure of the nucleon and tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. In the following sections, the performance of the source is summarized, and some of the recent results using the polarized beams are discussed

  10. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  11. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Reynald; Guy, Julien; Toussenel, Francois; Laforge, Bertrand; Levy, Jean-Michel; Cossin, Isabelle; Cardot, Violaine

    2011-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2008-2009: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Highlights; 3 - Research: Masses and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Matter-antimatter asymmetry; Dark matter and dark energy; Cosmic radiation nature and origin; Interdisciplinary activities; Publications, communications; Partnerships; 2 - Teaching, training, internships and PhDs; 3 - Competences and technical realisations (electronics and instrumentation, computers, mechanics departments, test facilities); 4 - Laboratory operation (organisation, financial and human resources, permanent training, communication and library, health and safety, general services, staff); 5 - Scientific life and communication (seminars, meetings..)

  12. Expectations Regarding Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Aili I.; Watts, Amber S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined how expectations regarding aging (ERA) influence physical activity participation and physical function. Method: We surveyed 148 older adults about their ERA (ERA-38), health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), and self-rated health (RAND-36). We tested the mediating effect of physical activity on the relationships between ERA and physical function. Results: Positive expectations were associated with more engagement in physical activity (B = 0.016, p physical function (B = 0.521, p Physical activity mediated the relationship between ERA and physical function (B = 5.890, p physically active lifestyles in older adults and may influence health outcomes, such as physical function. Future research should evaluate whether attempts to increase physical activity are more successful when modifications to ERA are also targeted. PMID:28491915

  13. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  14. Physical Environment Correlates of Physical Activity in Developing Countries: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2018-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are considered problems of wealthy, developed countries. These conditions are rising dramatically in developing countries. Most existing research on the role of the physical environment to support physical activity examines developed countries only. This review identifies physical environment factors that are associated with physical activity in developing countries. This review is modeled on a highly cited review by Saelens and Handy in 2008. The current review analyzes findings from 159 empirical studies in the 138 developing countries. Results discuss the association of physical environment features and physical activity for all developing countries and identify the patterns within regions. The review supports the association of traffic safety with physical activity for transportation. Rural (vs urban) residence, distance to nonresidential land uses, and "composite" features of the physical environment are associated with general physical activity. Rural (vs urban) residence is associated with physical activity for work. More research is needed on associations between the physical environment and physical activity in developing countries. Research should identify specific physical environment features in urban areas that are associated with higher activity levels.

  15. Relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Cox, Cheryl; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland W

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with RA enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity. Data included patients' self-reported beliefs that physical activity can be beneficial for their disease, motivation for physical activity participation, worries about physical activity participation, and average daily accelerometer counts of activity over a week's time. Body mass index (BMI), sex, age, race, and disease activity were measured as potential statistical moderators of physical activity. Physical activity participation was greater for those with higher scores on scales measuring beliefs that physical activity is beneficial for their disease (P for trend = 0.032) and motivation for physical activity participation (P for trend = 0.007) when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, race, and disease activity. There was a positive but nonsignificant trend in physical activity participation in relation to worries. Stronger beliefs that physical activity can be helpful for managing disease and increased motivation to engage in physical activity are related to higher levels of physical activity participation. These data provide a preliminary empirical rationale for why interventions targeting these concepts should lead to improved physical activity participation in adults with RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  17. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  19. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  20. Quantum electronics for atomic physics and telecommunication

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren G

    2014-01-01

    Nagourney provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas (including telecommunications). The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, optical cavities, lasers, non-linear optics, modulation techniques and fibre optics, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics, such as the enhancement of non-linear processes in a build-up cavity or periodically poled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity and astigmatism in ring cavities.

  1. The Dynamic Family Home: a qualitative exploration of physical environmental influences on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-12-24

    Recent changes in home physical environments, such as decreasing outdoor space and increasing electronic media, may negatively affect health by facilitating sedentariness and reducing physical activity. As children spend much of their time at home they are particularly vulnerable. This study qualitatively explored family perceptions of physical environmental influences on sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space. Home based interviews were conducted with 28 families with children aged 9-13 years (total n = 74 individuals), living in Perth, Australia. Families were stratified by socioeconomic status and selected to provide variation in housing. Qualitative methods included a family interview, observation and home tour where families guided the researcher through their home, enabling discussion while in the physical home space. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Emergent themes related to children's sedentariness and physical activity included overall size, space and design of the home; allocation of home space; equipment within the home space; perceived safety of the home space; and the changing nature of the home space. Families reported that children's activity options were limited when houses and yards were small. In larger homes, multiple indoor living rooms usually housed additional sedentary entertainment options, although parents reported that open plan home layouts could facilitate monitoring of children's electronic media use. Most families reported changing the allocation and contents of their home space in response to changing priorities and circumstances. The physical home environment can enhance or limit opportunities for children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity. However, the home space is a dynamic ecological setting that is amenable to change and is largely shaped by the family living within it, thus differentiating it from other settings. While size and space were considered

  2. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  3. Temporal dynamics of physical activity and affect in depressed and nondepressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Booij, Sanne H; Roest, Annelieke M; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bos, Elisabeth H

    2015-12-01

    The association between physical activity and affect found in longitudinal observational studies is generally small to moderate. It is unknown how this association generalizes to individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate interindividual differences in the bidirectional dynamic relationship between physical activity and affect, in depressed and nondepressed individuals, using time-series analysis. A pair-matched sample of 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed participants (mean age = 36.6, SD = 8.9, 30% males) wore accelerometers and completed electronic questionnaires 3 times a day for 30 days. Physical activity was operationalized as the total energy expenditure (EE) per day segment (i.e., 6 hr). The multivariate time series (T = 90) of every individual were analyzed using vector autoregressive modeling (VAR), with the aim to assess direct as well as lagged (i.e., over 1 day) effects of EE on positive and negative affect, and vice versa. Large interindividual differences in the strength, direction and temporal aspects of the relationship between physical activity and positive and negative affect were observed. An exception was the direct (but not the lagged) effect of physical activity on positive affect, which was positive in nearly all individuals. This study showed that the association between physical activity and affect varied considerably across individuals. Thus, while at the group level the effect of physical activity on affect may be small, in some individuals the effect may be clinically relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a systematic review of studies published in or after 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauner Annette

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, obesity increases the risk for several health disorders. In turn, many factors including genetic variations and environmental influences (e.g. physical activity increase the risk of obesity. For instance, 25 to 40 percent of people inherit a predisposition for a high body mass index (BMI. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize current cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents and to identify mediator and moderator effects by evaluating the interaction between these three parameters. Methods The electronic academic databases PubMed, SportDiscus, WEB OF KNOWLEDGE and Ovid were searched for studies on physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents aged 11 to 19 years (cross-sectional studies and in adolescents up to 23 years old (longitudinal studies published in English in or after 2000. Results Twelve cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies were included. Only four studies analyzed the interaction among physical activity, fitness and overweight in adolescents and reported inconsistent results. All other studies analyzed the relationship between either physical activity and overweight, or between fitness and overweight. Overweight—here including obesity—was inversely related to physical activity. Similarly, all studies reported inverse relations between physical fitness and overweight. Mediator and moderator effects were detected in the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity. Overall, a distinction of excessive body weight as cause or effect of low levels of physical activity and fitness is lacking. Conclusions The small number of studies on the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies that would reveal 1 the causality between physical activity and overweight / fitness and overweight and 2 the causal

  5. Kinetic Alfven waves and electron physics. II. Oblique slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Winske, D.; Daughton, W.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC; kinetic ions and electrons) and hybrid (kinetic ions; adiabatic and massless fluid electrons) simulations of highly oblique slow shocks (θ Bn =84 deg. and β=0.1) [Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09217 (2005)] have shown that the dissipation from the ions is too weak to form a shock and that kinetic electron physics is required. The PIC simulations also showed that the downstream electron temperature becomes anisotropic (T e parallel )>T e perpendicular ), as observed in slow shocks in space. The electron anisotropy results, in part, from the electron acceleration/heating by parallel electric fields of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) excited by ion-ion streaming, which cannot be modeled accurately in hybrid simulations. In the shock ramp, spiky structures occur in density and electron parallel temperature, where the ion parallel temperature decreases due to the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed. In this paper, KAW and electron physics in oblique slow shocks are further examined under lower electron beta conditions. It is found that as the electron beta is reduced, the resonant interaction between electrons and the wave parallel electric fields shifts to the tail of the electron velocity distribution, providing more efficient parallel heating. As a consequence, for β e =0.02, the electron physics is shown to influence the formation of a θ Bn =75 deg. shock. Electron effects are further enhanced at a more oblique shock angle (θ Bn =84 deg.) when both the growth rate and the range of unstable modes on the KAW branch increase. Small-scale electron and ion phase-space vortices in the shock ramp formed by electron-KAW interactions and the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed, respectively, are observed in the simulations and confirmed in homogeneous geometries in one and two spatial dimensions in the accompanying paper [Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 062104 (2007)]. Results from this study

  6. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  7. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...... and place experiences; lack of play facilities; outdoor play policy; use of electronic devices; recess duration; organised activities; and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The findings speak for implementing a combination...

  8. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...

  9. Technical Training: ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Summer Term (May 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme, in an extended format of the successful ELEC-2002 course series.This comprehensive course series is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. ELEC-2005 is composed of four Terms. The last two Terms will run with the following schedule: Summer Term: System electronics for physics: Issues (May, 7 lectures) - now open for registration Autumn Term: Electronics applications in HEP experiments (November-December, 10 lectures) Lectures within each Term will take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 10h00 to 12h30. The course will be in English, with questions and answers also possible in French. Separate registrati...

  10. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  15. Physical activity in advanced cancer patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sonya S; Tan, Maria; Faily, Joan; Watanabe, Sharon M; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-03-11

    Progressive, incurable cancer is associated with increased fatigue, increased muscle weakness, and reduced physical functioning, all of which negatively impact quality of life. Physical activity has demonstrated benefits on cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients; however, its impact on these outcomes in end-stage cancer has not been established. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the potential benefits, harms, and effects of physical activity interventions on quality of life outcomes in advanced cancer patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on physical activity in advanced cancer patients will be undertaken. Empirical quantitative studies will be considered for inclusion if they present interventional or observational data on physical activity in advanced cancer patients. Searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases: CINAHL; CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); EMBASE; MEDLINE; PEDro: the Physiotherapy Evidence Database; PQDT; PsycInfo; PubMed; REHABDATA; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; and Web of Science, to identify relevant studies of interest. Additional strategies to identify relevant studies will include citation searches and evaluation of reference lists of included articles. Titles, abstracts, and keywords of identified studies from the search strategies will be screened for inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers will conduct quality appraisal using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP) and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A descriptive summary of included studies will describe the study designs, participant and activity characteristics, and objective and patient-reported outcomes. This systematic review will summarize the current

  16. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  17. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2008-2009 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - Hadronic and nuclear matter; 5 - Theoretical physics; 6 - Radiation sciences; 7 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 8 - Laboratory administration; 9 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  18. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 1992-1993 years: 1 - Quarks and Leptons; 2 - Hadronic matter; 3 - Hadrons and Astro-particles; 4 - Theoretical physics; 5 - Ions/clusters-matter; 6 - Surface treatment/characterization; 7 - R and D, Instrumentation; 8 - Technical services (Accelerators, Computers, electronics, Mechanics); 9 - Training, communication; 10 - PhDs, publications, conferences, reports; 11 - Conference papers, lectures, seminars

  19. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  20. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2006-2007 years: 1 - Research topics: Quarks, Leptons and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Astro-particles; Hadronic and nuclear matter; Theoretical physics; trans-disciplinary activities; 2 - Technical support to experiments (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service); 3 - Research support (administration, documentation, partnership and valorisation, quality assurance, permanent training, open university); 4 - Scientific life (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..)

  1. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartoire, M.; Flores, S.; Hernaus, Z.; Jarroux-Declais, D.; Kibler, M.; Martin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2000-2001 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - High-density hadronic matter; 5 - Nuclear matter; 6 - Theoretical physics; 7 - pluri-disciplinary activities; 8 - Technical services (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, experiments support, radiation protection, health and safety, administration); 9 - Training, communication, documentation; 10 - Scientific production (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..); 11 - Staff and visitors; 12 - Organigram

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  3. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  4. Validation of the Physical Activity Scale for individuals with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; L'Ortye, Annemiek A; Buffart, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Nooijen, Carla F; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes B

    2011-06-01

    To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability. Cross-sectional. Participants' home environment. Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124). Not applicable. Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor. Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean ± SD, 3.9±2.9 vs 1.5±0.9h/d; PPASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  6. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Recommendations for Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiangli; Zhang, Tao; Keller, Jean; Chen, Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) aim to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles among school-age children and adolescents. Physical educators are highly qualified individuals taking on the role of certified physical activity leaders. Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs should consider preparing…

  7. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  8. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  9. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  10. Electronic collection of solved physics problems to encourage students’ active approach (not only to self study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupilová, Zdeňka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of Fully Solved Problems aimed at introductory undergraduate and high school level students. The collection is specially designed to encourage students in an active approach to problem solving, e.g. to solve at least some parts of a problem on their own. Nowadays the Collection contains about 800 fully solved problems in physics in Czech and nearly 180 problems in English. It has several hundreds of unique visitors per school day. Based on user feedback, the collection is used by students mainly for their home study and by teachers as a supplementary material. The creation of the structured solution of the physics problems has proved to be a beneficial activity for prospective physics teachers (students of our department).

  11. Physically active families - de-bunking the myth? A qualitative study of family participation in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L; Jago, R; Brockman, R; Cartwright, K; Page, A S; Fox, K R

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of physical activity for reducing obesity and related chronic diseases are well known. The need for more family-based interventions to increase physical activity is frequently cited in the literature; however, little is known about if and how families are physically active together, and what factors might influence family-based participation in regular physical activity. This study examined the types of activities (physical and sedentary) engaged in as a family and explored parents' perceptions of the importance, frequency, nature and barriers to family physical activity. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 30 parents (26 female, four male) of 10- to 11-year-old schoolchildren who attended either low, middle or high socio-economic status schools in Bristol, UK. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, anonymized and analysed using conventional content analysis. The majority of parents rated family engagement in physical activity as important, and identified benefits such as increased parent-child communication, spending time together, enjoyment, enhanced mental health, weight control and physical fitness. Despite these benefits most parents reported their families did little or no physical activity together as a family unit during the week, and any activities performed together were usually sedentary in nature. They reported increased family physical activity on the weekends but rarely including the full family unit simultaneously. Parents in two-parent households commonly paired off with one or more children because of complexities of schedules. Commonly reported barriers were busy lifestyles, diverse ages and interests of children and adults, bad weather, and lack of access to facilities, transportation and money to support activities. Family-based interventions might be more effective if they are designed to accommodate the complex demands and needs of two-parent and single-parent families and provide affordable, diverse activities

  12. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  13. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  14. Interactive multimodal ambulatory monitoring to investigate the association between physical activity and affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich W. Ebner-Priemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a wealth of evidence that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, a large proportion of people are inactive. Data regarding counts, steps, and movement patterns are limited in their ability to explain why people remain inactive. We propose that multimodal ambulatory monitoring, which combines the assessment of physical activity with the assessment of psychological variables, helps to elucidate real world physical activity. Whereas physical activity can be monitored continuously, psychological variables can only be assessed at discrete intervals, such as every hour. Moreover, the assessment of psychological variables must be linked to the activity of interest. For example, if an inactive and overweight person is physically active once a week, psychological variables should be assessed during this episode. Linking the assessment of psychological variables to episodes of an activity of interest can be achieved with interactive monitoring. The primary aim of our interactive multimodal ambulatory monitoring approach was to intentionally increase the number of e-diary assessments during active episodes.We developed and tested an interactive monitoring algorithm that continuously monitors physical activity in everyday life. When predefined thresholds are surpassed, the algorithm triggers a signal for participants to answer questions in their electronic diary.Using data from 70 participants wearing an accelerative device for 24 hours each, we found that our algorithm quadrupled the frequency of e-diary assessments during the activity episodes of interest compared to random sampling. Multimodal interactive ambulatory monitoring appears to be a promising approach to enhancing our understanding of real world physical activity and movement.

  15. Perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity: two primary-care physical activity prescription programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Asmita; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S; Keogh J, W L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

  16. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  17. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  18. DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING SCHOOL RECESS COMBINING MEASUREMENTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CHILDREN’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez Bogantes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine physical activity levels of children during school recess, taking into account children’s perceptions as well as observations during recess. A mixed method was used, including the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY and focus groups. Participants included students from 3 public schools with regular and alternating schedules, who were observed during their school breaks. In addition, focus groups were held and descriptive statistics were used.  A factorial variance test (2x2 was also used to determine if there were differences between levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity among school types. Results of focus groups were organized into categories. Students exhibited 47.98 sedentary activity and 52.02 moderate-vigorous physical activity during school recess, with girls being more sedentary than boys. Students with an alternating schedule are more active than those with a regular schedule. Participants perceived reduced space to play and little support from teachers as barriers to do physical activity. In conclusion, this study showed that a little over 50% of students perform physical activity during school recess, with children in alternating schedules being more active than those with a regular schedule. Participants perceive that school environment does not favor physical activity, due to environmental barriers. Based on the results of this study, physical activity should be promoted during school recess, taking into consideration barriers in natural, social, physical, and organizational environments.

  19. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  20. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  1. Momentary assessment of adults’ physical activity and sedentary behavior: Feasibility and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fridlund Dunton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect real-time data from large numbers of people. Research tested the feasibility and validity of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA self-report protocol using electronic surveys on mobile phones to assess adults’ physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods: Adults (N = 110 (73% female, 30% Hispanic, 62% overweight/obese completed a four-day signal-contingent EMA protocol (Sat. - Tues. with eight surveys randomly spaced throughout each day. EMA items assessed current activity (e.g., Watching TV/Movies, Reading/Computer, Physical Activity/Exercise. EMA responses were time-matched to minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary activity (SA measured by accelerometer immediately before and after each EMA prompt. Results: Unanswered EMA prompts had greater MVPA (±15 min. than answered EMA prompts (p = .029 for under/normal weight participants, indicating that activity level might influence the likelihood of responding. The 15-min. intervals before vs. after the EMA-reported physical activity (n = 296 occasions did not differ in MVPA (p > .05, suggesting that prompting did not disrupt physical activity. SA decreased after EMA-reported sedentary behavior (n = 904 occasions (p < .05 for overweight and obese participants. As compared with other activities, EMA-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior had significantly greater MVPA and SA, respectively, in the ±15 minutes of the EMA prompt (p’s < .001, providing evidence for criterion validity. Conclusions: Findings generally support the acceptability and validity of a four-day signal contingent EMA protocol using mobile phones to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults. However, some MVPA may be missed among underweight and normal weight individuals, and EMA may disrupt sedentary behavior among overweight/obese individuals.

  2. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  3. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  4. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  5. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  6. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  7. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  8. Electronic Instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452332

    The present dissertation describes design, qualification and operation of several electronic instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics experiments (LHCb) and Neutrino Physics experiments (CUORE and CUPID). Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity and several of its detectors will be redesigned. The RICH detector will require a completely new optoelectronic readout system. The development of such system has already reached an advanced phase, and several tests at particle beam facilities allowed to qualify the performance of the entire system. In order to achieve a higher stability and a better power supply regulation for the front-end chip, a rad-hard low dropout linear regulator, named ALDO, has been developed. Design strategies, performance tests and results from the irradiation campaign are presented. In the Neutrino Physics field, large-scale bolometric detectors, like those adopted by CUORE and its future upgrade CUPID, offer u...

  9. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  10. [Physical activity and healthy eating in Brazilian students: a review of intervention programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Evanice Avelino de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Nogueira, Júlia Aparecida Devidé; Azevedo Júnior, Mario Renato de

    2011-08-01

    This article provides a systematic literature review on physical activity and/or healthy eating interventions among Brazilian students. Complete articles published from 2004 to 2009 were searched in the SciELO, MEDLINE, and CAPES electronic databases, in the articles' references, and through contacts with authors. Six studies covered nutritional interventions, another six analyzed nutrition and physical activity, and one discussed changes in body composition. Interventions produced different results according to their objectives: increase in weekly physical activity; improvement in eating habits and knowledge on nutrition; and decrease in overweight and obesity. School health promotion programs are essential for raising awareness on the relevance of health promotion and the adoption of healthy habits. However, further longitudinal studies are needed to produce evidence on sustainability of programs and healthy habits.

  11. Change in physical education motivation and physical activity behavior during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E; Smith, Alan L; Williams, Lavon

    2008-11-01

    To test a mediational model of the relationships among motivation-related variables in middle-school physical education and leisure-time physical activity behavior. Sixth- and seventh-grade physical education students from five middle schools in the midwest United States completed a survey containing measures of study variables on two occasions, 1 year apart. Motivation-related constructs positively predicted leisure-time physical activity behavior. Enjoyment of activities in physical education and physical activity during class mediated the relationship between self-determined motivation in physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness were important antecedent variables in the model, with autonomy and relatedness showing less stability over time and positively predicting self-determined motivation. Students' leisure-time physical activity is linked to motivation-related experiences in physical education. Perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness, self-determined motivation, enjoyment, and physical activity in the physical education setting directly or indirectly predict leisure-time physical activity. The associations suggest that more adaptive motivation corresponds to transfer of behavior across contexts. Also, the findings suggest that the efficacy of school-based physical activity interventions, within and outside of school, is linked to the degree of support for students' self-determined motivation.

  12. Outside-school physical activity participation and motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Experience in non-school contexts can shape and reshape students' motivation and mediate their learning in school. Outside-school physical activity may provide students with an extensive cognitive and affective foundation and influence their motivation in physical education. Although a trans-contextual effect of physical education has been explored, very little empirical research has examined the impact from outside-school context to physical education. Using self-determination theory and a hierarchical model of motivation, this study was designed to examine the association between participation in organized outside-school physical activity programmes and self-determination process in physical education. Participants included 545 9th graders (305 males and 240 females, age range = 14-16 years, mean age = 14.66 years) enrolled in required physical education classes in three suburban high schools in a large Midwest metropolitan area in the United States. Self-determination variables were measured using relevant instruments, and information on organized outside-school physical activity experiences was gathered in a survey. Structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. Students who participated in organized outside-school physical activity programmes displayed overall higher motivation; however, the strength of associations among the self-determination variables (i.e., pathways from perceived autonomy support to relatedness, from autonomy to competence, and from self-determined motivation to in-class physical activity engagement) was stronger for their non-participant counterparts. There are dynamic relationships between participation in organized outside-school physical activity programmes and self-determination process in physical education. Physical educators need to identify, appreciate, and instructionally address individual students' differences during teaching and learning. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities.......g. Biesta, 2010; Standal, 2015) I will argue that the focus on learning outcome and effects on physical activity has gone too far in order to reach the objectives. If the notion of ‘keeping pupils physically active’ is understood as a representation of the core quality of physical activity, it seems...

  14. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  15. Influence of Physical Activities to Science Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Wilson DR. Constantino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical activities of fifth and sixth graders that projected correlations to science performance and how these physical activities may be utilized for classroom purposes in the context of science-related play activities. Descriptive survey correlational design directed the data collection and analysis of the physical activities of purposively selected 133 fifth and sixth graders. Primarily, the study used a researcher-developed and validated instrument (Physical Activity Questionnaire [PAQ], and standard instruments: Philippine National Physical Activity Guide (PNPAG and General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. The latter classified the physical activities into five domains which directed the interpretation of the participants‟ responses. The Pearson-r Moment of Correlation described the level of correlation of the frequency of engagement to physical activities (limited to local and localized activities and the science grade of the respondents. Results show that each of the physical activity domains showed specific correlations to science performance of the respondents. For further research, enrichment of the relationship of the physical activities and the science performance may focus on possible moderating variables like economic status, and time allotment for physical activities.

  16. Obesity and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradinuk, Mia; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Goldman, Ran D

    2011-07-01

    What advice should I give parents of overweight children about physical activity? How can we encourage these children to become more physically active? The Canadian Paediatrics Society 2002 position statement on healthy living for children and youth, which is currently being revised, recommends that physicians advise children and adolescents to increase the time they spend on physical activities by at least 30 minutes a day, with at least 10 minutes involving vigorous activities, and that goals should be reset to reach at least 90 minutes a day of total physical activity. The extent to which children and youth are physically active is influenced by a multitude of complex, interrelated factors. Addressing physical inactivity and its contribution to childhood obesity requires a comprehensive and holistic approach.

  17. Electronic collection of solved physics problems to encourage students’ active approach (not only to self study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koupilová, Zdeňka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of Fully Solved Problems aimed at introductory undergraduate and high school level students. The collection is specially designed to encourage students in an active approach to problem solving, e.g. to solve at least some parts of a problem on their own. Nowadays the Collection contains about 800 fully solved problems in physics in Czech and nearly 180 problems in English. It has several hundreds of unique visitors per school day. Based on user feedback, the collection is used by students mainly for their home study and by teachers as a supplementary material. The creation of the structured solution of the physics problems has proved to be a beneficial activity for prospective physics teachers (students of our department). (paper)

  18. [Senior citizen's physical activity and welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria da Silva; Chaves Maia, Eulália M

    2009-01-01

    This work analysed senior citizens' perception of needs and social values involved in taking physical activity for their own benefit. This study's main aim was to investigate social representations of 3rd age physical activity. This was a cross-sectional, interdisciplinary qualitative study, underpinned by theoretical-methodological social representation theory. A convenience, non-probabilistic, census-dependent method was used for obtaining the sam-ple of 62 people aged 50 to 78 from north-eastern Brazil. The data were collected by using the free word association technique and analysed by EVOC/2000 software. Analysing the replies led to three types of elements being identified which were related to the social representation of physical activity as attributed by the elderly: a psychological dimension (represented by happiness, well-being), a social dimension (dancing) and a biophysical dimension (gymnastics, water-gymnastics and health). The term 'happiness' stood out most in the word recall tests. When relating old age to the sample's social representation of physical activity, the study showed that physical activity assumed a preponderant role in the life of the elderly through cyclical appreciation-depreciation, social representation simultaneously and gradually acquiring 'life having more health and quality' from social representation. The subjects reported a positive association between physical activity, social interaction and well-being. The elderly also believed in physical activity's effects on physical-motor aspects and health. The social representation of physical activity by the group being studied was close to the physical activity's biopsychosocial dimension.

  19. Technical Training: ELEC-2005 - Electronics in High Energy Physics: Summer Term (May 2005)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    ELEC-2005 is a new course series on modern electronics, given by CERN physicists and engineers within the framework of the 2005 Technical Training Programme. It is designed for people who are not electronics specialists, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory, who use or will use electronics in their present or future activities, in particular in the context of the LHC accelerator and experiments. The next ELEC-2005 Summer Term, System electronics for physics: Issues, is now open for online registration, and will start on May 10th. Lectures will take place on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 10h00 to 12h30. The course will be in English, with questions and answers also possible in French. Separate registration to each Term is required: attendance costs will be of 10.- CHF per lecture (Summer Term: 70.- CHF). If you are interested in attending, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH. Participation to all sessions in a...

  20. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  1. Weekday and weekend sedentary time and physical activity in differentially active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Boddy, Lynne M; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Ramirez-Rico, Elena

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether weekday-weekend differences in sedentary time and specific intensities of physical activity exist among children categorised by physical activity levels. Cross-sectional observational study. Seven-day accelerometer data were obtained from 810 English children (n=420 girls) aged 10-11 years. Daily average minday(-1) spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity were calculated for each child. Sex-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity quartile cut-off values categorised boys and girls separately into four graded groups representing the least (Q1) through to the most active (Q4) children. Sex- and activity quartile-specific multilevel linear regression analyses analysed differences in sedentary time, light physical activity, moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity between weekdays and weekends. On weekdays Q2 boys spent longer in light physical activity (pboys (pphysical activity, and Q1-Q3 boys accumulated significantly more vigorous physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity than at weekends. There were no significant differences in weekday and weekend sedentary time or physical activity for Q4 boys. On weekdays Q2 and Q3 girls accumulated more sedentary time (pgirls did significantly more moderate physical activity (pgirls engaged in more vigorous physical activity (pphysical activity (pgirls' sedentary time and physical activity varied little between weekdays and weekends. The most active children maintained their sedentary time and physical activity levels at weekends, while among less active peers weekend sedentary time and physical activity at all intensities was lower. Low active children may benefit most from weekend intervention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... are more physically active have lower levels of body fat than those who are less active. Active behaviours have been displaced by more sedentary pursuits which have contributed to reductions in physical activity energy expenditure. Without appropriate activity engagement there is an increased likelihood...

  3. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  4. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  5. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  6. Physical design of the positron induced auger electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xiubo; Jiang Xiaopan; Wang Ping; Yu Runsheng; Wang Baoyi; Wei Long

    2009-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) has several advantages over those excited by X-rays, high energy electrons or neutrons, such as excellent surface selectivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, low radiation damage,etc. A physical design of time of flight PAES (TOF-PAES) apparatus based on the Beijing Intense Slow Positron Beam (BIPB) is described in this paper. The positrons and electrons are transported in a 4 x 10 -3 T uniform magnetic field, and the gradient of magnetic field is designed to pluralize the Auger electrons emitted with 2π angle. The Auger electron energy is adjusted by a Faraday cage to optimize the energy resolution,which can be better than 2 eV. (authors)

  7. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  8. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  9. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  10. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. July 2005 - June 2007 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the July 2005 - June 2007 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Physics Research (Medical and industrial applications, Back-end of Nuclear waste management, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature, Theoretical physics and phenomenology, Nuclear structure); 2 - Technical and administrative activities (Administration, technical design and mechanics, electronics and detectors, computers and information technology, library, health and safety); 3 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, seminars, valorisation, publications, books, conferences and scientific meetings); 4 - General information (glossary, organigram, permanent staff, research fellows)

  11. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. July 2003 - June 2005 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the July 2003 - June 2005 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Physics Research (Medical and industrial applications, Back-end of the fuel cycle, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature, Theoretical physics and phenomenology, Nuclear structure); 2 - Technical and administrative activities (Administration, technical design and mechanics, electronics and detectors, computers and information technology, library, health and safety); 3 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, seminars, valorisation, publications, books, conferences and scientific meetings); 4 - General information (glossary, organigram, permanent staff, research fellows)

  12. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Min: 5/ ... D. Chair, NAEPP School Subcommittee Working Group on Physical Activity and School American Medical Association Karen Huss, Ph. ...

  13. A systematic review of perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sarah; Sniehotta, Falko F; van Wijck, Frederike; Greig, Carolyn A; Johnston, Marie; McMurdo, Marion E T; Dennis, Martin; Mead, Gillian E

    2013-07-01

    Physical fitness is impaired after stroke, may contribute to disability, yet is amenable to improvement through regular physical activity. To facilitate uptake and maintenance of physical activity, it is essential to understand stroke survivors' perceived barriers and motivators. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review of perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after stroke. Electronic searches of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and PsychInfo were performed. We included peer-reviewed journal articles, in English, between 1 January 1966 and 30 August 2010 reporting stroke survivors' perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity. Searches identified 73,807 citations of which 57 full articles were retrieved. Six articles were included, providing data on 174 stroke survivors (range 10 to 83 per article). Two reported barriers and motivators, two reported only motivators, and two reported only barriers. Five were qualitative articles and one was quantitative. The most commonly reported barriers were lack of motivation, environmental factors (e.g. transport), health concerns, and stroke impairments. The most commonly reported motivators were social support and the need to be able to perform daily tasks. This review has furthered our understanding of the perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after a stroke. This review will enable the development of tailored interventions to target barriers, while building upon perceived motivators to increase and maintain stroke survivors' physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  15. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. July 2007 - December 2009 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the July 2007 - December 2009 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Physics Research: Nuclear physics (Nuclear structure, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, Theoretical physics and phenomenology); interdisciplinary research (Back-end of the fuel cycle, Medical and industrial applications); FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature (NEMO3 and SuperNEMO experiments, β-ν correlations, n-EDM experiment); 2 - Technical and administrative activities (Administration, technical design and mechanics, electronics and microelectronics, computers and information technology, instrumentation, library, projects support and quality, health and safety); 3 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, seminars, valorisation, publications, conferences and scientific meetings); 4 - General information (permanent staff, organigram, research fellows, glossary)

  16. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...... cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors....

  17. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  18. [The bidirectional relationship between physical activity and sleep in depressed versus non-depressed individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Oosterik, N A M; Bouwmans, M E J; de Groot, I W; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P

    Sleep and physical activity are related, but the direction of this relationship is unclear and it is not known whether the direction differs in depressed and non-depressed persons. To study the bidirectional relationship between physical activity and sleep in daily life by making repeated measurements in depressed and non-depressed people. Every day for 30 consecutive days each depressed (N = 27) and non-depressed (N = 27) participant in our study had to complete an electronic questionnaire relating to subjective sleep quality and sleep duration and were required to wear an accelerometer that recorded physical activity. Multi-level analysis showed that an increase in subjective sleep duration resulted in a decrease in physical activity. The differences between individuals with regard to the direction and strength of this relationship were significant. Changes in physical activity did not predict changes in sleep quality or sleep duration. We did not find any differences in the relationships for depressed and non-depressed participants. Change in sleep duration predicts change in physical activity, although there was significant heterogeneity in the results for individuals. Our findings underline the importance of further research and of the development of interventions that are tailored to the precise needs of the individual patient.

  19. Giving children a voice – exploring what quantitative studies can´t tell us about recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    to influence the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability, gender, gendered school culture, peer influence, conflicts and exclusion, space and place experiences, lack of play facilities, outdoor play policy, use of electronic devices, recess duration, organised activities...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess......, and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The participatory approaches were valuable to capture knowledge on the children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...

  20. Self-determined motivation in physical education and its links to motivation for leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and well-being in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagøien, Tor Egil; Halvari, Hallgeir; Nesheim, Hallgeir

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a trans-contextual model based on self-determination theory of the relations between motivation in physical education, motivation in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and psychological well-being. Participants were 329 Norwegian upper secondary school students (M age = 16.5 yr., SD = 0.7). Students' perceptions of autonomy-supportive teachers in physical education were expected to be positively associated with students' psychological needs satisfaction in physical education, which was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation for physical education participation. In turn, autonomous motivation for physical education was expected to be positively associated with perceived competence and autonomous motivation for leisure-time physical activity, which both were expected to be positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in general. Structural equation models and bootstrapping supported the hypotheses and the indirect links between variables. Sex differences indicate that more research is needed on how to motivate girls to be more physically active in leisure time.

  1. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  2. Can a school physical activity intervention improve physical self-perception and enjoyment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Smedegaard, Søren

    Purpose Physical activity at school can improve mental health of all children – especially if it is targeted to children’s needs and executed in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity intervention...... activity in recess. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 Danish schools were randomized to either intervention or control. Study population included 3.136 children aged 10-13 years at baseline. Survey data (socio-demographics, physical activity, self-efficacy, physical enjoyment, physical self...... on physical self-perception and enjoyment of physical activity among children aged 10-13 years. Methods An intervention based on Self-Determination Theory was developed and pilot tested in close co-operation with schools and targeted 1) physical education lessons, 2) in-class activity, and 3) physical...

  3. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  4. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  5. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-06-23

    Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.

  6. Complex evaluation of student‘s physical activity by physical health, physical fitness and body composition parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Šiupšinskas, Laimonas

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity level of students is decreasing. Students are specific population group with similar patterns of habitual physical activity influenced by study process. That formed requirement to search for a new ways to assess physical activity of the students indirectly. Offered method assesses level of physical health, measures physical fitness and evaluates body composition. The aim of the study is to evaluate indirectly measured health-enhanced physical activity of the students by phys...

  7. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Haddock, Christopher K; Jitnarin, Natinee; Hughey, Joseph; Berkel, LaVerne A; Poston, Walker S C

    2017-01-01

    Although few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity. This study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities. Data were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants ( N  = 582; ages 18-74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years) were more likely to be female (69.9%), Caucasian (65.6%), married (51.7%), and have some college education (72.8%). Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics. Leisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking ( p  = 0.036), moderate ( p  importance on facility quality ( p  = 0.022), variety of physical activity options offered ( p  = 0.003), and availability of special equipment and resources ( p  = 0.01). The facility characteristics of low or free cost ( p  = 0.02) and offering childcare ( p  = 0.028) were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity ( p  = 0.013). Findings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological model as well as for improving existing physical activity facilities.

  8. Urban Adolescents’ Physical Activity Experience, Physical Activity Levels, and Use of Screen-Based Media during Leisure Time: A Structural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the relationship between physical activity and use of screen-based media, two important behaviors associated with adolescents’ health outcomes. To understand this relationship, researchers may need to consider not only physical activity level but also physical activity experience (i.e., affective experience obtained from doing physical activity. Using a sample predominantly consisting of African and Latino American urban adolescents, this study examined the interrelationships between physical activity experience, physical activity level, and use of screen-based media during leisure time. Data collected using self-report, paper and pencil surveys was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that physical activity experience was positively associated with physical activity level and had a direct negative relationship with use of non-active video games for males and a direct negative relationship with use of computer/Internet for both genders, after controlling for physical activity level. Physical activity level did not have a direct relationship with use of non-active video games or computer/Internet. However, physical activity level had a direct negative association with use of TV/movies. This study suggests that physical activity experience may play an important role in promoting physical activity and thwarting use of screen-based media among adolescents.

  9. Urban Adolescents’ Physical Activity Experience, Physical Activity Levels, and Use of Screen-Based Media during Leisure Time: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Scott, Jason L.; Caldwell, Linda L.

    2018-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the relationship between physical activity and use of screen-based media, two important behaviors associated with adolescents’ health outcomes. To understand this relationship, researchers may need to consider not only physical activity level but also physical activity experience (i.e., affective experience obtained from doing physical activity). Using a sample predominantly consisting of African and Latino American urban adolescents, this study examined the interrelationships between physical activity experience, physical activity level, and use of screen-based media during leisure time. Data collected using self-report, paper and pencil surveys was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that physical activity experience was positively associated with physical activity level and had a direct negative relationship with use of non-active video games for males and a direct negative relationship with use of computer/Internet for both genders, after controlling for physical activity level. Physical activity level did not have a direct relationship with use of non-active video games or computer/Internet. However, physical activity level had a direct negative association with use of TV/movies. This study suggests that physical activity experience may play an important role in promoting physical activity and thwarting use of screen-based media among adolescents. PMID:29410634

  10. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  11. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  12. Physical Activity and Physical Function in Individuals Post-bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josbeno, Deborah A.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Sparto, Patrick J.; Otto, Amy D.; Jakicic, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the physical activity behavior of individuals who undergo bariatric surgery will enable the development of effective post-surgical exercise guidelines and interventions to enhance weight loss outcomes. This study characterized the physical activity profile and physical function of 40 subjects 2–5 years post-bariatric surgery and examined the association between physical activity, physical function, and weight loss after surgery. Methods Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with the BodyMedia SenseWear® Pro (SWPro) armband, and physical function (PF) was measured using the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (SF-36PF). Height and weight were measured. Results Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was associated with MVPA (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and PF (r = 0.38, p = 0.02); MVPA was not associated with PF (r = 0.24, p = 0.14). Regression analysis demonstrated that MVPA was associated with %EWL (β = 0.38, t = 2.43, p = 0.02). Subjects who participated in ≥150 min/week of MVPA had a greater %EWL (68.2 ± 19, p = 0.01) than those who participated in activities. However, the lack of an association between PF and MVPA suggests that a higher level of PF does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of MVPA participation. Thus, the barriers to adoption of a more physically active lifestyle may not be fully explained by the subjects’ physical limitations. Further understanding of this relationship is needed for the development of post-surgical weight loss guidelines and interventions. PMID:21153567

  13. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  14. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  15. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity. Group as ... than a higher physical activity level can keep the blood pressure in check in Indian ... Female - PVO2 max = 50.513 + 1.589 (PA-R) –.

  16. Does physical activity impact on presenteeism and other indicators of workplace well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen E; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2011-03-01

    The term 'presenteeism' is a relatively new concept in workplace health, and has come to signify being at work despite poor health and performing below par. Presenteeism, which is potentially critical to employers, has been associated with a range of psychosocial outcome measures, such as poor mental health and employee well-being. Physical activity is a potential strategy for reducing presenteeism, and for improving the mental health of employees. This article reviews evidence on the relationships between physical activity and employee well-being and presenteeism in the workplace, and identifies directions for research in an emerging field. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria. These included 13 intervention trials (8 randomized controlled trials, 5 comparison trials) and 7 observational studies (3 cohort, 4 cross-sectional). Outcome measures were grouped into 'workplace well-being', 'psychosocial well-being' and 'physical well-being'. Studies measured a wide variety of outcomes, with absenteeism being the most commonly assessed. Evidence indicated a positive association between physical activity and psychosocial health in employees, particularly for quality of life and emotional well-being. However, findings were inconclusive as to the role of physical activity in promoting workplace well-being. Only one study reported on presenteeism, with mixed evidence for outcomes. This article indicates that physical activity and employee psychosocial health are positively related, but there is limited evidence of a relationship between physical activity and presenteeism. A standardized definition of presenteeism and an appropriate evaluation tool are key research priorities if the complex relationships between physical activity and workplace well-being are to be better understood. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  18. Transmission electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron­ specimen interactions and image interpretation in transmission electron mic­ roscopy. The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Munster and is a revised version of the first part of my earlier book Elek­ tronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs- und Priiparationsmethoden, omitting the part which describes specimen-preparation methods. In the introductory chapter, the different types of electron microscope are compared, the various electron-specimen interactions and their applications are summarized and the most important aspects of high-resolution, analytical and high-voltage electron microscopy are discussed. The optics of electron lenses is discussed in Chapter 2 in order to bring out electron-lens properties that are important for an understanding of the function of an electron microscope. In Chapter 3, the wave optics of elec­ trons and the phase shifts by electrostatic and magnetic fields are introduced; Fresne...

  19. Scanning electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron­ specimen interactions, imaging modes, the interpretation of micrographs and the use of quantitative modes "in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). lt forms a counterpart to Transmission Electron Microscopy (Vol. 36 of this Springer Series in Optical Sciences) . The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Münster and from a German text entitled Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie (Springer-Verlag), published in collaboration with my colleague Gerhard Pfefferkorn. In the introductory chapter, the principles of the SEM and of electron­ specimen interactions are described, the most important imaging modes and their associated contrast are summarized, and general aspects of eiemental analysis by x-ray and Auger electron emission are discussed. The electron gun and electron optics are discussed in Chap. 2 in order to show how an electron probe of small diameter can be formed, how the elec­ tron beam can be blanked at high fre...

  20. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  1. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  2. Leisure-time physical activity behavior: structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.

  3. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  4. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  5. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline J. M.; van Leeuwen, Ninke; Bossema, Ercolie R.; Kruize, Aike A.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Geenen, Rinie

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjogren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjogren's

  6. Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics - LPC Caen. 2012-2013 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The ENSICAEN (National Graduate School of Engineering) is an internationally renowned, pluri-disciplinary scientific research centre. Six of its seven laboratories are associated with the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS), one of them also benefiting from the French Atomic and Renewable Energies (CEA) supervision. The Corpuscular Physics Laboratory (LPC) covers the following Research themes: Medical and industrial applications; upstream of the nuclear waste processing cycle; nuclear systems dynamics and thermodynamics; fundamental interactions; research on neutrinos; nuclei at the limits of stability; theoretical and phenomenological physics. This document is the 2012-2013 Activity report of the LPC-Caen. It presents the following activities: 1 - Nuclear Physics Research (Nuclear structure, Nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics, Theoretical physics and phenomenology); 2 - Interdisciplinary Research (Nuclear waste management, Medical and industrial applications); 3 - Group 'FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS and Neutrino Nature - GRIFON (Precise correlation measurements in nuclear beta decay, High resolution study of low energy charge exchange collisions with a MOT (magneto-optical trapped) target, Towards a new measurement of the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM), Search for neutrinoless double beta decay); 4 - Technical and administrative activities (technical design, mechanics, electronics and microelectronics, computers and information technology, instrumentation); library, program management and quality, health and safety); 5 - knowledge dissemination (teaching, training, valorisation, communication, conferences and scientific meetings); 6 - General information (permanent staff, organigram, research fellows, glossary)

  7. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  8. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  9. Cardiovascular risk profile: cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schaalma, Herman; Kiers, Henri; Vanhees, Luc

    2010-10-07

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior.In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intensity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An important goal of our study was to

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  11. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  12. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Heinrich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity.PurposeThis study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities.MethodsData were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 582; ages 18–74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years were more likely to be female (69.9%, Caucasian (65.6%, married (51.7%, and have some college education (72.8%. Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics.ResultsLeisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking (p = 0.036, moderate (p < 0.001, and vigorous (p < 0.001 recommendations. Vigorous exercisers were more likely to use a gym/fitness center (p = 0.006 and to place higher importance on facility quality (p = 0.022, variety of physical activity options offered (p = 0.003, and availability of special equipment and resources (p = 0.01. The facility characteristics of low or free cost (p = 0.02 and offering childcare (p = 0.028 were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.013.ConclusionFindings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological

  13. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  14. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIOMETABOLIC MARKERS IN ADOLESCENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo Neves Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The accumulation of body fat is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity can be considered a chronic systemic inflammatory disease in adults and younger people. The control of subclinical inflammation process through the practice of physical activity (PA can mitigate the effects of risk factors that trigger atherosclerosis that worsens with advancing age. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the influence of physical activity and/or exercise on cardiometabolic markers and othrer risk factors of cardiovascular disease in adolescents. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases Scopus, Pubmed, Conchrane Collection and SciELO. The terms used in the search were "cardiovascular diseases AND inflammation AND adolescents AND physical activity OR exercise". A total of 24 original articles were evaluated, being 14 longitudinal and 10 cross-sectional studies. Overall, 16 articles (66.66% showed that PA, exercise and/or sedentary behavior may have influenced or have been related to the concentration of cardiometabolic markers. All studies that examined lifestyle changes showed reduction of cardiometabolic markers. Some limitations were observed: reduced samples, lack of dietary prescription, evaluation and control of volume and intensity of exercise. Most of the studies analyzed showed that the physical activity could influence and decrease the concentrations of cardiometabolic markers in adolescents. However, studies with representative sample size and precise control in assessing the level of physical activity and/or exercise are required to determine accurately the changes that the more active lifestyle can bring on inflammatory process, as well as other risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in adolescents.

  15. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  16. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  17. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  18. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (NZPAQ: A doubly labelled water validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Anthony

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ. The aim of this study was to validate the IPAQ and NZPAQ against doubly labelled water (DLW. Method: Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE was estimated by subtracting the energy expenditure from resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding from TEE. The IPAQ (long form and NZPAQ (short form were completed at the end of each 7-day period. Activity-related energy expenditure (IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE was calculated from each questionnaire and compared to DLWAEE. Results Thirty six adults aged 18 to 56 years (56% female completed all measurements. Compared to DLWAEE, IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE on average underestimated energy expenditure by 27% and 59%, respectively. There was good agreement between DLWAEE and both IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE at lower levels of physical activity. However there was marked underestimation of questionnaire-derived energy expenditure at higher levels of activity. Conclusion Both the IPAQ and NZPAQ instruments have a demonstrated systematic bias toward underestimation of physical activity-related energy expenditure at higher levels of physical activity compared to DLW. Appropriate calibration factors could be used to correct for measurement error in physical activity questionnaires and hence improve estimation of AEE.

  19. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical ...

  20. Activities in nuclear and high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    High energy and nuclear physics research concerning bubble chamber investigations, European hybrid system ACCMOR, WA 18, PETRA, PEP, VA 4, SING, LENA, LEP 3 and DELPHI experiments is summarized. Experiments with electron beams, and in pions and muons physics, and radiochemistry are reported on.

  1. Three-dimensional simulations of free-electron laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, B.D.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate three-dimensional free-electron laser physics. A mathematical formulation of the FEL equations is presented, and the numerical solution of the problem is described. Sample results from the computer code are discussed. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  3. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...

  4. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  5. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  6. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity: a qualitative case study among the least physical active schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-06

    Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11-12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children's physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and

  7. Social capital, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity: A population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between social capital (trust) and leisure-time physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: The 2004 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: In total, 27,757 individuals aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire (59% participation). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between trust, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: ...

  8. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  9. Active transportation and public transportation use to achieve physical activity recommendations? A combined GPS, accelerometer, and mobility survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Kestens, Yan; Duncan, Scott; Merrien, Claire; Thierry, Benoît; Pannier, Bruno; Brondeel, Ruben; Lewin, Antoine; Karusisi, Noëlla; Perchoux, Camille; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie

    2014-09-27

    Accurate information is lacking on the extent of transportation as a source of physical activity, on the physical activity gains from public transportation use, and on the extent to which population shifts in the use of transportation modes could increase the percentage of people reaching official physical activity recommendations. In 2012-2013, 234 participants of the RECORD GPS Study (French Paris region, median age = 58) wore a portable GPS receiver and an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and completed a 7-day GPS-based mobility survey (participation rate = 57.1%). Information on transportation modes and accelerometry data aggregated at the trip level [number of steps taken, energy expended, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time] were available for 7,644 trips. Associations between transportation modes and accelerometer-derived physical activity were estimated at the trip level with multilevel linear models. Participants spent a median of 1 h 58 min per day in transportation (8.2% of total time). Thirty-eight per-cent of steps taken, 31% of energy expended, and 33% of MVPA over 7 days were attributable to transportation. Walking and biking trips but also public transportation trips with all four transit modes examined were associated with greater steps, MVPA, and energy expenditure when compared to trips by personal motorized vehicle. Two simulated scenarios, implying a shift of approximately 14% and 33% of all motorized trips to public transportation or walking, were associated with a predicted 6 point and 13 point increase in the percentage of participants achieving the current physical activity recommendation. Collecting data with GPS receivers, accelerometers, and a GPS-based electronic mobility survey of activities and transportation modes allowed us to investigate relationships between transportation modes and physical activity at the trip level. Our findings suggest that an increase in active transportation

  10. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated in the IMPACT study. Endpoints examined included weight bearing physical activity (WBPA; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; vigorous physical activity (VPA; MET (metabolic equivalent – weighted WBPA and MVPA; sedentary activity; before/after-school physical activity; and weekend physical activity. Methods Primary data analysis using a pretest-posttest control group design was conducted utilizing mixed model analysis of covariance. Data gathered from the IMPACT cohort from 2000–2002 were analyzed to determine baseline versus follow-up differences in activity endpoints. Confounders investigated included ethnicity, body mass index, menarcheal status, participation in 7th grade PE/athletics, friend/familial support and neighborhood safety. Results Follow-up means were higher for participating intervention schools relative to control schools for all physical activity variables but were statistically significant only for the following variables: daily minutes of vigorous physical activity (mean difference between Intervention (I and Control (C = 6.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 5.82–6.18, p = 0.05, daily after school activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 8.95↑ minutes, 95% CI = 8.69–9.21, p = 0.04, and daily weekend activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 19.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 18.40–19.60, p = 0.05. The intervention significantly reduced duration of student daily TV/Video watching (mean difference between I and C = 12

  11. Digital Media-based Health Intervention on the promotion of Women's physical activity: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Nooshin; Rezai-Rad, Majid; Tehrani, Hadi; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Vahedian-Shahroodi, Mohammad; Heidarian Miri, Hamid

    2018-01-15

    Technological advances have caused poor mobility and lower physical activity among humankind. This study was conducted to assess the impact of a digital media-based (multi-media, internet, and mobile phone) health intervention on promotion of women's physical activity. In this quasi-experimental study, 360 women were divided into case and control groups. The digital media-based educational intervention was conducted in two months in the case group electronically, using mail and Internet and telephone platforms. Physical activity was measured using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) that estimated women's physical activity rate in the previous week. Data was analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics (ANOVA, chi-square, paired and independent t-tests) using SPSS 20. The mean score of knowledge, attitude and level of physical activity in the control group were not significantly different before and after the intervention. While in the case group, this difference before and after the intervention was significant (p digital media-based health education can be effective in improving health-based behavior such as physical activity. Therefore, it seems necessary to develop user-based strategies and strengthen the behavioral change theories and hypotheses based on digital media for effective influence on behavior. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), IRCT20160619028529N5 . Registered December 24, 2017 [retrospectively registered].

  12. Free electron laser and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Nguyen, Federico

    2018-03-01

    This review paper is devoted to the understanding of free-electron lasers (FEL) as devices for fundamental physics (FP) studies. After clarifying what FP stands for, we select some aspects of the FEL physics which can be viewed as fundamental. Furthermore, we discuss the perspective uses of the FEL in FP experiments. Regarding the FP aspects of the FEL, we analyze the quantum electrodynamics (QED) nature of the underlying laser mechanism. We look for the truly quantum signature in a process whose phenomenology is dominated by classical effects. As to the use of FEL as a tool for FP experiments we discuss the realization of a device dedicated to the study of non-linear effects in QED such as photon-photon scattering and shining-through-the-wall experiments planned to search for dark matter candidates like axions.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  14. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holtermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  15. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  16. Experimental atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental atomic physics program within the physics division is carried out by two groups, whose reports are given in this section. Work of the accelerator atomic physics group is centered around the 6.5-MV EN tandem accelerator; consequently, most of its research is concerned with atomic processes occurring to, or initiated by, few MeV/amu heavy ions. Other activities of this group include higher energy experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), studies of electron and positron channeling radiation, and collaborative experiments at other institutions. The second experimental group concerns itself with lower energy atomic collision physics in support of the Fusion Energy Program. During the past year, the new Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source has been completed and some of the first data from this facility is presented. In addition to these two activities in experimental atomic physics, other chapters of this report describe progress in theoretical atomic physics, experimental plasma diagnostic development, and atomic data center compilation activities

  17. Electron microscopy and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoennes, J.; Olsen, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a description of research activities and plans at the electron microscopy laboratorium, Physics Department, University of Oslo. Since the first electron microscope was installed in 1968, the research has covered inorganic structures, physical metallurgy, as well as theory of electron scattering and the development of methods in this field. The current plans involve efforts in the development of crystallographic and spectroscopic methods

  18. Getting England to be more physically active: are the Public Health Responsibility Deal's physical activity pledges the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, C; Petticrew, M; Scott, C; Durand, M A; Eastmure, E; James, L; Mehrotra, A; Mays, N

    2015-09-18

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between government, industry, and other organisations to improve public health by addressing alcohol, food, health at work, and physical activity. This paper analyses the RD physical activity (PA) pledges in terms of the evidence of their potential effectiveness, and the likelihood that they have motivated actions among organisations that would not otherwise have taken place. We systematically reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions proposed in four PA pledges of the RD, namely, those on physical activity in the community; physical activity guidelines; active travel; and physical activity in the workplace. We then analysed publically available data on RD signatory organisations' plans and progress towards achieving the physical activity pledges, and assessed the extent to which activities among organisations could be attributed to the RD. Where combined with environmental approaches, interventions such as mass media campaigns to communicate the benefits of physical activity, active travel in children and adults, and workplace-related interventions could in principle be effective, if fully implemented. However, most activities proposed by each PA pledge involved providing information or enabling choice, which has limited effectiveness. Moreover, it was difficult to establish the extent of implementation of pledges within organisations, given that progress reports were mostly unavailable, and, where provided, it was difficult to ascertain their relevance to the RD pledges. Finally, 15 % of interventions listed in organisations' delivery plans were judged to be the result of participation in the RD, meaning that most actions taken by organisations were likely already under way, regardless of the RD. Irrespective of the nature of a public health policy to encourage physical activity, targets need to be evidence-based, well

  19. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  20. Physics of electronic materials principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, Jorgen

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a uniquely pedagogical approach, this comprehensive textbook on the quantum mechanics of semiconductor materials and devices focuses on the materials, components and devices themselves whilst incorporating a substantial amount of fundamental physics related to condensed matter theory and quantum mechanics. Written primarily for advanced undergraduate students in physics and engineering, this book can also be used as a supporting text for introductory quantum mechanics courses, and will be of interest to anyone interested in how electronic devices function at a fundamental level. Complete with numerous exercises, and with all the necessary mathematics and physics included in appendices, this book guides the reader seamlessly through the principles of quantum mechanics and the quantum theory of metals and semiconductors, before describing in detail how devices are exploited within electric circuits and in the hardware of computers, for example as amplifiers, switches and transistors. Includes nume...

  1. A systematic review--physical activity in dementia: the influence of the nursing home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderiesen, Hester; Scherder, Erik J A; Goossens, Richard H M; Sonneveld, Marieke H

    2014-11-01

    Most older persons with dementia living in nursing homes spend their days without engaging in much physical activity. This study therefore looked at the influence that the environment has on their level of physical activity, by reviewing empirical studies that measured the effects of environmental stimuli on the physical activity of nursing home residents suffering from dementia. The electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were used for the search. The search covered studies published between January 1993 and December 2012, and revealed 3187 abstracts. 326 studies were selected as potentially relevant; of these, 24 met all the inclusion criteria. Positive results on the residents' levels of physical activity were found for music, a homelike environment and functional modifications. Predominantly positive results were also found for the small-scale group living concepts. Mixed results were found for bright or timed light, the multisensory environment and differences in the building footprint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  3. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose, physical activity (Yale physical activity survey, and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P<0.05. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β=-0.05; P=0.03 and change in waist circumference (β=-0.16; P=0.02. Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health.

  4. Physical Activity Predicts Higher Physical Function in Older Adults: The Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra M; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Zbehlik, Alicia J; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity reduces mobility impairments in elders. We examined the association of physical activity on risk of subjective and objective physical function in adults with and at risk for osteoarthritis (OA). Adults aged ≥ 60 years from the longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective observational study of knee OA, were classified by sex-specific quartiles of Physical Activity Score for the Elderly scores. Using linear mixed models, we assessed 6-year data on self-reported health, gait speed, Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI) and chair stand. Of 2252 subjects, mean age ranged from 66 to 70 years. Within each quartile, physical component (PCS) of the Short Form-12 and gait speed decreased from baseline to follow-up in both sexes (all P physical activity is associated with maintained physical function and is mediated by muscle strength, highlighting the importance of encouraging physical activity in older adults with and at risk for OA.

  5. Longitudinal changes in physical self-perceptions and associations with physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Jo; Kirby, Jo; Currie, Candace

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescents' physical self-perceptions and their associations with physical activity using a longitudinal perspective. Utilizing data from the Physical Activity in Scottish Schoolchildren (PASS) study, changes in exercise self-efficacy, perceived competence, global self-esteem and physical self-worth were assessed among a sample of 641 Scottish adolescents from age 11-15 years. Girls reported lower levels of perceived competence, self-esteem and physical self-worth than boys at each age. Furthermore, girls' physical self-perceptions decreased markedly over time. Among boys, only perceived competence decreased, while global self-esteem increased. Baseline physical activity was a significant predictor of later activity levels for both genders. Findings demonstrate the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to physical activity behavior among adolescents. Among older boys, high perceived competence increased the odds of being active by 3.8 times. Among older girls, high exercise self-efficacy increased the odds of being active by 5.2 times. There is a need for early interventions which promote increased physical literacy and confidence, particularly among girls.

  6. Relationship between child care centers' compliance with physical activity regulations and children's physical activity, New York City, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Lesesne, Catherine A; Dunn, Lillian; Kakietek, Jakub; Jernigan, Jan; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2014-10-16

    Physical activity may protect against overweight and obesity among preschoolers, and the policies and characteristics of group child care centers influence the physical activity levels of children who attend them. We examined whether children in New York City group child care centers that are compliant with the city's regulations on child physical activity engage in more activity than children in centers who do not comply. A sample of 1,352 children (mean age, 3.39 years) served by 110 group child care centers in low-income neighborhoods participated. Children's anthropometric data were collected and accelerometers were used to measure duration and intensity of physical activity. Multilevel generalized linear regression modeling techniques were used to assess the effect of center- and child-level factors on child-level physical activity. Centers' compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 60 minutes of total physical activity per day was positively associated with children's levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 30 minutes of structured activity was not associated with increased levels of MVPA. Children in centers with a dedicated outdoor play space available also spent more time in MVPA. Boys spent more time in MVPA than girls, and non-Hispanic black children spent more time in MVPA than Hispanic children. To increase children's level of MVPA in child care, both time and type of activity should be considered. Further examination of the role of play space availability and its effect on opportunities for engaging in physical activity is needed.

  7. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  8. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  9. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  10. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2012-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balland, Christophe; Cossin, Isabelle; Giganti, Claudio; Hardin, Delphine; Lavergne, Laurence; Le Dortz, Olivier; Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Marchiori, Giovanni; Regnault, Nicolas; Varanda De-Sa, Vera; Daigremont, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2012-2014: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Highlights; 3 - Research: Masses and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Matter-antimatter asymmetry; Dark matter and dark energy; Cosmic radiation nature and origin; Publications, communications; 2 - Teaching, training, internships and PhDs; 3 - Competences and technical realisations (electronics and instrumentation, computers, mechanics, expertise, calculation and technical departments); 4 - Laboratory operation (organisation, partnerships, financial and human resources, permanent training, communication and library, health and safety, radiation protection, general services, staff); 5 - Scientific life and communication (seminars, meetings..)

  11. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Reynald; Ghia, Piera L.; Lacour, Didier; Lavergne, Laurence; Billoir, Pierre; Cossin, Isabelle; Cardot, Violaine

    2012-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2010-2012: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Highlights; 3 - Research: Masses and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS; Matter-antimatter asymmetry; Dark matter and dark energy; Cosmic radiation nature and origin; Publications, communications; 2 - Teaching, training, internships and PhDs; 3 - Competences and technical realisations (electronics and instrumentation, computers, mechanics departments, expertise and valorisation, conference participation, responsibilities); 4 - Laboratory operation (organisation, partnerships, financial and human resources, permanent training, communication and library, health and safety, radiation protection, general services, staff); 5 - Scientific life and communication (seminars, meetings..)

  12. Adolescent Physical Activity and Motivational Profiles While Keeping a Physical Activity Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Matthew O.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Eggett, Dennis; Pennington, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between adolescents (N = 124) from physical education classes keeping a daily online leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) record and feelings of competence toward LTPA, motivational profiles toward LTPA, and LTPA behaviors. Method: A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to examine the relationships…

  13. Year in school and physical activity stage of change as discriminators of variation in the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Con; Murphy, John J; MacDonncha, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females will provide insight into decreasing physical activity patterns among adolescent females. Correlates of physical activity and physical activity stage of change were assessed during 2007-2008 among 871 Irish adolescent females in years 1-6 in secondary schools (15.28 ± 1.8 years). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to identify whether differences in correlates of physical activity could be detected across year in school and physical activity stages of change. Significant differences (P physically active (partial eta range (ηp2) .21-.25) to be the most important predictors of physical activity stage of change. Females in more senior years in school and in earlier physical activity stages of change reported a significantly less positive physical activity correlate profile than females in junior years and in later physical activity stages of change. This finding supports the construct validity of the physical activity stages of change.

  14. The effects of periodic interruptions of physical activities on the physical capacities of adult active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Patrícia; Wanderley, Fabio da Silva; Rebelatto, José Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity programs adapted to the elderly have been proposed with the purpose of minimizing the alterations provoked by aging. These programs usually present break periods of more than 30 days, at least once a year. The aim of this study was to verify if 30-day interruptions cause alterations in the acquisition of physical capacities for senescent women. The study was longitudinal in design, 125 senescent women completed a physical activity program consisting of stretching, aerobic resistance, strength, power and resistance exercises; coordination, agility and flexibility activities; respiratory and relaxation exercises during almost 2 years. Two periods were selected, containing four evaluations with two activities' interruption periods in between the measurements. The main outcome measures were manual pressing strength, flexibility, dynamic balance and physical conditioning (VO2max). During the program there was an increasing tendency for the muscular strength and the VO2max. A significant improvement in flexibility was noted (pprogram, the dynamic balance showed significant difference (pactivities in both studied periods were not enough to significantly alter the values of physical capacities of senescent active women.

  15. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  16. Biopsychosocial Benefits of Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Meydanlioglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity levels in children have been steadily decreasing in recent years. Reduced physical activity leads to numerous chronic diseases at an early age, particularly obesity. Lifelong participation in physical activity and maintenance of ideal bodyweight are highly effective in the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, Type II diabetes, lung and colon cancers. At the same time physical activity increases self-confidence, self-esteem and academic achievement, and reduces symptoms of depression. Therefore, this study was designed to improve awareness of professional groups and families working with children and adolescents about physical activity benefits on children health, as well as psychosocial benefits and planned to offer suggestions for increasing physical activity levels of children. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 125-135

  17. Nuclear physics research requirements for electron and heavy ion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1983-03-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in a variety of new machines intended to probe atomic nuclei for hadronic and quark aspects which lie beyond the familiar shell model view of nuclei. This paper gives the physics perspective within which the proposals for such machines have arisen and discusses the two classes of tools - high energy cw electron machines and relativistic heavy ion machines - which lie at opposite ends of the arsenal being gathered for the pursuit of QCD in nuclei. The electron machines present a reasoned analytic approach to the simplest systems and the heavy ion machines a major thrust for starting new physics in the quark-gluon sea

  18. Physics colloquium: Electron counting in quantum dots in and out of equilibrium

    CERN Multimedia

    Geneva University

    2011-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92olé   Lundi 31 octobre 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM « Electron counting in quantum dots in and out of equilibrium » Prof. Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland   Electron transport through quantum dots is governed by Coulomb blockade. Using a nearby quantum point contact the time-dependent charge flow through quantum dots can be monitored on the basis of single electrons. This way electron transport has been investigated in equilibrium as well as out of equilibrium. Recently it has become possible to experimentally verify the fluctuation theorem. The talk will also address electron counting experiments in grapheme. Une verrée ...

  19. The role of personality, disability and physical activity in the development of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Louise S; Pedersen, Susanne S; Debrabant, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors associated with development of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in migraine patients are not fully understood, but with respect to prevention, the ability to predict the onset of MOH is clinically important. The aims were to examine if personality characteristics, disability...... and physical activity level are associated with the onset of MOH in a group of migraine patients and explore to which extend these factors combined can predict the onset of MOH. METHODS: The study was a single-center prospective observational study of migraine patients. At inclusion, all patients completed...... questionnaires evaluating 1) personality (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), 2) disability (Migraine Disability Assessment), and 3) physical activity level (Physical Activity Scale 2.1). Diagnostic codes from patients' electronic health records confirmed if they had developed MOH during the study period of 20 months...

  20. An analysis of conditions for physical activity and physical education in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The school environment is considered suitable for promoting physical activity in children, which influences their attitude not only to physical activity but also to themselves, classmates, and teachers. Besides the family, the school environment is a significant scene for the development of life values, which includes a positive children's attitude to regular physical activity. AIMS: The objective of the study is to use a school-level questionnaire to analyse spatial and organizational conditions for physical activity and schoolbased physical education in primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic (CR. METHODS: To investigate the conditions for physical activity and physical education in schools in the CR, a selection sample of 92 educational institutions (84 primary schools and 8 multi-year grammar schools were used. Research data were collected in the first half of 2012. Statistical data processing was performed by means of descriptive statistics and graphic illustration from the questionnaire. RESULTS: Apart from physical education lessons, schools provide additional forms of after-school physical activity. As much as 29.4% of schools provide afterschool physical activity, while physically active breaks are promoted by 26.8% of schools. More than 80% of schools have sufficient equipment for the delivery of physical activity and use it on a daily basis. Only in 17% of schools students have free access to this equipment during breaks and free lessons. CONCLUSIONS: Most schools in the CR have sufficient space for the delivery of children's physical activity. The most frequent physical activity during school lessons is physical education, which is delivered in two lessons a week. Promotion of physical activity during breaks and free lessons appears significant in terms of overall physical activity levels in children.

  1. Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Mario Renato; Ara?jo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objectives: To explore the association between gender and leisure-time physical activity in a population-based sample of adults living in Brazil. To study a variety of variables possibly associated with physical activity levels. Methods: A multistage sampling of households was undertaken in Pelotas, a medium-sized Southern Brazilian city. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on potential predicto...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  3. Lessons Learned Through the Implementation of an eHealth Physical Activity Gaming Intervention with High School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Garnett, Bernice; Dibble, Marguerite

    2018-04-01

    To encourage high school students to meet physical activity goals using a newly developed game, and to document the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of using an electronic gaming application to promote physical activity in high school students. Working with youth and game designers an electronic game, Camp Conquer, was developed to motivate high school students to meet physical activity goals. One-hundred-five high school students were recruited to participate in a 12-week pilot test of the game and randomly assigned to a Game Condition or Control Condition. Students in both conditions received a FitBit to track their activity, and participants in the Game Condition received access to Camp Conquer. Number of steps and active minutes each day were tracked for all participants. FitBit use, game logins, and qualitative feedback from researchers, school personnel, and participants were used to determine intervention engagement. The majority of study participants did not consistently wear their FitBit or engage with the gaming intervention. Numerous design challenges and barriers to successful implementation such as the randomized design, absence of a true school-based champion, ease of use, and game glitches were identified. Developing games is an exciting technique for motivating the completion of a variety of health behaviors. Although the present intervention was not successful in increasing physical activity in high school students, important lessons were learned regarding how to best structure a gaming intervention for the high school population.

  4. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  5. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  6. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  7. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  8. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  9. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  10. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  11. Physical activity during hospitalization: Activities and preferences of adults versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Jorit; Conijn, D; Vermeulen, H M; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2018-04-16

    Inactivity during hospitalization leads to a functional decline and an increased risk of complications. To date, studies focused on older adults. This study aims to compare the physical activities performed by older adult and adult hospitalized patients. Patients hospitalized for >3 days at a university hospital completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activities (% of days on which an activity was performed divided by the length of stay) and physical activity needs during hospitalization. Crude and adjusted comparisons of older adult (>60 years) and adult (≤60 years) patients were performed using parametric testing and regression analyses. Of 524 patients, 336 (64%) completed the questionnaire, including 166 (49%) older adult patients. On average, the patients were physically active on 35% or less of the days during their hospitalization. Linear regression analysis showed no significant associations between being an older adult and performing physical activities after adjusting for gender, length of stay, surgical intervention, and meeting physical activity recommendations prior to hospitalization. Most patients were well informed regarding physical activity during hospitalization; however, the older adult patients reported a need for information regarding physical activities after hospitalization more frequently (odds ratios, 2.47) after adjusting for educational level, gender, and physical therapy during hospitalization. Both older adult and adult patients are physically inactive during hospitalization, and older adult patients express a greater need for additional information regarding physical activity after hospitalization than adult patients. Therefore, personalized strategies that inform and motivate patients to resume physical activities during hospitalization are needed regardless of age.

  12. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  14. Active learners in sustainable electronics and it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ole

    This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project.......This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project....

  15. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  16. Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status on knowledge of physical activity and fitness, attitude toward physical education, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Gu, Xiangli

    2018-02-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status on knowledge of physical activity and fitness (PAF knowledge), attitude toward physical education (PE), and physical activity. A total of 343 middle school students participated in the study (Age: M/SD = 12.76/.94, ranging from 11 to 14 years old). PE Metrics™ was used to measure PAF knowledge, and Attitude toward Physical Education Questionnaire and Youth Activity Profile were used to measure attitude, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Fitness and weight status were assessed using FitnessGram and converted to in Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or Not in HFZ. Two-way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA; gender and grade as covariates) showed a significant group effect for cardiorespiratory fitness (Λ Pilla  = .07, F 4,255  = 5.03, p = .001, [Formula: see text] = .07) but not for weight status (p = .57). PAF knowledge (F 1,258  = 9.49, p fitness in middle school PE as students acquire attitude, knowledge, and behaviors needed for active-living.

  17. USE OF TRANS-CONTEXTUAL MODEL-BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY COURSE IN DEVELOPING LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müftüler, Mine; İnce, Mustafa Levent

    2015-08-01

    This study examined how a physical activity course based on the Trans-Contextual Model affected the variables of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, determinants of leisure-time physical activity behavior, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and leisure-time physical activity behaviors. The participants were 70 Turkish university students (M age=23.3 yr., SD=3.2). A pre-test-post-test control group design was constructed. Initially, the participants were randomly assigned into an experimental (n=35) and a control (n=35) group. The experimental group followed a 12 wk. trans-contextual model-based intervention. The participants were pre- and post-tested in terms of Trans-Contextual Model constructs and of self-reported leisure-time physical activity behaviors. Multivariate analyses showed significant increases over the 12 wk. period for perceived autonomy support from instructor and peers, autonomous motivation in leisure-time physical activity setting, positive intention and perceived behavioral control over leisure-time physical activity behavior, more fulfillment of psychological needs, and more engagement in leisure-time physical activity behavior in the experimental group. These results indicated that the intervention was effective in developing leisure-time physical activity and indicated that the Trans-Contextual Model is a useful way to conceptualize these relationships.

  18. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  19. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehnaz Apabhai

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype.Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI.Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001. 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001 and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, P<0.01. There were no systematic differences in physical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease.These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  20. Association between Children's Physical Activity and Parental Practices Enhancing Children's Physical Activity: The Moderating Effects of Children's BMI z-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parental practices that aim at increasing children's physical activity were found to be related to children's physical activity. So far, however, the association between these two sets of variables was studied without considering the moderating role of children's BMI z-score, which may determine the effectiveness of parental practices. The present study aims at filling this void.Design: Longitudinal data were collected among 879 dyads of children (6–11 years old and their parents. Seven parental physical activity practices were assessed at baseline. Physical activity, body mass, and height (measured among children were assessed twice (at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Body mass and height were measured objectively. Seven moderation analyses were conducted.Results: Six parental practices emerged to predict physical activity of children: collaborative social control, overall support, stimulation to be active, general encouragement for physical activity, positive social control, and modeling. Children's BMI z-score moderated three associations. The relationships between parental positive social control, overall parental support, and general parental encouragement for physical activity (at baseline, and children's physical activity (at follow-up were significant only among children with low and medium BMI z-score. In turn, collaborative social control and modeling predicted children's physical activity at the follow-up regardless child's BMI z-score.Conclusions: Parental positive social control or overall parental support may be ineffective in children with higher body mass who are in need to increase their physical activity.

  1. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  2. Relationship between motivation and learning in physical education and after-school physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Sun, Haichun; Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2014-12-01

    A primary goal of physical education is to develop physically literate individuals with the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary for a physically active lifestyle. Guided by the expectancy-value and interest motivation theories, the purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between students' motivation and health-related fitness knowledge developed in physical education and their after-school physical activity participation. Third-, 4th-, and 5th-grade students (N = 293) from 6 elementary schools in a large metropolitan school district in the United States provided data on expectancy beliefs and perceived task values, situational interest, health-related fitness knowledge, and after-school physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a simultaneous multiple regression model. It was found that expectancy beliefs (β = .20, t = 2.16, p = .03) and perceived exploration demand (β = .25, t = 2.58, p = .01), a source for situational interest, were positively related to after-school physical activity. The 2 variables, however, accounted for only 11.2% of the variances for children's after-school physical activity participation. This study demonstrates that students' active exploration and expectancy beliefs for success in physical education have limited influence on leisure-time physical activity participation.

  3. Physical activity in police beyond self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D

    2014-03-01

    Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

  4. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  5. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  6. Childhood Obesity, Physical Activity, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity. Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.

  7. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  8. Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Henri

    2011-01-01

    This textbook sets out to enable readers to understand fundamental aspects underlying quantum macroscopic phenomena in solids, primarily through the modern experimental techniques and results. The classic independent-electrons approach for describing the electronic structure in terms of energy bands helps explain the occurrence of metals, insulators and semiconductors. It is underlined that superconductivity and magnetism can only be understood by taking into account the interactions between electrons. The text recounts the experimental observations that have revealed the main properties of the superconductors and were essential to track its physical origin. While fundamental concepts are underlined, those which are required to describe the high technology applications, present or future, are emphasized as well. Problem sets involve experimental approaches and tools which support a practical understanding of the materials and their behaviour. Key features of this textbook are: - Modern treatment of condensed ...

  9. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  11. Optimizing the Role of Physical Education in Promoting Physical Activity: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with being physically active are well documented, but a significant proportion of the population is insufficiently active. Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and physical education programs are consistently identified as a means to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to use the social-ecological model as a framework to examine ways in which physical education programs can play an important role in promoting physical activity. Policies that require time allocations and resources for physical education and physical activity in schools and community designs that provide infrastructure that makes being physically active accessible and convenient are important factors in making schools and communities healthier spaces. It is clear, however, that policies alone are not sufficient to address concerns about physical inactivity. We must consider individual factors that influence decisions to be physically active in efforts to engage children in physical education programs that promote active lifestyles. The learning climate that teachers create determines what students do and learn in physical education classes. Ensuring that students see value in the content presented and structuring classes so that students believe they can experience success when they exert effort are key elements in an effective motivational climate. Efforts to address public health concerns about physical inactivity require a comprehensive approach including quality physical education. It is critical that kinesiology professionals emerge as leaders in these efforts to place physical education programs at the center of promoting children's physical activity.

  12. Unequal Partnerships in Higher Education: Pedagogic Innovations in an Electronics within Physics Degree Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Taras

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-European research partnership reports on supporting pro-active learning and teaching. The two-part project firstly explored student beliefs about electronics within a physics degree and secondly, the use of peer assessment of a Mathematica notebook to develop understandings of standards and quality. Student beliefs were explored because of the negative perceptions tutors thought students brought to the Engineering course within the Physics degree. The results showed that tutors’ fears were unfounded and that the students were highly motivated. Secondly, through peer assessment of a notebook, students developed critical understandings of standards and quality. Generally, students valued the content support and appreciated both the work of their peer and how this helped their own understanding.

  13. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  14. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  15. Health-related physical fitness and physical activity in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Hammond-Bennett, Austin; Hypnar, Andrew; Mason, Steve

    2018-01-30

    This study examined associations between students' physical fitness and physical activity (PA), as well as what specific physical fitness components were more significant correlates to being physically active in different settings for boys and girls. A total of 265 fifth-grade students with an average age of 11 voluntarily participated in this study. The students' physical fitness was assessed using four FitnessGram tests, including Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), curl-up, push-up, and trunk lift tests. The students' daily PA was assessed in various settings using a daily PA log for 7 days. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multiple R-squared liner regression methods. Performance on the four physical fitness tests was significantly associated with the PA minutes spent in physical education (PE) class and recess for the total sample and for girls, but not for boys. Performance on the four fitness tests was significantly linked to participation in sports/dances outside school and the total weekly PA minutes for the total sample, boys, and girls. Further, boys and girls who were the most physically fit spent significantly more time engaging in sports/dances and had greater total weekly PA than boys and girls who were not physically fit. In addition, the physically fit girls were more physically active in recess than girls who were not physically fit. Overall, students' performance on the four physical fitness tests was significantly associated with them being physically active during PE and in recess and engaging in sports/dances, as well as with their total weekly PA minutes, but not with their participation in non-organized physical play outside school. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03015337 , registered date: 1/09/2017, as "retrospectively registered".

  16. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  17. Association of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, M; Møller, A; Nilsson, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine individual as well as joint associations of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations in initially well-functioning middle-aged workers. METHODS: This study is based on 6-year follow-up data of the Danish Longitudinal Study...... on Work, Unemployment and Health. Physical workload was reported at baseline and categorised as light, moderate or heavy. Baseline leisure time physical activity level was categorised as sedentary or active following the current recommendations on physical activity. Incidence of mobility limitations...... with higher workload regardless of level of leisure time physical activity, although the risks tended to be higher among those with sedentary leisure time compared with their active counterparts. All in all, the risk for onset of mobility limitations was highest among those with heavy workload combined...

  18. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  19. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  20. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Education and School Sport Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Movement Skills and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…

  2. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  3. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apabhai, Shehnaz; Gorman, Grainne S; Sutton, Laura; Elson, Joanna L; Plötz, Thomas; Turnbull, Douglass M; Trenell, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype. Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001). 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001) and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s) = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, Pphysical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease. These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  4. Subatomic Physics and Cosmology Laboratory - LPSC Grenoble. Activity report 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, Corinne; Baylac, Maud; Cholat, Christine; Collot, Johann; Derome, Laurent; Kox, Serge; Lamy, Thierry; Pelletier, Jacques; Renault, Cecile; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Regairaz, William; Richard, Jean-Marc; Vernay, Emmanuelle; Favro, Christian

    2010-01-01

    prototypes, R and D activities); 9 - Technological platforms: PEREN-Chemistry, International Platform for Advanced Plasma Processing (IAP3), plasmas and Ion Sources at the electronic cyclotronic resonance (SIRCE), Nuclear Physics Platform, IN2P3-LPSC grid node; 10 - Support to research activities: Administration and financial department, Documentation and Communication department, Health and safety, radiation protection, General services, detectors and Instrumentation, Mechanics, Electronics, Data acquisition and Computers departments; 11 - Valorisation and technology transfer (low-level counting facility, accelerators and ion sources pole, Research centre on plasmas-materials-nano-structures - CRPMN, Electronics for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems), management of resource booking); 12 - Teaching and training; 13 - Communication and dissemination of scientific knowledge; 14 - Seminars; 15 - Publications, PhDs, accreditations to supervise research; 16 - Staff

  5. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  6. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  9. Beam-plasma coupling physics in support of active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, K.; Delzanno, G. L.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent development of compact relativistic accelerators might open up a new era of active experiments in space, driven by important scientific and national security applications. Examples include using electron beams to trace magnetic field lines and establish causality between physical processes occurring in the magnetosphere and those in the ionosphere. Another example is the use of electron beams to trigger waves in the near-Earth environment. Waves could induce pitch-angle scattering and precipitation of energetic electrons, acting as an effective radiation belt remediation scheme. In this work, we revisit the coupling between an electron beam and a magnetized plasma in the framework of linear cold-plasma theory. We show that coupling can occur through two different regimes. In the first, a non-relativistic beam radiates through whistler waves. This is well known, and was in fact the focus of many rockets and space-shuttle campaigns aimed at demonstrating whistler emissions in the eighties. In the second regime, the beam radiates through extraordinary (R-X) modes. Nonlinear simulations with a highly-accurate Vlasov code support the theoretical results qualitatively and demonstrate that the radiated power through R-X modes can be much larger than in the whistler regime. Test-particle simulations in the wave electromagnetic field will also be presented to assess the efficiency of these waves in inducing pitch-angle scattering via wave-particle interactions. Finally, the implications of these results for a rocket active experiment in the ionosphere and for a radiation belt remediation scheme will be discussed.

  10. Kidney transplantation: a systematic review of interventional and observational studies of physical activity on intermediate outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Jamie Hugo; Kirkman, Danielle; Jibani, Mahdi

    2009-11-01

    Kidney transplant patients have decreased quality and longevity of life. Whether exercise can positively affect associated outcomes such as physical functioning, metabolic syndrome, kidney function, and immune function, has only been addressed in relatively small studies. Thus the aim of this systematic review was to determine effects of physical activity level on these intermediate outcomes in kidney transplant patients. We electronically and hand searched to identify 21 studies (6 retrospective assessments of habitual physical activity and 15 intervention studies including 6 controlled trials). After study quality assessment, intermediate outcomes associated with quality and longevity of life were expressed as correlations or percentage changes in addition to effect sizes. Habitual physical activity level was positively associated with quality of life and aerobic fitness and negatively associated with body fat (medium to large effect sizes). Exercise interventions also showed medium to large positive effects on aerobic capacity (10%-114% increase) and muscle strength (10%-22% increase). However, exercise programs had minimal or contradictory effects on metabolic syndrome and immune and kidney function. In kidney transplant patients, physical activity intervention is warranted to enhance physical functioning. Whether exercise impacts on outcomes associated with longevity of life requires further study.

  11. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between physical activity and physical self-esteem in adolescents: the role of physical fitness indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Tommy; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Seiler, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if physical fitness (strength/power, endurance, flexibility and coordination) mediates the cross-sectional relationship between physical activity and physical self-perception (athletic competence and physical appearance) in a sample of 15-year old adolescents. We wanted to investigate the relative strength of each indirect effect. The present data are taken from two waves of a larger data collection for the project "Youth in Balance", and was collected in the autumn of 2005 (N = 1207) and 2008 (N = 632). A total of 1839 students (889 girls and 950 boys) from 12 schools in Kristiansand took part. A bias-corrected bootstrapping technique was used to examine indirect effects. Results revealed that cardiovascular endurance, lower-body strength/power, and upper-body strength stood out as unique mediators in the relationship between physical activity and athletic competence in both genders. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of physical activity on physical appearance through physical strength/power and flexibility in males. No indirect effects of physical activity on physical appearance through actual physical fitness indices were detected in females.

  13. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  14. Impact of trained champions of comprehensive school physical activity programs on school physical activity offerings, youth physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L; Castelli, Darla M; Pulling Kuhn, Ann C; Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Beighle, Aaron; Aija, Rahma; Calvert, Hannah G; Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    A quasi-experimental cluster-controlled design was used to test the impact of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) professional development on changes in school physical activity (PA) offerings, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviors of 9-14 year-old children during school. Two groups of Louisiana elementary and middle school physical education teachers (N=129) attended a CSPAP summer workshop (95 in 2012=intervention, 34 in 2013=control) and were assessed on school PA offerings (teacher-reported; pre, mid, and post). During the 2012-2013 school year, intervention teachers received CSPAP support while implementing new school PA programs. MVPA and sedentary behaviors were assessed (accelerometry; baseline and post) on a sample of 231 intervention, 120 control students from 16 different schools. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that intervention teachers reported significantly more PA offerings during school (3.35 vs. 2.37) and that involve staff (1.43 vs. 0.90). Three-level, mixed model regressions (stratified by sex) indicated that students overall spent less time in MVPA and more time being sedentary during school, but the effects were significantly blunted among intervention students, especially boys. This study provides preliminary evidence for CSPAP professional development programs to influence school-level PA offerings and offset student-level declines in MVPA and increases in sedentary behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  16. The physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A; Zhu, Weimo; McAuley, Edward; Frogley, Michael; Figoni, Stephen F

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of a new 13-item physical activity survey designed to assess physical activity in individuals with physical disabilities. Mail survey requesting information on physical activity, basic demographic characteristics, self-rated health, and self-rated physical activity. In February 2000, surveys were sent to 1176 individuals who had used rehabilitative services at a major midwestern university between 1950 and 1999. Two hundred twenty-seven men and 145 women with disabilities responded to the mail survey (80%, spinal cord or other locomotor injuries; 13%, visual and auditory injuries; 7%, other; 92%, white; mean age +/- standard deviation, 49.8 +/- 12.9y; mean length of disability, 36.9 +/- 14.9y). Not applicable. Physical activity was assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD requests the number of days a week and hours daily (categories) of participation in recreational, household, and occupational activities over the past 7 days. Total scores were calculated as the average hours daily times a metabolic equivalent value and summed over items. Pearson correlations between each survey item and the total PASIPD score were all statistically significant (P or= .20 (range, .20- .67). Factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax orthogonal rotations revealed 5 latent factors (eigenvalues >or= 1, factor loadings >or= .40): home repair and lawn and garden, housework, vigorous sport and recreation, light sport and recreation, and occupation and transportation. These 5 factors accounted for 63% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.37 to.65, indicating low-to-moderate internal consistency within factors. Those who reported being "active/highly active" had higher total and subcategory scores compared with those "not active at all." Those in "excellent" health had higher total, vigorous sport and recreation, and occupation and

  17. Physical activity and physical activity cognitions are potential factors maintaining fatigue in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen; Bossema; Kruize; Geenen; Bijlsma; Bootsma; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating problem in Sjögren's syndrome. It has been suggested that physical activity and cognitions about physical activity can influence fatigue. Objective The aim of this study was to examine fatigue and physical activity levels in patients with Sjögren's

  18. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  19. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided.

  20. Hadron physics at the new CW electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major trends of the physics program related to the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy at the new high current, high duty cycle electron machines are discussed. It is concluded that planned experiments at these machines may have important impact on our understanding of the strong interaction by studying the internal structure and spectroscopy of the nucleon and lower mass hyperon states

  1. Reasons for participation and satisfaction in physical activity, physical exercises, and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Garita Azofeifa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivation in physical activity constitutes a multidimensional psychological characteristic that is influenced by the person’s internal aspects (preferences, desires, fears, etc. and his/her experiences in the external environment (social acceptance, friends, skills, etc..  In a period in which physical activity is globally increasing among people of all ages, it is important for physical educators, sports trainers, or physical instructors to know the main reasons for their trainees to exercise with the purpose of preparing ideal workout plans that would help them continue exercising.  These plans should encourage subjects to enjoy and be satisfied with their participation, therefore, extending their active life cycle and avoiding quitting, which are closely related to a sedentary lifestyle and the risk of having chronic and degenerative diseases.  Consequently, children prefer to exercise to have fun and make friends, adolescents to compete and make friends, college students for adventure and fun, adults to have regular physical activity, and senior citizens to obtain health benefits.  Women are motivated by their appearance and social reasons, while men do it for competition and status.  Subjects who practice sports are motivated by competition, while those who exercise do it for body image.  The more physical activity is practiced the more value is given to competition.  Finally, having fun, competing, learning skills, and being in good physical condition are the most relevant reasons for American, European, and Asian subjects to participate in physical activity.  This research was conducted with the purpose of letting professionals of human movement sciences know the variables that determine the reasons for subjects of distinctive ages, gender, culture, and level of activity to participate in the different types of physical activities.

  2. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  3. Perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity for children with disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese Jane; Barr, Megan

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity among children with disability. 10 electronic databases were searched from the earliest time available to September 2010 to identify relevant articles. Articles were included if they examined the barriers or facilitators to physical activity for children with disability and were written in English. Articles were excluded if they included children with an acute, transient or chronic medical condition, examined sedentary leisure activities, or societal participation in general. Two reviewers independently assessed the search yields, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were analysed descriptively. 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. Barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, the child's preferences, fear, parental behaviour, negative attitudes to disability, inadequate facilities, lack of transport, programmes and staff capacity, and cost. Facilitators included the child's desire to be active, practising skills, involvement of peers, family support, accessible facilities, proximity of location, better opportunities, skilled staff and information. Personal, social, environmental, and policy and programme-related barriers and facilitators influence the amount of activity children with disability undertake. The barriers to physical activity have been studied more comprehensively than the facilitators.

  4. Work and Home Neighborhood Design and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Ulmer, Jared; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    To investigate relations of perceived worksite neighborhood environments to total physical activity and active transportation, over and above home neighborhood built environments. Observational epidemiologic study. Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC, and Seattle-King County, Washington metropolitan areas. One thousand eighty-five adults (mean age = 45.0 [10.2]; 46% women) recruited from 32 neighborhoods stratified by high/low neighborhood income and walkability. The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey assessed perceptions of worksite and home neighborhood environments. Accelerometers assessed total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed total active transportation and active transportation to and around work. Mixed-effects regression tested relations of home and worksite neighborhood environments to each physical activity outcome, adjusted for demographics. Home and worksite mixed land use and street connectivity had the most consistent positive associations with physical activity outcomes. Worksite traffic and pedestrian safety were also associated with multiple physical activity outcomes. The worksite neighborhood explained additional variance in physical activity outcomes than explained by the home neighborhood. Worksite and home neighborhood environments interacted in explaining active transportation to work, with the greatest impacts occurring when both neighborhoods were activity supportive. Both worksite and home neighborhood environments were independently related to total MVPA and active transportation. Community design policies should target improving the physical activity supportiveness of worksite neighborhood environments and integrating commercial and residential development.

  5. Activity-Based Introductory Physics Reform *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2004-05-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to those of good traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). RealTime Physics promotes interaction among students in a laboratory setting and makes use of powerful real-time data logging tools to teach concepts as well as quantitative relationships. An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions and Workshop Physics and Scale-Up largely eliminate lectures in favor of collaborative student activities. Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) make lectures more interactive in complementary ways. This presentation will introduce these reforms and use Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) with the audience to illustrate the types of curricula and tools used in the curricula above. ILDs make use real experiments, real-time data logging tools and student interaction to create an active learning environment in large lecture classes. A short video of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of research studies at various institutions to measure the effectiveness of these methods will be presented.

  6. Momentary assessment of affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Riggs, Nathaniel; Hedeker, Donald; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-03-01

    Most research on the interplay of affective and physical feelings states with physical activity in children has been conducted under laboratory conditions and fails to capture intraindividual covariation. The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectionally examine how affective and physical feeling states are related to objectively measured physical activity taking place in naturalistic settings during the course of children's everyday lives. Children (N = 119, ages 9-13 years, 52% male, 32% Hispanic) completed 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), feeling tired, and feeling energetic up to 7 times per day. EMA responses were time-matched to accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling energetic and lower ratings of feeling tired were associated with more MVPA in the 30 min after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the 30 min before the EMA prompt was associated with higher ratings of PA and feeling energetic and lower ratings of NA. Between-subjects analyses indicated that mean hourly leisure-time MVPA was associated with less intraindividual variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states predict subsequent physical activity levels, which in turn, predict subsequent affective states in children. Active children demonstrated higher positive and negative emotional stability. Although the strength of these associations were of modest magnitude and their clinical relevance is unclear, understanding the antecedents to and consequences of physical activity may have theoretical and practical implications for the maintenance and promotion of physical activity and psychological well-being in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity and physical fitness of nursing home residents with cognitive impairment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Ferreira, Soraia; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-12-15

    Physical activity and physical fitness are important for health, functional mobility and performance of everyday activities. To date, little attention has been given to physical activity and physical fitness among nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior and physical fitness of institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment and to investigate their interrelations. Forty-eight older adults with cognitive impairment (83.9±7.7years; 72.9% women) and 22 without cognitive impairment (82.2±8.8years; 54.5% women) participated. Physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometers and physical fitness components (muscular strength, flexibility, balance, body composition and reaction time) were evaluated with physical fitness field tests. Nursing home residents with cognitive impairment spent only ~1min per day in moderate physical activity and ~89min in light physical activity. In average they accumulated 863 (±599) steps per day and spent 87.2% of the accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior. Participants' physical fitness components were markedly low and according to the cut-offs used for interpreting the results a great number of nursing home residents had an increased risk of associated health problems, functional impairment and of falling. The performance in some physical fitness tests was positively associated with physical activity. Participants without cognitive impairment had higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness than their counterparts with cognitive impairment. These results indicate that nursing home residents, especially those with cognitive impairment, have low levels of physical activity, spent a high proportion of daytime in sedentary behavior and have low physical fitness. Nursing homes should implement health promotion strategies targeting physical activity and physical fitness of their residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of inappropriate eating behaviors in the multivariate covariance model either for females or males. Moreover, the level of physical activity had no significant influence on the inappropriate eating behaviors of these adolescents. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, inappropriate eating behaviors in both genders were similar regardless of the habitual level of physical activity.

  9. Electron-positron collision physics: 1 MeV to 2 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    An overview of electron-positron collision physics is presented. It begins at 1 MeV, the energy region of positronium formation, and extends to 2 TeV, the energy region which requires an electron- positron linear collider. In addition, the concept of searching for a lepton-specific forces is discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  10. Physical activity discrimination improvement using accelerometers and wireless sensor network localization - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, Gregory R; Burnfield, Judith M; Perez, Lance C

    2013-01-01

    Automating documentation of physical activity data (e.g., duration and speed of walking or propelling a wheelchair) into the electronic medical record (EMR) offers promise for improving efficiency of documentation and understanding of best practices in the rehabilitation and home health settings. Commercially available devices which could be used to automate documentation of physical activities are either cumbersome to wear or lack the specificity required to differentiate activities. We have designed a novel system to differentiate and quantify physical activities, using inexpensive accelerometer-based biomechanical data technology and wireless sensor networks, a technology combination that has not been used in a rehabilitation setting to date. As a first step, a feasibility study was performed where 14 healthy young adults (mean age = 22.6 ± 2.5 years, mean height = 173 ± 10.0 cm, mean mass = 70.7 ± 11.3 kg) carried out eight different activities while wearing a biaxial accelerometer sensor. Activities were performed at each participant’s self-selected pace during a single testing session in a controlled environment. Linear discriminant analysis was performed by extracting spectral parameters from the subjects’ accelerometer patterns. It is shown that physical activity classification alone results in an average accuracy of 49.5%, but when combined with rule-based constraints using a wireless sensor network with localization capabilities in an in silico simulated room, accuracy improves to 99.3%. When fully implemented, our technology package is expected to improve goal setting, treatment interventions and patient outcomes by enhancing clinicians’ understanding of patients’ physical performance within a day and across the rehabilitation program.

  11. Physical activity of Estonian family doctors and their counselling for a healthy lifestyle: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rätsep Anneli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity offers major health benefits and counselling for it should be integrated into the medical consultation. Based on the literature, the personal health behaviour of the physician (including physical activity is associated with his/her approach to counselling patients. Our hypothesis is that family doctors (FD in Estonia are physically active and their recommendation to counsel patients with chronic diseases to use physical activity is high. The study was also interested in how FDs value physical activity among other important determinants of a healthy lifestyle, e.g. nutrition, non-consumption of alcohol, and non-smoking. Methods Physicians on the electronic list were contacted by e-mail and sent a questionnaire. The first part assessed physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form. Self-reported physical activity during one week was calculated as total physical activity in minutes per week (MET min/week. The second part of the questionnaire included questions about the counselling of patients with chronic disease concerning their physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. The study focused on female FDs because 95% of the FDs in Estonia are women and to avoid bias related to gender. Results 198 female FDs completed the questionnaire. 92% reported that they exercised over the past 7 days to a moderate or high level of physical activity. Analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the level of physical activity and general characteristics (age, living area, body mass index [BMI], time spent sitting. FDs reported that patients with heart problems, diabetes, and obesity seek their advice on physical activity more often than patients with depression. Over 94% of the FDs claimed that they counsel their patients with chronic diseases about exercising. According to the FDs' reports, the most important topic in counselling patients for a healthy

  12. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  13. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, but not Commuting Physical Activity, is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk among ELSA-Brasil Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila M A; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-01-01

    Despite reports in the literature that both leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and commuting physical activity (CPA) can promote health benefits, the literature lacks studies comparing the associations of these domains of physical activity with cardiovascular risk scores. To investigate the association between LTPA and CPA with different cardiovascular risk scores in the cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. Cross-sectional study with data from 13,721 participants of both genders, aged 35-74 years, free of cardiovascular disease, from ELSA Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Five cardiovascular risk scores were used: Framingham score - coronary heart disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - coronary heart disease (LDL-C); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (body mass index, BMI); and pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Associations adjusted for confounding variables between physical activity and different cardiovascular risk scores were analyzed by logistic regression. Confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) was considered. LTPA is inversely associated with almost all cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, while CPA shows no statistically significant association with any of them. Dose-response effect in association between LTPA and cardiovascular risk scores was also found, especially in men. LTPA was shown to be associated with the cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, but CPA not. The amount of physical activity (duration and intensity) was more significantly associated, especially in men, with cardiovascular risk scores in ELSA-Brasil.

  14. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  15. Automatic evaluation stimuli – The most frequently used words to describe physical activity and the pleasantness of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lea Rebar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is partially regulated by non-conscious processes including automatic evaluations – the spontaneous affective reactions we have to physical activity that lead us to approach or avoid physical activity opportunities. A sound understanding of which words best represent the concepts of physical activity and pleasantness (as associated with physical activity is needed to improve the measurement of automatic evaluations and related constructs (e.g., automatic self-schemas, attentional biases. The first aim of this study was to establish population-level evidence of the most common word stimuli for physical activity and pleasantness. Given that response latency measures have been applied to assess automatic evaluations of physical activity and exercise, the second aim was to determine whether people use the same behavior and pleasant descriptors for physical activity and exercise. Australian adults (N = 1,318; 54.3% women; 48.9% aged 55 years or older were randomly assigned to one of two groups, through a computer-generated 1:1 ratio allocation, to be asked to list either five behaviors and pleasant descriptors of physical activity (n = 686 or of exercise (n = 632. The words were independently coded twice as to whether they were novel words or the same as another (i.e., same stem or same meaning. Intercoder reliability varied between moderate and strong (agreement = 50.1% to 97.8%; κ = 0.48 to 0.82. A list of the 20 most common behavior and pleasantness words were established based on how many people reported them, weighted by the ranking (1-5 people gave them. The words people described as physical activity were mostly the same as those people used to describe exercise. The most common behavior words were ‘walking,’ ‘running,’ ‘swimming,’ ‘bike riding,’ and ‘gardening’; and the most common pleasant descriptor words were ‘relaxing,’ ‘happiness,’ ‘enjoyment,’ ‘exhilarating,’ ‘exhausting,’ and

  16. PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, C.C.; PRATER, R.; LUCE, T.C.; ELLIS, R.A.; HARVEY, R.W.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAO, L.L.; LOHR, J.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage

  17. Physical Activity of Children from Town Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Joksimović; Vukosav Joksimović

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Physical activity is indispensable for normal physical, mental and social development of children. Insuffi cient physical activity is connected to increased frequency of a range of chronic non-contagious diseases occurring in the adult age (hypertension, diabetes and some form of carcinoma). Aim of Paper: It is to establish to what extent physical activity is represented as to school children. Material and Method: By using the method of conducting a poll among 200 children (100 ...

  18. Nanospintronics: when spintronics meets single electron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneor, Pierre; Bernand-Mantel, Anne; Petroff, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    As spintronics goes nano, new phenomena are predicted resulting from the interplay between spin dependent transport and single electron physics. The long term goal of manipulating spins one by one would open a promising path to quantum computing. Towards this end, there is an ever-growing effort to connect spin tanks (i.e. ferromagnetic leads) to smaller and smaller objects in order to study spintronics in reduced dimensions. As the dimensions are reduced, spin dependent transport is predicted to interplay with quantum and/or single electron charging effects. We review experiments and theories on the interplay between Coulomb blockade and spin properties (namely magneto-Coulomb effects) in structures where a single nano-object is connected to ferromagnetic leads. We then discuss briefly future directions in the emerging field of nanospintronics towards quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and single molecule magnets

  19. Effects of Epstein's TARGET on adolescents' intentions to be physically active and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Jose A; Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Mendez-Gimenez, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Epstein's TARGET strategies on adolescents' intentions to be physically active and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels. A total of 447 secondary education students (193 females and 254 males), range age 12-17 years, were divided in two groups: control (N = 224) and experimental (N = 223). Epstein's TARGET strategies were applied by especially trained teachers only to the experimental group in their physical education (PE) classes during 12 consecutive weeks. Participants' intentions to be physically active and their LTPA levels were assessed prior to the intervention (pre), at the end of it (post-1) and 3 months after the intervention (post-2). Significant increases were observed only in the experimental group in post-1 and post-2 on both variables. PE interventions based on TARGET strategies seem to be effective increasing adolescents' intentions to be physically active, as well as time spent in LTPA. As most adolescents participate in PE, these interventions could lead to substantial public health benefits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PHYSICAL DISABILITY, STIGMA, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN: A REPLICA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus GEBHARDT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stereotypes can be reduced through positive descriptions. A stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with physical disability can be reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. The study found out that a sporty active child, who uses a wheelchair, is perceived as more competent than the sporty active able-bodied child. Objective: This study is a replica study to support the hypotheses and to examine the stereotypes of able-bodied adults towards children with and without (physical disabilities. Methods: This study presents two experimental replica studies using a 2 (physical activity x 2 (sporty activities. The dependent variables were the perception of competencies and warmth according to Stereotype Content Model (SCM. Study 1 is an online experiment with 355 students of the Open University of Hagen. Study 2 surveys 1176 participants (from Munich and Graz with a paper-pencil-questionnaire. Results: The significant interaction effect was not supported by our studies. The sporty able-bodied child was rated higher in competences than the sporty child, who use a wheelchair. Sporting activity only reduces the stigma towards children with a physical disability slightly. Conclusion: The stigma towards children with physical disability can be reduced when the child is portrayed as being active, but the effect was not strong enough to chance the original classification by the SCM.

  1. Physical activity energy expenditure in Dutch adolescents: contribution of active transport to school, physical education, and leisure time activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2012-05-01

    Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from school, physical education (PE), and leisure time activities to total PAEE during a regular school week in adolescents. Seventy-three adolescents (mean age: 15.7 years) wore an individually calibrated combined heart rate-acceleration monitor and kept an activity diary during a regular school week. Branched equation modeling was used to calculate PAEE of the specific activity categories, and their relative contribution to total PAEE was determined. Active transport and PE contributed 30.0% and 17.4%, respectively, to school-related PAEE. Active transport to and from school contributed 15% to total PAEE. Youth with a high physical activity level (PAL) spent 4 hours less in sedentary behavior than subjects with a medium or low PAL (F = 77.415 (2.70), p activities (F = 10.583 (2.70), p Active transport and PE contribute significantly to PAEE during school hours in adolescents. To achieve an increase in total PAEE in the least active group of adolescents, promising strategies might be to reduce inactive behavior, increase participation in leisure time sports, and possibly to replace inactive for active jobs. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  2. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  3. The Impact of a Videogame-Based Pilot Physical Activity Program in Older Adults with Schizophrenia on Subjectively and Objectively Measured Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Cooper, Bruce; Dowling, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. In this one group pre-test, post-test pilot study, 20 participants played an active videogame for 30 min, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. These results suggest participants' perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  4. A longitudinal assessment of the links between physical activity and physical self-worth in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga; Kull, Merike

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal framework was used to examine the hypotheses of (1) whether physical activity predicts changes in physical self-worth or (2) whether physical self-worth predicts changes in physical activity in adolescent girls. Participants (n=272) completed measures of physical self-worth and participation in physical activities at three different points spanning a two-year interval. A cross-lagged panel model using structural equation modelling analyses indicated that physical self-worth predicted subsequent physical activity and physical activity in turn predicted subsequent physical self-worth across time. Findings demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between physical self-worth and physical activity during early adolescence. This study supports the use of the reciprocal effects model (REM) in gaining an understanding of the cross-lagged relationships between physical self-worth and participation in physical activities amongst adolescent girls.

  5. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  6. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.

  7. Physical activity stimulation program for children with cerebral palsy did not improve physical activity: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, L.; Balemans, A.C.J.; Becher, J.G.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Question: In children with cerebral palsy, does a 6-month physical activity stimulation program improve physical activity, mobility capacity, fitness, fatigue and attitude towards sports more than usual paediatric physiotherapy? Design: Multicentre randomised controlled trial with concealed

  8. Physical activity cardio-surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stocka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Behaviors are one of the most important factors that determine health. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of diseases i.e. hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes type 2, stroke and overweight and obesity. In the study this in the clinic of cardiac surgery University Hospital # 1 in Bydgoszcz in the period from October to November 2016 uses the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ.  Encouraging patients coronary artery bypass grafting for physical activity before the procedure should be to educate patients about the importance of traffic before the operations and promote health promoting behaviors i.e.. correct diet and maintain a proper body weight, control blood pressure and glucose levels, and appropriate form traffic adapted to the needs and capabilities of the patient.

  9. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jill

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals

  10. Invited commentary: Physical activity, mortality, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2007-08-01

    The importance of regular physical activity to human health has been recognized for a long time, and a physically active lifestyle is now defined as a major component of public health policies. The independent contribution of regular physical activity to lower morbidity and mortality rates is generally accepted, and the biologic mechanisms mediating these health effects are actively investigated. A few years ago, data from the Finnish Twin Registry suggested that genetic selection may account for some of the physical-activity-related benefits on mortality rates. However, results from the Swedish Twin Registry study reported by Carlsson et al. in the current issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:255-259) do not support the genetic selection hypothesis. In this commentary, the authors review the nature of the associations among physical activity level, fitness, and longevity, with special reference to the role of human genetic variation, and discuss potential reasons for different outcomes of these large twin studies.

  11. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  12. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e...

  13. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  14. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenik, Jeroen; Kruisdijk, Frank; Tenback, Diederik; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Taal, Erik; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Beekman, Aartjan; Tak, Erwin; Hendriksen, Ingrid; van Harten, Peter

    2017-08-18

    Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness and knowledge of the determinants of behavioural change is lacking. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and quality of life, and explore modifiable psychological determinants of change in physical activity in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness. In 184 inpatients, physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (ActiGraph GTX+). Quality of life was assessed by EuroQol-5D and WHOQol-Bref. Attitude and perceived self-efficacy towards physical activity were collected using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and the Multidimensional Self Efficacy Questionnaire, respectively. Patient and disease characteristics were derived retrospectively from electronic patient records. Associations and potential predictors were analysed using hierarchical regression. Physical activity was positively related with and a predictor of all quality of life outcomes except on the environmental domain, independent of patient and disease characteristics. However, non-linear relationships showed that most improvement in quality of life lies in the change from sedentary to light activity. Attitude and self-efficacy were not related to physical activity. Physical activity is positively associated with quality of life, especially for patients in the lower spectrum of physical activity. An association between attitude and self-efficacy and physical activity was absent. Therefore, results suggest the need of alternative, more integrated and (peer-)supported interventions to structurally improve physical activity in this inpatient population. Slight changes from sedentary

  15. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The aim of ths study was to examine the association between habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect. This cross-sectional study included 276 women aged 20 +, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Habitual physical activity and other lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire, concurrent with anthropometric assessments. Physical activity was categorized as very active, moderately active or sedentary. Positive and negative affect scores were derived from the validated 20 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) self-report and were categorized into tertiles. There was a pattern of lower positive affect scores for lower levels of physical activity. With very active as the reference category, the odds for having a positive affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially lower for those who were moderately active (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.01) and sedentary (OR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.75). Associations were sustained after adjusting for body mass index and polypharmacy (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.26-0.96 and OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.72, respectively). These associations were not explained by age, negative affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between physical activity and negative affect scores. This study reports that higher positive affect scores, encompassing emotions such as interest, excitement, enthusiasm and alertness, are associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity. These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association.

  16. The Effect of the Presence of an Internet-Connected Mobile Tablet Computer on Physical Activity Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Mallory S; Lepp, Andrew; Rebold, Michael J; Faulkner, Hannah; Martin, Shannon; Barkley, Jacob E

    2018-02-01

    Mobile Internet-connected electronic devices provide access to activities that have traditionally been associated with sedentary behavior. Because they are portable, these devices can be utilized in any environment. Therefore, providing children with access to these devices in environments that typically promote physical activity may result in a reduction in physical activity behavior. To assess children's physical and sedentary (ie, sitting) activity with and without the presence of a mobile Internet-connected tablet computer. A total of 20 children [6.7 (1.9) y old] participated in 2 simulated recess conditions in a gymnasium on separate days. During each condition, children had free-choice access physical activity options and a table of sedentary activities for 40 minutes. During 1 session, the iPad was present, and in the other session, it was not. Physical activity was monitored via an accelerometer, and sedentary time was monitored via a stopwatch. Children significantly (P ≤ .03) reduced average physical activity intensity and increased their sedentary behavior with the iPad present [4.4 (4.0) metabolic equivalents/min and 20.9 (12.4) min sitting] versus the condition without the iPad present [5.3 (4.0) metabolic equivalents/min and 13.6 (13.2) min sitting]. Introducing an mobile Internet-connected tablet computer into a gymnasium reduced children's physical activity intensity by 17% and increased sedentary behavior by 54%.

  17. Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids Volume 2: Electronic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sólyom, Jenő

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of a single-authored, three-volume series that aims to deliver a comprehensive and self-contained account of the vast field of solid-state physics. It goes far beyond most classic texts in the presentation of the properties of solids and experimentally observed phenomena, along with the basic concepts and theoretical methods used to understand them and the essential features of various experimental techniques. The first volume deals with the atomic and magnetic structure and dynamics of solids, the second with those electronic properties that can be understood in the one-particle approximation, and the third with the effects due to interactions and correlations between electrons. This volume is devoted to the electronic properties of metals and semiconductors in the independent-electron approximation. After a brief discussion of the free-electron models by Drude and Sommerfeld, the methods for calculating and measuring the band structure of Bloch electrons moving in the periodic potent...

  18. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  19. Questionnaires for measuring physical activity in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bertoldo Benedetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identifi cation of the best amount of physical activity is fundamental so that coherent physical activity practices can be advised regarding the amount, intensity, and frequency, as well as intervention programs can be built to minimize and control problems from functional decline with age. Amongst the methods and techniques, questionnaires have been the most used tool to evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure. Thus, the present study proposed to evaluate psychometric characteristics, advantages and limitations of questionnaires that measure physical activity level in the elderly. A literature review in electronic databases was performed using Ovid Medline and also in personal fi les. After identifying the questionnaires, a new search was run. Six questionnaires were found, and their characteristics were presented. The Baecke and the IPAQ questionnaires are the only forms translated into Portuguese and validated. The IPAQ seemed to show the best conditions to be applied in aged Brazilians. Thus, the questionnaires evaluating physical activity level in the elderly population in Brazil have good reliability, but low validity. RESUMO Identificar a quantidade ideal de atividade física é fundamental para que se possa orientar práticas coerentes em relação à quantidade, intensidade e freqüência, bem como construir programas de intervenções para minimizar e controlar os problemas relacionados com o declínio funcional em idosos. Dentre os métodos e técnicas, os questionários têm sido os mais empregados para avaliar a atividade física e o gasto energético. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar as características, origens, aspectos psicométricos, vantagens e limitações de questionários que medem o nível de atividade física em idosos. Realizou-se umarevisão bibliográfi ca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: Ovid Medline e o acervo bibliográfi co pessoal. Após a identifi cação dos instrumentos, realizou

  20. Adolescent physical activity and screen time: associations with the physical home environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbakhsh Kian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on the environment and physical activity has mostly focused on macro-scale environments, such as the neighborhood environment. There has been a paucity of research on the role of micro-scale and proximal environments, such as that of the home which may be particularly relevant for younger adolescents who have more limited independence and mobility. The purpose of this study was to describe associations between the home environment and adolescent physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time. Methods A total of 613 parent-adolescent dyads were included in these analyses from two ongoing cohort studies. Parents completed a Physical Activity and Media Inventory (PAMI of their home environment. Adolescent participants (49% male, 14.5 ± 1.8 years self-reported their participation in screen time behaviors and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week to assess active and sedentary time. Results After adjusting for possible confounders, physical activity equipment density in the home was positively associated with accelerometer-measured physical activity (p Conclusions The home environment was associated with physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents and differential environmental effects for males and females were observed. Additional research is warranted to more comprehensively assess the home environment and to identify obesogenic typologies of families so that early identification of at-risk families can lead to more informed, targeted intervention efforts.

  1. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  2. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  3. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was

  4. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  5. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Self-Reported Physical Activity within and outside the Neighborhood: Criterion-Related Validity of the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire in German Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Malte; Bucksch, Jens; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire allows to assess physical activity within and outside the neighborhood. Study objectives were to examine the criterion-related validity and health/functioning associations of Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire-derived physical activity in German older adults. A total of 107 adults aged…

  7. Self-Reported Physical Activity is Not a Valid Method for Measuring Physical Activity in 15-Year-Old South African Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. The development of valid instruments for the assessment of physical activity remains a challenge in field studies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the level of agreement between physical activity objectively measured by the ActiHeart® (Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK device and subjectively reported physical activity by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF among adolescents attending schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality, South Africa. A cross-sectional study design was used with a total of 63 boys and 45 girls aged 15 years who took part in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PHALS. Stature and weight were measured according to standard International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK protocols. Objective physical activity (PA was measured by a combined heart rate and accelerometer device (ActiHeart® for seven consecutive days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA was assessed. Subjective physical activity was assessed with the self-reported IPAQ-SF. Objective PA indicated that 93% of the participants were inactive and only 6% were highly active. The IPAQ-SF showed that 24% were inactive, with 57% active. A non-significant correlation (r = 0.11; p = 0.29 between the ActiHeart® measure of activity energy expenditure (AEE and total physical activity (IPAQ-SF was observed. The Bland–Altman plot showed no agreement between the two measurement instruments and also a variation in the level of equivalence. When Cohen’s kappa (κ was run to determine the agreement between the two measurement instruments for estimated physical activity, a poor agreement (κ = 0.011, p < 0.005 between the two was found. The poor level of agreement between the objective measure of physical activity (ActiHeart® and

  8. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  9. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Riddoch, Chris; Kriemler, Susi

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent systematic reviews have resulted in changes in international recommendations for children's participation in physical activity (PA) for health. The World Health Authority (WHO) has recently released new recommendations. The WHO still recommends 60 min of moderate to vigorous...... physical activity (MVPA), but also emphasises that these minutes should be on top of everyday physical activities. Everyday physical activities total around 30 min of MVPA in the quintile of the least active children, which means that the new recommendations constitute more activity in total compared...

  10. Physical limitations, walkability, perceived environmental facilitators and physical activity of older adults in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li Tang

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland...... were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist...... environmental facilitators (p physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p

  11. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  13. Momentary Assessment of Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Feasibility and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Kawabata, Keito; Intille, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect real-time data from large numbers of people. Research tested the feasibility and validity of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) self-report protocol using electronic surveys on mobile phones to assess adults’ physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods: Adults (N = 110) (73% female, 30% Hispanic, 62% overweight/obese) completed a four-day signal-contingent EMA protocol (Sat. - Tues.)...

  14. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  15. SU-E-P-05: Electronic Brachytherapy: A Physics Perspective On Field Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, S; Ayyalasomayajula, S; Lee, S [iCAD Inc., Los Gatos, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We want to summarize our experience implementing a successful program of electronic brachytherapy at several dermatology clinics with the help of a cloud based software to help us define the key program parameters and capture physics QA aspects. Optimally developed software helps the physicist in peer review and qualify the physical parameters. Methods: Using the XOFT™ Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy system in conjunction with a cloud-based software, a process was setup to capture and record treatments. It was implemented initially at about 10 sites in California. For dosimetric purposes, the software facilitated storage of the physics parameters of surface applicators used in treatment and other source calibration parameters. In addition, the patient prescription, pathology and other setup considerations were input by radiation oncologist and the therapist. This facilitated physics planning of the treatment parameters and also independent check of the dwell time. From 2013–2014, nearly1500 such calculation were completed by a group of physicists. A total of 800 patients with multiple lesions have been treated successfully during this period. The treatment log files have been uploaded and documented in the software which facilitated physics peer review of treatments per the standards in place by AAPM and ACR. Results: The program model was implemented successfully at multiple sites. The cloud based software allowed for proper peer review and compliance of the program at 10 clinical sites. Dosimtery was done on 800 patients and executed in a timely fashion to suit the clinical needs. Accumulated physics data in the software from the clinics allows for robust analysis and future development. Conclusion: Electronic brachytherapy implementation experience from a quality assurance perspective was greatly enhanced by using a cloud based software. The comprehensive database will pave the way for future developments to yield superior physics outcomes.

  16. Attitudes toward Physical Activity of White Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Bokim; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore attitudes toward physical activity of White midlife women in the United States using a feminist perspective. Design A cross-sectional qualitative study using a thematic analysis. Setting Internet communities for midlife women. Participants Twenty-nine White midlife women in the United States recruited using a convenience sampling method. Methods We used 17 topics on attitudes toward physical activity and ethnic-specific contexts to administer an online forum. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis. Results We found three themes: “thinking without action”; “gendered and sedentary culture”; and “motivating myself.” The women knew and understood the necessity of physical activity for their physical and mental health but in most cases had not been able to take action to increase their physical activities. Although the culture that circumscribed the women's physical activity was sedentary in nature, the women tried to motivate themselves to increase their physical activities through several creative strategies. Conclusion The findings strongly suggest that although women were doing their best, American culture itself needs to be changed to help women increase physical activity in their daily lives. PMID:21585528

  17. Physical activity across the life-course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2018-01-01

    The subjective, lived elements of old age in physical activity promotion are central in defining how older people ascribe meaning to experiences of being active. Many such meanings are developed throughout the life course. From a longitudinal perspective, although continuity theory can be helpful...... be interdependent with how others define them, and how they define others. We offer recommendations about how this shift in perspective can empower older people to be active agents within figurations of physical activity promotion....

  18. [Physical activity and its importance in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Daniele; Mannocci, Alice; Sinopoli, Alessandra; D'Egidio, Valeria; Villari, Paolo; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to highlight the importance of physical activity in the workplace and its fundamental role for the wellness of an individual. The relationship between sedentary lifestyle and health is supported by several epidemiological studies and inactivity is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, chronic conditions and cancer. According to the World Health Organization, physical activity represents: "any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure". The promotion of regular physical activity, including its promotion in the workplace is of fundamental importance since a close correlation exists between good health and physical activity. Moreover, regular physical activity improves psycho-physical performance, social relationships, work performance and reduces sickness, absenteeism from work and work injuries.

  19. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed-studies systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, K L; Atkin, A J; Corder, K; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E M F

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18 years old), (2) investigated school-environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non-quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety-three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school-based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social-environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed-studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education-related factors were a mastery-oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed‐studies systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school‐based policy, physical and social‐environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11–18 years old), (2) investigated school‐environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non‐quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety‐three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school‐based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social‐environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed‐studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education‐related factors were a mastery‐oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. PMID:26680609

  1. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  2. Outside-School Physical Activity Participation and Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Experience in non-school contexts can shape and reshape students' motivation and mediate their learning in school. Outside-school physical activity may provide students with an extensive cognitive and affective foundation and influence their motivation in physical education. Although a trans-contextual effect of physical education has…

  3. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  4. Effects of physical activity on executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, E

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a systematic review of intervention studies that investigated the effects of physical activity on multiple domains of executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age). In addition, a systematic quantification of the effects of physical activity on these domains is provided. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of electronic databases and examining relevant reviews between 2000 and April 2017 resulted in 31 intervention studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Four subdomains of executive functions (inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning), three subdomains of attention (selective, divided and sustained) and three subdomains of academic performance (mathematics, spelling and reading) were distinguished. Effects for different study designs (acute physical activity or longitudinal physical activity programs), type of physical activity (aerobic or cognitively engaging) and duration of intervention were examined separately. Acute physical activity has a positive effect on attention (g=0.43; 95% CI=0.09, 0.77; 6 studies), while longitudinal physical activity programs has a positive effect on executive functions (g=0.24; 95% CI=0.09, 0.39; 12 studies), attention (g=0.90; 95% CI=0.56, 1.24; 1 study) and academic performance (g=0.26; 95% CI=0.02, 0.49; 3 studies). The effects did depend on the subdomain. Positive effects were found for physical activity on executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children. Largest effects are expected for interventions that aim for continuous regular physical activity over several weeks. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic health technology for the assessment of physical activity and eating habits in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity IDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Ralf; Kaps, Alexander; Bieber, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    It was the goal of the trial to study the impact of electronic healthcare technology into treatment. One hundred and twenty-four children/adolescents (females 56%, age 13.5±2.8 years, height 1.64±0.13 m, weight 85.4±23.0 kg, body-mass index (BMI) 31.3±5.2 kg/m(2), BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) 2.50±0.5) were included. To assess physical activity and eating habits, a mobile motion sensor integrated into a mobile phone with digital camera was used. The children/adolescents had a significant weight reduction of 7.1±3.0 kg. BMI/BMI-SDS decreased (pchildren/adolescents was higher than the assessment with motion sensors (walking 292.9 vs 45.5 min, pchildren and adolescents. The system is able to augment existing weight reduction and stabilization strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of physical activity in group versus individual physical activity on fatigue in patients with breast cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Christine; Filion, Myriam; Brien, Marie-Chantale; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Laflamme, Christian; Lemieux, Julie

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity improves the quality of life of cancer survivors, but whether there is a difference between individual vs. group physical activity is unknown. To compare fatigue at 12 weeks in breast cancer survivors after participation in a program of group vs. individual video-assisted physical activity. This was a randomized phase II pilot study carried out in breast cancer survivors at a tertiary breast cancer center. Eligible patients were randomized to individual or group 12-week physical activity program. The primary outcome was fatigue (FACT-F). Aerobic capacity (6-min walk test), muscular strength, and quality-of-life (FACT-G and FACT-B) were assessed. Because of poor accrual, 200 consecutive breast cancer patients were surveyed about their physical activity habits to assess reasons for low recruitment. For all participants (n = 26; n = 12 for group vs. n = 14 for individual), there were some improvement in FACT-F, FACT-G, FACT-B, physical activity level, aerobic capacity, and shoulder strength. Among the 200 patients surveyed, 58% were interested to increase their physical activity level, 15% declared that they were already exercising enough, 9% declared being unable to, 3% declared having no time, and 2% declared having no interest, and other reasons (13%). Among the 200 patients surveyed, 25% preferred in group, 57% preferred alone, and 18% had no preference. Low recruitment precluded conclusions about the efficacy of physical activity practiced in group vs. individually, but both groups derived a benefit. Low willingness to change exercising habits could be the biggest barrier to physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  9. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  11. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  12. Reasons for participation and satisfaction in physical activity, physical exercises, and sports

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer Garita Azofeifa

    2006-01-01

    Motivation in physical activity constitutes a multidimensional psychological characteristic that is influenced by the person’s internal aspects (preferences, desires, fears, etc.) and his/her experiences in the external environment (social acceptance, friends, skills, etc.).  In a period in which physical activity is globally increasing among people of all ages, it is important for physical educators, sports trainers, or physical instructors to know the main reasons for their trainees to exer...

  13. Factors predicting physical activity among children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J

    2013-07-18

    Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  14. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into trans