Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E
Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Reay, A M; Browne, K D
This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer.
Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A; Page, Kent; Cook, Lawrence J; Bardsley, Tyler; Olson, Lenora M
The medical literature reports differential decision-making for children with suspected physical abuse based on race and socioeconomic status. Differential evaluation may be related to differences of risk indicators in these populations or differences in physicians' perceptions of abuse risk. Our objective was to understand the contribution of the child's social ecology to child abuse pediatricians' perception of abuse risk and to test whether risk perception influences diagnostic decision-making. Thirty-two child abuse pediatrician participants prospectively contributed 746 consultations from for children referred for physical abuse evaluation (2009-2013). Participants entered consultations to a web-based interface. Participants noted their perception of child race, family SES, abuse diagnosis. Participants rated their perception of social risk for abuse and diagnostic certainty on a 1-100 scale. Consultations (n = 730) meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively analyzed for social risk indicators, social and non-social cues. Using a linear mixed-effects model, we examined the associations of social risk indicators with participant social risk perception. We reversed social risk indicators in 102 cases whilst leaving all injury mechanism and medical information unchanged. Participants reviewed these reversed cases and recorded their social risk perception, diagnosis and diagnostic certainty. After adjustment for physician characteristics and social risk indicators, social risk perception was highest in the poorest non-minority families (24.9 points, 95%CI: 19.2, 30.6) and minority families (17.9 points, 95%CI, 12.8, 23.0). Diagnostic certainty and perceived social risk were associated: certainty increased as social risk perception increased (Spearman correlation 0.21, p < 0.001) in probable abuse cases; certainty decreased as risk perception increased (Spearman correlation (-)0.19, p = 0.003) in probable not abuse cases. Diagnostic decisions changed
Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.
Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina
To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P < 0.001; tPTSD,MADD = 13.73, P < 0.001). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the greatest predictors in the multivariate model were mental health difficulties, poorer economic status, poor social support, and physical and verbal aggression in partner conflicts. Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse.
Fisher, Helen L; McGuffin, Peter; Boydell, Jane; Fearon, Paul; Craig, Thomas K; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Leff, Julian; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig
Childhood abuse is considered one of the main environmental risk factors for the development of psychotic symptoms and disorders. However, this association could be due to genetic factors influencing exposure to such risky environments or increasing sensitivity to the detrimental impact of abuse. Therefore, using a large epidemiological case-control sample, we explored the interplay between a specific form of childhood abuse and family psychiatric history (a proxy for genetic risk) in the onset of psychosis. Data were available on 172 first presentation psychosis cases and 246 geographically matched controls from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses study. Information on childhood abuse was obtained retrospectively using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire and occurrence of psychotic and affective disorders in first degree relatives with the Family Interview for Genetic Studies. Parental psychosis was more common among psychosis cases than unaffected controls (adjusted OR = 5.96, 95% CI: 2.09-17.01, P = .001). Parental psychosis was also associated with physical abuse from mothers in both cases (OR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.06-12.51, P = .040) and controls (OR = 10.93, 95% CI: 1.03-115.90, P = .047), indicative of a gene-environment correlation. Nevertheless, adjusting for parental psychosis did not measurably impact on the abuse-psychosis association (adjusted OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.22-8.95, P = .018). No interactions were found between familial liability and maternal physical abuse in determining psychosis caseness. This study found no evidence that familial risk accounts for associations between childhood physical abuse and psychotic disorder nor that it substantially increases the odds of psychosis among individuals reporting abuse. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Chan, Ko Ling
The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis
Objectives Elder abuse is an important public health and human rights issue and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between decline in physical function and the risk for elder abuse. Design Prospective population-based study Setting Geographically defined community in Chicago. Participants Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is a population-based study (N=6,159), and we identified 143 CHAP participants who had elder abuse reported to social services agency from 1993–2010. Participants The primary independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using decline in physical performance testing (Tandem stand, measured walk and chair stand). Secondary independent variables were assessed using the decline in self-reported Katz, Nagi, and Rosow-Breslau scales. Outcomes were reported and confirmed elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse (physical, psychological, caregiver neglect and financial exploitation). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of decline in physical function measures and risk for elder abuse. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, every 1 point decline in physical performance testing (OR, 1.13(1.06–1.19)), Katz impairment (OR, 1.29(1.15–1.45)), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.30(1.13–1.49)) and Rosow Breslau impairment (OR, 1.42(1.15–1.74)) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest tertiles of physical performance testing (OR, 4.92 (1.39–17.46), highest tertiles of Katz impairment (OR, 3.99 (2.18–7.31), Nagi impairment (OR, 2.37 (1.08–5.23), and Rosow Breslau impairment (2.85 (1.39–5.84) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Conclusion Decline in objectively assessed physical function and self-reported physical function are associated with increased risk for elder abuse. PMID:23002901
Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A
Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.
Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann
Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.
Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender
Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace
Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…
Tajima, E A
To investigate the relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal child abuse. The study explored the importance of wife abuse relative to blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics and also relative to specific risk factors. This study re-analyzed a sub-sample (N = 2,733) of data from the 1985 National Family Violence Survey. Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted, using five different criterion variables measuring physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal abuse separately and in combination. Blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics were more important predictors of violence towards children than was wife abuse, though the presence of wife abuse in the home was a consistently significant specific risk factor for all forms of violence against children. Of specific risk factors, a respondent's history of having been hit as an adolescent was a larger risk factor for physical child abuse than was wife abuse. Wife abuse was an important predictor of physical punishment. Non-violent marital discord was a greater factor in predicting likelihood of verbal child abuse than was wife abuse. Though this study confirms the association between wife abuse and violence towards children, it cautions us not to overlook the contribution of other factors in our attempts to understand the increased risk attributed to wife abuse.
Young, Lisa M
Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham
Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis
We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2012.
Mary Clyde Pierce
Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 .
Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.
Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child…
Rosana E Norman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]; drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]; suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]; and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of the evidence
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M
To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can
fisico y abuso sexual . Psicothema, 14, 53–62. DiLillo, D., Perry, A. R., & Fortier, M. (2006). Child physical abuse and neglect. In R. T. Ammerman (Ed...Valerie A. Standere, Lex L. Merrill e a Center for the Study of Family Violence and Sexual Assault, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854...recruits (N=5,394) and college students (N=716) completed self-report measures of their history of child abuse (i.e., CPA and child sexual abuse [CSA
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P
In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by
Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol
The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, Christina M
This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J
Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.
Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth
Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.
Ali Akbar Sayyari
Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and
Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham
The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.
Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.
To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…
Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Kircher, John C
Although frustration has long been implicated in promoting aggression, the potential for poor frustration tolerance to function as a risk factor for physical child abuse risk has received minimal attention. Instead, much of the extant literature has examined the role of anger in physical abuse risk, relying on self-reports of the experience or expression of anger, despite the fact that this methodology is often acknowledged as vulnerable to bias. Therefore, the present investigation examined whether a more implicit, analog assessment of frustration tolerance specifically relevant to parenting would reveal an association with various markers of elevated physical child abuse risk in a series of samples that varied with regard to age, parenting status, and abuse risk. An analog task was designed to evoke parenting-relevant frustration: the task involved completing an unsolvable task while listening to a crying baby or a toddler's temper tantrum; time scores were generated to gauge participants' persistence in the task when encountering such frustration. Across these studies, low frustration tolerance was associated with increased physical child abuse potential, greater use of parent-child aggression in discipline encounters, dysfunctional disciplinary style, support for physical discipline use and physical discipline escalation, and increased heart rate. Future research directions that could better inform intervention and prevention programs are discussed, including working to clarify the processes underlying frustration intolerance and potential interactive influences that may exacerbate physical child abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.
Welch, Sarah L.; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Young women (n=102) with bulimia nervosa were compared with 204 control subjects without an eating disorder and with 102 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. Results suggest that sexual and physical abuse are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders in general, including bulimia nervosa, but are not specific risk factors for bulimia. (DB)
Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel
Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice
Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; LoFaso, Veronica M; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Breckman, Risa; Markarian, Arlene; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl
Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences for older adults. Although researchers have begun to identify predisposing risk factors for elder abuse victims and abusers, little is known about the acute precipitants that lead to escalation to physical violence. We analyzed legal records from highly adjudicated cases to describe these acute precipitants for physical elder abuse. In collaboration with a large, urban district attorney's office, we qualitatively evaluated legal records from 87 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from 2003 to 2015. We transcribed and analyzed narratives of the events surrounding physical abuse within victim statements, police reports, and prosecutor records. We identified major themes using content analysis. We identified 10 categories of acute precipitants that commonly triggered physical elder abuse, including victim attempting to prevent the abuser from entering or demanding that he or she leave, victim threatening or attempting to leave/escape, threat or perception that the victim would involve the authorities, conflict about a romantic relationship, presence during/intervention in ongoing family violence, issues in multi-generational child rearing, conflict about the abuser's substance abuse, confrontation about financial exploitation, dispute over theft/destruction of property, and disputes over minor household issues. Common acute precipitants of physical elder abuse may be identified. Improved understanding of these acute precipitants for escalation to physical violence and their contribution to elder abuse may assist in the development of prevention and management strategies.
Crouch, Julie L; Risser, Heather J; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S; Farc, Magdalena M; Irwin, Lauren M
To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child and adult faces depicted positive, ambiguous, and negative affective valences. The sample included 67 (51 low and 16 high CPA risk) general population parents. CPA risk status was associated with accessibility of positive/negative words only following priming with faces of the opposite affective valence. More specifically, high CPA risk parents were slower to respond to positive (negative) words following priming with negative (positive) faces. Exploratory analyses indicated that this pattern of findings was more clearly apparent when picture primes involved adult faces. The present findings suggest that high and low CPA risk parents differ in how they process affectively incongruent information. Research is needed to further examine schema accessibility, as well as to examine whether processes involved in attention and affect integration play a role in CPA risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Yamaoka, Yui; Kawachi, Ichiro
We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks. Infant physical abuse during the past month was assessed by self-reports of spanking, shaking or smothering. The prevalence of infant physical abuse at 4 months of age was 9.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 7.6-10.7 %). Women living in trusting neighborhoods were less likely to report infant physical abuse compared to those living in areas with low neighborhood trust (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95 % CI 0.06-0.97). In addition, women with supportive social networks were less likely to report infant physical abuse (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99). In addition to one's personal social network, social trust in the neighborhood was independently associated with lowered risk of infant physical abuse. To prevent infant abuse, interventions should consider strengthening community social bonds in addition to strengthening the social network of isolated mothers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.
Sunday, Suzanne; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; Salzinger, Suzanne
To examine the relationship between physical abuse of adolescents and parenting by mothers and fathers and whether the association differs by gender. Subjects were adolescents, 51 girls and 45 boys, documented by Child Protective Services (CPS) as physically abused during adolescence. Comparison subjects were non-abused adolescents, 47 girls and 48 boys, from the same suburban communities. Subjects completed the following: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, modified Conflict Tactics Scale (assessing physical abuse/punishment by each parent). Although CPS generally cited fathers as the abuse perpetrators, abused boys and girls often reported experiencing physical maltreatment from both parents. Not surprisingly, comparison subjects rated parents more positively than abused subjects. For both groups, mothers were perceived as more caring and less controlling, were reported to have closer relationships with their adolescents, and were less likely to use abuse/harsh punishment than were fathers. Differences between the adolescents' perceptions of mothers and fathers were more pronounced for abused than for comparison subjects. Boys' and girls' perceptions of parenting were generally similar except that girls, especially the abused girls, reported feeling less close to fathers. Abused girls also viewed mothers as less caring than the other groups viewed mothers. Abused girls were also less likely than abused boys to perceive that either parent, but particularly fathers, had provided them with an optimum style of parenting. Adolescents who experienced relatively mild physical abuse reported dysfunctional family relationships, which may place them at risk of poor adult outcomes. Adolescents' reports suggest that CPS reports may underestimate physical maltreatment by mothers.
Fuller-Thomson, E; Sawyer, J-L
Screening strategies for childhood physical abuse (CPA) need to be improved in order to identify those most at risk. This study uses two regionally representative community samples to examine whether a cluster or cumulative model of risk indicators (i.e. parental divorce, parental unemployment, and parental addictions) explains a larger proportion of the variation in CPA. Data were drawn from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994-1995) and Canadian Community Health Survey 3.1 (2005). Response rates were greater than 80% in both samples. Each survey had approximately 13,000 respondents aged 18 and over who answered questions about the above adverse childhood experiences. A gradient was shown with similar outcomes in each data set. Only 3.4% of adults who experienced none of the three risk indicators reported they had been physically abused during childhood or adolescence. The prevalence of CPA was greater among those who experienced parental divorce alone (8.3%-10.7%), parental unemployment alone (8.9%-9.7%) or parental addictions alone (18.0%-19.5%). When all three risk indicators were present, the prevalence of CPA ranged from 36.0%-41.0% and the age-sex-race adjusted odds were greater than 15 times that of individuals with none of the three risk indicators. The cluster model explained a statistically significantly larger proportion of the variation than the cumulative model although the difference between the two models was modest. For the purposes of parsimony, the cumulative model may be the better alternative. Adults who were exposed to two or more childhood risk indicators were much more likely to report that they were physically abused during their childhood than those with only one or no risk factors. Medical professionals may use this information on cumulative risk factors to more effectively target screening for potential CPA. Future research should include prospective studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Whipple, E E; Richey, C A
The aim of this paper was to better differentiate physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse based on samples drawn from the United States. The American literature was examined to differentiate these three constructs, first on such dimensions as severity, intention, and child effects; and second on key contextual or environmental factors empirically associated with higher rates of violent behavior in families. Third, normative data on parental spanking frequencies were summarized to better operationalize patterns of physical discipline among abusive and nonabusive parents. Five articles that met selection criteria revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents were used to compute a continuum or "normal range" of daily spanking frequencies from 0 to 5.73 (M = 2.5) times in 24 hours. While further research is needed to address spanking intensity, severity, and context, results of the research suggest that "relative exposure" to spanking may be an additional risk marker for abuse when considered with other known indicators or risk factors.
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.
King, Alan R; Ratzak, Abrianna; Ballantyne, Sage; Knutson, Shane; Russell, Tiffany D; Pogalz, Colton R; Breen, Cody M
Corporal punishment and parental physical abuse often co-occur during upbringing, making it difficult to differentiate their selective impacts on psychological functioning. Associations between corporal punishment and a number of lifetime aggression indicators were examined in this study after efforts to control the potential influence of various forms of co-occurring maltreatment (parental physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, sibling abuse, peer bullying, and observed parental violence). College students (N = 1,136) provided retrospective self-reports regarding their history of aggression and levels of exposure to childhood corporal punishment and maltreatment experiences. Analyses focused on three hypotheses: 1) The odds of experiencing childhood physical abuse would be higher among respondents reporting frequent corporal punishment during upbringing; 2) Corporal punishment scores would predict the criterion aggression indices after control of variance associated with childhood maltreatment; 3) Aggression scores would be higher among respondents classified in the moderate and elevated corporal punishment risk groups. Strong support was found for the first hypothesis since the odds of childhood physical abuse recollections were higher (OR = 65.3) among respondents who experienced frequent (>60 total disciplinary acts) corporal punishment during upbringing. Partial support was found for the second and third hypotheses. Dimensional and categorical corporal punishment scores were associated significantly with half of the criterion measures. These findings support efforts to dissuade reliance on corporal punishment to manage child behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…
Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.
Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah
Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced self-esteem. Involvement in youth programs moderated the direct effect. Community service moderated the indirect effect. Results indicate 2 hours per week of involvement in youth programs and 2 hours per week of community service mitigated suicide attempt risk associated with abuse. Providing avenues for youth experiencing abuse to increase their community service and involvement is recommended. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.
Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I
Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lilian Paula D. Bérgamo
Full Text Available Verificou-se em que medida variáveis cognitivas e afetivas/emocionais diferenciariam cuidadores notificados por abusos físicos (G1 de cuidadores sem esse histórico (G2. O Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP foi utilizado para avaliar fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores. Um Questionário de Caracterização sócio-demográfica e outro econômico também foram empregados para equiparar os grupos. G1 apresentou um potencial de risco superior a G2, e maiores níveis de Angústia, Rigidez, Problemas com a Criança e Consigo, Problemas com os Outros, e um menor nível de Força do Ego. Essas variáveis se articulam para compor o risco de abuso físico, pois segundo o Modelo do Processamento da Informação Social, remeteriam a processos básicos cognitivos/afetivos subjacentes a percepções e avaliações/interpretações, associados ao comportamento parental abusivo.It was verified to what extent cognitive and affective/emotional variables could distinguish caregivers accused of committing physical abuse (G1 from those without physical abuse records (G2. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP, which is an instrument designed to assess psychological risk factors in caregivers, was used. A questionnaire on socio-demographic characterization and another on economic classification were also employed to equate the groups. G1 presented a greater potential risk than G2, higher levels of Distress, Rigidity, Problems with the Child and with Themselves, Problems with Others, and a lower level of Ego Strength. These variables contribute with the composition of physical abuse risk, since, in agreement with the Social Information Processing Model, they would be related to cognitive and affective basic processes which are veiled to the perceptions and evaluation/interpretations, associated to abusive parental behavior.
Hjorth, Craig W.; Ostrov, Eric
Physically abused and nonabused adolescents from similar backgrounds were compared via the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. Abused adolescents were shown to feel worse in family relations, emotional stability, psychopathology, impulse control, coping skills, and overall self-image. Implications for the professional's treatment of abused children…
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E
Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for
Shein, Steven L; Bell, Michael J; Kochanek, Patrick M; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Feldman, Kenneth; Makoroff, Kathi; Scribano, Philip V; Berger, Rachel P
We sought to identify risk factors for mortality in a large clinical cohort of children with abusive head trauma. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models identified demographic, physical examination, and radiologic findings associated with in-hospital mortality of children with abusive head trauma at 4 pediatric centers. An initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 defined severe abusive head trauma. Data are shown as OR (95% CI). Analysis included 386 children with abusive head trauma. Multivariable analysis showed children with initial GCS either 3 or 4-5 had increased mortality vs children with GCS 12-15 (OR = 57.8; 95% CI, 12.1-277.6 and OR = 15.6; 95% CI, 2.6-95.1, respectively, P < .001). Additionally, retinal hemorrhage (RH), intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and cerebral edema were independently associated with mortality. In the subgroup with severe abusive head trauma and RH (n = 117), cerebral edema and initial GCS of 3 or 4-5 were independently associated with mortality. Chronic subdural hematoma was independently associated with survival. Low initial GCS score, RH, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and cerebral edema are independently associated with mortality in abusive head trauma. Knowledge of these risk factors may enable researchers and clinicians to improve the care of these vulnerable children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Johnson, Marlene M
Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Vadysinghe, Amal Nishantha; Wickramashinghe, Chatula Usari; Nanayakkara, Dineshi Nadira; Kaluarachchi, Chandishni Ishara
Child abuse is a sensitive topic among many medical practitioners and the diagnosis of this entity requires awareness about conditions which can mimic physical child abuse. Here, the authors present a case of a 13-year-old school non-attendee who was referred due to multiple scars, over areas prone to accidental as well as non-accidental injury, who underwent medicolegal examination due to suspicion of physical child abuse. On further inquiry, it was discovered that she had easy bruising and poor wound healing. A diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was established and physical child abuse was excluded. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying conditions which may confound the diagnosis of physical child abuse. This is of utmost importance in avoiding adverse legal and psycho-social implications on the child, family and society.
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei
Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.
Barlow, J; Johnston, I; Kendrick, D; Polnay, L; Stewart-Brown, S
Child physical abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realised. Many of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect are not amenable to change in the short term. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in its treatment. Parenting programmes are focused, short-term interventions aimed at improving parenting practices in addition to other outcomes (many of which are risk factors for child abuse e.g. parental psychopathology, and parenting attitudes and practices), and may therefore be useful in the treatment of physically abusive or neglectful parents. To assess the efficacy of group-based or one-to-one parenting programmes in addressing child physical abuse or neglect. A range of biomedical and social science databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Library (including SPECTR and CENTRAL), National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC, from inception to May 2005. Only randomised controlled trials or randomised studies that compared two treatments were included. Studies had to include at least one standardised instrument measuring some aspect of abusive or neglectful parenting. In the absence of studies using objective assessments of child abuse, studies reporting proxy measures of abusive parenting were included. Only studies evaluating the effectiveness of standardised group-based or one-to-one parenting programmes aimed at the treatment of physical child abuse or neglect were included. Studies were also only eligible for inclusion if they had targeted parents of children aged 0-19 years who had been investigated for physical abuse or neglect. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment
Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to mesaure the 12-months prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in private huousehold and to examine the relationship and community level risk factors for elder abuse and neglect. METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study. Nationally stratified quota sampling procedure was applied, through four stages. Information was collected in face-to face interview on socio-demographic, healthy life style, physical and mental health, and abuse and neglect types characteristics of elder population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and odd ratios (OR. Statistical significance was set up at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The respondents reported prevalence of psychological abuse 25.7%, followed by financial abuse 12 %, neglect 6.6%, physical abuse 5.7%, physical injury 3.1%, and sexual abuse 1.3% (reported only in female respondents in the previous 12-months. Living with close relatives, dissatisfaction with the household income, less equipped households, lacking property of house/flat are associated risk factors for elder maltreatment on relationship level. Living in the northeast, southeast, and Polog region are associated risk for elder maltreatment. CONCLUSION: Study findings emphasised the previous data obtained with regards to the community and relationships risk factors for elder maltreatment.
Kim, Kyung Mee; Lee, Byung Hwa
Most research on domestic abuse and disability has focused on women with disabilities, while research on abuse against men with disabilities and their risk factors is virtually non-existent. The purpose of this research is to understand domestic abuse experienced by people with disabilities by investigating its prevalence and risk factors. This research used the National Survey on Persons with Disabilities (2011). Using a stratified sampling method, 5259 respondents were identified to make up the final sample. Ordered logistic regression was used to verify risk factors for abuse. Risk factors for women with disabilities are age, educational attainment level, ADL, experiences of discrimination, awareness of disability discrimination, external support, and satisfaction with number of friends. Risk factors for men with disabilities are region, experiences of discrimination, awareness of disability discrimination, external support, and satisfaction with number of friends. For both women and men with disabilities, more experience of discrimination, greater awareness of disability discrimination, less external support, and less satisfaction with number of friends are associated with a higher likelihood of having experiences of abuse. Men with disabilities living in rural areas have a higher risk of abuse than those living in cities. Younger women, women with lower educational attainment, and those with lower physical functioning are more likely to have experienced abuse. Based on these findings, the authors make recommendations designed to protect people with disabilities from domestic abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.
Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…
Burnes, David; Pillemer, Karl; Caccamise, Paul L; Mason, Art; Henderson, Charles R; Berman, Jacquelin; Cook, Ann Marie; Shukoff, Denise; Brownell, Patricia; Powell, Mebane; Salamone, Aurora; Lachs, Mark S
To estimate past-year prevalence and identify risk and protective factors of elder emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect. Cross-sectional, population-based study using random-digit-dial sampling and direct telephone interviews. New York State households. Representative (race, ethnicity, sex) sample (N = 4,156) of English- or Spanish-speaking, community-dwelling, cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older. The Conflict Tactics Scale was adapted to assess elder emotional and physical abuse. Elder neglect was evaluated according to failure of a responsible caregiver to meet an older adult's needs using the Duke Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) scale. Caseness thresholds were based on mistreatment behavior frequencies and elder perceptions of problem seriousness. Past-year prevalence of elder emotional abuse was 1.9%, of physical abuse was 1.8%, and of neglect was 1.8%, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.6%. Emotional and physical abuse were associated with being separated or divorced, living in a lower-income household, functional impairment, and younger age. Neglect was associated with poor health, being separated or divorced, living below the poverty line, and younger age. Neglect was less likely in older adults of Hispanic ethnicity. Elder abuse and neglect are common problems, with divergent risk and protective factor profiles. These findings have direct implications for public screening and education and awareness efforts designed to prevent elder mistreatment. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace
Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…
Piperno, Francesca; Di Biasi, Stefania; Levi, Gabriel
The aim of this study is to analyse the family drawings of two groups of physically and/or sexually abused children as compared to the drawings of non-abused children of a matched control group. The drawings by 12 physically abused, 12 sexually abused and 12 non-abused children, all aged between 5 years-old and 10 years-old, were assessed and compared. Family drawings were analysed using a specific Screening Inventory (FDI-Family Drawing Inventory). This Inventory takes into consideration such qualitative and quantitative variables as the quality of drawing, the children's perception of their family members and their own perception of themselves within the family system. The results have shown significant differences between the abused minors and the control group. Abused children are more likely to draw distorted bodies, the human figure is usually represented devoid of details, their drawings generally show clear signals of trauma and the majority of the abused children are likely to exclude their primary caregiver from the drawings. The "drawings of the family" of physically and/or sexually abused children significantly evidence a greater emotional distress then the drawings of the non-abused children of the matched control group.
Schumacher, R B; Carlson, R S
This article was developed to identify the variables associated with abuse of children in daycare centers and homes, and to specify risk factors to guide professionals and parents. The literature regarding child abuse (physical [PA], sexual [SA], and ritual [RA]) was reviewed, with emphasis on identification of variables associated with victims, perpetrators, and settings. Three factors increased the complexity of the review: (1) differences in definition and categorization complicated study comparison; (2) emotional tone affected some reviewers' definitions, methodology, and conclusions; and (3) some aspects of child abuse in daycare homes and centers have not been well researched. PA most frequently occurred in the form of over discipline, was a response to prior conflict with the child, and may have been inadvertently supported by parental permission for corporal punishment. Although SA occurred less frequently in centers than in homes, effects on the victim seemed worse in centers. SA often included PA. A Satanic overtone was frequently associated with RA, and RA coupled with SA was most devastating. Unfortunately, effects were not temporary. Males predominated the perpetrator profile. Multiple perpetrator abuse was worse (e.g., severity of intrusion). Failure of center staff to report suspicion of abuse by fellow staff or parents was cited as a worry by several researchers. Although research regarding abuse in daycare settings is sparse, one cannot wait for more or better research in order to identify risk factors. Based on literature reviewed, the authors provide risk factors for faculty, caregivers, parents, children, and professionals.
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Memarian, Azadeh; Ameri, Maryam; Shakeri, Mozhgan; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh
In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife's pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband's methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient's health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as "osr-o-haraj" or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband's consent.
Stevens, Kristopher I; Schneiderman, Janet U; Negriff, Sonya; Brinkmann, Andrea; Trickett, Penelope K
The purpose of the current study was to describe the maltreatment experiences of a sample of urban youths identified as physically abused using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI). The sample (n=303) of 9-12 year old youths was recruited from active child protective services (CPS) cases in 2002-2005, and five years of child protective service records were reviewed. The demographic and maltreatment experiences of MCRAI-identified youths with physical abuse were compared to maltreated youths who were not physically abused and youths who were identified as physically abused by CPS when they entered this longitudinal study. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and maltreatment experiences of the sample MCRAI-identified physically abused to the sample MCRAI-identified as nonphysically abused maltreated by gender. Of the total sample, 156 (51%) were identified by MCRAI as physically abused and 96.8% of these youth also experienced other types of maltreatment. Whereas youth with the initial CPS identification of physical abuse showed little co-occurrence (37.7%) with other forms of maltreatment. The MCRAI-identified physically abused youths had a significantly higher mean number of CPS reports and higher mean number of incidents of maltreatment than MCRAI-identified nonphysically maltreated youths. Lifeline plots of case record history from the time of first report to CPS to entry into the study found substantial individual variability in maltreatment experiences for both boys and girls. Thus, obtaining maltreatment information from a single report vastly underestimates the prevalence of physical abuse and the co-occurrence of other maltreatment types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L
There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott
Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…
Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P
This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Murphy, Kieran; Waa, Sheila; Jaffer, Hussein; Sauter, Agnes; Chan, Amanda
To review the medical literature for reports on the types of physical injuries in elder abuse with the aim of eliciting patterns that will aid its detection. The databases of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and TRIP were searched from 1975 to March 2012 for articles that contained the following phrases: "physical elder abuse," "older adult abuse," "elder mistreatment," "geriatric abuse," "geriatric trauma," and "nonaccidental geriatric injury." Distribution and description of injuries in physical elder abuse from case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports as seen at autopsy, in hospital emergency departments, or in medicolegal reports were tabulated and summarized. A review of 9 articles from a total of 574 articles screened yielded 839 injuries. The anatomic distribution in these was as follows: upper extremity, 43.98%; maxillofacial, dental, and neck, 22.88%; skull and brain, 12.28%; lower extremity, 10.61%; and torso, 10.25%. Two-thirds of injuries that occur in elder abuse are to the upper extremity and maxillofacial region. The social context in which the injuries takes place remains crucial to accurate identification of abuse. This includes a culture of violence in the family; a demented, debilitated, or depressed and socially isolated victim; and a perpetrator profile of mental illness, alcohol or drug abuse, or emotional and/or financial dependence on the victim. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milaniak, Izabela; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. Method: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 676) were matched with children without such histories (n = 520) and assessed in young adulthood (average age 29). Official criminal records in conjunction with self-report data were used to assess violent outcomes. Results: Compared to the control group, individuals with histories of child abuse and/or neglect were significantly more likely to be poly-violence perpetrators, perpetrating violence in all three domains (relative risk = 1.26). All forms of childhood maltreatment (physical and sexual abuse and neglect) significantly predicted poly-violence perpetration. Conclusions: These findings expand the cycle of violence literature by combining the distinct literatures on criminal violence, child abuse, and partner violence to call attention to the phenomenon of poly-violence perpetration by maltreated children. Future research should examine the characteristics of maltreated children who become poly-violence perpetrators and mechanisms that lead to these outcomes. PMID:26191459
Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik
There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Full Text Available Prescription opioid drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Individuals with chronic pain represent a large population at considerable risk of abusing opioids. The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener was developed as a comprehensive self-administered measure of potential risk that includes a wide range of critical elements noted in the literature to be relevant to opioid risk. The creation, refinement, and preliminary modeling of the item pool, establishment of preliminary concurrent validity, and the determination of the factor structure are presented. The initial development and validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener shows promise for effective risk stratification.
Zolotor, Adam J; Theodore, Adrea D; Chang, Jen Jen; Berkoff, Molly C; Runyan, Desmond K
Previous studies have shown an association between spanking and child physical abuse. However, the relationship between more frequent and severe corporal punishment and abuse remains unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between reported spanking, spanking frequency, or spanking with an object and the odds of physical abuse in a representative sample of mothers from North and South Carolina. This study is a cross-sectional, anonymous telephone survey of adult mothers with children agedcorporal punishment (spanking, spanking frequency, and spanking with an object) and an index of harsh physical punishment consistent with physical abuse (beating, burning, kicking, hitting with an object somewhere other than the buttocks, or shaking a child aged<2 years). Mothers who report that the child was spanked are 2.7 (95% CI=1.2, 6.3) times more likely to report abuse. Increases in the frequency of reported spanking in the last year are also associated with increased odds of abuse (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01, 1.06). Mothers reporting spanking with an object are at markedly increased odds of reporting abuse (OR=8.9, 95% CI=4.1, 19.6). Although reported spanking increases the odds of reported physical abuse, the relationship between the reported hitting of a child with an object and reported abuse is much stronger. Reduction in this form of discipline through media, educational, and legislative efforts may reduce child physical abuse.
Janssen, T L; van Dijk, M; Al Malki, I; van As, A B
The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which to base their management of physical child abuse, at both governmental and hospital management level. The main aim of the second part is to outline the extent of the problem as seen at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital (RCH) in Cape Town. The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was searched for articles specifically about the management of physical child abuse. Hospital data were analysed in two phases: one addressed various types of assault in order to assess the number of patients admitted to the trauma unit of RCH between 1991 and 2009, and the other to identify all children with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) presenting to the trauma unit at RCH from January 2008 until December 2010. Information on physical abuse of children in Africa in the English scientific literature remains disappointing with only two articles focusing on its management. RCH data for the period 1991-2009 recorded a total number of 6415 children hospitalised with injuries following assault, who accounted for 4.2% of all trauma admissions. Types of abuse included assault with a blunt or sharp instrument, rape/sexual assault and human bite wounds. Over the last 2 decades, there has been a minor decline in the number of cases of severe abuse requiring admission; admissions for other injuries have remained stable. More detailed analysis of hospital data for 2008-2010, found that boys were far more commonly assaulted than girls (70.5% vs 29.5%). Physical abuse appeared to be the most common cause of abuse; 89.9% of all boys and 60.5% of all girls presented after physical abuse. In order to eradicate child abuse, awareness of it as to be promoted in the community at large. Because the types of child
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen
This study examined the relationship of physical abuse in early childhood and timing of first sexual intercourse among young South Africans aged 14 to 22 in Cape Town. Using the Cape area panel survey and applying log-normal models, time ratios were estimated to show how rapidly or slowly youth experience first sexual intercourse. Results indicated that boys who experienced physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Boys and girls with violent school environments had faster timing to first sex. Race moderated the effects of physical abuse. Compared to Blacks, Coloreds who experienced higher levels of physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Youth with greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS and those with greater risk perception of contracting HIV/AIDS delayed first sex. On the basis of these findings, policy makers are encouraged to consider the early childhood experiences of youth when designing policies toward HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa.
Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [de
Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James
This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Bentley, Tyrone; Johnson, Mark S
We investigated whether abused and neglected children are at risk for negative physical health outcomes in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, we matched children (aged 0-11 years) with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect from a US Midwestern county during 1967 through 1971 with nonmaltreated children. Both groups completed a medical status examination (measured health outcomes and blood tests) and interview during 2003 through 2005 (mean age=41.2 years). After adjusting for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment predicted above normal hemoglobin, lower albumin levels, poor peak airflow, and vision problems in adulthood. Physical abuse predicted malnutrition, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and hemoglobin A1C. Neglect predicted hemoglobin A1C, albumin, poor peak airflow, and oral health and vision problems, Sexual abuse predicted hepatitis C and oral health problems. Additional controls for childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, unhealthy behaviors, smoking, and mental health problems play varying roles in attenuating or intensifying these relationships. Child abuse and neglect affect long-term health status-increasing risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, and vision problems-and support the need for early health care prevention.
Full Text Available In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV. We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife’s pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband’s methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient’s health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as “osr-o-haraj” or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband’s consent.
Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon
This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.
Objectives Elder abuse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aims to develop a vulnerability index for elder abuse in a community-dwelling population. Design Population-based study Setting Geographically defined community in Chicago. Participants A population-based study was conducted in Chicago of community-dwelling older adults who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP). Of the 8,157 participants in the CHAP study, 213 participants were reported to social services agency for suspected elder abuse. Measurements A vulnerability index for elder abuse was constructed from sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors. The outcomes of interest were reported and confirmed elder abuse. Logistic regression models were used to determine the accuracy of the index with respect to elder abuse outcomes. Results Out of the selected risk index for elder abuse, every one point increase in the 9 item vulnerability index items, there was a two fold increase in the risk for reported elder abuse (OR, 2.19 (2.00–2.40) and confirmed elder abuse (OR, 2.19 (1.94–2.47). Compared to the reference group, older adults with 3–4 vulnerability index items had increased risk for reported elder abuse (OR, 2.98 (1.98–4.49) and confirmed elder abuse (OR, 3.90, (2.07–7.36); and older adults with 5 or more risk index items, there was an 18 fold increase in risk for reported elder abuse (OR, 18.46 (12.15–28.04) and confirmed elder abuse (OR, 26.79 (14.18–50.61). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) statistically derived curves for identifying reported elder abuse ranged between 0.77–0.84 and for predicting confirmed elder abuse ranged between 0.79–0.86. Conclusion The vulnerability risk index demonstrates value for identifying individuals at risk for elder abuse. Additional studies are needed to validate this index in other community dwelling populations. PMID:25180376
Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna
To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior
Loredo-Abdalá, A; Trejo-Hernández, J; Bustos-Valenzuela, V
Physicians and other health personnel dealing with the consequences of child abuse ought to have abroad understanding of the magnitude of this serious medical and social phenomenon. The three main patterns of child mistreatment as observed at a pediatric hospital are reviewed, with emphasis on its medical and juridical aspects. Various pathologic entities are to be taken into account for differential diagnoses when child abuse is suspected. Risk factors regarding the victims, the abusers and the psychosocial environment are noted.
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Rajan, Kumar; Evans, Denis A.
Aim This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between cognitive function and elder abuse. Methods The Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is a population-based study conducted in a geographically defined community (n = 8,932). We identified 238 CHAP participants who had elder abuse reported to a social services agency. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (perceptual speed), and both immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test (episodic memory). An index of global cognitive function scores was derived by averaging the z-scores of all tests. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of cognitive function domains and risk of elder abuse. Results After adjusting for confounders, lowest tertiles of global cognition (odd's ratio, OR 4.18, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 2.44–7.15), MMSE (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.93–4.57), episodic memory (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.49–3.43) and perceptual speed (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.51–3.73) were associated with increased risk of elder abuse. The lowest levels of global cognitive function were associated with an increased risk of physical abuse (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.08–11.67), emotional abuse (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.41–6.44), caregiver neglect (OR 6.24, 95% CI 2.68–14.54), and financial exploitation (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.88–7.32). Conclusion Lower levels of global cognitive function, MMSE, episodic memory and perceptual speed are associated with an increased risk of elder abuse. PMID:22095098
Yassa, Heba A; Dawood, Abd El-Wahaab A; Shehata, Manal M; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Abdel-Aal, Khaled M
Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug in the world. In Egypt, the Anti Narcotic General Administration, showed that the narcotics problem costs the Egyptian economy approximately 800 million dollars annually. The present study was designed to determine the risk factors that lead to bango abuse among secondary school students and drivers in Assiut province. Urine samples were taken from 1000 volunteers after filling questionnaires and the risk factors were determined. Ethical consideration and informed consent was taken on. In drivers, the study found that bango abuse was concentrated in age group (21 to abuse concentrated in male students by 100%, and in those with high daily fund. The abused students tend to be more aggressive. Also, tend to be lazy to share in school activities. Abused students present in large family (8-11 persons) and families with troubles between parents (81% in divorced parents). In conclusion, bango abuse leads to deterioration of the academic achievement, and may be associated with antisocial and violent behavior. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D
Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Bardo, Michael T; Compton, Wilson M
The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…
To describe and critically analyse the thinking that led to the concept of an association between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. Coercive or abusive continence care practices include chastising a person for their incontinence and overriding their attempts to resist continence care. Neglect in continence care is characterised by withholding or delaying responding to requests for help to maintain continence or to manage incontinence, and restricting a person's access to toileting assistance, incontinence aids or hygiene care. Contemporary biomedical understandings about incontinence and influencing concepts from the fields of sociology, psychology and nursing were analysed to inform the design of a conceptual model that elucidates possible associations between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. Ideas generated from an analysis of the concepts led to the development of a model termed the "Model of Attributes to Abuse of Dependent Elders in Continence Care" (MADE-CC). The MADE-CC theorises factors that cause and contribute to abuse in continence care. Carer factors include physical and emotional exhaustion, frustration related to the inability to control or predict incontinence, resentment associated with constraints imposed by care dependence, disgust associated with physical contact with urine/faeces, limited knowledge and skills about incontinence and ethical conflicts concerning care. Care recipient factors include frequent and severe incontinence, cognitive impairment and a history of physical or psychological trauma. Social factors that are theorised include the stigmatised nature of incontinence, social taboos and cultural norms and the private nature of continence care. The MADE-CC illuminates the potential risk of elder abuse posed by incontinence and care dependence. It should be used to improve ethical care of older people and stimulate debate about everyday ethics in the care of older people who are care dependent and to optimise
Leonard, Stephanie A; Petito, Lucia C; Rehkopf, David H; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Abrams, Barbara
Women's experience of childhood adversity may contribute to their children's risk of obesity. Possible causal pathways include higher maternal weight and gestational weight gain, which have been associated with both maternal childhood adversity and obesity in offspring. This study included 6718 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 in the United States (1979-2012). We applied multiple log-binomial regression models to estimate associations between three markers of childhood adversity (physical abuse, household alcoholism, and household mental illness) and offspring obesity in childhood. We estimated natural direct effects to evaluate mediation by prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. Among every 100 mothers who reported physical abuse in childhood, there were 3.7 (95% confidence interval: -0.1 to 7.5) excess cases of obesity in 2- to 5-year olds compared with mothers who did not report physical abuse. Differences in prepregnancy BMI, but not gestational weight gain, accounted for 25.7% of these excess cases. There was no evidence of a similar relationship for household alcoholism or mental illness or for obesity in older children. In this national, prospective cohort study, prepregnancy BMI partially explained an association between maternal physical abuse in childhood and obesity in preschool-age children. These findings underscore the importance of life-course exposures in the etiology of child obesity and the potential multi-generational consequences of child abuse. Research is needed to determine whether screening for childhood abuse and treatment of its sequelae could strengthen efforts to prevent obesity in mothers and their children.
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
Context Adverse perinatal circumstances have been associated with increased risk of autism. Women exposed to childhood abuse experience more adverse perinatal circumstances than women unexposed, but whether abuse is associated with autism in offspring is unknown. Objective To determine whether maternal exposure to childhood abuse is associated with risk of autism, and whether possible increased risk is accounted for by higher prevalence of adverse perinatal circumstances among abused women, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, intimate partner abuse, prior abortion, pregnancy less than 37 weeks, low birth weight, alcohol use, and smoking during pregnancy. Design and Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, a population-based longitudinal cohort of 116,430 women. Patients or Other Participants Participants with data on childhood abuse and child’s autism status (97% White). Controls were randomly selected from among children of women who did not report autism in offspring (N mothers of children with autism = 451; N mothers of children without autism=52,498). Main Outcome Measure Autism spectrum disorder, assessed by maternal report, validated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a subsample. Results Exposure to abuse was associated with increased risk of autism in children in a monotonically increasing fashion. The highest level of abuse was associated with the greatest prevalence of autism (1.8% versus 0.7% in women not abused, P = 0.005) and the greatest risk for autism adjusted for demographic factors (risk ratio=3.7, 95% confidence interval=2.3, 5.8). All adverse perinatal circumstances were more prevalent in women abused except low birth weight. Adjusted for perinatal factors, the association of maternal abuse with autism was slightly attenuated (highest level of abuse, risk ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.9, 4.9). Conclusions We identify an intergenerational association between childhood
Gibbs, Lisa M
A specific foundation of knowledge is important for evaluating potential abuse from physical findings in the older adult. The standard physical examination is a foundation for detecting many types of abuse. An understanding of traumatic injuries, including patterns of injury, is important for health care providers, and inclusion of elder abuse in the differential diagnosis of patient care is essential. One must possess the skills needed to piece the history, including functional capabilities, and physical findings together. Armed with this skill set, health care providers will develop the confidence needed to identify and intervene in cases of elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1 female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2 male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3 this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Hussein, A S; Ahmad, R; Ibrahim, N; Yusoff, A; Ahmad, D
To assess the knowledge, attitudes and experience of a group of Malaysian dental health care providers regarding child physical abuse (CPA) cases in terms of frequency of occurrence, diagnosis, risk factors and reporting. A questionnaire was distributed to all dental health care providers attending a national paediatric dentistry conference in Kuantan, Malaysia, and demographical variables, knowledge, attitudes and experience about CPA, risk factors and the reasons for not reporting abuse cases were collected. Descriptive statistics and bivariance analysis were performed. A 5 % level of statistical significance was applied for the analyses (p ≤ 0.05). The response rate was 74.7 %. Half of the respondents (52.8 %) stated that the frequency of occurrence of CPA is common in Malaysia. Full agreement between dental health care providers was not determined concerning the identification of signs of CPA and its risk factors. Although 83.3 % were aware that reporting CPA is a legal requirement in Malaysia, only 14.8 % have reported such cases. Lack of adequate history was the main reason for not reporting. Virtually two-thirds of the respondents (62 %) indicated that they had not received sufficient information about CPA and were willing to be educated on how to diagnose and report child abuse cases (81.5, 78.7 %, respectively). There were considerable disparities in respondents' knowledge and attitudes regarding the occurrence, signs of suspected cases, risk factors and reporting of CPA. Despite being aware of such cases, only a handful was reported. Enhancement in the education of Malaysian dental health care providers on recognising and reporting CPA is recommended.
Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James
The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
Friedman, Mark S; Marshal, Michael P; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.
McElroy, Erika M; Rodriguez, Christina M
Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model (Milner, 1993, 2000), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old children, who were identified by their therapist as having an externalizing behavior problem, responded to self-report measures pertaining to cognitive risk factors (empathic perspective taking, frustration tolerance, developmental expectations, parenting locus of control), abuse risk, and discipline style and practices. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) provided a confirmation of the child's externalizing behaviors independent of the therapist's assessment. The results of this study suggest several cognitive risk factors significantly predict risk of parental aggression toward children. A parent's ability to empathize and take the perspective of their child, parental locus of control, and parental level of frustration tolerance were significant predictors of abuse potential (accounting for 63% of the variance) and inappropriate discipline practices (accounting for 55% of the variance). Findings of the present study provide support for processes theorized in the SIP model. Specifically, results underscore the potential role of parents' frustration tolerance, developmental expectations, locus of control, and empathy as predictive of abuse potential and disciplinary style in an at-risk sample.
Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen L; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Thomas K; Morgan, Craig
Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.
Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589
Wood, Joanne N; Medina, Sheyla P; Feudtner, Chris; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, Russell; Fieldston, Evan S; Rubin, David M
To examine the relationship between local macroeconomic indicators and physical abuse admission rates to pediatric hospitals over time. Retrospective study of children admitted to 38 hospitals in the Pediatric Hospital Information System database. Hospital data were linked to unemployment, mortgage delinquency, and foreclosure data for the associated metropolitan statistical areas. Primary outcomes were admission rates for (1) physical abuse in children <6 years old, (2) non-birth, non-motor vehicle crash-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infants <1 year old (which carry high risk for abuse), and (3) all-cause injuries. Poisson fixed-effects regression estimated trends in admission rates and associations between those rates and trends in unemployment, mortgage delinquency, and foreclosure. Between 2000 and 2009, rates of physical abuse and high-risk TBI admissions increased by 0.79% and 3.1% per year, respectively (P ≤ .02), whereas all-cause injury rates declined by 0.80% per year (P < .001). Abuse and high-risk TBI admission rates were associated with the current mortgage delinquency rate and with the change in delinquency and foreclosure rates from the previous year (P ≤ .03). Neither abuse nor high-risk TBI rates were associated with the current unemployment rate. The all-cause injury rate was negatively associated with unemployment, delinquency, and foreclosure rates (P ≤ .007). Multicenter hospital data show an increase in pediatric admissions for physical abuse and high-risk TBI during a time of declining all-cause injury rate. Abuse and high-risk TBI admission rates increased in relationship to local mortgage delinquency and foreclosure trends.
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
McFarlane, J; Parker, B; Soeken, K
To establish the singular and combined occurrence of physical abuse, smoking, and substance use (i.e., alcohol and illicit drugs) during pregnancy and its effect on birth weight. Prospective cohort analysis. Urban public prenatal clinics. 414 African American, 412 Hispanic, and 377 white pregnant women. Occurrence of physical abuse was 16%; smoking, 29.5%; and alcohol/illicit drug use, 11.9%. Significant relationships existed between physical abuse and smoking for African American and white women. For African American women, 33.7% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 49.5% of women who were abused (chi 2 = 8.21; df = 1; p drug use was 20.8% for nonabused women compared with 42.1% for abused women (chi 2 = 18.18; df = 1; p abused smoked, versus 59.6% of those who were abused (chi 2 = 5.22; df = 1; p abuse, smoking, and alcohol/ illicit drug use were significantly related to birth weight (F[3, 1040] = 30.19, p abuse during pregnancy is common, readily detected with a five-question screen, and associated with significantly higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Clinical protocols that integrate assessment and intervention for physical abuse, smoking, and substance use are essential for preventing further abuse and improving smoking and substance cessation rates.
Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa
Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J
Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women
Wilkinson, Samuel T; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Davidson, Larry; D'Souza, Deepak C
Risk perception has been shown to be protective with regard to marijuana use. Notably, the risk perception of marijuana in individuals with substance abuse problems varies significantly from that of the general public. Understanding how risk perception is formed in substance users could explain these differences and help predict the consequences of policy changes. Using this framework, we explored risk perception and its formation in a sample of substance abusing veterans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with veterans who were receiving treatment for substance abuse. Interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. A prominent perspective among the 31 participants was that marijuana is significantly different from other drugs because it is safe, not addictive, not associated with physical withdrawal, and has less overt behavioral effects than other substances. Many of these participants drew upon their own innocuous experiences with the drug in developing this perspective, more so than information from any other source. A contrasting narrative emphasized marijuana's capacity to cause negative social consequences, act as a gateway to the use of other, more harmful substances, and cause paranoia or worsen psychosis. In conclusion, individual experience with marijuana featured more prominently in informing risk perception than any other source of information. Our results and previous literature suggest that the significant disconnect between the individual experiences of substance users and the current clinical and legal policy towards marijuana may weaken the legitimacy of public policy or the authority of the medical community.
Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.
Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692
Makaroun, Lena K; Taylor, Laura; Rosen, Tony
At least 10% of older adults experience abuse, neglect, or exploitation annually in the United States, and this problem is expected to grow as our population ages. Little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of elder abuse of veterans, but it is likely that this population is at high risk based on established elder abuse risk factors. Veterans who receive their care through the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) have a higher prevalence of poor psychological health, poor physical health, functional impairment, cognitive impairment, and social isolation than the general population. As the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States, the VHA has long been a leader in the development of innovative, integrated care programs for older adults. The VHA has another opportunity to lead by promoting research, clinical care, and education on elder abuse, furthering their mission of serving those who served. This article outlines the rationale for developing a research agenda for elder abuse in the VHA, as well as potential first steps toward understanding more about this complex problem affecting veterans. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...
Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa
Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Oldershaw, Lynn; And Others
Cluster analytic techniques identified three subgroups of physically abusive mothers: emotionally distant, intrusive, and hostile. Examination of abused children revealed a clear relationship between abusive parenting styles and behavioral profiles of children. Parents in all abusive subgroups perceived their children more negatively than did…
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...
Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.
Karbeyaz, Kenan; Çelikel, Adnan
Elder abuse is a health and human rights problem that may occur among every race and ethnic group all around the world. This study aims at describing all cases of physical abuse of elderly which have been reported to, and investigated by Eskisehir - a western city of Turkey. Physical abuse incidents above 65 years of age which were evaluated by the Eskisehir Council of Forensic Medicine for expert witness opinion during 5year period between 01.01.2010 and 12.31.2014 are examined in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. 253 cases are found and evaluated in the scope of the study. It is determined that all aggressors are the acquaintance of the victim, and for 114 cases (45.1%) the aggressor is the victim's son. It is found that only investigation procedures of cases are completed, but no protection and rehabilitation program has been issued. In conclusion, it is determined that elder victims are abused by family members and relatives who are mostly the care givers. It is seen that emergency physicians play a great role in the detection of abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also
Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa
A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Richardson, A S; Dietz, W H; Gordon-Larsen, P
Severe obesity has increased, yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared with those who did not report abuse. Longitudinal analysis of participants from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 10,774) wave II (1996; aged 12-22 years) followed through wave IV (2008-2009; aged 24-34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (hazard ratio [HR; 95% Confidence Interval] = 2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (HR = 3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared with individuals with no history of abuse. In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...... expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416...
Cepeda, M Soledad; Fife, Daniel; Kihm, Mary A; Mastrogiovanni, Greg; Yuan, Yingli
This study compared the risks of opioid shopping behavior and opioid abuse between tapentadol immediate release and oxycodone immediate release and, to validate the definition of shopping, examined the association between opioid shopping and opioid abuse further. This retrospective cohort study using linked dispensing and diagnosis databases followed opioid-naive patients for development of shopping behavior and/or opioid abuse during 1 year after initial exposure to tapentadol or oxycodone. Shopping was defined by having overlapping opioid prescriptions from >1 prescriber filled at ≥3 pharmacies; abuse by having International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision diagnoses reflecting opioid abuse, addiction, or dependence. To determine their association, we cross-tabulated shopping and opioid abuse and calculated odds ratios. Risks of developing each outcome were estimated using logistic regression. Among 277,401 participants initiating opioid use with tapentadol (39,524) or oxycodone (237,877), 0.6% developed shopping behavior, 0.75% developed abuse. Higher proportions of patients in the oxycodone group developed shopping behavior and abuse than in the tapentadol group (shopping: adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.45 [0.36-0.55]; abuse: 0.44 [0.37-0.54]). Shopping behavior and abuse were associated; of those with shopping behavior, 6.5% had abuse. Age (18 to 64 y), sex (male), prior benzodiazepine use, paying cash, and history (mood disorders, abuse of nonopioid medications, and back pain) were risk factors for developing either outcome. Shopping behavior and abuse measure complementary, but associated, constructs, which further validates the current definition of shopping. The risk of developing either is lower among patients who initiate opioid use with tapentadol than those who initiate opioid use with oxycodone.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Massey, Christina
Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes. This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013. Criminal history information was collected from federal and state law enforcement agency records at 3 points in time and from state sex offender registries. Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization. The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by
Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)
The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)
Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori
The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)
Keenan, Heather T; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M; Bardsley, Tyler; Campbell, Kristine A
Poor and minority children with injuries concerning for abuse are evaluated and diagnosed for abuse differentially. We hypothesized that 2 steps in the decision-making process would influence evaluation and diagnosis: social intuition from meeting the family and objective social information associated with child abuse risk. Between 2009 and 2013, 32 child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) submitted 730 child abuse consultations including original medical evaluations and diagnoses. CAPs evaluated and diagnosed each other's cases. Comparisons of evaluations and diagnoses were made by levels of social understanding available to the CAP: meeting the family (social intuition and information), reading the case (social information), and reading the case without social information. Evaluations were compared with a consensus gold standard by using logistic regression modeling adjusting for child and CAP characteristics. Diagnostic categories were compared by level of social understanding and diagnostic certainty by using contingency tables. CAPs without access to social intuition were approximately twice as likely to perform gold standard evaluations for neurotrauma and long bone fracture compared with CAPs who met families. Diagnostic agreement fell from 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.1%-76.5%) when social information was present to 66.5% (95% CI: 63.1%-70.0%) when social information was restricted. In cases with less certainty, agreement dropped to 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0%-56.7%). Social intuition and information play a role in the physical child abuse decision-making process, which may contribute to differential diagnosis. Simple interventions including decision tools, check lists, and peer review may structure evaluations to ensure children's equal treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F
Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.
Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H
Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.
Goldsmith, Herbert R.
Studied risk assessment for abuse cases by examining cases (N=20) referred to local spouse treatment center. Focused on woman's perception of mate's personality/behavioral characteristics and relationship plus other situational factors. Confirmed majority of risk factors associated with spouse abuse as reported in the literature. Presents pilot…
Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.
Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…
Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Agbota, Tete Kobla
The article discusses the different forms of abuse experienced by physically disabled women in Ghana, and seeks to provide an understanding of the coping strategies used by these women. This is a qualitative inquiry based on data collected after informed consent from five female informants using in-depth interviews and focus groups. Presentation of results and discussion: The data revealed that our informants experienced social, physical/verbal and sexual abuse to which they adopt coping strategies such as help-seeking, avoidance, confrontation, confidence building and an exchange of sympathy. Disabled women in Ghana still face various forms of abuse that appear to be generally accepted because of cultural beliefs and norms, and they employ various strategies to cope with abuse and sustain their female identity. There is the need for awareness programmes at all societal levels to eradicate prejudices and practices that expose disabled women to abuse. Implications for Rehabilitation The rehabilitation of abused disabled women should include empowering processes that enable them to overcome abusive relationships. The dignity of abused disabled women can be restored by increasing their access to rehabilitation facilities. Cultural stereotypes that legitimate abuse should be addressed in efforts to rehabilitate abused, disabled women. Abused, disabled women may increase their female identity when they engage in rehabilitation processes such as networking and participation in full-time work.
Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others
Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…
Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao
To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…
Hoffman, Kristi L.
This study develops and evaluates a theoretical model based on social learning, conflict, and feminist perspectives to explain teenage sibling physical violence and psychological abuse. Using regression analysis and data from 796 young adults, considerable support is found for all three theoretical approaches and suggests an integrated model best predicts acts of violence and abuse among siblings. For physical violence, males and brothers had significantly higher rates. Spousal...
Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.
Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…
Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Wells, Brett M; Shelton, Christopher R; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S
Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed. To address this need, the present study was designed to examine the utility of the Word Game, an innovative procedure designed to assess implicit changes in schema accessibility during the course of an interpersonal exchange involving aggressive response options. The game involves a series of competitive reaction time trials which are actually lexical decision making trials designed to determine the accessibility of schema throughout the game. Each parent was led to believe that they were competing against another player with whom they exchanged sound blasts of varying intensities. Participants in the present study were parents who were either low (n=50) or high (n=20) risk for CPA. Results revealed that high CPA risk parents behaved more aggressively than low CPA risk parents and that provocation augmented the aggressiveness of all participants. Among high CPA risk parents, positive schema became less accessible (whereas negative schema became more accessible) following lost rounds. At the conclusion of the game, high CPA risk parents reported more aggressive motives than low CPA risk parents. Further, aggressive motives significantly mediated the association between CPA risk status and aggressiveness (i.e., mean sound blast selections). Collectively, results support the potential utility of the Word Game as a means of advancing the study of social cognitive processes involved in parental aggression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman
It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the epidemiological profile of patients with suspected physical abuse, especially regarding the occurrence of fractures, treated in a referral hospital. METHODS: The authors reviewed all reports of suspected abuse against children and adolescents (AACA in this hospital from January 2005 to December 2015. They were assessed and separated by month and year. The characteristics of the victims of physical abuse with occurrence of fractures were studied. The features of the fractures were evaluated in those patients with available radiographs. RESULTS: Of the 3125 notifications, 500 were classified as physical injuries; of these, 63 had fractures. An annual progressive increase in notifications was observed. As for age group, 50 patients (80.6% were up to three years old and 36 (58% up to one year. Most were male (60% and the likely aggressors were mother alone and both parents (27.5% each. In 30 patients with available images, fractures of long bones (femur, tibia, and humerus predominated (71%, as well as a single fracture line (74%, diaphyseal location (73%, and a transverse line (57%. There were two deaths in fracture cases (3%. CONCLUSION: All orthopedists should be alert to suspected AACA in children with trauma below the age of three, even without classic signs of abuse.
Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.L.; Kupka, R.W.; McElroy, S.L.; Frye, M.A.; Rowe, M.; Leverich, G.S.; Grunze, H.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.
Objectives: Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. Methods: We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US
... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...
Youngstrom, Eric A.; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.
The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N=829, M= 10.9 years old ±3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment. PMID:25118660
Crouch, Julie L.; Irwin, Lauren M.; Wells, Brett M.; Shelton, Christopher R.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.
Objective: Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed.…
Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel
Research suggests that impulsivity is a vulnerability factor for developing stimulant dependence, that women develop dependence more quickly than men, and that physical abuse can increase impulsivity and may have greater adverse health consequences in women. This study sought to tie these findings together by evaluating: (1) sex differences in disinhibition prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and (2) the relationship between physical abuse and disinhibition in stimulant-dependent patients. The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of three neurobehavioral domains associated with frontal systems functioning (Apathy, Disinhibition, and Executive Dysfunction, summed for a Total), that assesses pre-morbid functioning and has a specific cutoff for defining clinically significant abnormalities. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained the FrSBe from 118 methamphetamine- and/or cocaine-dependent participants. Lifetime physical abuse was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The proportion reporting clinically significant disinhibition was significantly higher in women (64.9%) than in men (45.0%, p=0.04), with no significant difference on the other FrSBe scales. Physical abuse in women, but not men, was associated with worse functioning, with physically abused, relative to non-abused, women having a significantly greater proportion with clinically significant disinhibition (pabuse and that physical abuse in women is associated with greater disinhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.
ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel
Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.
Curry, Mary Ann; Durham, Laurel; Bullock, Linda; Bloom, Tina; Davis, Jan
To determine whether individualized nursing case management can decrease stress among pregnant women at risk for or in abusive relationships. A multisite randomized controlled trial. Two prenatal clinics in the Pacific Northwest and rural Midwest. 1,000 women who spoke English and were 13 to 23 weeks pregnant at time of recruitment. All intervention group women (N = 499) were offered an abuse video and had access to a nurse case manager 24/7. Additionally, participants at risk for or in abusive relationships received individualized nursing care management throughout the pregnancy. The most frequent nursing care management activities were providing support (38%) and assessing needs (32%). The nursing care management group received an average of 22 contacts, most (80%) by telephone and had a significant reduction in stress scores as measured by the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile. Compared to the control group, the differences were in the predicted direction, but not statistically different. A major finding was the choice by abused women to focus on basic needs and their pregnancies rather than the abuse, although all received safety planning. Pregnant women at risk for or in abusive relationships experience very stressful and complex lives. Nurses need to focus on the needs they identify, which may not be the abusive relationship.
farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani
Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...
Kudumija Slijepcevic, Marija; Jukic, Vlado; Novalic, Darko; Zarkovic-Palijan, Tija; Milosevic, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana
To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N=104) and without (N=102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group.
Klevens, Joanne; Ports, Katie A
Gender inequity is proposed as a societal-level risk factor for child maltreatment. However, most cross-national research examining this association is limited to developing countries and has used limited measures of gender inequity and child homicides as a proxy for child maltreatment. To examine the relationship between gender inequity and child maltreatment, we used caregivers' reported use of severe physical punishment (proxy for physical abuse) and children under 5 left alone or under the care of another child younger than 10 years of age (supervisory neglect) and three indices of gender inequity (the Social and Institutional Gender Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Gender Gap Index) from 57 countries, over half of which were developing countries. We found all three gender inequity indices to be significantly associated with physical abuse and two of the three to be significantly associated with neglect, after controlling for country-level development. Based on these findings, efforts to prevent child abuse and neglect might benefit from reducing gender inequity.
Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A
We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Restrepo Martínez, Miguel; Trujillo Numa, Laura; Restrepo Bernal, Diana; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Sierra, Gloria
In Colombia, one out of five women between the ages of 15 and 19 years have been pregnant. Almost two-thirds (64%) of these pregnancies were unplanned. To examine the socio-demographic, psychosocial and clinical risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. An analytical prevalence study was performed using secondary data from the First Demographic Study of Mental Health in Medellin, Colombia. Female adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were included in the study. The population was evaluated using the Composite International Diagnosis Interview, a structured interview developed by the World Health Organization, which establishes diagnoses according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. A sample of 499 female adolescents was obtained, in which 135 adolescent pregnancies were identified, representing a prevalence of 21.5%. The large majority (84.4%) were between 16 and 19 years old. The median age was 17 years, with an interquartile range of 2 years. Almost two-thirds (61.2%) of female adolescents had initiated sexual activity at the age of 15 or later. Almost one-third (31.9%) reported being physically abused during childhood, and 6.7% sexually abused. Of those who were pregnant, 66.7% reported previous sexual abuse. A bivariate analysis showed that sexual abuse (OR=7.68), childhood negligence (OR=4.33), and having a partner (OR=6.31) were factors associated with an adolescent pregnancy. Negligence and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence can be prevented, and adolescent pregnancies can be decreased. This finding has important implications for clinical management and prognosis, and requires public preventive policies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K
Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in
Kshirod Kumar Mishra
Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to psychiatric inpatient services in the age group of 14-45 years for the 1 st time were evaluated for a history of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse on the basis of retrospective chart review. Semi-structured Performa was used to evaluate the patient with a history of child abuse, and they were diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria. Result: The prevalence of child abuse in our inpatient services was 43.29%; emotional abuse (61.9% was most commonly reported among patient followed by physical (21.43% and sexual abuse (16.67%. We observed a significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay between abuse (10.29 ± 6.01 days and nonabuse group (5.90 ± 2.43 days (t = 4.902, df = 95, P < 0.0001. The boys experienced physical abuse at a younger age (7.43 ± 2.50 years than girls (13.50 ± 0.70 years. The sexual abuse and emotional abuse were reported at a younger age in girls than boys. We found high prevalence of substance use disorders (40.47%, psychosis (19.04%, and mood disorder (28.57% among abuse group. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the developing importance of the different forms of abuse on adult psychiatric diagnosis in India. The abused patients are at high risk of the development of psychiatric disorder than the nonabuse group. The increased length of hospitalization among abused group reflects severity and complexity of child abuse. The early detection of social factors
de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia
This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…
Gharib, Behdad; Esmaeili, Sara; Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Shariati, Golnaz
Child maltreatment happens in all countries and cultures. Children as the vulnerable part of the societies are subject to rage, abuse and maltreatment and need special multidisciplinary attention to get proper protection and care. Appropriate legislation, community education, advocacy in media and attention of care givers and children health providers may alter the trend of child abuse in communities. In order to raise awareness about child abuse for healthcare professionals, in this report we introduce a disastrous case of 4 years old boy who was attacked by his father which presented to Children's Medical Center in Tehran. The living environment of the victim was a dysfunctional family and an addict father as the risk factors of dangerous circumstances for a child.
Full Text Available Child maltreatment happens in all countries and cultures. Children as the vulnerable part of the societies are subject to rage, abuse and maltreatment and need special multidisciplinary attention to get proper protection and care. Appropriate legislation, community education, advocacy in media and attention of care givers and children health providers may alter the trend of child abuse in communities. In order to raise awareness about child abuse for healthcare professionals, in this report we introduce a disastrous case of 4 years old boy who was attacked by his father which presented to Children's Medical Center in Tehran. The living environment of the victim was a dysfunctional family and an addict father as the risk factors of dangerous circumstances for a child.
Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, Christina M
The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.
Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J
The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.
Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N.; Khan, Mansoor A.
High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products. PMID:26784976
Janssen, T.L. (T. L.); M. van Dijk (Monique); Al Malki, I. (I.); A.B. van As (Àrjan Bastiaan)
textabstractBackground: The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which
Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar
The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…
Faramarzi, M; Esmailzadeh, S; Mosavi, S
To examine the effects of women's subjective definitions of wife abuse and of their general attitudes to acceptance of male dominance on the occurrence of domestic violence. A case-control survey was conducted in the public health center of Babol University of Medical Sciences from November 2002 to October 2003. The Abuse Assessment Screen Form was used to identify partner violence, and the Abuse Definition Form and Abuse Attitude Form were applied to measure how the women defined wife abuse and their attitudes to male dominance. Women with positive attitudes to male dominance had experienced more physical and emotional abuse than those with negative attitudes toward male dominance (p family income were important risk factors for domestic violence, the strongest predictor of physical abuse was a positive attitude to male dominance. A positive attitude of women to male dominance increases the acceptance and frequency of partner violence. This finding shows the need to raise the educational levels of women and raise their awareness of their rights. This could convert an attitude of male dominance to equality of men and women.
Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…
Saunders, Daniel G.
Reviews literature comparing risk that battered women and men who batter will physically abuse their children. Challenges several tenets of social work practice lore and cautions practitioners about use of psychological tests and profiles to judge child abuse potential and parenting ability. Discusses hazards of mediation and joint custody and…
Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F
Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.
Widom, C S
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which childhood abuse and neglect increase a person's risk for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to determine whether the relationship to PTSD persists despite controls for family, individual, and lifestyle characteristics associated with both childhood victimization and PTSD. Victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwestern metropolitan county area were matched on the basis of age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic class with a group of nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Subjects (N = 1,196) were located and administered a 2-hour interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule to assess PTSD. Childhood victimization was associated with increased risk for lifetime and current PTSD. Slightly more than a third of the childhood victims of sexual abuse (37.5%), 32.7% of those physically abused, and 30.6% of victims of childhood neglect met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime PTSD. The relationship between childhood victimization and number of PTSD symptoms persisted despite the introduction of covariates associated with risk for both. Victims of child abuse (sexual and physical) and neglect are at increased risk for developing PTSD, but childhood victimization is not a sufficient condition. Family, individual, and lifestyle variables also place individuals at risk and contribute to the symptoms of PTSD.
Leemans, C; Loas, S
Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone.
Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health care service users in Cape Town. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... We assessed substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and HIV risk with items addressing injection drug use, blood-sharing rituals, and sexual ...
Hahm, H C; Guterman, N B
South Korea has had remarkably high incidence and prevalence rates of physical violence against children, yet the problem has received only limited public and professional attention until very recently. This article represents the first attempt in English to systematically analyze South Korea's recent epidemiological studies on child maltreatment. Discussed are sociocultural factors that have contributed both to delays in child protection laws and a low public awareness of the problem of child abuse. The article highlights methodological issues concerning the definition of physical abuse in South Korea and the complex attitudes toward violence. It also examines the role of the Korean women's movement in the reform of family laws and the recent establishment of new child protection legislation. Suggestions for future directions for the problem of child maltreatment within South Korea are presented.
Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.
Bengwasan, Peejay D
Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning.
Pascolat, G; Santos, C de F; Campos, E C; Busato, D; Marinho, D H; Valdez, L C
OBJECTIVE: To establish the profile of children who suffer abuse and of abuse perpetrators. METHODS: 225 cases of confirmed child-abuse in Curitiba, state of Paraná, were studied in 1998 based on information collected using a protocol. RESULTS: The following patterns were observed: 56% of the children were in school age; 59.6% were the first child of the couple; 84.4% were natural offspring; and 71.1% of the children had a satisfactory school record. Multiple injuries (38.2%) were found on the victimś bodies, mostly bruises (37.8%). The main aggressor was the mother (42.2%); 25.8% of them said that the reason for the violence was disciplining the child; 72% of the mothers denied the use of alcohol. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that the children who are most affected by physical abuse are the first-borns of married couples, with age between 5 and 11 years; their schooling level is compatible with their age. Most violent acts are performed by the mother, who hits the child leaving bruises on several parts of the victimacute;s body, with the objective of educating, or setting limits to the child.
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Robert N. Jamison
Full Text Available Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no “gold standard” for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management.
Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, M.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Objective: This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. Method: This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between
Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…
Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history of CSA and the development of risky behavior. In addition, trajectories for physical and emotional abuse, but not neglect or witnessed violence, contributed to risky behavior over and above the role of CSA. Child gender did not moderate the findings. Findings highlight the signficance of CSA histories, as well as the broader context of maltreatment, for better understanding the development of risk behaviors in both girls and boys. PMID:20706919
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E
Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.
Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.
Maltrato Físico Infantil y Apoyo Social: Un Estudio Descriptivo - Comparativo Entre Maltratadores Físicos y No Maltratadores de la Ciudad de Temuco Child Physical Abuse and Social Support: A Descriptive and Comparative Study Between Physical and Non Physical Abusers From the City of Temuco, Chile
Full Text Available Para realizar intervenciones preventivas o terapéuticas con familias maltratadoras, es relevante conocer los déficit predominantes en la variable apoyo social. Es por ello, que el objetivo del presente estudio es describir y comparar aspectos estructurales y funcionales del apoyo social de padres maltratadores físicos y no maltratadores. Este estudio, es un análisis secundario realizado con datos del proyecto FONDECYT 1960795 "Construcción de un instrumento para detectar potencial maltrato físico infantil". La investigación utiliza diseño de casos y controles, incluye 325 sujetos, 112 maltratadores físicos y 213 no maltratadores. El análisis de datos incluyó análisis univariado de la varianza y análisis de varianza factorial. Los aspectos funcionales del apoyo social resultan ser más significativos al diferenciar padres no maltratadores de padres maltratadores físicos. Se discuten principales hallazgos, implicancias y limitaciones del estudio.To carry out preventive and therapeutic interventions in abusive families, it is very important to consider the huge deficit of social support for these families. For this reason, the outcome of this research is the description and comparison of structural and functional aspects of abusive and non-abusive parent's social support. This investigation is a secondary analysis carried out with data taken from the FONDECYT 1960795, "Building up an instrument to detect potencial physical abuse". For the research a cases-control design is used including 325 subjects, 112 physical abusers and 213 non-physical abusers. The data analysis included a univariate analysis of variance and analysis of factorial variance. The functional aspects of the social support turn out to be more significant when comparing physical abusive parents and non-physical abusive parents. Main discoveries, implications, and limitations are discussed.
Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey
There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…
Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J
Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hébert, Martine; Moreau, Catherine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is identified as a significant risk factor for later victimization in the context of adult intimate relationships, but less is known about the risk associated with CSA in early romantic relationships. This paper aims to document the association between CSA and teen dating victimization in a large representative sample of Quebec high-school students. As part of the Youths’ Romantic Relationships Project, 8,194 teens completed measures on CSA and psychological, physical and sexual dating violence. After controlling for other interpersonal traumas, results show that CSA contributed to all three forms of dating victimization among both boys and girls. The heightened risk of revictimization appears to be stronger for male victims of CSA. Intervention and prevention efforts are clearly needed to reduce the vulnerability of male and female victims of sexual abuse who are entering the crucial phase of adolescence and first romantic relationships. PMID:29308104
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS, or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49, and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24. Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3. Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years, nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05-2.19. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS.
Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Schroeder, Christine M.
Child physical abuse (CPA) is not only a highly prevalent public health problem, but it has been associated with a wide range of debilitating psychosocial sequelae that may develop during childhood and persist into adulthood. This paper outlines a treatment model, Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT), that addresses the…
There were two objectives: First, to determine the nature and extent of physical abuse perpetrated on primary school pupils by their teachers; second, to determine why some teachers physically abuse their primary school pupils in Zimbabwe. Epidemiological data of reported physical abuse by teachers in Zimbabwe between January 1990 and December 1997 were analyzed using information in their files. The study found that 78.9% of the perpetrators were male while 21.1% were female; 92.1% of the perpetrators were trained teachers while 7.9% were untrained; 58.7% of the victims were male while 41.3% were female; 91.4% of the cases were reported by the pupils themselves and 8.7% by the school head; 73.9% of these cases were reported to the Ministry of Education and 26.1% to the police. In this study, 80.4% of the victims were beaten, whipped or hit by their perpetrators; 10.9% were clapped or slapped; 4.3% were punched with fists; 2.2% each were kicked and pinched, respectively. The findings indicate that teachers perpetuate various forms of physical abuse and that this form of abuse is now on the increase. The findings indicate that some perpetrators use corporal punishment on female pupils against the stipulated Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulations. What is clear is that the Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulations seem not to be deterrent enough because the majority of the perpetrators are merely fined or reprimanded while only a very small percentage is discharged from the teaching service.
Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.
Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…
Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A
The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy
The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Two independent samples were utilized to develop and evaluate the P-CAAM: an undergraduate sample to initially pilot the task and a separate sample of normative parents for additional assessment of validity. Scores from the P-CAAM were compared to related measures, including measures of self-reported disciplinary attitudes, child abuse potential, harsh parenting style, and use and escalation of physical discipline practices on another analog parenting task. Across the studies, the P-CAAM demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and construct validity, evidencing mild to moderate associations with both self-report and analog measures. Participants demonstrating increased acceptance of physical discipline and physical abuse on the P-CAAM analog task also reported greater approval of physical discipline, greater use of and escalation of physical discipline, harsher parenting styles, and higher child abuse potential on two separate measures. The P-CAAM analog appears to offer a promising alternative and/or supplement to conventional self-report measures, assessing attitudes regarding the acceptability of parent-child aggression in a way that is less likely to be influenced by social desirability. Suggestions for future evaluations with alternative samples, as well as possible implications of the data for disciplinary reactions are discussed. The development of alternatives to self-report measurement may lead to clarification of theoretical models of abuse in ways that lead to improvements in intervention programming; analogs may also provide a useful means to assess intervention programming outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: In order to diagnose child abuse, physicians need to consider the possibility of abuse in every child they encounter, have sufficient information about the topic and manage the cases according to current law. Aims: To determine the knowledge level of physicians on child abuse and to learn their opinions about the procedures when they suspect child abuse. Study Design: A questionnaire (cross-sectional study. Methods: A detailed questionnaire was applied to 390 physicians of whom 233 were general practitioners. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic variables (age, gender, occupational experience and the frequency of child physical abuse cases encountered, since that is the most easily diagnosed and proven form of abuse. The second part consisted of 32 questions about diagnosis of physical child abuse and procedures during the follow-up of the cases. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: Of the participating physicians, 47.4% (n=185 were female and only 13.1% of the physicians had some kind of postgraduate training on child abuse. The correct response rate of specialists compared to general practitioners was significantly higher. A total of 263 (72.3% physicians thought that there was a specific law on physical child abuse in the Turkish Republic. More than two-thirds of physicians thought that reporting should only be addressed to Social Services and physicians should not be obliged to report to law enforcement. Conclusion: The results of the present study adds to the already known necessity for better training of physicians about physical child abuse and the need to refresh their knowledge through postgraduate courses. According to current regulations, it is obligatory to report abuse cases to the public prosecutor and/or police, therefore physicians also need training in respect of the legal status and medico-legal approach to these cases
Hébert, Martine; Moreau, Catherine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is identified as a significant risk factor for later victimization in the context of adult intimate relationships, but less is known about the risk associated with CSA in early romantic relationships. This paper aims to document the association between CSA and teen dating victimization in a large representative sample of Quebec high-school students. As part of the Youths’ Romantic Relationships Project, 8,194 teens completed measures on CSA and psychological, physical...
Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti
A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA.
Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon
The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Zhang, Zhi-hua; Yang, Lin-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Fen; Zhang, Xiu-jun; Sun, Ye-huan
To find out whether the effects of childhood physical abuse on internet addiction disorder in adolescence could be mediated by self-esteem. 3798 high school students selected from 76 classes in Grade One and Grade Two, were asked to fill in the anonymous questionnaire, which including the demographic characteristics of students, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Childhood physical abuse could directly predict less self-esteem and internet addiction disorder (r = -0.108, P self-esteem (a = -0.703, standardized b = -0.104, z = 5.052, P Self-esteem had mediated 22.5% of the childhood physical abuse cases on their internet addiction disorders during the period of adolescence. Self-esteem could partially mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder. The mediating roles of self-esteem suggested that salient leverage points could make a change through empowerment training, self-esteem group training on self-esteem enhancement in the stage of adolescence.
Mohammed N Al Dosari
CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.
Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C
To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.
Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A
Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Dong, XinQi; Li, Ge; Simon, Melissa A
The previous researchers have postulated that an abused child may abuse his or her abuser parent when the parent is getting old, also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence. However, few studies use data to support this model, and it has yet to be examined in the U.S. Chinese community. This study aims to examine the association between childhood abuse and elder abuse reported by Chinese adult children in the United States. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and older participated in this study. Childhood abuse was assessed by four-item Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) scale. Elder abuse was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Childhood abuse was associated with caregiver abuse screen results (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.95). Being physically hurt (r = .13, p abuse screen results. This study suggests that childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of elder abuse among Chinese adult children in the United States. Longitudinal research should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which childhood abuse and its subtypes links with elder abuse. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy Jo
Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.
Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M
The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelley, Michelle L; Lawrence, Hannah R; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Henson, James M
Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fang, Boye; Yan, Elsie; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Partick
Elder abuse poses a major public health threat considering the ongoing rapid aging of the global population. This study investigates the association between elder abuse by family caregivers and medical outcomes among older Chinese patients with cognitive and physical impairments in the People's Republic of China. Using cross-sectional design, 1002 older patients (aged 55 y and older) and their family caregivers were recruited from 3 grade A hospitals in Guangdong Province. The major independent variable is caregiver-reported elder abuse, while outcome variables include cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer, digestive disorder, chronic hepatic disease, chronic renal disease, metabolic disease, acute inflammation, joint disease, tumor, and general injury. The prevalence of these medical conditions among patients who were abused and those who were not were compared using descriptive analyses and chi-square tests, and logistic regression was used to establish the relevant independent associations. A total of 429 (42.8%) older persons have experienced physical or psychological abuse over the past 12 months. After adjusting for potential confounders, abused older persons were more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer, digestive disorder, metabolic disease, acute inflammation, tumor, and injuries. Elder abuse is associated with various major medical morbidities. Interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary to identify and reduce the adverse physiological consequences in victims. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van Vliet-Ruissen, Cora; McKinlay, Audrey; Taylor, Annabel
There is little information regarding the impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the functioning of mothers at risk of child abuse. This study evaluated adult functioning (e.g. child abuse, substance use, criminal convictions, and mental health problems) of mothers, at high risk for child abuse, who also had a history of TBI compared with those without TBI. It was hypothesised that mothers with a history of TBI would engage in higher rates of dysfunctional behaviour compared to those with no history of TBI. Participants were 206 women engaged in a child abuse prevention programme for mothers who are highly socially disadvantaged, and at high risk for child abuse. Using historical data collected as part of the referral, and self report intake process, this study compared child abuse, mental health problems (depression, anxiety, substance use) and rates of criminal offending for mothers with a history of TBI versus those with no history of TBI. Mothers with TBI were no more likely than those without TBI to have engaged in child abuse. However, mothers with a history of TBI were significantly more likely to have one or more mental health problems, engage in substance use and have a history of criminal offending. Parents with TBI who have been identified as high risk for engaging in child abuse have increased risk for mental health problems and criminal offending. These issues need to be considered when designing parenting programmes in order for intervention strategies to be effective.
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.
Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034
Werner, Mark J.
The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…
Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.
In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509
Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Latzman, Natasha E.; Valle, Linda Anne; Kuoh, Henrietta; Burton, Tessa; Taylor, Bruce G.; Tharp, Andra T.
Purpose This study describes the lifetime prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration in a sample of middle school students from high-risk urban communities and examines the relation between TDV and related cognitive and behavioral risk factors. Methods Surveys were administered to 2,895 middle school students in four U.S. cities; 1,673 students (58%) reported having dated and were included in analyses. The sample was 52.3% female, 48.2% non-Hispanic black/African-American, 38.2% Hispanic, 4.8% non-Hispanic white, and 7.6% other race. Six types of TDV perpetration were assessed: threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and stalking. Results Of the students who had dated, 77% reported perpetrating verbal/emotional abuse, 32% reported perpetrating physical abuse, 20% reported threatening a partner, 15% reported perpetrating sexual abuse, 13% reported perpetrating relational abuse, and 6% reported stalking. Girls were more likely than boys to report perpetrating threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, and physical abuse, and boys were more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse. Involvement in bullying positively predicted perpetration of TDV, albeit, in different ways for boys and girls. Other risk factors differed by sex. For instance, alcohol use and sex initiation predicted multiple forms of TDV perpetration for boys, whereas weapon carrying and emotional symptoms predicted several forms of TDV perpetration for girls. Conclusions The prevalence of TDV was high in our sample. Important sex differences in rates of perpetration and risk factors emerged. Comprehensive prevention programs that target TDV and related risk factors, such as bullying and other risk factors, seem warranted. PMID:25620454
Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy J.
Background Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. Additionally, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. Method We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Results Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. Discussion This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings. PMID:29294609
Acierno, R; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D G; Saunders, B; Best, C L
The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.
Regnaut, Océane; Jeu-Steenhouwer, Marie; Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime
Family physicians (FPs) have a central role in the detection and management of child abuse. According to the literature, only 2-5% of initial reports of child abuse come from the medical profession. The objective of this study was to assess levels of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse by Family Physicians (FPs) and the attention that the physicians pay to these risk factors. We conducted a mixed-method survey based on semi-structured interviews. 50 FPs practicing in the Somme County (northern France) were interviewed with closed and open questions. The FPs' level of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse and obstacles in the detection of child abuse were assessed. The FPs' level of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse was similar to that reported in the literature. However, FPs knew little about the significant role of prematurity. Likewise, the FP's training did not seem to influence their knowledge of risk factors. Fear of an incorrect diagnosis was the main obstacle to reporting a suspected case. The FPs considered that they were often alone in dealing with a difficult situation and considered that the judicial system and the social services were not sufficiently active. Few FPs had actually received specific training in the detection and management of child abuse but many stated their need for this type of training. FPs encounter many obstacles in the detection of child abuse, which sometimes make the FP reluctant to report a suspected or potential case. Medical education need to be improved in this field.
Anku Moni Saikia
Full Text Available Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST. Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population.
Full Text Available The study examined the level of two risk factors (autonomy and intimacy for healthy functional family among sexually abused and sexually non-abused individuals. Autonomy and intimacy were measured with Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS; Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985. 261 participants (194 girls and 67 boys completed the FOS, average age was 25 years (SD = 7. Among all participants 18% were sexually abused (N = 46, approximately every fifth (5.7 girl and every seventh (6.7 boy. There were 78% girls and 22% boys among sexually abused participants. Families of sexually abused participants in comparison with the families of sexually non-abused showed many statistically significant differences in elements of autonomy (clarity of expressing emotions, responsibility, respect for others, openness to others, and acceptance of separation and loss and intimacy (encouraging expression of a range of feelings, creating a warm atmosphere in the home, dealing with conflict resolution without undue stress, promoting empathy among family members, trust and developing trust. In general the sexually abused group had a statistically significantly lower level of autonomy and intimacy in comparison with sexually non-abused group.
Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle
This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated…
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Gia Elise Barboza, PhD
Full Text Available We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86 physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96. In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.
Barboza, Gia Elise; Dominguez, Silvia; Chance, Elena
We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86) physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96). In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.
Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D
The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.
Mouton, Charles P; Southerland, Janet H
As with many other populations, abuse of older adults is a growing problem across the Africa Diaspora. Modernization and urbanization are eroding the traditional values of respect for older adults. Also, older adults living in environments with limited social and economic resources, and having no means of economic support create a recipe for elder abuse and neglect. This article reviews the current literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, and interventions used for elder abuse across the African Diaspora. Reports of elder abuse range from 24.9% to 81.1% across the Diaspora. Risk factors include cognitive and physical impairment, social isolation, lack of resources and widowhood. Community-based programs using the unique social networks of older populations of African descent can provide a venue to improve caregiver training and support, reinforce traditional filial and informal caregiving practices, increase the utilization of available governmental and institutional. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; DuMont, Kimberly; Czaja, Sally J
Few prospective longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between abuse or neglect in childhood and depression in adulthood. To determine whether abused and neglected children were at elevated risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychiatric comorbidity, compared with matched control subjects, when followed up into young adulthood. Prospective cohort design study. Midwestern metropolitan county area. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (before the age of 11 years) from January 1, 1967, to December 31, 1971 (n = 676) were matched based on age, race, sex, and approximate family social class with a group of non-abused and non-neglected children (n = 520) and followed up into young adulthood (mean age, 28.7 years). Between October 20, 1989, and December 22, 1995, 2-hour in-person interviews were conducted, using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III Revised, to determine DSM-III-R MDD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Child abuse and neglect were associated with an increased risk for current MDD (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.14; PChildren who were physically abused (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.52; Pneglect increased risk for current MDD (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10-2.29; Pneglected children compared with controls. Among those with MDD, comorbidity was higher for abused and neglected individuals than for controls. These results support the need for clinicians to increase efforts to detect and treat depression in physically abused and neglected children.
Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I
To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L
The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Steven R; Rack, Jessica J; Shi, Xiaowei; Norris, Alda M
To clarify the nature and extent of differences in the ways that physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents communicate during interactions with their children. A meta-analysis was conducted of 33 observational studies comparing parent-child interactions in families where parents have a documented history of physical abuse or neglect vs. where parents have no history of child maltreatment. Parental behaviors were grouped into three clusters (positivity, aversiveness, and involvement) for comparison across studies. When comparing maltreating (physically abusive or neglectful) vs. non-maltreating parents, mean weighted effect sizes for the three behavioral clusters range from d=.46 to .62. Physically abusive parents are distinguished from non-maltreating parents more so than neglectful parents in terms of aversive behavior, whereas the reverse is true for involvement. Publication date, parent and child age, and task structure moderate the magnitude, though not direction, of differences. Parents with a documented history of child physical abuse or child neglect also are distinguished from non-maltreating parents by the levels of aversiveness, positivity, and involvement they display during interactions that constitute the parent-child relationship. Researchers and practitioners need to carefully consider sample size, length and setting of observation, and interaction tasks when using observational methods.
Gururajan, Anand; Manning, Elizabeth E; Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten
There is considerable evidence to suggest that the abuse of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis and methamphetamine, has aetiological roles in the pathogenesis of psychosis and schizophrenia. Factors that may increase susceptibility to the propsychotic effects of these drugs include the age at which the abuse starts as well as family history of genetic polymorphisms relevant to the pathophysiology of this disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug abuse-associated psychosis remain largely unclear. This paper presents an overview of the available evidence, including clinical, animal model, and molecular studies, with a focus on brain regions and neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine and glutamate, previously implicated in psychosis. It is clear that further studies are urgently needed to provide a greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the long-term and neurodevelopmental effects of cannabis and methamphetamine. A dialogue between basic science and clinical research may help to identify at-risk individuals and novel pathways for treatment and prevention.
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy S
We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexually transmitted diseases. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and followed them into adulthood. Information about lifetime history of sexually transmitted diseases was collected as part of a medical status examination when participants were approximately 41 years old. Childhood sexual abuse increased risk for any sexually transmitted disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 3.77; P = .05) and more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.33, 8.22; P = .01). Physical abuse increased risk for more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.39, 9.38; P = .009). Our results provided the first prospective evidence that child physical and sexual abuse increases risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Early screening and interventions are needed to identify and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among child abuse victims.
Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R
Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...
Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M; Hjorthøj, C
Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.
Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…
Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic
Full Text Available One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem.
Zapala, Matthew A.; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.
Growth recovery lines, also known as growth arrest lines, are transverse radiodense metaphyseal bands that develop due to a temporary arrest of endochondral ossification caused by local or systemic insults. To determine if growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high risk versus low risk for abuse. Reports of American College of Radiology compliant skeletal surveys (1999-2013) were reviewed with clinical records. Infants at low risk for abuse had a skull fracture without significant intracranial injury, history of a fall and clinical determination of low risk (child protection team/social work assessment). Infants at high risk had significant intracranial injury, retinal hemorrhages, other skeletal injuries and clinical determination of high risk. There were 52 low-risk infants (mean: 4.7 months, range: 0.4-12 months) and 21 high-risk infants (mean: 4.2 months, range: 0.8-9.1 months). Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the skeletal survey radiographs of the knees/lower legs for the presence of at least one growth recovery line. When growth recovery lines are scored as probably present or definitely present, their prevalence in the low-risk group was 38% (standard deviation [SD] = 8%; reader 1 = 17/52, reader 2 = 23/52) vs. 71% (SD = 7%; reader 1 = 16/21, reader 2 = 14/21) in the high-risk group (P < 0.001; odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.5). Growth recovery lines are encountered at a significantly higher rate in infants at high risk vs. low risk for abuse. This suggests that abused infants are prone to a temporary disturbance in endochondral ossification as a result of episodic physiological stresses. (orig.)
Merrill, Katherine G; Knight, Louise; Glynn, Judith R; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
To conduct a multilevel analysis of risk factors for physical violence perpetration by school staff against Ugandan students. Multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 499 staff and 828 caregivers of students at 38 primary schools, collected in 2012 and 2014 during the Good Schools Study. Luwero District, Uganda. Past-week use of physical violence by school staff against students was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect 'Child Abuse Screening Tool- Child International' and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Of 499 staff, 215 (43%) reported perpetration of physical violence against students in the past week. Individual risk factors associated with physical violence perpetration included being a teacher versus another type of staff member (pviolence against non-students (pviolence (IPV) (pviolence perpetration compared with male staff who had not been a victim of IPV. No evidence was observed for school- or community-level risk factors. Physical violence perpetration from school staff is widespread, and interventions are needed to address this issue. Staff who have been victims of violence and who use violence against people other than students may benefit from additional interventions. Researchers should further investigate how school and community contexts influence staff's physical violence usage, given a lack of associations observed in this study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E
To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.
Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.
Kissin, Dmitry M.; Bogoliubova, Olga; Yorick, Roman V.; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Hillis, Susan D.
Objective Little is known about the magnitude and consequences of violence against children for those living outside family care. We sought to estimate the frequency of childhood abuse and examine its association with lifetime pregnancy involvement (LPI) and past year suicide ideation among orphaned youth. Methods We analyzed data collected via cross-sectional interviewer-administered surveys completed by 293 orphaned youth aged 16–23 years living outside of family care in St. Petersburg, Russia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of LPI and past year suicide ideation associated with childhood physical and sexual abuse. Other risk factors were also examined (e.g., social vulnerability, sexual and substance use behaviors), and characteristics of orphaned youth with LPI and past year suicide ideation were described. Results The prevalence of childhood abuse was higher among females than among males (23.3% versus 15.6% for physical abuse, and 20.3% versus 5.6% for sexual abuse), as was the prevalence of LPI and past year suicide ideation among those with histories of abuse. Experiences of childhood abuse were strong risk factors for both LPI and past year suicide ideation, with significant variation by gender. While both types of abuse were significantly associated with LPI and past year suicide ideation among females, physical abuse was significantly associated with LPI and sexual abuse was associated with suicide ideation for males. Of the other characteristics examined, strong modifiable risk factors included having no one to turn to for help and no involvement in activities outside of class. Among those with LPI (n = 36), nearly 20% had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant ≥2 times, most (61.8%) reported at least one induced abortion, and current use of effective contraception was nearly non-existent. Among those with past year suicide ideation (n = 30), nearly half (44.8%) reported attempting suicide
... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...
Full Text Available Abstract Objective This lifestyle is mainly determined during childhood and connected with poor public prophylactic health policy. The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity and level of tobacco abuse, as well as knowledge about health behaviours, among medical students. Methods Questionnaires were completed by Polish (243 and foreign medical students (80. Results It was stated that about 20% of the students smoked cigarettes. Female students from Norway took up smoking significantly more often than other participants, whereas there were more smokers among those from Poland. There was a significantly larger percentage of smoking males from Norway than among male Polish students. The same students presented a low level of physical activity. The smallest level of physical activity was characteristic of the Polish women. Conclusion This situation requires an intensification of activities aimed at supporting pro-health lifestyles and the elimination of unfavourable effects, especially among medical students.
Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.
Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.
Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.
Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.
Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn
Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.
Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen
Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.
Pugh, Brandie; Li, Luye; Sun, Ivan Y
In both China and the United States, public attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) have shifted from viewing IPV as a tolerable, private matter to viewing it as a matter of public concern that should be dealt with as a crime. Empirical and comparative examinations of the perceptions of why women stay in physically abusive relationships are lacking. Answering this question calls for comprehensive, methodologically rigorous research. Using survey data collected from approximately 1,000 college students from two Chinese and two U.S. universities, this study empirically compared and contrasted factors that impact U.S. and Chinese students' perceptions as to why women remain in physically abusive relationships. Utilizing a theoretical framework of social constructionism, two common reasons were assessed: Women stay in physically abusive relationships because of learned helplessness and positive beliefs in the relationship/hope for the future. The results show that viewing IPV as a crime, gender, and beliefs of the causes of IPV were robust predictors of college students' perceptions toward why women stay in physically abusive relationships. U.S. college students were more likely to express sympathy and understanding toward why women remain in abusive relationships than Chinese students. Directions for future research and policy implications were discussed.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036
Oates, R K
Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...
Zainab, Saima; Kadir, Masood
To determine the prevalence of physical abuse among domestic child labours and to assess the nutritional status by calculating the Body Mass Index of children involved in domestic labour in Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted in the squatter settlements of Karachi. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted to capture physical abuse with 385 children who worked as domestic labour in the household of their employer. The ages of the children were between 10 to 14 years belonging to both genders. The children were enrolled in study by snow-ball sampling technique. The overall prevalence of physical abuse among domestic child labour in Karachi was found to be 8.3 %. Over 9 % had low weight and about 90% were stunted. This study also highlighted that 95% of the children involved in domestic labour perform overtime work in their employer's home, more than once per week. There is high burden of physical abuse among the domestic child labour and these children are malnourished. There is a need to recognize and regulate this form of labour in Pakistan.
Martin H Teicher
Full Text Available There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE. However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X with
Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M
Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.
Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407
Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M T
To study the relationships between retrospective reports of physical punishment/maltreatment and rates of adjustment difficulties at age 18 in a birth cohort of New Zealand subjects. Data were gathered over the course of an 18 year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand born children. At age 18 retrospective reports of exposure to physical punishment/maltreatment were obtained. At this time the cohort was also assessed on measures of psychosocial adjustment juvenile offending, substance abuse behaviors, and psychiatric disorder. Young people reporting exposure to harsh or abusive treatment during childhood had elevated rates of juvenile offending, substance abuse, and mental health problems. However, subsequent analysis using logistic regression methods showed that much of the elevated risk shown by this group was explained by social and contextual factors that were associated with patterns of childhood punishment/maltreatment. Nonetheless, even after control for confounding factors those reporting harsh or abusive childhood experiences were at increased risks of violent offending, suicide attempts, being a victim of violence, and alcohol abuse. This study leads to three major conclusions: (1) Those exposed to harsh or abusive treatment during childhood are an at-risk population for juvenile offending, substance abuse, and mental health problems; (2) Much of this elevated risk arises from the social context within which harsh or abusive treatment occurs; (3) Nonetheless, exposure to abuse appears to increase risks of involvement in violent behavior and alcohol abuse.
van der Aa, M.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Dijkman, E.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; van de Ven, B.M.; Hernández, F.; Versteegh, A.; de Voogt, P.
A screening campaign of drugs of abuse (DOA) and their relevant metabolites in the aqueous environment was performed in the Netherlands. The presence of DOA, together with the potential risks for the environment and the possible human exposure to these compounds through consumption of drinking water
Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N
To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.
Auslander, Wendy; Sterzing, Paul; Threlfall, Jennifer; Gerke, Donald; Edmond, Tonya
This study investigated the relationship between histories of childhood abuse and aggressive behaviors among adolescent girls involved in child welfare, and determined whether symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression mediated this relationship. Participants were 237 girls ages 12-19 years. Overall, results indicated 89 % of the adolescents endorsed at least one aggressive behavior towards others. Specifically, 72.0 % engaged in physical aggression, 78.5 % engaged in non-physical aggression, and 51.5 % endorsed relational aggression. Greater severity of emotional and physical abuse were significantly associated with a higher frequency of aggressive behaviors. Sexual abuse was not significantly related to aggression. Post-traumatic stress and depression fully mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and aggression, controlling for race, service use, and living situation. The linkages between physical abuse and aggression were not mediated by either post-traumatic stress or depression. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls with histories of emotional abuse, post-traumatic stress and depression represent potential modifiable risk factors to target for reducing aggression.
Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E
There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu
No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.
Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise
Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…
Different disabilities are associated with differing risk of child maltreatment and child protection involvement. Groups that are considered at higher risk require services to identify and address the support needs of this group and determine how prevention and early intervention can lower the risk for child abuse and neglect in this vulnerable group.
Ho, Grace W K; Bettencourt, Amie; Gross, Deborah A
Entry into the child protection system in the US begins with a child maltreatment report. Some evidence suggests that report source and child age are related to report outcomes, but there has been no national study of these relationships. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to describe the distribution of report sources for child physical abuse (CPA), and examine whether (a) the source of a report and (b) child age contribute to the likelihood of substantiation of the reported abuse. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted using a US national sample of 204,414 children investigated for CPA in 2013 in a dataset obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Results showed that fewer than one in seven children reported for CPA were confirmed victims of abuse. Professionally mandated reporters initiated the majority of CPA reports, and their reports were more likely to be substantiated compared with nonprofessionals. However, reports made by even the most accurate professional group (legal/law enforcement) had only a 26% chance of substantiation, and some professional groups had a lower likelihood of substantiation than nonprofessionals. Reports made by professionals were less likely to be substantiated as child age increased. More research is warranted to develop and test the effectiveness of training programs to improve CPA reporting and identification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dong, XinQi; Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A
Older adults with dementia may be at high risk for abuse, but the topic has not been well studied. We conducted a literature review to examine the relationships between elder abuse and dementia. We found that psychological abuse was the most common form of abuse among older adults, with estimates of its prevalence ranging from 27.9 percent to 62.3 percent. Physical abuse was estimated to affect 3.5-23.1 percent of older adults with dementia. We also found that many older adults experienced multiple forms of abuse simultaneously, and the risk of mortality from abuse and self-neglect may be higher in older adults with greater levels of cognitive impairment. We summarize programs and policies related to the abuse of older adults with dementia, including adult protective services, mandatory elder abuse reporting, and the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program. We also summarize aspects of the National Alzheimer's Project Act, the Older Americans Act, and the Elder Justice Act. In spite of a recent increase in research and policy developments on elder abuse, challenges such as insufficient funding, limited knowledge about elder abuse, a lack of funding for the implementation of federal and state programs relevant to elder abuse and dementia, and a lack of dementia-specific training for front-line health care staff persist. Stronger programs targeting the well-being of older adults with dementia are needed.
Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick
Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David
Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aizpurua, Eva; Copp, Jennifer; Ricarte, Jorge J; Vázquez, David
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to a broad range of negative consequences. Thus, early detection and prevention of behaviors associated with IPV is necessary to combat this global public health problem. Controlling behaviors (CBs) within the intimate context, including acts to constrain free mobility or access to friends and relatives, have been characterized as a moderate form of violence and may be an indicator of more severe IPV. Previous research in this field, however, has been primarily conducted in the United States. Accordingly, we lack knowledge of similar findings in other countries to draw more general conclusions about observed associations between these variables, and to identify underlying mechanisms. The current study analyzes the role of control within the Spanish context by examining its correlates, as well as the role and impact of CBs on psychological and physical violence. To achieve these objectives, we use data from the Spanish sample of the Violence Against Women Survey carried out by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights ( N = 1,520 adult women). The results indicated that young women, women with a previous history of physical/sexual abuse during childhood, and women who have resided in Spain for fewer years are at greater risk of experiencing control within the context of an ongoing relationship. Partner risk factors included frequent episodes of drunkenness and general violence (i.e., violence outside of the home). In addition, control was more frequently reported among couples where the man was older than the woman. As hypothesized, women who reported CB by their partners were more likely to experience psychological and physical violence. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing CBs to avert the most severe forms of violence, and provides relevant information about the groups that could most benefit from these efforts.
Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R
Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.
Full Text Available Context: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic, and sexual maltreatment met out to a person below the age of 18 and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude, and trends of the problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of medical and dental residents with regards to physical child abuse of central Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical and dental residents of central Gujarat. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire for a total of 130 residents, in which 89 medical and 41 dental residents responded. Results: Knowledge regarding the social indicator of child abuse was found to be poor in 27.7% (n = 36, average in 68.5% (n = 89, and good in 3.8% (n = 5; and for physical indicator it was found to be poor in 10.8% (n = 14, average 66.9% (n = 87, and good 22.3% (n = 29. Forty-nine percent (n = 64 of the respondents reported having formal training in recognizing child abuse, and 32% (n = 42 had read literature on the topic. Fifty-five percent (n = 72 stated that education regarding child abuse is extremely important. Conclusions: Result of the present study found that medical and dental residents are not sufficiently prepared to endure their role in protection of child from abuse. A significant gap existed between recognizing signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide adequate knowledge.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Svikis, Dace S; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
The authors sought to determine whether pregnancy is an intrinsic motivator for cessation of drug abuse. The authors conducted prospective cohort, co-relative, co-spouse, and within-person analyses of registration for drug abuse during pregnancy among Swedish women born between 1980 and 1990 who gave birth between ages 20 and 35 (N=149,512). Drug abuse was assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. In the population, rates of drug abuse were lower during pregnancy (unadjusted odds ratio=0.67, 95% CI=0.60, 0.74). Compared with population results, the negative association between pregnancy and drug abuse was moderately stronger in cousins (odds ratio=0.49, 95% CI=0.39, 0.62) and substantially stronger in siblings (odds ratio=0.35, 95% CI=0.24, 0.51) discordant for pregnancy. The estimated odds ratio for drug abuse in pregnancy-discordant monozygotic twins was even stronger, at 0.17 (95% CI=0.10, 0.31). Within individuals, the odds ratio for drug abuse while pregnant compared with an equivalent prepregnancy interval was similar to that seen in pregnancy-discordant monozygotic twins, at 0.22 (95% CI=0.19, 0.26). Compared with cohabiting fathers, mothers had a greater reduction in risk for drug abuse during pregnancy (odds ratio=0.40, 95% CI=0.34, 0.47). Pregnancy was more protective in women with low parental education and without a cohabiting, actively drug-abusing father. Compared with prepregnancy baseline, within-individual analyses indicate that risk for drug abuse is also substantially reduced in the postpartum period, for example, the odds ratio for postpartum days 0-242 was 0.13 (95% CI=0.11, 0.16). Risk for drug abuse in women is substantially reduced during pregnancy. Multiple analyses suggest that this association is largely causal, suggesting that pregnancy is indeed a strong intrinsic motivator for drug abuse cessation. Similar strong protective effects may be present in the immediate postpartum period. Our results have implications for our
Subica, Andrew M
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur with serious mental illness, yet the unique mental and physical health influences of childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and forced sexual trauma on individuals with serious mental illness remain unevaluated. The present study of 172 individuals with serious mental illness investigated the adverse effects of CPA, CSA, and forced sexual trauma on severity of PTSD and depression, and overall mental and physical health functioning. Data analysis consisted of chi-square tests, independent t tests, bivariate odds ratios, and linear regressions. Prevalence of CPA (44.8%), CSA (29.1%), and forced sexual trauma (33.1%) were elevated, and nearly one third of participants (31.4%) reported clinical PTSD. Participants exposed to CSA or forced sexual trauma evidenced bivariate ORs ranging from 4.13 to 7.02 for PTSD, 2.44 to 2.50 for major depression, and 2.14 to 2.31 for serious physical illness/disability. Sexual trauma exposure associated with heightened PTSD and depression, and reduced mental and physical health functioning, with CSA uniquely predicting PTSD, depression, and physical health difficulties. CPA less significantly affected these clinical domains. Sexual traumas have profound negative effects on mental and physical health outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness; increased screening and treatment of sexual traumas is needed. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)
Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt
Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.
Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Derby, Carol A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Harlow, Sioban D; Janssen, Imke; Matthews, Karen A
Some evidence suggests that abuse may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women. However, this relation has largely been addressed using self-reported measures of CVD. We tested whether a history of abuse was related to subclinical CVD among midlife women without clinical CVD. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a longitudinal cohort study of women transitioning through the menopause. One thousand four hundred two white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese SWAN participants completed measures of childhood and adult physical and sexual abuse, underwent a blood draw, completed physical measures, and underwent a carotid artery ultrasound at SWAN study visit 12. Associations between abuse and intima media thickness and plaque were tested in linear and multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, site, race/ethnicity, financial strain, education, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, measures of insulin resistance, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and medication use. Findings indicated that a history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher intima media thickness controlling for standard CVD risk factors and other confounders (β=0.022; SE=0.010; Pthe importance of considering the potential impact of early-life stressors on women's later cardiovascular health. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell
To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.
Wright, Curtis; Schnoll, Sidney; Bernstein, David
Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) formerly known as Risk Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) are a regulatory technique for dealing with anticipated risks of new medications and are especially important for new drugs with abuse potential. This paper describes the origin and history of risk-management plans for drugs that might be abused, the proper use of these plans in minimizing the risk to the public, and the special difficulties inherent in managing risks for drugs with abuse potential. Drugs with abuse liability are distinctive since the risks inherent in manufacture and distribution include not only risks to patients prescribed the medications, but also risks to the general public including subgroups in the population not intended to get the drug and who receive no medical benefit from the medication. The crafting of risk-management plans intended to protect nonpatient populations is unique for these products. The content, extent, and level of intensity of these plans affect areas of medical ethics, civil liability, and criminal prosecution. The need for risk-management plans for drugs with abuse liability can potentially act as a deterrent to investment and is a factor in decisions concerning the development of new medications for the treatments of pain, ADHD, anxiety disorders, and addictions. This paper provides a framework for moving the process of REMS development forward and criteria for evaluating the probity and adequacy of such programs.
Full Text Available Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set.In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2. Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment.Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2 and anxiety (GAD-2. Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress.The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in adulthood. The results
Schilling, Christoph; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Häuser, Winfried; Pöhlmann, Karin
Background Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a) to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b) to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c) to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d) to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set. Methods In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2). Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment. Results Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2) and anxiety (GAD-2). Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress. Conclusion The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in
Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Wells, Anne; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu
Childhood abuse is a major global and public health problem associated with a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life course. Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality during the perinatal period. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between experiences of childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in pregnancy. We sought to examine the association between exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2964 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounders. Overall, the prevalence of childhood abuse in this cohort was 71.8% and antepartum suicidal ideation was 15.8%. The prevalence of antepartum suicidal ideation was higher among women who reported experiencing any childhood abuse compared to those reporting none (89.3% vs 10.7%, P suicidal ideation. Women who experienced both physical and sexual childhood abuse had much higher odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.88-5.68). Women who experienced any childhood abuse and reported depression had 3.44-fold (3.44, adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-6.43) increased odds of suicidal ideation compared with depressed women with no history of childhood abuse. Finally, the odds of suicidal ideation increased with increased number of childhood abuse events experienced (P value for linear trend suicidal ideation. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential increased risk of suicidal behaviors among pregnant women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Study of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Abuse, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men in a Sample of Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Application Users.
Duncan, Dustin T; Goedel, William C; Stults, Christopher B; Brady, William J; Brooks, Forrest A; Blakely, Jermaine S; Hagen, Daniel
Geosocial-networking smartphone applications ("apps") are widely used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and facilitate connections between users based on proximity and attraction. MSM have sexual encounters and relationships of varying degrees of emotional and physical intimacy with app-met individuals, potentially placing them at risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of the current study was to utilize a geosocial-networking application to investigate relationships between experiences of IPV victimization as it relates to substance use and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of MSM. Participants ( n = 175) were recruited by means of broadcast advertisements on an application widely used by MSM (Grindr) to seek sexual partners. Multivariable regression models were fit to examine associations between IPV, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors. Lifetime experiences of IPV victimization were common, where 37.7% of respondents reported having experienced at least one form of IPV. While a marginally significant positive association between IPV and substance abuse was detected in multivariable models ( p = .095), individual forms of IPV were strongly associated with substance abuse. For example, sexual IPV victimization was associated with an increase in substance abuse in the preceding month ( p = .004). Experiences of IPV victimization were associated with higher numbers of partners for both condomless receptive and insertive anal intercourse ( p < .05). Given the relatively high prevalence of IPV victimization and its associations with substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors, these findings suggest that IPV screening and prevention programs may reduce substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors in this population.
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.
Comparison of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection: results of a randomized controlled trial.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L
Ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of sexual or physical abuse and sexually transmitted infections represent a vulnerable population at risk for HIV. Community-based interventions for behavior modification and subsequent risk reduction have not been effective among these women. To evaluate the effects of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention model versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Controlled randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up. Southwestern United States, Metropolitan community-based clinic. Mexican-and-African American adolescent women aged 14-18 years with a history of abuse or sexually transmitted infection seeking sexual health care. Extensive preliminary study for intervention development was conducted including individual interviews, focus groups, secondary data analysis, pre-testing and feasibility testing for modification of an evidence-based intervention prior to testing in the randomized controlled trial. Following informed consents for participation in the trial, detailed interviews concerning demographics, abuse history, sexual risk behavior, sexual health and physical exams were obtained. Randomization into either control or intervention groups was conducted. Intervention participants received workshop, support group and individual counseling sessions. Control participants received abuse and enhanced clinical counseling. Follow-up including detailed interview and physical exam was conducted at 6 and 12 months following study entry to assess for infection. Intention to treat analysis was conducted to assess intervention effects using chi-square and multiple regression models. 409 Mexican-(n=342) and African-(n=67) American adolescent women with abuse and sexually transmitted infection histories were enrolled; 90% intervention group attendance; longitudinal follow-up at 6 (93
Wangel, Anne-Marie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Schei, Berit; Östman, Margareta; Lukasse, Mirjam
This study aims to describe the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and analyze associations with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in pregnancy, by ethnic background. This is a cross-sectional study of the Swedish data from the Bidens cohort study. Ethnicity was categorized as native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Women completed a questionnaire while attending routine antenatal care. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) assessed a history of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The Edinburgh Depression Scale-5 measured symptoms of depression. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) included intrusion, avoidance and numbness. Of 1003 women, 78.6% were native and 21.4% were non-native Swedish-speakers. Native and non-native Swedish-speakers experienced a similar proportion of lifetime abuse. Moderate emotional and physical abuse in childhood was significantly more common among non-native Swedish-speakers. Sexual abuse in adulthood was significantly more prevalent among native Swedish-speakers. Emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of depression for both natives and non-natives. Physical abuse was significantly associated with symptoms of depression for non-natives only. All types of abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of PTS for both native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Adding ethnicity to the multiple binary regression analyses did not really alter the association between the different types of abuse and symptoms of depression and PTS. The prevalence of lifetime abuse did not differ significantly for native and non-native Swedish-speakers but there were significant differences on a more detailed level. Abuse was associated with symptoms of depression and PTS. Being a non-native Swedish-speaker did not influence the association much. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Elliott, Gregory C; Cunningham, Susan M; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle
This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated than those who had not. Results strongly supported the hypothesis, controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Explanation is provided in terms of damage to attachment skills, social competence, and self-esteem concomitant to being a victim of abuse. Males were more socially isolated than females, and Hispanics more than Whites. Children with involved parents were less socially isolated; those whose parents experienced normlessness were more isolated. Children who recently experienced a stressful event or were from riskier neighborhoods were more isolated. The number of children in the family was positively related to isolation. Social isolation decreases between seventh and eighth grades.
Naughton, Corina; Drennan, Jonathan; Lyons, Imogen; Lafferty, Attracta; Treacy, Margaret; Phelan, Amanda; O'Loughlin, Anne; Delaney, Liam
To measure the 12-month prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in community-dwelling older people in Ireland and examine the risk profile of people who experienced mistreatment and that of the perpetrators. Cross-sectional general population survey. Community. People aged 65 years or older living in the community. Information was collected in face-to-face interviews on abuse types, socioeconomic, health, and social support characteristics of the population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.41-2.94) in the previous 12 months. The frequency of mistreatment type was financial 1.3%, psychological 1.2%, physical abuse 0.5%, neglect 0.3%, and sexual abuse 0.05%. In the univariate analysis lower income OR 2.39 (95% CI: 1.01-5.69), impaired physical health OR 3.41 (95% CI: 1.74-6.65), mental health OR 6.33 (95% CI: 3.33-12.0), and poor social support OR 4.91 (95% CI: 2.1-11.5) were associated with a higher risk of mistreatment but only social support and mental health remained independent predictors. Among perpetrators adult children (50%) were most frequently identified. Unemployment (50%) and addiction (20%) were characteristics of this group.
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Damian, April Joy; Mendelson, Tamar
Alcohol use is a pervasive and costly public health problem in the United States. Relapse rates from alcohol use disorders are high. Although exercise has been proposed as a strategy to prevent relapse, lifestyle modification is the least studied aspect of relapse prevention programs, especially among racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study assessed whether being physically active was associated with remission from alcohol abuse or dependence among Black (African American and Afro Caribbean) adults in the U.S. We utilized data on Black adult participants (n = 4,828) from the nationally representative National Survey of American Life (NSAL) conducted in 2001-2003. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the odds of being in 12-month remission or currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence based on level of physical activity, adjusting for socio-demographic and neighborhood characteristics. People who endorsed being physically active had higher odds of being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.17) than people who were physically inactive, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics. People who were physically active did not differ significantly from those who were inactive with respect to odds of currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Conclusions/Importance: Physical activity was positively associated with being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal ordering and to explore exercise as a potential relapse prevention strategy for alcohol use problems.
Full Text Available Ashley-Nicole Carmichael,1 Laura Morgan,1 Egidio Del Fabbro2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Background: The misuse and abuse of opioid medications in many developed nations is a health crisis, leading to increased health-system utilization, emergency department visits, and overdose deaths. There are also increasing concerns about opioid abuse and diversion in patients with cancer, even at the end of life. Aims: To evaluate the current literature on opioid misuse and abuse, and more specifically the identification and assessment of opioid-abuse risk in patients with cancer. Our secondary aim is to offer the most current evidence of best clinical practice and suggest future directions for research. Materials and methods: Our integrative review included a literature search using the key terms “identification and assessment of opioid abuse in cancer”, “advanced cancer and opioid abuse”, “hospice and opioid abuse”, and “palliative care and opioid abuse”. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase were supplemented by a manual search. Results: We found 691 articles and eliminated 657, because they were predominantly noncancer populations or specifically excluded cancer patients. A total of 34 articles met our criteria, including case studies, case series, retrospective observational studies, and narrative reviews. The studies were categorized into screening questionnaires for opioid abuse or alcohol, urine drug screens to identify opioid misuse or abuse, prescription drug-monitoring programs, and the use of universal precautions. Conclusion: Screening questionnaires and urine drug screens indicated at least one in five patients with cancer may be at risk of opioid-use disorder. Several studies demonstrated associations between high-risk patients and clinical outcomes, such as aberrant behavior, prolonged opioid use, higher morphine-equivalent daily dose
Ananda P. Dasanayake
Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95% CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
Behr Gomes Jardim, Gabriel; Novelo, Marta; Spanemberg, Lucas; von Gunten, Armin; Engroff, Paula; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Cataldo Neto, Alfredo
The association of childhood maltreatment and suicide has been extensively examined within the population. Depression figures as a main cause for the elevated suicide rate in advanced ages and is often related to childhood maltreatment. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment subtypes and suicide risk, testing geriatric depression as a moderator. This is a cross-sectional study looking at a sample of 449 individuals 60 year s old or older from the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly of Porto Alegre Family Health Strategy, Brazil (EMI-SUS/POA). Childhood maltreatment (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), geriatric depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), and suicide risk (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) were assessed. The subtypes of childhood abuse and neglect were significantly associated with suicide risk. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for age, gender, income, marital status, ethnicity, smoking, and geriatric depression symptoms, all trauma subtypes remained associated with suicide risk with the exception of physical neglect (EA = 3.65; PA = 3.16; SA = 5.1; EN = 2.43; PN = 1.76). The present study showed that childhood maltreatment subtypes predicted suicide risk, and geriatric depression does not directly mediate this relation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available According to the definition of Meadow (1989, child abuse is defined as treating a child in an unacceptable way in a given culture at a given time. Major criteria for diagnosis of physical child abuse include sever, multiple, and patterned injuries with different stages of healing. Sometimes, even a single, minor injury may be sufficient to diagnose physical child abuse based on how much it is unacceptable to that particular culture at a given time. When single minor trauma is found, the criteria that could be used to decide whether it is unacceptable to the culture at a given time include; severe pain, severe disfiguration, negligence and lack of care such as injuries to main members of the body,unacceptable punishments such as biting, burning, pinching or tying to an object and,severe mental trauma such as due to non-sexual genital injuries. Much information can be gathered from minor injuries and their consequences such as how much of care was rendered. A new criterion to diagnose physical child abuse is introduced using single minor injuries. However, there is no objective and defined way of deciding how much the trauma is unacceptable for the culture at a given time. Therefore, this should be decided by law of common man, that is, if the ill-treatment of the child is unacceptable to a common man in the society.
Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete
To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja
To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.
Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.
Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…
Roberts, Andrea L.; Galea, Sandro; Austin, S. Bryn; Corliss, Heather L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Koenen, Karestan C.
Background Smoking and overweight are principal determinants of poor health for which individual-level interventions are at best modestly effective. This limited effectiveness may be partly because these risk factors are patterned by parents’ experiences preceding the individual’s birth. Purpose To determine whether women’s experience of abuse in childhood was associated with smoking and overweight in their children. Methods In 2012, data were linked from two large longitudinal cohorts of women (Nurses’ Health Study II [NHSII], N=12,666) and their children (Growing Up Today [GUTS] Study, N=16,774), 1989–2010. Odds ratios of children following higher-risk smoking trajectories and risk ratios (RR) of children’s overweight and obesity by their mother’s childhood experience of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were calculated. The extent to which mother’s smoking and overweight, socioeconomic indicators, family characteristics, and child’s abuse exposure accounted for possible associations was ascertained. Results Children of women who experienced severe childhood abuse had greater likelihood of higher-risk smoking trajectories (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.21, 1.61), overweight (RR=1.21, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.33), and obesity (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.21, 1.74) across adolescence and early adulthood compared with children of women who reported no abuse. Mother’s smoking and overweight and children’s abuse exposure accounted for more than half of the elevated risk of following the highest-risk smoking trajectory and overweight in children of women abused. Conclusions These findings raise the possibility that childhood abuse may not only adversely affect the health of the direct victim but may also affect health risk factors in her children decades after the original traumatic events. PMID:24512863
And Others; Strain, Phillip S.
Reports that physically abused and neglected children most frequently responded to positive overtures by adults by ignoring them and that they regularly responded in positive ways to overtures by peers. (FL)
Scheuer, Sandra; Wiggert, Nicole; Brückl, Tanja Maria; Awaloff, Yvonne; Uhr, Manfred; Lucae, Susanne; Kloiber, Stefan; Holsboer, Florian; Ising, Marcus; Wilhelm, Frank H
Traumatic experiences during childhood are considered a major risk factor for depression in adulthood. Childhood trauma may induce physiological dysregulation with long-term effects of increased allostatic load until adulthood, which may lead to depression. Thus, our aim was to investigate whether allostatic load - which represents a multi-system measure of physiological dysregulation - mediates the association between childhood trauma and adult depression. The study sample consisted of 324 depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project and 261 mentally healthy control participants. The mediation analysis using a case-control approach included childhood trauma, i.e., physical and sexual abuse, as predictor variables and an allostatic load index comprised of 12 stress-related biomarkers as mediator. Age and sex were included as covariates. Mediation analyses revealed that the influence of physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, during childhood on depression in adulthood was mediated by allostatic load. This effect was moderated by age: particularly young (18-42 years) and middle-aged (43-54 years) adults with a history of physical abuse during childhood exhibited high allostatic load, which in turn was associated with increased rates of depression, but this was not the case for older participants (55-81 years). Results support the theoretical assumption of allostatic load mediating the effect of physical abuse during childhood on depression in adulthood. This predominantly holds for younger participants, while depression in older participants was independent of physical abuse and allostatic load. The effect of sexual abuse on depression, however, was not mediated by allostatic load. Identifying allostatic load biomarkers prospectively in the developmental course of depression is an important target for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vertermark, P; Russell, J; Mulvey, N
Since 1989 two Saint Paul, Minnesota agencies have carried on a collaborative effort called the Befriender Volunteer Project. This project is designed to address the risk factors associated with child abuse which are often inherent in families headed by an adolescent. Between November of 1993 and October of 1994 a self-study of this project was conducted. An important objective of this study was to determine how the positive elements of a successful relationship affected the risk factors in these young families. Consistent with what we know about the effects of successful helping relationships, most significant improvements in young mothers were found in the areas of hopefulness, self-esteem, and parenting skills. Of significant note was the observation of the various ways the Befriender/young mother relationship enhanced the young mothers' potential for breaking the generational cycle of risk for child abuse and neglect.
Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Carolina D. Wiener
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60% individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men. Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. Conclusion: These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.
Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P
To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.
Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 116-120 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 116-120
Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel
Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective
Mercilene T Machisa
Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and
Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.
Yoon, Susan; Barnhart, Sheila; Cage, Jamie
The primary aim of the current study was to examine the longitudinal effects of ongoing physical abuse on the co-development of externalizing behavior problems and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among child welfare-involved adolescents. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, we performed unconditional and conditional parallel process latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling framework. The study sample included 491 adolescents who were between 11 and 13 years of age at baseline. Higher levels of initial PTS symptoms were associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior problems, but the rate of change in PTS symptoms were not significantly associated with the rate of change in externalizing behavior problems over time. Although physical abuse was concurrently associated with both externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms at all assessment points, there were no lagged effects. Additionally, we found that physical abuse indirectly affects subsequent development of externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms through ongoing physical abuse. Findings highlight the comorbidity of externalizing behaviors and PTS symptoms among early adolescents in the child welfare system, underlining the importance of screening for and addressing these problems simultaneously. Findings also point to the need for continued assessment of and protection from ongoing physical abuse during adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali
Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were inte...
Dennis G. Fisher; Robert Malow; Rhonda Rosenberg; Grace L. Reynolds; Nisha Farrell; Aditya Jaffe
Until recently, the Viagra connection to HIV was anchored in older adults. However, CDC investigation showed stability in 50+ HIV diagnoses on the heels of upward trends in risk indicators among men who have sex with men (MSM) and substance abusing populations. Signs have increasingly pointed to recreational drug use among younger populations, to which Viagra is being added to th...
Sousa, Cindy; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Prince, Dana; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean
There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time. In this longitudinal study, we used path analyses to examine the cumulative effects of physical child abuse and environmental stressors on adult depressive symptoms among a sample of children followed into adulthood (N = 356). The goal was to assess whether chronic physical child abuse remains an independent predictor of adult outcomes once we accounted for the cumulative effects of household and neighborhood stressors across the lifecourse. Cumulative measures of physical child abuse and environmental stress each independently predicted a higher likelihood of adult depressive symptoms (ß = .122, p < .01 and ß = .283, p < .001, respectively). After accounting for adolescent depressive symptoms, only cumulative environmental stressors independently predicted depressive symptoms (ß = .202, p < .001). Tests of the indirect effect of cumulative environmental stress on the relationship between cumulative physical abuse and adult depressive symptoms were marginally statistically significant. Results add to literature that examines child abuse, adversity, and lifecourse perspectives on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
Besier, T.; Pillhofer, M.; Botzenhart, S.; Ziegenhain, U.; Kindler, H.; Spangler, G.; Bovenschen, I.; Gabler, S.; Künster, A. K.
Purpose: Currently, there is a claim for earlier interventions for families in order to prevent child maltreatment. Here, a screening instrument to assess risk indicators for child abuse and neglect already in the context of maternity clinics is introduced. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of this instrument, the “short questionnaire for risk indices around birth” (RIAB). Material and Methods: Data were collected in the context of three different studies conducted at Ulm University Hospital. To examine interrater reliability eight case vignettes were rated by n = 90 study participants (50 students and 40 experts working at a maternity clinic). Criterion validity was examined in two studies applying the German version of the child abuse potential inventory CAPI (n = 96 families at risk and n = 160 additional families). Results: Both laymen and experts were able to understand and use the screening instrument correctly, leading to a high agreement with the sample solutions given. A high concordance was found between parentsʼ and expertsʼ ratings: In case of no reported risk factors applying the screening instrument RIAB, parents themselves reported significantly less stressors and burdens, compared to those parents with an indication for a thorough examination as pointed out in the RIAB. Conclusion: In the context of maternity clinics the RIAB is a useful, broadly applicable instrument, screening for existing risk factors at the earliest and thus allowing for the initiation of specific interventions when needed. PMID:25298543
Trauffer, Nicole; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Although the percentage of crimes committed by females has increased over the last 20 years in the United States, most research focuses on crimes by males. This article describes an examination of the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts violent and nonviolent offending in females and the role of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, girls with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect were matched with nonmaltreated girls (controls) on the basis of age, race, and approximate family socioeconomic class, and followed into adulthood ( N = 582). Information was obtained from official arrest records and participant responses to a standardized structured psychiatric interview. Women with a history of any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were at significantly increased risk for having an arrest for violence, compared to control women. Except for those with a history of physical abuse, abused and neglected women were also at increased risk for arrest for a nonviolent crime, compared to controls. In bivariate chi-square comparisons, the three groups of women (violent offenders, nonviolent offenders, and nonoffenders) differed significantly in the diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and dysthymia, but not major depressive disorder, and violent female offenders had significantly higher rates of these disorders compared to nonoffenders. However, with controls for age and race, PTSD was the only psychiatric disorder to distinguish women arrested for a violent crime compared to a nonviolent crime (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.32, confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.84-21.68, p < 0.01), and PTSD moderated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and violent offending (AOR = 5.55, 95% CI = 1.49-20.71): women with histories of childhood maltreatment were equally likely to have an arrest for violence, regardless
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Method Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. Conclusion The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. Practical Implications These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L; Cicchetti, Dante
To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of abused women's shame to interpersonal conflicts could be
Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen
Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors
and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...
Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron
Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…
risks and are more likely to face physical, emotional and sexual abuse, especially at night. ... They often fall sick owing to the harsh cold weather, poor hygiene and sanitation ..... streets. Other studies in Nigeria and India also reported that >70% of street ... behaviours by street children can lead to health and social problems.
Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.
long term effects of my father's physical, verbal, emotional and financial abuse of my mother along ... are astonishingly similar to my childhood experiences in an abusive household ..... An over labelling of any type of negative affectivity as anger is likely. Self- ... divorce has physical abuse as its root cause. More difficult to ...
Prino, Claudia T.; Peyrot, Mark
This study investigated aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behavior in 21 physically abused, 26 nonabused-neglected, and 21 nonabused-nonneglected children, ages 5-8. No single dimension adequately discriminated children in each of the three groups. Full discrimination was achieved only when aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors were…
Thyen, U; Kirchhofer, F; Wattam, C
Descriptive study on health outcomes, co-morbidity, severity and social context in child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study of consecutively incoming cases in eleven German Child Protection Centres between January and July 1997 using a standardised survey instrument. We report on 263 children from 251 families. The majority of children was less than ten years old, 63% were girls, 37% boys. Of all children, 134 had suffered sexual abuse with physical contact, 20 sexual abuse without contact, 77 physical abuse, 62 emotional abuse and 99 neglect (multiple responses were allowed). The overlap between various types of abuse was considerable: many children had suffered more than one, a quarter more than two types of abuse. The majority of cases was classified as either severe and/or chronic. Most children and youngsters suffered emotional distress or posttraumatic stress, long-term consequences of physical injuries were less common. Intra-familiar relationship problems and emotional distress of the care-giver had greater impact on the risk for abuse or neglect compared to socioeconomic risk factors. In 55% child protection workers documented a disability in social and emotional development, in a quarter of children developmental retardation. The current, exclusive classification of types of abuse and neglect does not adequately describe the complexity of childrens' experiences of intra-familiar violence. Future research should be oriented towards the physical, emotional and social consequences of child maltreatment and use multifactorial designs to capture the complex aetiology and multiple acts and omissions responsible for the distress and injuries. Prospective studies are important to assess specific effects of child abuse and neglect on child development.
Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany
Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Klevens, Joanne; Ports, Katie A; Austin, Chelsea; Ludlow, Ivan J; Hurd, Jacqueline
Children around the world experience violence at the hands of their caregivers at alarming rates. A recent review estimates that a minimum of 50% of children in Asia, Africa, and North America experienced severe physical violence by caregivers in the past year, with large variations between countries. Identifying modifiable country-level factors driving these geographic variations has great potential for achieving population-level reductions in rates of child maltreatment. This study builds on previous research by focusing on caregiver-reported physical abuse and neglect victimisation, examining 22 societal factors representing 11 different constructs among 42 countries from 5 continents at different stages of development. Our findings suggest that gender inequity may be important for both child physical abuse and neglect. Indicators of literacy and development may also be important for child neglect. Given the limitations of the correlational findings and measurement issues, it is critical to continue to investigate societal-level factors of child maltreatment so that interventions and prevention efforts can incorporate strategies that have the greatest potential for population-level impact.
Palmer, H; Weston, J T
All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Fisher, William H.; Clark, Robin; Baxter, Jeffrey; Barton, Bruce; O’Connell, Elizabeth; Aweh, Gideon
Persons who abuse opioids or are dependent on opioids are at elevated risk for arrest. Co-occurring behavioral health problems may exacerbate that risk, although the extent of any such increase has not been described. This study examines such risk factors among 40,238 individuals with a diagnosis of opioid abuse or dependence who were enrolled in the Massachusetts Medicaid program in 2010. Medicaid data were merged with statewide arrest data to assess the effects of co-existing mental illness, substance abuse, and previous arrests on arrest during 2010. Persons with serious mental illnesses (psychotic and bipolar disorders) and those with two or more pre-2010 arrests had significantly increased greater odds of arrest. We believe this to be the first study examining effects of co-occurring risk factors on arrest in a large population with opioid dependency/abuse. These findings identify predictors of arrest that could be used to design interventions targeting specific co-occurring risk factors. PMID:25012550
Full Text Available This investigation had two objectives: a to compare the number of punitive and not punitive socialresponses reported toward three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension, by a group of 39institutionalized for physical abuse children and girls, with that informed by a group of 34 not abusedchildren and girls inscribed to an educational institution, and b to compare the number of punitive andnot punitive responses that the physically abused children and girls referred in this situations. All thechildren had between eight and twelve age-years, among second and quarter educational degree and lowsocioeconomic levels. The three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension were presented verballywith the support of six sheets (three for each sex and their responses were gathered in a quantitative waythrough the content analysis. The application of the test U of Mann Whitney didn’t throw significantdifferences among the two groups. Nevertheless, it was found a significant difference at intra-grouplevel, in accordance with the test of Wicolxon.
Rahman, Gisel; Ocampo, Dolores; Rubinstein, Anahí; Risso, Paula
The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients with suspected sexual abuse is uncommon in the field of pediatrics. To establish the prevalence of anogenital findings and their relation to the presence of STIs in girls referred for suspected child sexual abuse. Retrospective study conducted between January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2013. Physical findings and detection of STIs in girls with suspected child sexual abuse were analyzed. One thousand thirty-four patients were included. Their median age was 7.9 years old. Anogenital findings were classified as class I (normal):38.4%, class II (nonspecific):38.1%, class III (specific):19.9% and class IV (definitive):3.6%. STIs were observed in 42 patients (4.1%). A relation was established between STIs and the classification of physical findings: 10 (class II: 9; class III: 1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 17 (class I: 2; class II: 8; class III: 7) Chlamydia trachomatis, 15 (class I: 2; class II: 10; class III: 3) Trichomonas vaginalis. Statistically significant differences for Trichomonas vaginalis (p= 0.01) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (p < 0.0001) were observed, with predominance of nonspecific clinical signs. Both nonspecific and specific findings were similarly observed for Chlamydia trachomatis (p= 0.03). Most cases of girls with suspected child sexual abuse had normal or nonspecific anogenital findings. The prevalence of STIs in these girls is low. Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were related to nonspecific findings, while both nonspecific and specific findings were observed for Chlamydia trachomatis.
Pillemer, Karl; Burnes, David; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S
Elder mistreatment is now recognized internationally as a pervasive and growing problem, urgently requiring the attention of health care systems, social welfare agencies, policymakers, and the general public. In this article, we provide an overview of global issues in the field of elder abuse, with a focus on prevention. This article provides a scoping review of key issues in the field from an international perspective. By drawing primarily on population-based studies, this scoping review provided a more valid and reliable synthesis of current knowledge about prevalence and risk factors than has been available. Despite the lack of scientifically rigorous intervention research on elder abuse, the review also identified 5 promising strategies for prevention. The findings highlight a growing consensus across studies regarding the extent and causes of elder mistreatment, as well as the urgent need for efforts to make elder mistreatment prevention programs more effective and evidence based. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C
To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Merrill, Ray M.; Richards, Rickelle; Sloan, Arielle
Background. This study examines whether the relationship between maternal stress or abuse situations and infant birth weight differs between homeless and non-homeless women. Methods. Analyses are based on data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2002–2007. Results. Homeless women were significantly more likely to experience stressful life events, abusive situations, and poor maternal health than non-homeless women during pregnancy. Birth weight among infant...
Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.
Arn J Schilder
Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population.We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders.Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders.Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.
Leisring, Penny A
Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management.
Klein, H; Chao, B S
This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.
Santos, Ana João; Nunes, Baltazar; Kislaya, Irina; Gil, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Oscar
Depression and depressive symptoms have been studied both as risk factors and consequences of elder abuse, even though the most common cross-sectional design of the studies does not allow inferring cause or consequence relationships. This study estimates the proportion of older adults who screened positive for depressive symptoms among those self-reporting elder abuse and examines whether individual characteristics and/or abusive experience aspects are associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. Participants were 510 older adults self-reporting experiences of abuse in family setting enrolled in the cross-sectional victims' survey of the Aging and Violence Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the abbreviated version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5). Poisson regression was used to determine the prevalence ratio (PR) of screening depressive symptoms according to individual and abusive experience covariates: sex, age group, cohabitation, perceived social support, chronic diseases, functional status, violence type, perpetrator, and number of conducts. Women (PR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 1.35]) individuals perceiving low social support level (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.16, 1.60]) and with long-term illness (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.33]) were found to be associated with increased risk for screening depressive symptoms. In regard to abusive experience, only the number of abusive conducts increased the PR (PR = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.05, 1.09]). Routine screening for elder abuse should include psychological well-being assessment. Interventions toward risk alleviation for both mental health problems and elder abuse should target women perceiving low social support level and with long-term illness.
Full Text Available Objective: The incindence of wife abuse and its impacts on psychological as well as physical health of the women and in its ultimate negative effects on the health of the family have been presented in many researches. The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical and psychological wife abuse among the married women living in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Study sample (N=1000 consisted of two group of married women (18-45 years: those who did not refere to domestic curts (n= 800, and those who had problem with their husbands and therefore refered to domestic curts (n=200. Moffir et al. (15 Questionnaire has been applied. Results: Data analysis revealed that: psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the first group were 87/9 and 47/9 respectively. Psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the second group were 99/5 and 91 respectively. Wife abuse was significantly related to the age of the couples and duration of their marriage the older the couples and the longer the marriage, the higher the wife abuse. There was a significant negative relationship between education of the couples and wife abuse. The higher the education, the lesser the wife abuse. Those husbands who consumed alcohol or drug, abused their wives significantly more than those husbands who did not consume alcohol or drug. Husbands with psychological problems abused their wives significantly more than husbands without psychological problems. Psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the second group were higher than psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the first group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that there are relationships among the variables of age, education, alcohol or drug consumption, husbands psychological disorders and wife abuse. Legislation of a low wich forbids husbands to abuse their wives and increament of the general knowledge about wife abuse by means of mass media may have
Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin
Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...... with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... and barbiturate abusers over the observed period of 37 years, while stimulant abuse did not have any impact. Alcohol contributed to non drug related death. Keywords: drug related death; risk factor; gender; competing risks Cox regression; cohort study; Predictors...
Byrne, Shannon A; Cherniack, Martin G; Petry, Nancy M
Opioid dependence is growing at an alarming rate in the United States, and opioid dependent patients have substantial medical, as well as psychiatric, conditions that impact their ability to work. This study evaluated the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and receipt of physical disability payments in methadone maintenance patients. Using data from 115 drug and alcohol abusing methadone maintained patients participating in two clinical trials, baseline characteristics of individuals receiving (n=22) and those not receiving (n=93) physical disability benefits were compared, and a logistic regression evaluated unique predictors of disability status. Both an ASPD diagnosis and severity of medical problems were significant predictors of disability receipt, ps<.05. After controlling for other variables that differed between groups, patients with ASPD were more than five times likelier to receive physical disability benefits than patients without ASPD (odds ratio=5.66; 95% confidence interval=1.58-20.28). These results demonstrate a role of ASPD in the receipt of disability benefits in substance abusers and suggest the need for greater understanding of the reasons for high rates of physical disability benefits in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...
The author considers the relationship between uncontrollable infant crying and child abuse. An integrative scheme is offered from evidence of child abuse literature, experimentally induced infant crying effects, attribution theory, and learned helplessness. It is suggested that infant crying often has causes beyond caregiver control, such as birth…
... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...
The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.
Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman
This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.
Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri
Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion
This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…
Milojevich, Helen M; Haskett, Mary E
The present study took a developmental psychopathology approach to examine the longitudinal association between parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Data collection spanned from 2004 to 2008. Ninety-two physically abusive parents completed yearly assessments of their emotional expressiveness, as well as their children's self-regulation abilities. Observational and behavioral measures were also obtained yearly to capture both parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Specifically, parents participated in a parent-child interaction task, which provided insight into their levels of flat affect. A puzzle box task was completed by each child to assess self-regulation. Results indicated, first, that greater parental expression of negative emotions predicted poorer self-regulation in children, both concurrently and across time. Second, parental expressions of positive emotions and parents' flat affect were unrelated to children's self-regulation. Findings inform our understanding of parental socialization of self-regulation and provide insight into the roles of distinct components of emotional expressiveness. Moreover, findings have crucial implications for understanding emotional expressiveness in high-risk samples and increase our understanding of within-group functioning among maltreating families that may serve as a means to direct intervention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henschel, S.; de Bruin, M.; Möhler, E.
We examined whether physically and sexually abused mothers display lower levels of self-control, whether this explains their higher tendency to abuse their own children, and if this results in lower levels of self-control among their children. In a cross-sectional study, 40 abused and 47 matched,
Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H
To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.
Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.
The special circumstances in which girl-children (i.e. child labour and residency in overcrowded housing units) find themselves in urban Nigeria expose them to possible risks of physical, psychological and sexual abuse, which in turn increase their vulnerability to early pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.
Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive
Sabbath, Erika L; Hurtado, David A; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Tamers, Sara L; Nelson, Candace; Kim, Seung-Sup; Wagner, Gregory; Sorenson, Glorian
To test the association between workplace abuse exposure and injury risk among hospital workers. We hypothesized that exposed workers would have higher injury rates than unexposed workers. Survey of direct-care workers (n = 1,497) in two hospitals. Exposure to workplace abuse was assessed through self-report; occupational injury reports were extracted from employee records. We tested associations between non-physical workplace violence and injury using log-binomial regression and multilevel modeling. Adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for injury associated with being yelled at was 1.52 (95% CI 1.19, 1.95); for experiencing hostile/offensive gestures 1.43 (1.11, 1.82); and for being sworn at 1.41 (1.09, 1.81). In analyses by injury subtypes, musculoskeletal injuries were more strongly associated with abuse than were acute traumatic injuries. Associations operated on group and individual levels and were most consistently associated with abuse perpetrated by patients. Exposure to workplace abuse may be a risk factor for injuries among hospital workers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brady, Patrick Q; Hayes, Brittany E
Using data from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study (N = 464), this study examined the intersection of stalking and the severity of intimate partner abuse while controlling for previously identified risk factors of intimate partner homicide. Findings indicate that (a) victims of life-threatening abuse by an intimate partner were significantly more likely to experience stalking than victims of nonlethal abuse; (b) after controlling for key risk factors, stalking increased the risk of life-threatening abuse; and (c) threats to kill the victim if she left was the only significant stalking-related behavior that increased the risk for life-threatening abuse. In addition, an offender's prior record and a higher number of previous abusive incidents increased the risk of life-threatening abuse. Implications for prevention and future directions for research are discussed.
Koenen, Karestan C; Widom, Cathy Spatz
In the general population, women's lifetime risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is twice that of men's. However, evidence is contradictory as to whether this sex difference is present among child abuse/neglect victims. The authors examined sex differences in PTSD among a sample of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/neglect histories assessed for PTSD in adulthood. Across all types of abuse/neglect, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men. The sex difference was greatest among sexual abuse victims. Female victims' greater revictimization explained a substantial proportion (39%) of the sex differences in PTSD risk. Future research should identify mechanisms that make female victims particularly vulnerable to revictimization and the development of PTSD.
Full Text Available Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in individuals with ID. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of intellectual disability who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in individuals with ID. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs of children
Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki
Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.
Kong, Jooyoung; Easton, Scott D
This study primarily examines the associations between histories of childhood maltreatment (i.e., neglect, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse) and elder abuse victimization and explores whether gender moderates the associations. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 5,968 older adults (mean age = 71 years) based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (2010-2011). Using retrospective self-reports of childhood and current (past 12 months) victimization experiences, logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of early-life adversities on the likelihood of elder abuse victimization. Results indicate that childhood emotional abuse and childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater risk of being abused as older adults, after controlling for childhood and adult background factors. We also found that the effect of childhood sexual abuse on elder abuse victimization was weaker for women than men. Findings suggest that the phenomenon of revictimization may occur not only in early and middle adulthood, but also in late life. To advance our understanding of victimization across the life course, future research on root causes of elder abuse should include histories of child abuse.
Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of
Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth
Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…
Ascione, Frank R.
The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…
Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.
Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael
Objective: Substitute fathers are often reported to commit child abuse at higher rates than birth (i.e., putative genetic) fathers. Due to the paucity of studies, especially in developing countries, and to some conflicting results from developed countries regarding the identity of perpetrators of less extreme forms of physical abuse of children in…
Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.
Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa
The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different
Stöckl, Heidi; Hertlein, Linda; Friese, Klaus; Stöckl, Doris
To investigate the prevalence, perpetrators, sociodemographic correlates, and health impacts of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse during pregnancy among women attending a maternity ward in Germany. A written questionnaire was given to pregnant women in a maternity ward of a university hospital in Munich. Abuse during pregnancy was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. Of 552 women, 401 completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 72.6%. The prevalence of psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy by any perpetrator was 6.7% (n = 27); the main perpetrators were women's partners and work colleagues. After controlling for the effect of age, psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was significantly associated with a history of abuse, low education level of the woman and the father of her child, short relationship duration, unintended pregnancy, financial problems caused by the pregnancy, having more than 3 children, and insufficient social support. Women who reported abuse during pregnancy were significantly more likely to smoke and to have adverse maternal health outcomes. Psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was experienced by 1 in 15 women who attended a maternity ward in Munich and adversely affected maternal health outcomes. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua
This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE
Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.
... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...
Silvia Susana Robles Montijo
Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.
Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane
of a standardised questionnaire covering a period of four years. The most damaging family conditions seemed to be psychological maltreatment, physical/sexual abuse and neglect. Maltreated children were more often in a depressed state, unhappy, socially isolated, or they had an eating disorder, inadequate or under....... The questionnaire explored the impact of various interventions, including services geared to strengthen the child's network, but results indicated that the child displayed reduced risk of reactive symptoms only when parental behaviour improved and abuse and neglect were reduced.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the implementation of a section in the Danish Social Assistance Act which encourages local authorities to offer families services in order to support children at risk of child maltreatment. The specific purpose of the present paper is to answer the question...
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Savla, J Tina; Roberto, Karen A; Jaramillo-Sierra, Ana L; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Karimi, Hassan; Butner, L Michelle
Knowledge about the effects of early life adversity on kin relationships in later years is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood abuse and adversity negatively influences emotional closeness with family in mid- and later life. A second goal was to determine the role of psychosocial resources and personality traits in buffering the effects of early adversities. Gender and cohort differences were explored to see if men were differentially affected than women and whether middle-aged adults (35-49 years old) were differentially affected than older adults (50-74 years old) by the effects of childhood abuse and adversity. Using retrospective accounts of early family abuse and adversities of 1,266 middle aged adults and 1,219 older adults from a large population-based survey, the National Survey of Midlife Development in United States (MIDUS), separate multiple regression analyses were conducted for the two cohorts to examine the effects of childhood emotional and physical abuse and family adversities on perceived emotional closeness with family. Interaction effects between childhood abuse and adversity (e.g., being expelled from school, death of sibling, parental divorce, losing a home to a natural disaster) with psychosocial resources (perceived control and self acceptance), personality characteristics (extraversion and neuroticism), and gender were examined. Results of OLS regressions suggest emotional and physical abuse predicted family closeness in middle-aged adults. Conversely, only emotional abuse predicted family closeness in older adults. Moderation models revealed that high levels of self acceptance were associated with better maintenance of emotional closeness among middle-aged adults who were emotionally and physically abused as children. Older adults with lower extraversion who experienced emotional abuse or reported greater number of adversities in childhood were found to be at higher risk for lower emotional closeness with family
Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.
Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia
Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...
Full Text Available Despite low levels of youth unemployment in Norway, concerns have been raised about the high numbers of youth in inactivity, receiving health related social security benefits. It is argued that parts of the system of social security may work as welfare traps. OECD recommends welfare policies with the overall aim of fostering youth employability, not benefit dependency. In this article we use a unique combination of register data and survey data from the panel survey “work, lifestyle and health”. This survey follows a representative sample of the cohorts born between 1965 and 1968 from 1985 through follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2003. This allows us to follow individual life trajectories from ages 17-20 to 35-39. The aim of the article is first to study the impact of substance abuse upon risk of receiving social assistance, since previous research has found that receiving social assistance increases the probability of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Second, we analyse the impact of receiving social assistance, to have mental health problems and substance abuse in youth and consequences for labour market integration in adulthood. Analyses reveal that neither cannabis use nor alcohol consumption in youth have a direct effect on the risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. However, cannabis use increases the probability of receiving social assistance, which in turn increases risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Mental health problems in youth increase risk for later labour market exclusion, but these effects are mediated through factors like problem behaviour related to alcohol abuse and the use of illegal drugs other than cannabis. Receiving social assistance in youth has long time effects on the risk of labour market exclusion, especially for individuals from the lower socioeconomic groups.
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi
Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…
Roberto, Karen A
Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…
O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle
Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, Christina M
According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.
Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood.
Stein, Judith A; Leslie, Michelle Burden; Nyamathi, Adeline
This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes. The sample consists of 581 homeless women residing in shelters or sober living centers in Los Angeles (54% African-American, 23% Latina, 22% White, mean age=33.5 years). Multiple-indicator latent variables served as predictors and outcomes in structural models. Childhood abuse was indicated by sexual, physical, and verbal abuse. Childhood abuse directly predicted later physical abuse, chronic homelessness, depression, and less self-esteem. Parent substance use directly predicted later substance use problems among the women. Recent physical abuse predicted chronic homelessness, depression, and substance use problems. Greater self-esteem predicted less depression and fewer substance use problems. Childhood abuse also had significant indirect effects on depression, chronic homelessness, and drug and alcohol problems mediated through later physical abuse and self-esteem. Although there was a strong relationship between childhood abuse and parent drug use, childhood abuse was the more pervasive and devastating predictor of dysfunctional outcomes. Childhood abuse predicted a wider range of problems including lower self-esteem, more victimization, more depression, and chronic homelessness, and indirectly predicted drug and alcohol problems. The mediating roles of recent physical abuse and self-esteem suggest salient leverage points for change through empowerment training and self-esteem enhancement in homeless women.
Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.
Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M
The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of
Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T
Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Balster, Robert L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Schuster, Charles R.; Anthony, James C.; Barthwell, Andrea G.; Coleman, John J.; Dart, Richard C.; Gorodetzky, Charles W.; O’Keeffe, Charles; Sellers, Edward M.; Vocci, Frank; Walsh, Sharon L.
The abuse and diversion of medications is a significant public health problem. This paper is part of a supplemental issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence focused on the development of risk management plans and post-marketing surveillance related to minimizing this problem. The issue is based on a conference that was held in October, 2008. An Expert Panel was formed to provide a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the meeting involving drug abuse experts, regulators and other government agencies, pharmaceutical companies and professional and other non-governmental organizations. This paper provides a written report of this Expert Panel. Eleven conclusions and eleven recommendations emerged concerning the state of the art of this field of research, the regulatory and public health implications and recommendations for future directions. It is concluded that special surveillance tools are needed to detect the emergence of medication abuse in a timely manner and that risk management tools can be implemented to increase the benefit to risk ratio. The scientific basis for both the surveillance and risk management tools is in its infancy, yet progress needs to be made. It is also important that the unintended consequences of increased regulation and the imposition of risk management plans be minimized. PMID:19783383
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.
Full Text Available A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12% were caused by child battering and 13 (7% by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent and often substance dependence (31%. None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger.
Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…
Lavers, C; Bishop, C; Hawkins, O; Grealey, E; Cox, C; Thomas, D; Trimel, S
Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.
Lavers, C; Bishop, C; Hawkins, O; Grealey, E; Cox, C; Thomas, D; Trimel, S, E-mail: email@example.com [Sensors Team, Plymouth University at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth (United Kingdom); DMC International Imaging, Tycho House, Surrey Research Park, Guildford (United Kingdom); Qinetiq, Cody Technology Park, Cody Building, Ively Road, Farnborough (United Kingdom); Humanitarian Aid Relief Trust (HART), 3 Arnellan House, Kingsbury, London (United Kingdom); Amnesty International USA, 5 Penn Plaza, New York (United States)
Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.
Li, Siu Fai; Grant, Kelly; Bhoj, Tanuja; Lent, Gretchen; Garrick, Jocelyn Freeman; Greenwald, Peter; Haber, Marc; Singh, Malini; Prodany, Karla; Sanchez, Leon; Dickman, Eitan; Spencer, James; Perera, Tom; Cowan, Ethan
In 1995, a Society for Academic Emergency Medicine in-service survey reported high rates of verbal and physical abuse experienced by Emergency Medicine (EM) residents. We sought to determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment 10 years later to bring attention to these issues and determine if there has been a change in the prevalence of abuse over this time period. To determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment in a sample of EM residencies. We conducted a cross-section survey of EM residents from 10 residencies. EM residents were asked about their experience with verbal abuse, verbal threats, physical threats, physical attacks, sexual harassment, and racial harassment; and by whom. The primary outcome of the study was the prevalence of abuse and harassment as reported by EM residents. There were 196 of 380 residents (52%) who completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 91%; 86% of residents experienced verbal abuse, 65% verbal threats, 50% physical threats, 26% physical attacks, 23% sexual harassment, and 26% racial harassment. Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (37% [38/102] vs. 8% [7/92]; p harassment was not limited to minorities (23% [16/60] for Caucasians vs. 26% [29/126] for non-Caucasians; p = 0.59). Senior residents were more likely to have encountered verbal and physical abuse. Only 12% of residents formally reported the abuse they experienced. Abuse and harassment during EM residency continues to be commonplace and is underreported. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C
Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant
Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph
Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…
Tims, Frank M; Dennis, Michael L; Hamilton, Nancy; J Buchan, Betty; Diamond, Guy; Funk, Rod; Brantley, Laura B
Risk factors among adolescent substance abusers have been shown to correlate with substance use severity. Characteristics related to severity, such as demographic and family factors, peer influences, psychiatric co-morbidity and HIV risk behaviors, are examined for a sample of adolescent cannabis users entering treatment. These data are from a clinical trial study utilizing blocked random assignment of clients to one of five treatment conditions. The study targeted adolescents entering outpatient treatment for primarily cannabis abuse or dependence. Treatment and research facilities in four metropolitan areas of the US were used to recruit study participants. Treatment was delivered in outpatient drug-free settings. Participants were 600 clients, ages 12-18, admitted to outpatient substance abuse treatment programs for cannabis problems, 96% with DSM-IV diagnoses of substance abuse or dependence, with the remaining 4% having at least one symptom of dependence plus significant problems indicating need for treatment. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) was used to collect the information presented in this paper. The GAIN incorporates DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as dimensional (scale) measures for physical and mental health. All participants reported at least one symptom of substance use disorders, and 46% met the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, while 50% met criteria for a diagnosis of abuse. Only 20% of the participants perceived any need for help with problems associated with their drug or alcohol use. Clients participating in the study typically presented multiple problems at treatment entry, most often including conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internal (mental) distress, and physical health distress. The co-occurrence of conduct disorder and ADHD was found in 30% of the sample. Clients meeting criteria for substance
Sadrabad, Akram Zolfaghari; Bidarizerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Farahmand Rad, Reza; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Alimohammadi, Hossein
The widespread epidemic of emerging abuse in Emergency Departments (ED) toward residents generates negative effects on the residents' health and welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine and highlight the high prevalence of abuse and harassment toward Emergency residents. In 2011, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional study was conducted at seven Emergency Residencies of central hospitals in Iran. Residents were asked about their age, marital status, postgraduate year (PGY) levels, and work experiences before residency. Prevalence of abuse in four categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; verbal and physical threat; physical assault and sexual harassment; and by whom. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Two hundred fifteen of the 296 residents (73%) completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 89%; 43% of residents experienced verbal and physical threats, 10% physical assault, and 31% sexual harassment. Verbal abuse and verbal and physical threats without the use of weapons were higher in men in comparison with women (pmen to encounter sexual harassment (31% vs. 7%, psexual harassment categories, sexual jokes (51%) were the most prevalent between residents. Junior residents (PGY-1) were more likely to experience abuse than senior residents (PGY-2 and PGY-3; pharassment during residency in ED are highly prevalent. Educational programs and effective preventive measures against this mistreatment are urgently required. © The Author(s) 2016.
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.
Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G
Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer
Wen, X; Hu, Y K; He, P; Wang, Z J; Zheng, X Y
Objective: To examine the association between child-supporting from their folks and elder abuse in China so as to provide evidence for prevention and control of elder abuse. Methods: Based on the third survey on the Status of Chinese women, organized by the All-China Women's Federation and the National Bureau of Statistics, 7 159 residents aged 65 and older were included and general information on supporting child and elder abuse were gathered. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to investigate the association between supporting child from elderly and elder abuse. Results: The overall prevalence of elder abuse was 6.71 % . Risks of elder people being abused by family numbers varied from different supporting child situations. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, ORs for the elderly appeared as follows: OR =1.99 (95 %CI : 1.56-2.54) for those who only providing support to male children; OR =2.07 (95 %CI : 1.51-3.79) for those only providing support to the female offspring and OR =2.32 (95 % CI : 1.72-3.13) for those who did not support their children regardless of their sex identity. Elderly who provided support to their children on both sexes were exposed to lower risk of being abused than those who only supporting their male offspring. There was no significant difference appearing on the risk of elder abuse between those elderly who only supporting the male ( OR =1.00) or the female offspring ( OR =1.04, 95 % CI : 0.63-1.71), among all the participants in our study. However, such associations were different in urban and rural areas. Conclusions: High prevalence of abuse was seen in China. The pattern of supporting child was associated with risk of elder abuse. Elderly who showed poor support to their children were under higher risk of being abused by their family members.
Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane C; Qin, Min; Vlachantoni, Athina
This study examines the association between elder abuse and psychological distress among older adults in India and explores whether this association varies by the level of psychosocial and material resources. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. The data are drawn from a representative sample of 9589 adults aged 60 and above in seven Indian states-Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu-in 2011. Secondary analysis, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, is conducted using the United Nations Population Fund project Building Knowledge Base on Ageing in India survey. Elder abuse (physical and/or emotional) emanating from family members in the previous month before the survey is examined. Multivariate models are run on the total analytical sample and for men and women separately. The overall prevalence of psychological distress among persons aged 60 and over living in the seven Indian States is 40.6%. Among those older persons who experienced some form of physical or emotional abuse or violence in the last month, the prevalence of psychological distress is much higher than that in the general older population, at 61.6% (pwealth has an inverse relationship with mental health, with the association between experiencing elder abuse and reporting poor mental health being strongest among older people in wealthy households. Elder abuse in India is currently a neglected phenomenon, and greater recognition of the link between abuse and mental health is critical to improve the well-being of vulnerable older adults, some of whom may be 'hidden' within well-off households. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Behaviour problems were recorded in 73% of cases. Many different ... management is now a priority in our setting. S Afr Med J 1996; 86: ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and ... physical abuse, emotional abuse, and "-'1§ct. ~N<: .... aggression (10% of patients), 'clinginess' (12%) and temper tantrums ...
Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk
Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by
..., abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual, emotional, and physical abuse threaten too many children every... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our..., productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our unwavering commitment to...
Stevens, Natalie R; Tirone, Vanessa; Lillis, Teresa A; Holmgreen, Lucie; Chen-McCracken, Allison; Hobfoll, Stevan E
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) are associated with increased risk of obstetric complications among pregnant survivors of trauma, abuse and interpersonal violence, but little is known about how PTS affects women's actual experiences of obstetric care. This study investigated the rate at which abuse history was detected by obstetricians, whether abuse survivors experienced more invasive exams than is typically indicated for routine obstetric care, and whether psychological distress was associated with abuse survivors' sense of self-efficacy when communicating their obstetric care needs. Forty-one pregnant abuse survivors completed questionnaires about abuse history, current psychological distress and self-efficacy for communicating obstetric care needs and preferences. Electronic medical records (EMRs) were reviewed to examine frequency of invasive prenatal obstetric procedures (e.g. removal of clothing for external genital examination, pelvic exams and procedures) and to examine the detection rate of abuse histories during the initial obstetric visit. The majority of participants (83%) reported at least one past incident of violent physical or sexual assault. Obstetricians detected abuse histories in less than one quarter of cases. Nearly half of participants (46%) received invasive exams for non-routine reasons. PTS and depression symptoms were associated with lower self-efficacy in communicating obstetric care preferences. Women most at risk for experiencing distress during their obstetric visits and/or undergoing potentially distressing procedures may also be the least likely to communicate their distress to obstetricians. Results are discussed with implications for improving screening for abuse screening and distress symptoms as well as need for trauma-sensitive obstetric practices.
Dong, Xin Qi
This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.
Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…
Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub
Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...
Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Verona, Edelyn; Joiner, Thomas; Preacher, Kristopher J
Researchers (e.g., [Gibb, B.E., 2002. Childhood maltreatment and negative cognitive styles. A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22 (2), 223-246]; [Rose, D.T., Abramson, L.Y., 1992. Developmental predictors of depressive cognitive styles: developmental perspectives on depression. In Cicchetti, D., Toth, S.L. (Eds.), Developmental Perspectives on Depression. Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology, vol. 4, pp. 323-349]) have proposed that when childhood abuse is verbal (rather than sexual or physical), the child is more likely to develop a negative self-schema because the negative self-cognitions are directly supplied to the child by the abuser (e.g., "you are stupid"). In a test of this theory in adult participants, and drawing on the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) (N=5877), we investigate the mediating role of current levels of self-criticism on the relationship between retrospective reports of parental verbal abuse, as well as sexual and physical abuse, and adult internalizing symptoms. We found self-criticism, but not dependency traits, to fully mediate the relationship between childhood verbal abuse perpetrated by parents and internalizing (depression, anxiety) symptoms. On the other hand, self-criticism was only a partial mediator of the relationship between the other types of abuse and internalizing symptoms. The NCS data is cross-sectional, which limits any firm conclusions regarding causality. While these results are suggestive that self-criticism is a mediator of the relationship between abuse and internalizing symptoms, longitudinal data are necessary to help rule out alternative explanations. Results of this study suggest that childhood abuse experiences, and in particular verbal abuse, may confer risk for internalizing disorders in part because verbal abuse influences the development of a self-critical style.
Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J
The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.
Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.
Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause
Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne
Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with
Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of
Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R
Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.
Full Text Available In recent years a plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports a strong, independent and inverse, association between physical activity and the fitness status of an individual and mortality in apparently healthy individuals and diseased populations. These health benefits are realized at relatively low fitness levels and increase with higher physical activity patterns or fitness status in a dose-response fashion. The risk reduction is at least in part attributed to the favorable effect of exercise or physical activity on the cardiovascular risk factors, namely, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we examine evidence from epidemiologic and interventional studies in support of the association between exercise and physical activity and health. In addition, we present the exercise effects on the aforementioned risk factors. Finally, we include select dietary approaches and their impact on risk factors and overall mortality risk.
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning.
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Moore, David R.; Florsheim, Paul
Objective: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Methods: Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant…
Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017
Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)
Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Balster, Robert L; Henningfield, Jack E; Schuster, Charles R; Anthony, James C; Barthwell, Andrea G; Coleman, John J; Dart, Richard C; Gorodetzky, Charles W; O'Keeffe, Charles; Sellers, Edward M; Vocci, Frank; Walsh, Sharon L
The abuse and diversion of medications is a significant public health problem. This paper is part of a supplemental issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence focused on the development of risk management plans and post-marketing surveillance related to minimizing this problem. The issue is based on a conference that was held in October 2008. An Expert Panel was formed to provide a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the meeting involving drug abuse experts, regulators and other government agencies, pharmaceutical companies and professional and other non-governmental organizations. This paper provides a written report of this Expert Panel. Eleven conclusions and 11 recommendations emerged concerning the state of the art of this field of research, the regulatory and public health implications and recommendations for future directions. It is concluded that special surveillance tools are needed to detect the emergence of medication abuse in a timely manner and that risk management tools can be implemented to increase the benefit to risk ratio. The scientific basis for both the surveillance and risk management tools is in its infancy, yet progress needs to be made. It is also important that the unintended consequences of increased regulation and the imposition of risk management plans be minimized.
The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet.
Lindauer, Ramón J L; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H; Middeldorp, Christel M; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud
Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of CSA can be severe, and a variety of risk- and protective factors, may influence those effects. CSA may affect the psychosocial-, emotional-, cognitive-, and physical development of children, their relationships with their parent(s), and the relations between parents. In the so called 'the Amsterdam sexual abuse case' (ASAC), infants and very young children were victimized by a day-care employee and most of the victims were boys. Research involving the children and their parents would enable recognition of the signs of CSA in very young children and understanding the consequences the abuse might have on the long term. The proposed research project consists of three components: (I) An initial assessment to identify physical- or psychological signs of CSA in infants and very young children who are thought to have been sexually abused (n = 130); (II) A cross-sequential longitudinal study of children who have experienced sexual abuse, or for whom there are strong suspicions; (III) A qualitative study in which interviews are conducted with parents (n = 25) and with therapists treating children from the ASAC. Parents will be interviewed on the perceived condition of their child and family situation, their experiences with the service responses to the abuse, the effects of legal proceedings and media attention, and the impact of knowing that pornographic material has been disseminated on the internet. Therapists will be interviewed on their clinical experiences in treating children and parents. The assessments will extend over a period of several years. The outcome measures will be symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, age-inappropriate sexual behaviors
Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas
Abstract Introduction and Aims Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non‐physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Design and Methods Secondary analysis from two cross‐sectional studies was performed. Data on socio‐demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Results Sixty‐four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Conclusions Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d
Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.
Ivy Kiemle Trindade-Suedam
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to assessed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and drug abuse in mothers of children with orofacial clefts (OFC. Methods: 325 women who had children (0-3y with clefts were interviewed. Data regarding type of diabetes, use of legal/illegal drugs during pregnancy, waist girth and fasting blood sugar at the first prenatal consult were collected. Results: twenty seven percent of the women had DM, out of these, 89% had gestational DM, 5,5% type 1 DM and 5,5% type 2 DM. The prevalence of DM in mothers of children with OFC was 27%, it is significantly higher than the average Brazilian population which is 7.6% (p<0.01 (OR=4.5, 95%CI=3.5-5.8. Regarding drug abuse during pregnancy, 32% of the mothers used drugs and a significant positive correlation was observed between drug abuse and the occurrence of clefts and other craniofacial anomalies (p=0.028 (OR=2.87; 95%CI=1.1-7.4. Conclusions: DM and drug abuse during pregnancy increases the risk for OFC and related anomalies and early diagnosis of DM and prevention of drug abuse, especially in pregnant women, should be emphasized.
Williams, John K; Wilton, Leo; Magnus, Manya; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Koblin, Beryl A; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Fields, Sheldon D; Shoptaw, Steve; Stephenson, Rob; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Cummings, Vanessa
We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest.
Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Victora, Cesar Gomes; Jacob Serruya, Suzzane; Ponce de León, Rodolfo; Damaso, Andrea Homsi; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; da Silveira, Mariangela Freitas
The disrespect and abuse of women during the process of childbirth is an emergent and global problem and only few studies have investigated this worrying issue. The objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence of disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth in Pelotas City, Brazil, and to investigate the factors involved. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of women delivering members of the 2015 Pelotas birth cohort. Information relating to disrespect and abuse during childbirth was obtained by household interview 3 months after delivery. The information related to verbal and physical abuse, denial of care and invasive and/or inappropriate procedures. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with one or more, and two or more, types of disrespectful treatment or abuse. A total of 4275 women took part in a perinatal study. During the three-month follow-up, we interviewed 4087 biological mothers with regards to disrespect and abuse. Approximately 10% of women reported having experienced verbal abuse, 6% denial of care, 6% undesirable or inappropriate procedures and 5% physical abuse. At least one type of disrespect or abuse was reported by 18.3% of mothers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.2-19.5); and at least two types by 5.1% (95% CI: 4.4-5.8). Women relying on the public health sector, and those whose childbirths were via cesarean section with previous labor, had the highest risk, with approximately a three- and two-fold increase in risk, respectively. Our study showed that the occurrence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth was high and mostly associated with payment by the public sector and labor before delivery. The efforts made by civil society, governments and international organizations are not sufficient to restrain institutional violence against women during childbirth. To eradicate this problem, it is essential to 1) implement policies and actions specific for this type of violence and 2
Hoft, Mary; Haddad, Lisa
Child abuse and neglect occur in epidemic numbers in the United States and around the world, resulting in major physical and mental health consequences for abused children in the present and future. A vast amount of information is available on the signs and symptoms and short- and long-term consequences of abuse. A limited number of instruments have been empirically developed to screen for child abuse, with most focused on physical abuse in the context of the emergency department, which have been found to be minimally effective and lacking rigor. This literature review focuses on physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect, occurring in one or multiple forms (polyabuse). A systematic, in-depth analysis of the literature was conducted. This literature review provides information for identifying children who have been abused and neglected but exposes the need for a comprehensive screening instrument or protocol that will capture all forms of child abuse and neglect. Screening needs to be succinct, user-friendly, and amenable for use with children at every point of care in the healthcare system.
Boufettal, H; Obaid, B; Belhouss, A; Hermas, S; Noun, M; Samouh, N
Physical abuse are a serious social problem and an issue of perinatal health. This article presents the results of a survey conducted at the CHU Ibn Rochd of Casablanca (Morocco), over a period of one year, in order to determine their frequency, risk factors, maternal diseases and obstetric complications. The results of our survey found that women who reported physical abuse have a frequency of 12.3% (107 cases). The average age of these women is 22.3 years; 65.6% of parturients are illiterate, 45% are from a disadvantaged socioeconomic status, 47% originated from a rural county; 37% are unmarried; half of the abused are multiparous with an average of 3.2 living children; 23% of the pregnancies are unplanned. Lastly, 37.3% of pregnant partners are unemployed and 67% have toxic habits. Obstetric complications are fairly frequent and mental effects are not negligible with 3 attempted suicides and attempted homicide. Early identification of abuse suffered by pregnant women and taking measures to prevent them could reduce the occurrence of these adverse effects. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul
Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the
Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arabghol, Fariba; Derakhshanpour, Firooze; Davari Ashtiyani, Rozita; Chimeh, Narges; Panaghi, Layli
Child abuse is a phenomenon that confronts the child, family, and society with irretrievable physical and mental injuries, and its negative effects continue until adulthood. The present study was conducted to identify and evaluate cases of abused children at a medical center. This is a descriptive-analytic study. The subjects were all children and adolescents who were referred to Imam Hussein hospital within 6 months due to physical or psychiatric reasons and were diagnosed with child abuse and neglect by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. The number of these children was 73. Children and their parents were assessed by schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS), Kiddie-SADS, and child abuse and demographic questionnaires. The statistical methods of mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. 56 cases (76%) were physically abused, 53 cases (72.6%) were emotionally abused, and 3 cases (12.3%) were neglected. The most common psychiatric disorder in abused children was ADHD (65.8%). The next most common were oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and enuresis. About 80% of the abused children had at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorders in mothers were general anxiety disorder (34.8%) and depression (33.3%), and in fathers, it was substance abuse (19.7%). Child abuse is a common phenomenon that relates to psychiatric disorders in the abused child or abuser parents. It seems that on-time identification and appropriate interventions can prevent further negative consequences for the child, family, and society.
Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael
This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p homeless during youth (p homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.
van der Hulst, Leonie A. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eskes, Martine; Birnie, Erwin; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Bleker, Otto P.
OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in The Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social
John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David
Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.
The right of children to be protected from abuse is grounded in international law. Children should be free to enjoy their childhoods and to engage with their physical environment without fear for their safety. In recent years, girls and women in Jamaica have been targeted by men who rape and/or otherwise sexually assault them. This is without…
Baba, Kaori; Kataoka, Yaeko
The aims of this study were to determine the rate of women who are high-risk for child abuse and neglect in a perinatal unit in Japan, and to identify the factors associated with risk level. To assess the potential risk for child abuse and neglect the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist (FSC-J) was used to guide interviews with postpartum women. FSC-J uses a three-point scale to score 10 categories, categorizing responses as "no risk=0", "risk=5", and "high risk=10". The range of FSC-J is 0-100. Using an established cutoff point of 25, subjects were divided into high and low risk groups. For both groups, relationships between factors were analyzed. Of the 174 subjects who agreed to participate, 12 (6.9%) scored high-risk, and 162 (93.1%) scored low-risk. Adjusted odds ratio identified three associated factors as important for predicting risk level: past mental illness (OR=341.1), previous experience of intimate partner violence (OR=68.0), and having a partner who was unemployed (OR=14.5). Although this study was on a small sample of women in one hospital in Japan and a larger population would make this study much stronger, these results suggest that some 6.9% of postpartum women in Japan may be at high-risk for child abuse and neglect. It is critical, therefore, to develop a system for screening, intervention, and referral for such women and their children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim
Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)
Eslami, Bahareh; Viitasara, Eija; Macassa, Gloria; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Lindert, Jutta; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Barros, Henrique; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Soares, Joaquim J F
To investigate the lifetime prevalence rate of abuse among older persons and to scrutinize the associated factors (e.g. demographics). This cross-sectional population-based study had 4467 participants, aged 60-84, from seven European cities. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injuries) was measured based on The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people. Over 34 % of participants reported experiencing lifetime psychological, 11.5 % physical, 18.5 % financial and 5 % sexual abuse and 4.3 % reported injuries. Lifetime psychological abuse was associated with country, younger age, education and alcohol consumption; physical abuse with country, age, not living in partnership; injuries with country, female sex, age, education, not living in partnership; financial abuse with country, age, not living in partnership, education, benefiting social/partner income, drinking alcohol; and sexual abuse with country, female sex and financial strain. High lifetime prevalence rates confirm that elder abuse