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Sample records for phylogenetic analysis separated

  1. [Identification and phylogenetic analysis of one strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus separated from yoghourt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Chaowu; Pei, Xiaofang; Liu, Hengchuan

    2007-11-01

    For being further applied and studied, one strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (wch9901) separated from yoghourt which had been identified by phenotype characteristic analysis was identified by 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analyzed. The 16S rDNA of wch9901 was amplified with the genomic DNA of wch9901 as template, and the conservative sequences of the 16S rDNA as primers. Inserted 16S rDNA amplified into clonal vector pGEM-T under the function of T4 DNA ligase to construct recombined plasmid pGEM-wch9901 16S rDNA. The recombined plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme digestion, and the eligible plasmid was presented to sequencing company for DNA sequencing. Nucleic acid sequence was blast in GenBank and phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method of distance methods by Mega3.1 soft. Results of blastn showed that the homology of 16S rDNA of wch9901 with the 16S rDNA of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains was higher than 96%. On the phylogenetic tree, wch9901 formed a separate branch and located between Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LGM2 evolution branch and another evolution branch which was composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DL2 evolution cluster and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus JSQ evolution cluster. The distance between wch9901 evolution branch and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LGM2 evolution branch was the closest. wch9901 belonged to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. wch9901 showed the closest evolution relationship to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LGM2.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Protein Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shiyong; Downard, Kevin M; Wong, Jason W H

    2017-01-01

    Through advances in molecular biology, comparative analysis of DNA sequences is currently the cornerstone in the study of molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Nevertheless, protein mass spectrometry offers some unique opportunities to enable phylogenetic analyses in organisms where DNA may be difficult or costly to obtain. To date, the methods of phylogenetic analysis using protein mass spectrometry can be classified into three categories: (1) de novo protein sequencing followed by classical phylogenetic reconstruction, (2) direct phylogenetic reconstruction using proteolytic peptide mass maps, and (3) mapping of mass spectral data onto classical phylogenetic trees. In this chapter, we provide a brief description of the three methods and the protocol for each method along with relevant tools and algorithms.

  3. phangorn: phylogenetic analysis in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Klaus Peter

    2011-02-15

    phangorn is a package for phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis in the R language. Previously it was only possible to estimate phylogenetic trees with distance methods in R. phangorn, now offers the possibility of reconstructing phylogenies with distance based methods, maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood (ML) and performing Hadamard conjugation. Extending the general ML framework, this package provides the possibility of estimating mixture and partition models. Furthermore, phangorn offers several functions for comparing trees, phylogenetic models or splits, simulating character data and performing congruence analyses. phangorn can be obtained through the CRAN homepage http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/phangorn/index.html. phangorn is licensed under GPL 2.

  4. Open Reading Frame Phylogenetic Analysis on the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lun Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis has become essential in researching the evolutionary relationships between viruses. These relationships are depicted on phylogenetic trees, in which viruses are grouped based on sequence similarity. Viral evolutionary relationships are identified from open reading frames rather than from complete sequences. Recently, cloud computing has become popular for developing internet-based bioinformatics tools. Biocloud is an efficient, scalable, and robust bioinformatics computing service. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based open reading frame phylogenetic analysis service. The proposed service integrates the Hadoop framework, virtualization technology, and phylogenetic analysis methods to provide a high-availability, large-scale bioservice. In a case study, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Norovirus. Evolutionary relationships are elucidated by aligning different open reading frame sequences. The proposed platform correctly identifies the evolutionary relationships between members of Norovirus.

  5. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of core gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic analysis suggests that our sequences are clustered with sequences reported from Japan. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of HCV core gene from Pakistani population. Our sequences and sequences from Japan are grouped into same cluster in the phylogenetic tree. Sequence comparison and ...

  6. On Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente Feruglio, Gabriel Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    We prove that Nakhleh’s metric for reduced phylogenetic networks is also a metric on the classes of tree-child phylogenetic networks, semibinary tree-sibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, and multilabeled phylogenetic trees. We also prove that it separates distinguishable phylogenetic networks. In this way, it becomes the strongest dissimilarity measure for phylogenetic networks available so far. Furthermore, we propose a generalization of that metric that separates arbitrary phyl...

  7. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of intergenic spacers and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic analysis of test isolates included assessment of variation in sequences and length of IGS and SSU-rRNA genes with reference to 16 different microsporidian sequences. The results proved that IGS sequences have more variation than SSU-rRNA gene sequences. Analysis of phylogenetic trees reveal that ...

  8. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  9. GapCoder automates the use of indel characters in phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nelson D; Healy, John

    2003-02-19

    Several ways of incorporating indels into phylogenetic analysis have been suggested. Simple indel coding has two strengths: (1) biological realism and (2) efficiency of analysis. In the method, each indel with different start and/or end positions is considered to be a separate character. The presence/absence of these indel characters is then added to the data set. We have written a program, GapCoder to automate this procedure. The program can input PIR format aligned datasets, find the indels and add the indel-based characters. The output is a NEXUS format file, which includes a table showing what region each indel characters is based on. If regions are excluded from analysis, this table makes it easy to identify the corresponding indel characters for exclusion. Manual implementation of the simple indel coding method can be very time-consuming, especially in data sets where indels are numerous and/or overlapping. GapCoder automates this method and is therefore particularly useful during procedures where phylogenetic analyses need to be repeated many times, such as when different alignments are being explored or when various taxon or character sets are being explored. GapCoder is currently available for Windows from http://www.home.duq.edu/~youngnd/GapCoder.

  10. PhyloSift: phylogenetic analysis of genomes and metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Aaron E; Jospin, Guillaume; Lowe, Eric; Matsen, Frederick A; Bik, Holly M; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Like all organisms on the planet, environmental microbes are subject to the forces of molecular evolution. Metagenomic sequencing provides a means to access the DNA sequence of uncultured microbes. By combining DNA sequencing of microbial communities with evolutionary modeling and phylogenetic analysis we might obtain new insights into microbiology and also provide a basis for practical tools such as forensic pathogen detection. In this work we present an approach to leverage phylogenetic analysis of metagenomic sequence data to conduct several types of analysis. First, we present a method to conduct phylogeny-driven Bayesian hypothesis tests for the presence of an organism in a sample. Second, we present a means to compare community structure across a collection of many samples and develop direct associations between the abundance of certain organisms and sample metadata. Third, we apply new tools to analyze the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities and again demonstrate how this can be associated to sample metadata. These analyses are implemented in an open source software pipeline called PhyloSift. As a pipeline, PhyloSift incorporates several other programs including LAST, HMMER, and pplacer to automate phylogenetic analysis of protein coding and RNA sequences in metagenomic datasets generated by modern sequencing platforms (e.g., Illumina, 454).

  11. PhyloSift: phylogenetic analysis of genomes and metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E. Darling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all organisms on the planet, environmental microbes are subject to the forces of molecular evolution. Metagenomic sequencing provides a means to access the DNA sequence of uncultured microbes. By combining DNA sequencing of microbial communities with evolutionary modeling and phylogenetic analysis we might obtain new insights into microbiology and also provide a basis for practical tools such as forensic pathogen detection.In this work we present an approach to leverage phylogenetic analysis of metagenomic sequence data to conduct several types of analysis. First, we present a method to conduct phylogeny-driven Bayesian hypothesis tests for the presence of an organism in a sample. Second, we present a means to compare community structure across a collection of many samples and develop direct associations between the abundance of certain organisms and sample metadata. Third, we apply new tools to analyze the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities and again demonstrate how this can be associated to sample metadata.These analyses are implemented in an open source software pipeline called PhyloSift. As a pipeline, PhyloSift incorporates several other programs including LAST, HMMER, and pplacer to automate phylogenetic analysis of protein coding and RNA sequences in metagenomic datasets generated by modern sequencing platforms (e.g., Illumina, 454.

  12. TREEFINDER: a powerful graphical analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Haeseler Arndt

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most analysis programs for inferring molecular phylogenies are difficult to use, in particular for researchers with little programming experience. Results TREEFINDER is an easy-to-use integrative platform-independent analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics. In this paper the main features of TREEFINDER (version of April 2004 are described. TREEFINDER is written in ANSI C and Java and implements powerful statistical approaches for inferring gene tree and related analyzes. In addition, it provides a user-friendly graphical interface and a phylogenetic programming language. Conclusions TREEFINDER is a versatile framework for analyzing phylogenetic data across different platforms that is suited both for exploratory as well as advanced studies.

  13. Applying phylogenetic analysis to viral livestock diseases: moving beyond molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Alex; Busquets, Núria; Cortey, Marti; de Deus, Nilsa; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Peralta, Bibiana; Toskano, Jennifer; Dolz, Roser

    2010-05-01

    Changes in livestock production systems in recent years have altered the presentation of many diseases resulting in the need for more sophisticated control measures. At the same time, new molecular assays have been developed to support the diagnosis of animal viral disease. Nucleotide sequences generated by these diagnostic techniques can be used in phylogenetic analysis to infer phenotypes by sequence homology and to perform molecular epidemiology studies. In this review, some key elements of phylogenetic analysis are highlighted, such as the selection of the appropriate neutral phylogenetic marker, the proper phylogenetic method and different techniques to test the reliability of the resulting tree. Examples are given of current and future applications of phylogenetic reconstructions in viral livestock diseases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Brown

    Full Text Available Analysis of the population genetic structure of microbial species is of fundamental importance to many scientific disciplines because it can identify cryptic species, reveal reproductive mode, and elucidate processes that contribute to pathogen evolution. Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis.Criteria for Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR applied to seven nuclear loci (arf6, chs2, drk1, fads, pyrF, tub1, and its-2 from 78 clinical and environmental isolates identified two previously unrecognized phylogenetic species. Four of seven single gene phylogenies examined (chs2, drk1, pyrF, and its-2 supported the separation of Phylogenetic Species 1 (PS1 and Phylogenetic Species 2 (PS2 which were also well differentiated in the concatenated chs2-drk1-fads-pyrF-tub1-arf6-its2 genealogy with all isolates falling into one of two evolutionarily independent lineages. Phylogenetic species were genetically distinct with interspecific divergence 4-fold greater than intraspecific divergence and a high Fst value (0.772, P<0.001 indicative of restricted gene flow between PS1 and PS2. Whereas panmixia expected of a single freely recombining population was not observed, recombination was detected when PS1 and PS2 were assessed separately, suggesting reproductive isolation. Random mating among PS1 isolates, which were distributed across North America, was only detected after partitioning isolates into six geographic regions. The PS2 population, found predominantly in the hyper-endemic regions of northwestern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained a substantial clonal component with random mating detected only among unique genotypes in the population.These analyses provide evidence for a genetically divergent clade within Blastomyces dermatitidis, which we use to describe a novel species

  15. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, ecomorphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Phytophthora Species Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Bakker, F.T.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Flier, W.G.

    2004-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Phytophthora was performed, 113 isolates from 48 Phytophthora species were included in this analysis. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on regions of mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1) and nuclear gene

  18. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of novel cytochrome P450 1A genes from ungulate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Kawai, Yusuke; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Muroya, Tarou; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-09-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand the biological response of wild and domestic ungulates to different environmental pollutants such as dioxin-like compounds, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were cloned and characterized. Four novel CYP1A cDNA fragments from the livers of four wild ungulates (elephant, hippopotamus, tapir and deer) were identified. Three fragments from hippopotamus, tapir and deer were classified as CYP1A2, and the other fragment from elephant was designated as CYP1A1/2. The deduced amino acid sequences of these fragment CYP1As showed identities ranging from 76 to 97% with other animal CYP1As. The phylogenetic analysis of these fragments showed that both elephant and hippopotamus CYP1As made separate branches, while tapir and deer CYP1As were located beside that of horse and cattle respectively in the phylogenetic tree. Analysis of dN/dS ratio among the identified CYP1As indicated that odd toed ungulate CYP1A2s were exposed to different selection pressure.

  19. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  20. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of sphaerexochine trilobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis R Congreve

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sphaerexochinae is a speciose and widely distributed group of cheirurid trilobites. Their temporal range extends from the earliest Ordovician through the Silurian, and they survived the end Ordovician mass extinction event (the second largest mass extinction in Earth history. Prior to this study, the individual evolutionary relationships within the group had yet to be determined utilizing rigorous phylogenetic methods. Understanding these evolutionary relationships is important for producing a stable classification of the group, and will be useful in elucidating the effects the end Ordovician mass extinction had on the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cladistic parsimony analysis of cheirurid trilobites assigned to the subfamily Sphaerexochinae was conducted to evaluate phylogenetic patterns and produce a hypothesis of relationship for the group. This study utilized the program TNT, and the analysis included thirty-one taxa and thirty-nine characters. The results of this analysis were then used in a Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis to analyze biogeographic patterns during the Ordovician-Silurian. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genus Sphaerexochus was found to be monophyletic, consisting of two smaller clades (one composed entirely of Ordovician species and another composed of Silurian and Ordovician species. By contrast, the genus Kawina was found to be paraphyletic. It is a basal grade that also contains taxa formerly assigned to Cydonocephalus. Phylogenetic patterns suggest Sphaerexochinae is a relatively distinctive trilobite clade because it appears to have been largely unaffected by the end Ordovician mass extinction. Finally, the biogeographic analysis yields two major conclusions about Sphaerexochus biogeography: Bohemia and Avalonia were close enough during the Silurian to exchange taxa; and during the Ordovician there was dispersal between Eastern Laurentia and

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  2. Phylogenetic paleobiogeography of Late Ordovician Laurentian brachiopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bauer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis of four brachiopod genera was used to uncover large-scale geologic drivers of Late Ordovician biogeographic differentiation in Laurentia. Previously generated phylogenetic hypotheses were converted into area cladograms, ancestral geographic ranges were optimized and speciation events characterized as via dispersal or vicariance, when possible. Area relationships were reconstructed using Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis. The resulting area cladograms indicate tectonic and oceanographic changes were the primary geologic drivers of biogeographic patterns within the focal taxa. The Taconic tectophase contributed to the separation of the Appalachian and Central basins as well as the two midcontinent basins, whereas sea level rise following the Boda Event promoted interbasinal dispersal. Three migration pathways into the Cincinnati Basin were recognized, which supports the multiple pathway hypothesis for the Richmondian Invasion.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic study at the generic boundary between the lichen-forming fungi Caloplaca and Xanthoria (Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Lutzoni, François

    2003-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA was performed for seven Caloplaca, seven Xanthoria, one Fulgensia and five outgroup species. Phylogenetic hypotheses are constructed based on nuclear small and large subunit rDNA, separately and in combination. Three strongly supported major monophyletic ...

  4. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lian

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV isolates. In addition, the complete nucleotide sequences for the 13 Korean TSWV isolates along with previously sequenced TSWV RNA segments from Korea and other countries were subjected to phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both the RNA L and RNA M segments of most Korean isolates might have originated in Western Europe and North America but that the RNA S segments for all Korean isolates might have originated in China and Japan. Recombination analysis identified a total of 12 recombination events among all isolates and segments and five recombination events among the 13 Korea isolates; among the five recombinants from Korea, three contained the whole RNA L segment, suggesting reassortment rather than recombination. Our analyses provide evidence that both recombination and reassortment have contributed to the molecular diversity of TSWV.

  5. BioMatriX: Sequence analysis, structure visualization, phylogenetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmx-biomatrix.blogspot.com) developed for biological science community to augment scientific research regarding genomics, proteomics, phylogenetics and linkage analysis in one platform. BioMatriX offers multi-functional services to perform ...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, S.; Hasnain, N.U.

    2008-01-01

    To identify the distribution pattern of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) genotype in a group of patients and to study its phylogenetic divergence. Two hundred and one HBV infected patients were genotyped for this study. All HbsAg positive individuals, either healthy carriers or suffering from conditions such as acute or chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were included. Hepatitis B patients co-infected with other hepatic viruses were excluded. Hepatitis B virus DNA was extracted from serum, and subjected to a nested PCR, using the primers type-specific for genotype detection. Phylogenetic analysis was performed in the pre-S1 through S genes of HBV. The divergence was studied through 15 sequences of 967bp submitted to the DBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases accessible under accession number EF584640 through EF584654. Out of 201 patients tested, 156 were males and 45 were females. Genotype D was the predominant type found in 128 (64%) patients followed by A in 47 (23%) and mixed A/D in 26 (13%). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the dominance of genotype D and subtype ayw2. There was dominance of genotype D subtype ayw2. It had a close resemblance with HBV strains that circulate in Iran, India and Japan. (author)

  7. galaxie--CGI scripts for sequence identification through automated phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R Henrik; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Ursing, Björn M

    2004-06-12

    The prevalent use of similarity searches like BLAST to identify sequences and species implicitly assumes the reference database to be of extensive sequence sampling. This is often not the case, restraining the correctness of the outcome as a basis for sequence identification. Phylogenetic inference outperforms similarity searches in retrieving correct phylogenies and consequently sequence identities, and a project was initiated to design a freely available script package for sequence identification through automated Web-based phylogenetic analysis. Three CGI scripts were designed to facilitate qualified sequence identification from a Web interface. Query sequences are aligned to pre-made alignments or to alignments made by ClustalW with entries retrieved from a BLAST search. The subsequent phylogenetic analysis is based on the PHYLIP package for inferring neighbor-joining and parsimony trees. The scripts are highly configurable. A service installation and a version for local use are found at http://andromeda.botany.gu.se/galaxiewelcome.html and http://galaxie.cgb.ki.se

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Ammirati, Joseph F; Both, Ernst E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Halling, Roy E; Henkel, Terry W; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Nagasawa, Eiji; Soytong, Kasem; Taylor, Andy F; Watling, Roy; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; McLaughlin, David J

    2010-12-01

    Porcini (Boletus section Boletus: Boletaceae: Boletineae: Boletales) are a conspicuous group of wild, edible mushrooms characterized by fleshy fruiting bodies with a poroid hymenophore that is "stuffed" with white hyphae when young. Their reported distribution is with ectomycorrhizal plants throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Little progress has been made on the systematics of this group using modern molecular phylogenetic tools because sampling has been limited primarily to European species and the genes employed were insufficient to resolve the phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of porcini by using a global geographic sampling of most known species, new discoveries from little explored areas, and multiple genes. We used 78 sequences from the fast-evolving nuclear internal transcribed spacers and are able to recognize 18 reciprocally monophyletic species. To address whether or not porcini form a monophyletic group, we compiled a broadly sampled dataset of 41 taxa, including other members of the Boletineae, and used separate and combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and the mitochondrial ATPase subunit six gene. Contrary to previous studies, our separate and combined phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of porcini. We also report the discovery of two taxa that expand the known distribution of porcini to Australia and Thailand and have ancient phylogenetic connections to the rest of the group. A relaxed molecular clock analysis with these new taxa dates the origin of porcini to between 42 and 54 million years ago, coinciding with the initial diversification of angiosperms, during the Eocene epoch when the climate was warm and humid. These results reveal an unexpected diversity, distribution, and ancient origin of a group of commercially valuable mushrooms that may provide an economic incentive for conservation and support the hypothesis of a tropical

  9. Phylogenetic diversity analysis of Trichoderma species based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vi-4177/CSAU be assigned as the type strains of a species of genus Trichoderma based on phylogenetic tree analysis together with the 18S rRNA gene sequence search in Ribosomal Database Project, small subunit rRNA and large subunit ...

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene of canine parvovirus and comparison with Indian and world isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, G; Chandra, M; Dwivedi, P N

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) causes hemorrhagic enteritis, especially in young dogs, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has four main antigenic types CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Virus protein 2 (VP2) is the main capsid protein and mutations affecting VP2 gene are responsible for the evolution of various antigenic types of CPV. Full length VP2 gene from field isolates was amplified and cloned for sequence analysis. The sequences were submitted to the GenBank and were assigned Acc. Nos., viz. KP406928.1 for P12, KP406927.1 for P15, KP406930.1 for P32, KP406926.1 for Megavac-6 and KP406929.1 for NobivacDHPPi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the samples were forming a separate clad with vaccine strains. When the samples were compared with the world and Indian isolates, it was observed that samples formed a separate node indicating regional genetic variation in CPV.

  11. Data for constructing insect genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Rosenfeld

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one fully sequenced and well annotated insect genomes were used to construct genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation of insect genomes. To examine the role of e-value cutoff in ortholog determination we used scaled e-value cutoffs and a single linkage clustering approach.. The present communication includes (1 a list of the genomes used to construct the genome content phylogenetic matrices, (2 a nexus file with the data matrices used in phylogenetic analysis, (3 a nexus file with the Newick trees generated by phylogenetic analysis, (4 an excel file listing the Core (CORE genes and Unique (UNI genes found in five insect groups, and (5 a figure showing a plot of consistency index (CI versus percent of unannotated genes that are apomorphies in the data set for gene losses and gains and bar plots of gains and losses for four consistency index (CI cutoffs.

  12. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, S; Collard, M; Wood, B

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a literature search for information about the soft-tissue anatomy of the extant non-human hominoid genera, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates, together with the results of a phylogenetic analysis of these data plus comparable data for Homo. Information on the four extant non-human hominoid genera was located for 240 out of the 1783 soft-tissue structures listed in the Nomina Anatomica. Numerically these data are biased so that information about some systems (e.g. muscles) and some regions (e.g. the forelimb) are over-represented, whereas other systems and regions (e.g. the veins and the lymphatics of the vascular system, the head region) are either under-represented or not represented at all. Screening to ensure that the data were suitable for use in a phylogenetic analysis reduced the number of eligible soft-tissue structures to 171. These data, together with comparable data for modern humans, were converted into discontinuous character states suitable for phylogenetic analysis and then used to construct a taxon-by-character matrix. This matrix was used in two tests of the hypothesis that soft-tissue characters can be relied upon to reconstruct hominoid phylogenetic relationships. In the first, parsimony analysis was used to identify cladograms requiring the smallest number of character state changes. In the second, the phylogenetic bootstrap was used to determine the confidence intervals of the most parsimonious clades. The parsimony analysis yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram that matched the molecular cladogram. Similarly the bootstrap analysis yielded clades that were compatible with the molecular cladogram; a (Homo, Pan) clade was supported by 95% of the replicates, and a (Gorilla, Pan, Homo) clade by 96%. These are the first hominoid morphological data to provide statistically significant support for the clades favoured by the molecular evidence. PMID:11833653

  13. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene sequences reveals significant genomic divergence in Triticeae species. Guang-Rong Li, Tao Lang, En-Nian Yang, Cheng Liu ... The MITE insertion at the 3 UTR is boxed. Figure 2. The secondary structure of MITE insertion in HM452949.

  14. REFGEN and TREENAMER: Automated Sequence Data Handling for Phylogenetic Analysis in the Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Guy; Stevens, Jamie R.; Richards, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences and increasingly that of amino acid sequences is used to address a number of biological questions. Access to extensive datasets, including numerous genome projects, means that standard phylogenetic analyses can include many hundreds of sequences. Unfortunately, most phylogenetic analysis programs do not tolerate the sequence naming conventions of genome databases. Managing large numbers of sequences and standardizing sequence labels for use in phylogenetic analysis programs can be a time consuming and laborious task. Here we report the availability of an online resource for the management of gene sequences recovered from public access genome databases such as GenBank. These web utilities include the facility for renaming every sequence in a FASTA alignment file, with each sequence label derived from a user-defined combination of the species name and/or database accession number. This facility enables the user to keep track of the branching order of the sequences/taxa during multiple tree calculations and re-optimisations. Post phylogenetic analysis, these webpages can then be used to rename every label in the subsequent tree files (with a user-defined combination of species name and/or database accession number). Together these programs drastically reduce the time required for managing sequence alignments and labelling phylogenetic figures. Additional features of our platform include the automatic removal of identical accession numbers (recorded in the report file) and generation of species and accession number lists for use in supplementary materials or figure legends. PMID:19812722

  15. High genetic diversity of equine infectious anaemia virus strains from Slovenia revealed upon phylogenetic analysis of the p15 gag gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, U; Malovrh, T

    2016-03-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), which belongs to the Retroviridae family, infects equids almost worldwide. Every year, sporadic EIAV cases are detected in Slovenia. To characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains in the p15 gag gene region phylogenetically in order to compare the Slovenian EIAV strains with EIAV strains from abroad, especially with the recently published European strains. Cross-sectional study using material derived from post mortem examination. In total, 29 EIAV serologically positive horses from 18 different farms were examined in this study. Primers were designed to amplify the p15 gag gene region. Amplicons of 28 PCRs were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Altogether, 28 EIAV sequences were obtained from 17 different farms and were distributed between 4 separate monophyletic groups and 9 branches upon phylogenetic analysis. Among EIAV strains from abroad, the closest relatives to Slovenian EIAV strains were European EIAV strains from Italy. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some animals from distantly located farms were most probably infected with the same EIAV strains, as well as animals from the same farm and animals from farms located in the same geographical region. This is the first report of such high genetic diversity of EIAV strains from one country. This led to speculation that there is a potential virus reservoir among the populations of riding horses, horses kept for pleasure and horses for meat production, with some farmers or horse-owners not following legislation, thus enabling the spread of infection with EIAV. The low sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test may also contribute to the spread of infection with EIAV, because some infected horses might have escaped detection. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also provide additional knowledge about the highly heterogeneous nature of the EIAV genome. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  17. REFGEN and TREENAMER: Automated Sequence Data Handling for Phylogenetic Analysis in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences and increasingly that of amino acid sequences is used to address a number of biological questions. Access to extensive datasets, including numerous genome projects, means that standard phylogenetic analyses can include many hundreds of sequences. Unfortunately, most phylogenetic analysis programs do not tolerate the sequence naming conventions of genome databases. Managing large numbers of sequences and standardizing sequence labels for use in phylogenetic analysis programs can be a time consuming and laborious task. Here we report the availability of an online resource for the management of gene sequences recovered from public access genome databases such as GenBank. These web utilities include the facility for renaming every sequence in a FASTA alignment fi le, with each sequence label derived from a user-defined combination of the species name and/or database accession number. This facility enables the user to keep track of the branching order of the sequences/taxa during multiple tree calculations and re-optimisations. Post phylogenetic analysis, these webpages can then be used to rename every label in the subsequent tree fi les (with a user-defined combination of species name and/or database accession number. Together these programs drastically reduce the time required for managing sequence alignments and labelling phylogenetic figures. Additional features of our platform include the automatic removal of identical accession numbers (recorded in the report file and generation of species and accession number lists for use in supplementary materials or figure legends.

  18. Nodal distances for rooted phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Dissimilarity measures for (possibly weighted) phylogenetic trees based on the comparison of their vectors of path lengths between pairs of taxa, have been present in the systematics literature since the early seventies. For rooted phylogenetic trees, however, these vectors can only separate non-weighted binary trees, and therefore these dissimilarity measures are metrics only on this class of rooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we overcome this problem, by splitting in a suitable way each path length between two taxa into two lengths. We prove that the resulting splitted path lengths matrices single out arbitrary rooted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa and arcs weighted in the set of positive real numbers. This allows the definition of metrics on this general class of rooted phylogenetic trees by comparing these matrices through metrics in spaces M(n)(R) of real-valued n x n matrices. We conclude this paper by establishing some basic facts about the metrics for non-weighted phylogenetic trees defined in this way using L(p) metrics on M(n)(R), with p [epsilon] R(>0).

  19. galaxieEST: addressing EST identity through automated phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R Henrik; Rajashekar, Balaji; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Ursing, Björn M

    2004-07-05

    Research involving expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is intricately coupled to the existence of large, well-annotated sequence repositories. Comparatively complete and satisfactory annotated public sequence libraries are, however, available only for a limited range of organisms, rendering the absence of sequences and gene structure information a tangible problem for those working with taxa lacking an EST or genome sequencing project. Paralogous genes belonging to the same gene family but distinguished by derived characteristics are particularly prone to misidentification and erroneous annotation; high but incomplete levels of sequence similarity are typically difficult to interpret and have formed the basis of many unsubstantiated assumptions of orthology. In these cases, a phylogenetic study of the query sequence together with the most similar sequences in the database may be of great value to the identification process. In order to facilitate this laborious procedure, a project to employ automated phylogenetic analysis in the identification of ESTs was initiated. galaxieEST is an open source Perl-CGI script package designed to complement traditional similarity-based identification of EST sequences through employment of automated phylogenetic analysis. It uses a series of BLAST runs as a sieve to retrieve nucleotide and protein sequences for inclusion in neighbour joining and parsimony analyses; the output includes the BLAST output, the results of the phylogenetic analyses, and the corresponding multiple alignments. galaxieEST is available as an on-line web service for identification of fungal ESTs and for download / local installation for use with any organism group at http://galaxie.cgb.ki.se/galaxieEST.html. By addressing sequence relatedness in addition to similarity, galaxieEST provides an integrative view on EST origin and identity, which may prove particularly useful in cases where similarity searches return one or more pertinent, but not full, matches and

  20. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  2. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Scarabaeinae (dung beetles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Michael T; Inward, Daegan J G; Hunt, Toby; Vogler, Alfried P

    2007-11-01

    The dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) include ca. 5000 species and exhibit a diverse array of morphologies and behaviors. This variation presumably reflects the adaptation to a diversity of food types and the different strategies used to avoid competition for vertebrate dung, which is the primary breeding environment for most species. The current classification gives great weight to the major behavioral types, separating the ball rollers and the tunnelers, but existing phylogenetic studies have been based on limited taxonomic or biogeographic sampling and have been contradictory. Here, we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 214 species of Scarabaeinae, representing all 12 traditionally recognized tribes and six biogeographical regions, using partial gene sequences from one nuclear (28S) and two mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL) genes. Length variation in 28S (588-621 bp) and rrnL (514-523 bp) was subjected to a thorough evaluation of alternative alignments, gap-coding methods, and tree searches using model-based (Bayesian and likelihood), maximum parsimony, and direct optimization analyses. The small-bodied, non-dung-feeding Sarophorus+Coptorhina were basal in all reconstructions. These were closely related to rolling Odontoloma+Dicranocara, suggesting an early acquisition of rolling behavior. Smaller tribes and most genera were monophyletic, while Canthonini and Dichotomiini each consisted of multiple paraphyletic lineages at hierarchical levels equivalent to the smaller tribes. Plasticity of rolling and tunneling was evidenced by a lack of monophyly (S-H test, p > 0.05) and several reversals within clades. The majority of previously unrecognized clades were geographical, including the well-supported Neotropical Phanaeini+Eucraniini, and a large Australian clade of rollers as well as tunneling Coptodactyla and Demarziella. Only three lineages, Gymnopleurini, Copris+Microcopris and Onthophagus, were widespread and therefore appear to be dispersive at a global scale. A

  3. Bayesian models for comparative analysis integrating phylogenetic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villemereuil Pierre de

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncertainty in comparative analyses can come from at least two sources: a phylogenetic uncertainty in the tree topology or branch lengths, and b uncertainty due to intraspecific variation in trait values, either due to measurement error or natural individual variation. Most phylogenetic comparative methods do not account for such uncertainties. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty leads to false perceptions of precision (confidence intervals will be too narrow and inflated significance in hypothesis testing (e.g. p-values will be too small. Although there is some application-specific software for fitting Bayesian models accounting for phylogenetic error, more general and flexible software is desirable. Methods We developed models to directly incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into a range of analyses that biologists commonly perform, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. Results We demonstrate applications in linear regression, quantification of phylogenetic signal, and measurement error models. Phylogenetic uncertainty was incorporated by applying a prior distribution for the phylogeny, where this distribution consisted of the posterior tree sets from Bayesian phylogenetic tree estimation programs. The models were analysed using simulated data sets, and applied to a real data set on plant traits, from rainforest plant species in Northern Australia. Analyses were performed using the free and open source software OpenBUGS and JAGS. Conclusions Incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty through an empirical prior distribution of trees leads to more precise estimation of regression model parameters than using a single consensus tree and enables a more realistic estimation of confidence intervals. In addition, models incorporating measurement errors and/or individual variation, in one or both variables, are easily formulated in the Bayesian framework. We show that BUGS is a useful, flexible

  4. Bayesian models for comparative analysis integrating phylogenetic uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncertainty in comparative analyses can come from at least two sources: a) phylogenetic uncertainty in the tree topology or branch lengths, and b) uncertainty due to intraspecific variation in trait values, either due to measurement error or natural individual variation. Most phylogenetic comparative methods do not account for such uncertainties. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty leads to false perceptions of precision (confidence intervals will be too narrow) and inflated significance in hypothesis testing (e.g. p-values will be too small). Although there is some application-specific software for fitting Bayesian models accounting for phylogenetic error, more general and flexible software is desirable. Methods We developed models to directly incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into a range of analyses that biologists commonly perform, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. Results We demonstrate applications in linear regression, quantification of phylogenetic signal, and measurement error models. Phylogenetic uncertainty was incorporated by applying a prior distribution for the phylogeny, where this distribution consisted of the posterior tree sets from Bayesian phylogenetic tree estimation programs. The models were analysed using simulated data sets, and applied to a real data set on plant traits, from rainforest plant species in Northern Australia. Analyses were performed using the free and open source software OpenBUGS and JAGS. Conclusions Incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty through an empirical prior distribution of trees leads to more precise estimation of regression model parameters than using a single consensus tree and enables a more realistic estimation of confidence intervals. In addition, models incorporating measurement errors and/or individual variation, in one or both variables, are easily formulated in the Bayesian framework. We show that BUGS is a useful, flexible general purpose tool for

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of anemone fishes of the Persian Gulf using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... genetic diversity among samples was investigated by phylogenetic analysis. Results show that there is ... more about the living organisms found in this region. Many marine ... Kish (modified from Pous et al., 2004). Table 2.

  6. The phylogenetics of succession can guide restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shooner, Stephanie; Chisholm, Chelsea Lee; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic tools have increasingly been used in community ecology to describe the evolutionary relationships among co-occurring species. In studies of succession, such tools may allow us to identify the evolutionary lineages most suited for particular stages of succession and habitat...... rehabilitation. However, to date, these two applications have been largely separate. Here, we suggest that information on phylogenetic community structure might help to inform community restoration strategies following major disturbance. Our study examined phylogenetic patterns of succession based...... for species sorting along abiotic gradients (slope and aspect) on the mine sites that had been abandoned for the longest. Synthesis and applications. Understanding the trajectory of succession is critical for restoration efforts. Our results suggest that early colonizers represent a phylogenetically random...

  7. Molecular Phylogenetics: Concepts for a Newcomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajawatanawong, Pravech

    Molecular phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms using molecular sequence data. The aim of this review is to introduce the important terminology and general concepts of tree reconstruction to biologists who lack a strong background in the field of molecular evolution. Some modern phylogenetic programs are easy to use because of their user-friendly interfaces, but understanding the phylogenetic algorithms and substitution models, which are based on advanced statistics, is still important for the analysis and interpretation without a guide. Briefly, there are five general steps in carrying out a phylogenetic analysis: (1) sequence data preparation, (2) sequence alignment, (3) choosing a phylogenetic reconstruction method, (4) identification of the best tree, and (5) evaluating the tree. Concepts in this review enable biologists to grasp the basic ideas behind phylogenetic analysis and also help provide a sound basis for discussions with expert phylogeneticists.

  8. Growth rules based on the modularity of the Canarian Aeonium (Crassulaceae) and their phylogenetic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Growth forms of 22 species of Aeonium (Crassulaceae) were quantified. Since all species are simple in their modular construction, models were developed to predict module length, branching mode and flowering probability using linear and logistic regression. When combined, the parameters...... of these models are species specific. A discriminant analysis generates a statistically significant separation of species at the level of phylogenetic sections. The results therefore demonstrate the phylogenetic value of growth rules in plants. This dynamic approach strongly contrasts with the traditional static...

  9. Molecular identification and phylogenetic study of Demodex caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2014-10-01

    The DNA barcode has been widely used in species identification and phylogenetic analysis since 2003, but there have been no reports in Demodex. In this study, to obtain an appropriate DNA barcode for Demodex, molecular identification of Demodex caprae based on mitochondrial cox1 was conducted. Firstly, individual adults and eggs of D. caprae were obtained for genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction; Secondly, mitochondrial cox1 fragment was amplified, cloned, and sequenced; Thirdly, cox1 fragments of D. caprae were aligned with those of other Demodex retrieved from GenBank; Finally, the intra- and inter-specific divergences were computed and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to analyze phylogenetic relationship in Demodex. Results obtained from seven 429-bp fragments of D. caprae showed that sequence identities were above 99.1% among three adults and four eggs. The intraspecific divergences in D. caprae, Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis were 0.0-0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.0-0.2, and 0.0-0.5%, respectively, while the interspecific divergences between D. caprae and D. folliculorum, D. canis, and D. brevis were 20.3-20.9, 21.8-23.0, and 25.0-25.3, respectively. The interspecific divergences were 10 times higher than intraspecific ones, indicating considerable barcoding gap. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees showed that four Demodex species gathered separately, representing independent species; and Demodex folliculorum gathered with canine Demodex, D. caprae, and D. brevis in sequence. In conclusion, the selected 429-bp mitochondrial cox1 gene is an appropriate DNA barcode for molecular classification, identification, and phylogenetic analysis of Demodex. D. caprae is an independent species and D. folliculorum is closer to D. canis than to D. caprae or D. brevis.

  10. Molecular evidence for deep phylogenetic divergence in Mandrillus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, P T; Souquière, S; Clifford, S L; Abernethy, K A; Bruford, M W; Disotell, T R; Sterner, K N; Roques, P; Marx, P A; Wickings, E J

    2003-07-01

    Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are forest primates indigenous to western central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of 267 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome b gene from 53 mandrills of known and 17 of unknown provenance revealed two phylogeographical groups, with haplotypes differentiated by 2.6% comprising seven synonymous transitions. The distribution of the haplotypes suggests that the Ogooué River, Gabon, which bisects their range, separates mandrill populations in Cameroon and northern Gabon from those in southern Gabon. The haplotype distribution is also concordant with that of two known mandrill simian immunodeficiency viruses, suggesting that these two mandrill phylogroups have followed different evolutionary trajectories since separation.

  11. Detecting Network Communities: An Application to Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto F. S.; Rocha-Neto, Ivan C.; Santos, Leonardo B. L.; de Santana, Charles N.; Diniz, Marcelo V. C.; Lobão, Thierry Petit; Goés-Neto, Aristóteles; Pinho, Suani T. R.; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to identify communities in generally weighted complex networks and apply it to phylogenetic analysis. In this case, weights correspond to the similarity indexes among protein sequences, which can be used for network construction so that the network structure can be analyzed to recover phylogenetically useful information from its properties. The analyses discussed here are mainly based on the modular character of protein similarity networks, explored through the Newman-Girvan algorithm, with the help of the neighborhood matrix . The most relevant networks are found when the network topology changes abruptly revealing distinct modules related to the sets of organisms to which the proteins belong. Sound biological information can be retrieved by the computational routines used in the network approach, without using biological assumptions other than those incorporated by BLAST. Usually, all the main bacterial phyla and, in some cases, also some bacterial classes corresponded totally (100%) or to a great extent (>70%) to the modules. We checked for internal consistency in the obtained results, and we scored close to 84% of matches for community pertinence when comparisons between the results were performed. To illustrate how to use the network-based method, we employed data for enzymes involved in the chitin metabolic pathway that are present in more than 100 organisms from an original data set containing 1,695 organisms, downloaded from GenBank on May 19, 2007. A preliminary comparison between the outcomes of the network-based method and the results of methods based on Bayesian, distance, likelihood, and parsimony criteria suggests that the former is as reliable as these commonly used methods. We conclude that the network-based method can be used as a powerful tool for retrieving modularity information from weighted networks, which is useful for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21573202

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of HSP70 and cyt b gene sequences for Chinese Leishmania isolates and ultrastructural characteristics of Chinese Leishmania sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongmei; Qin, Hanxiao; Zhang, Jianguo; Liao, Lin; Chen, Qiwei; Chen, Dali; Chen, Jianping

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a worldwide epidemic disease caused by the genus Leishmania, which is still endemic in the west and northwest areas of China. Some viewpoints of the traditional taxonomy of Chinese Leishmania have been challenged by recent phylogenetic researches based on different molecular markers. However, the taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Leishmania isolates remain controversial, which need for more data and further analysis. In this study, the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene and cytochrome b (cyt b) gene were used for phylogenetic analysis of Chinese Leishmania isolates from patients, dogs, gerbils, and sand flies in different geographic origins. Besides, for the interesting Leishmania sp. in China, the ultrastructure of three Chinese Leishmania sp. strains (MHOM/CN/90/SC10H2, SD, GL) were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Bayesian trees from HSP70 and cyt b congruently indicated that the 14 Chinese Leishmania isolates belong to three Leishmania species including L. donovani complex, L. gerbilli, and L. (Sauroleishmania) sp. Their identity further confirmed that the undescribed Leishmania species causing visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in China is closely related to L. tarentolae. The phylogenetic results from HSP70 also suggested the classification of subspecies within L. donovani complex: KXG-918, KXG-927, KXG-Liu, KXG-Xu, 9044, SC6, and KXG-65 belong to L. donovani; Cy, WenChuan, and 801 were proposed to be L. infantum. Through transmission electron microscopy, unexpectedly, the Golgi apparatus were not observed in SC10H2, SD, and GL, which was similar to previous reports of reptilian Leishmania. The statistical analysis of microtubule counts separated SC10H2, SD, and GL as one group from any other reference strain (L. donovani MHOM/IN/80/DD8; L. tropica MHOM/SU/74/K27; L. gerbilli MRHO/CN/60/GERBILLI). The ultrastructural characteristics of Leishmania sp. partly lend support to the phylogenetic inference that

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis of phylogenetic trees: the prokaryotic forest of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigbò, Pere; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide comparison of phylogenetic trees is becoming an increasingly common approach in evolutionary genomics, and a variety of approaches for such comparison have been developed. In this article, we present several methods for comparative analysis of large numbers of phylogenetic trees. To compare phylogenetic trees taking into account the bootstrap support for each internal branch, the Boot-Split Distance (BSD) method is introduced as an extension of the previously developed Split Distance method for tree comparison. The BSD method implements the straightforward idea that comparison of phylogenetic trees can be made more robust by treating tree splits differentially depending on the bootstrap support. Approaches are also introduced for detecting tree-like and net-like evolutionary trends in the phylogenetic Forest of Life (FOL), i.e., the entirety of the phylogenetic trees for conserved genes of prokaryotes. The principal method employed for this purpose includes mapping quartets of species onto trees to calculate the support of each quartet topology and so to quantify the tree and net contributions to the distances between species. We describe the application of these methods to analyze the FOL and the results obtained with these methods. These results support the concept of the Tree of Life (TOL) as a central evolutionary trend in the FOL as opposed to the traditional view of the TOL as a "species tree."

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  15. Phylogenetic tree based on complete genomes using fractal and correlation analyses without sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Guo Yu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The complete genomes of living organisms have provided much information on their phylogenetic relationships. Similarly, the complete genomes of chloroplasts have helped resolve the evolution of this organelle in photosynthetic eukaryotes. In this review, we describe two algorithms to construct phylogenetic trees based on the theories of fractals and dynamic language using complete genomes. These algorithms were developed by our research group in the past few years. Our distance-based phylogenetic tree of 109 prokaryotes and eukaryotes agrees with the biologists' "tree of life" based on the 16S-like rRNA genes in a majority of basic branchings and most lower taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis also shows that the chloroplast genomes are separated into two major clades corresponding to chlorophytes s.l. and rhodophytes s.l. The interrelationships among the chloroplasts are largely in agreement with the current understanding on chloroplast evolution.

  16. Construction of phylogenetic trees by kernel-based comparative analysis of metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S June; Joung, Je-Gun; Chang, Jeong-Ho; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2006-06-06

    To infer the tree of life requires knowledge of the common characteristics of each species descended from a common ancestor as the measuring criteria and a method to calculate the distance between the resulting values of each measure. Conventional phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences provides information about the genetic relationships between different organisms. In contrast, comparative analysis of metabolic pathways in different organisms can yield insights into their functional relationships under different physiological conditions. However, evaluating the similarities or differences between metabolic networks is a computationally challenging problem, and systematic methods of doing this are desirable. Here we introduce a graph-kernel method for computing the similarity between metabolic networks in polynomial time, and use it to profile metabolic pathways and to construct phylogenetic trees. To compare the structures of metabolic networks in organisms, we adopted the exponential graph kernel, which is a kernel-based approach with a labeled graph that includes a label matrix and an adjacency matrix. To construct the phylogenetic trees, we used an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, i.e., a hierarchical clustering algorithm. We applied the kernel-based network profiling method in a comparative analysis of nine carbohydrate metabolic networks from 81 biological species encompassing Archaea, Eukaryota, and Eubacteria. The resulting phylogenetic hierarchies generally support the tripartite scheme of three domains rather than the two domains of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. By combining the kernel machines with metabolic information, the method infers the context of biosphere development that covers physiological events required for adaptation by genetic reconstruction. The results show that one may obtain a global view of the tree of life by comparing the metabolic pathway structures using meta-level information rather than sequence

  17. Construction of phylogenetic trees by kernel-based comparative analysis of metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jeong-Ho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To infer the tree of life requires knowledge of the common characteristics of each species descended from a common ancestor as the measuring criteria and a method to calculate the distance between the resulting values of each measure. Conventional phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences provides information about the genetic relationships between different organisms. In contrast, comparative analysis of metabolic pathways in different organisms can yield insights into their functional relationships under different physiological conditions. However, evaluating the similarities or differences between metabolic networks is a computationally challenging problem, and systematic methods of doing this are desirable. Here we introduce a graph-kernel method for computing the similarity between metabolic networks in polynomial time, and use it to profile metabolic pathways and to construct phylogenetic trees. Results To compare the structures of metabolic networks in organisms, we adopted the exponential graph kernel, which is a kernel-based approach with a labeled graph that includes a label matrix and an adjacency matrix. To construct the phylogenetic trees, we used an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, i.e., a hierarchical clustering algorithm. We applied the kernel-based network profiling method in a comparative analysis of nine carbohydrate metabolic networks from 81 biological species encompassing Archaea, Eukaryota, and Eubacteria. The resulting phylogenetic hierarchies generally support the tripartite scheme of three domains rather than the two domains of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Conclusion By combining the kernel machines with metabolic information, the method infers the context of biosphere development that covers physiological events required for adaptation by genetic reconstruction. The results show that one may obtain a global view of the tree of life by comparing the metabolic pathway

  18. Phylogenetic comparative methods on phylogenetic networks with reticulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Paul; Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Kriebel, Ricardo; Sparks, K William; Ané, Cécile

    2018-04-25

    The goal of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs) is to study the distribution of quantitative traits among related species. The observed traits are often seen as the result of a Brownian Motion (BM) along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. Reticulation events such as hybridization, gene flow or horizontal gene transfer, can substantially affect a species' traits, but are not modeled by a tree. Phylogenetic networks have been designed to represent reticulate evolution. As they become available for downstream analyses, new models of trait evolution are needed, applicable to networks. One natural extension of the BM is to use a weighted average model for the trait of a hybrid, at a reticulation point. We develop here an efficient recursive algorithm to compute the phylogenetic variance matrix of a trait on a network, in only one preorder traversal of the network. We then extend the standard PCM tools to this new framework, including phylogenetic regression with covariates (or phylogenetic ANOVA), ancestral trait reconstruction, and Pagel's λ test of phylogenetic signal. The trait of a hybrid is sometimes outside of the range of its two parents, for instance because of hybrid vigor or hybrid depression. These two phenomena are rather commonly observed in present-day hybrids. Transgressive evolution can be modeled as a shift in the trait value following a reticulation point. We develop a general framework to handle such shifts, and take advantage of the phylogenetic regression view of the problem to design statistical tests for ancestral transgressive evolution in the evolutionary history of a group of species. We study the power of these tests in several scenarios, and show that recent events have indeed the strongest impact on the trait distribution of present-day taxa. We apply those methods to a dataset of Xiphophorus fishes, to confirm and complete previous analysis in this group. All the methods developed here are available in the Julia package PhyloNetworks.

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Psathyrostachys (Poaceae) based on one nuclear gene, three plastid genes, and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Baden, Claus

    2004-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the small, Central Asian genus Psathyrostachys Nevski is presented. The analysis is based on morphological characters and nucleotide sequence data from one nuclear gene, DMC1, and three plastid genes, rbcL, rpoA, and rpoC2. Separate analyses of the three data partitions...... (morphology, nuclear sequences, and plastid sequences) result in mostly congruent trees. The plastid and nuclear sequences produce completely congruent trees, and only the trees based on plastid sequences and morphological characters are incongruent. Combined analysis of all data results in a fairly well......-resolved strict consensus tree: Ps. rupestris is the sister to the remaining species, which are divided into two clades: one including Ps. fragilis and Ps. caduca, the other including Ps. juncea, Ps. huashanica, Ps. lanuginosa, Ps. stoloniformis, and Ps. kronenburgii. Pubescent culms and more than 20 mm long...

  20. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of ten Gobiidae species in China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the genetic and phylogenetic relationship of gobioid fishes in China, the representatives of 10 gobioid fishes from 2 subfamilies in China were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. We established 220 AFLP bands for 45 individuals from the 10 species, and the percentage of ...

  1. Trophic phylogenetics: evolutionary influences on body size, feeding, and species associations in grassland arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric M; Vincent, John B; Weiblen, George D; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary animal-plant interactions such as herbivory are widely understood to be shaped by evolutionary history. Yet questions remain about the role of plant phylogenetic diversity in generating and maintaining herbivore diversity, and whether evolutionary relatedness of producers might predict the composition of consumer communities. We tested for evidence of evolutionary associations among arthropods and the plants on which they were found, using phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring arthropod assemblages sampled from a plant-diversity manipulation experiment. Considering phylogenetic relationships among more than 900 arthropod consumer taxa and 29 plant species in the experiment, we addressed several interrelated questions. First, our results support the hypothesis that arthropod functional traits such as body size and trophic role are phylogenetically conserved in community ecological samples. Second, herbivores tended to cooccur with closer phylogenetic relatives than would be expected at random, whereas predators and parasitoids did not show phylogenetic association patterns. Consumer specialization, as measured by association through time with monocultures of particular host plant species, showed significant phylogenetic signal, although the. strength of this association varied among plant species. Polycultures of phylogenetically dissimilar plant species supported more phylogenetically dissimilar consumer communities than did phylogenetically similar polycultures. Finally, we separated the effects of plant species richness and relatedness in predicting the phylogenetic distribution of the arthropod assemblages in this experiment. The phylogenetic diversity of plant communities predicted the phylogenetic diversity of herbivore communities even after accounting for plant species richness. The phylogenetic diversity of secondary consumers differed by guild, with predator phylogenetic diversity responding to herbivore relatedness, while parasitoid

  2. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Loroño-Pino, María A; Marlenee, Nicole L; Díaz, Francisco J; González-Rojas, José I; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J

    2004-07-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002.

  5. Consequences of recombination on traditional phylogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Hein, J

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the shape of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed from sequences evolving under the coalescent with recombination. The motivation is that evolutionary inferences are often made from phylogenetic trees reconstructed from population data even though recombination may well occur (mt......DNA or viral sequences) or does occur (nuclear sequences). We investigate the size and direction of biases when a single tree is reconstructed ignoring recombination. Standard software (PHYLIP) was used to construct the best phylogenetic tree from sequences simulated under the coalescent with recombination....... With recombination present, the length of terminal branches and the total branch length are larger, and the time to the most recent common ancestor smaller, than for a tree reconstructed from sequences evolving with no recombination. The effects are pronounced even for small levels of recombination that may...

  6. A Distance Measure for Genome Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Allison, Lloyd; Dix, Trevor

    Phylogenetic analyses of species based on single genes or parts of the genomes are often inconsistent because of factors such as variable rates of evolution and horizontal gene transfer. The availability of more and more sequenced genomes allows phylogeny construction from complete genomes that is less sensitive to such inconsistency. For such long sequences, construction methods like maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood are often not possible due to their intensive computational requirement. Another class of tree construction methods, namely distance-based methods, require a measure of distances between any two genomes. Some measures such as evolutionary edit distance of gene order and gene content are computational expensive or do not perform well when the gene content of the organisms are similar. This study presents an information theoretic measure of genetic distances between genomes based on the biological compression algorithm expert model. We demonstrate that our distance measure can be applied to reconstruct the consensus phylogenetic tree of a number of Plasmodium parasites from their genomes, the statistical bias of which would mislead conventional analysis methods. Our approach is also used to successfully construct a plausible evolutionary tree for the γ-Proteobacteria group whose genomes are known to contain many horizontally transferred genes.

  7. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  8. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a coat protein of an Ukrainian isolate of Potato virus Y: comparison with homologous sequences of other isolates and phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzanivska I. G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Identification of the widespread Ukrainian isolate(s of PVY (Potato virus Y in different potato cultivars and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of detected PVY isolates based on NA and AA sequences of coat protein. Methods. ELISA, RT-PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results. PVY has been identified serologically in potato cultivars of Ukrainian selection. In this work we have optimized a method for total RNA extraction from potato samples and offered a sensitive and specific PCR-based test system of own design for diagnostics of the Ukrainian PVY isolates. Part of the CP gene of the Ukrainian PVY isolate has been sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. It is demonstrated that the Ukrainian isolate of Potato virus Y (CP gene has a higher percentage of homology with the recombinant isolates (strains of this pathogen (approx. 98.8– 99.8 % of homology for both nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of the CP gene. The Ukrainian isolate of PVY is positioned in the separate cluster together with the isolates found in Syria, Japan and Iran; these isolates possibly have common origin. The Ukrainian PVY isolate is confirmed to be recombinant. Conclusions. This work underlines the need and provides the means for accurate monitoring of Potato virus Y in the agroecosystems of Ukraine. Most importantly, the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the recombinant nature of this PVY isolate which has been attributed to the strain group O, subclade N:O.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis at deep timescales: unreliable gene trees, bypassed hidden support, and the coalescence/concatalescence conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, John; Springer, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Large datasets are required to solve difficult phylogenetic problems that are deep in the Tree of Life. Currently, two divergent systematic methods are commonly applied to such datasets: the traditional supermatrix approach (= concatenation) and "shortcut" coalescence (= coalescence methods wherein gene trees and the species tree are not co-estimated). When applied to ancient clades, these contrasting frameworks often produce congruent results, but in recent phylogenetic analyses of Placentalia (placental mammals), this is not the case. A recent series of papers has alternatively disputed and defended the utility of shortcut coalescence methods at deep phylogenetic scales. Here, we examine this exchange in the context of published phylogenomic data from Mammalia; in particular we explore two critical issues - the delimitation of data partitions ("genes") in coalescence analysis and hidden support that emerges with the combination of such partitions in phylogenetic studies. Hidden support - increased support for a clade in combined analysis of all data partitions relative to the support evident in separate analyses of the various data partitions, is a hallmark of the supermatrix approach and a primary rationale for concatenating all characters into a single matrix. In the most extreme cases of hidden support, relationships that are contradicted by all gene trees are supported when all of the genes are analyzed together. A valid fear is that shortcut coalescence methods might bypass or distort character support that is hidden in individual loci because small gene fragments are analyzed in isolation. Given the extensive systematic database for Mammalia, the assumptions and applicability of shortcut coalescence methods can be assessed with rigor to complement a small but growing body of simulation work that has directly compared these methods to concatenation. We document several remarkable cases of hidden support in both supermatrix and coalescence paradigms and argue

  10. 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis for determination of phylogenetic relationship among methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K; Tsien, H C; Hanson, R S; DePalma, S R; Scholtz, R; LaRoche, S

    1990-01-01

    16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) of 12 methylotrophic bacteria have been almost completely sequenced to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Methylotrophs that are physiologically related are phylogenetically diverse and are scattered among the purple eubacteria (class Proteobacteria). Group I methylotrophs can be classified in the beta- and the gamma-subdivisions and group II methylotrophs in the alpha-subdivision of the purple eubacteria, respectively. Pink-pigmented facultative and non-pigmented obligate group II methylotrophs form two distinctly separate branches within the alpha-subdivision. The secondary structures of the 16S rRNA sequences of 'Methylocystis parvus' strain OBBP, 'Methylosinus trichosporium' strain OB3b, 'Methylosporovibrio methanica' strain 81Z and Hyphomicrobium sp. strain DM2 are similar, and these non-pigmented obligate group II methylotrophs form one tight cluster in the alpha-subdivision. The pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs, Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1, Methylobacterium sp. strain DM4 and Methylobacterium organophilum strain XX form another cluster within the alpha-subdivision. Although similar in phenotypic characteristics, Methylobacterium organophilum strain XX and Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 are clearly distinguishable by their 16S rRNA sequences. The group I methylotrophs, Methylophilus methylotrophus strain AS1 and methylotrophic species DM11, which do not utilize methane, are similar in 16S rRNA sequence to bacteria in the beta-subdivision. The methane-utilizing, obligate group I methanotrophs, Methylococcus capsulatus strain BATH and Methylomonas methanica, are placed in the gamma-subdivision. The results demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish and classify the methylotrophic bacteria using 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

  11. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Non-aureus Staphylococci Species Based on Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Sohail; Barkema, Herman W.; Luby, Christopher; Condas, Larissa A. Z.; Nobrega, Diego B.; Carson, Domonique A.; De Buck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), a heterogeneous group of a large number of species and subspecies, are the most frequently isolated pathogens from intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Phylogenetic relationships among bovine NAS species are controversial and have mostly been determined based on single-gene trees. Herein, we analyzed phylogeny of bovine NAS species using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 441 distinct isolates. In addition, evolutionary relationships among bovine NAS were estimated from multilocus data of 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf genes and sequences from these and numerous other single genes/proteins. All phylogenies were created with FastTree, Maximum-Likelihood, Maximum-Parsimony, and Neighbor-Joining methods. Regardless of methodology, WGS-trees clearly separated bovine NAS species into five monophyletic coherent clades. Furthermore, there were consistent interspecies relationships within clades in all WGS phylogenetic reconstructions. Except for the Maximum-Parsimony tree, multilocus data analysis similarly produced five clades. There were large variations in determining clades and interspecies relationships in single gene/protein trees, under different methods of tree constructions, highlighting limitations of using single genes for determining bovine NAS phylogeny. However, based on WGS data, we established a robust phylogeny of bovine NAS species, unaffected by method or model of evolutionary reconstructions. Therefore, it is now possible to determine associations between phylogeny and many biological traits, such as virulence, antimicrobial resistance, environmental niche, geographical distribution, and host specificity. PMID:28066335

  12. A phylogenetic transform enhances analysis of compositional microbiota data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Justin D; Washburne, Alex D; Mukherjee, Sayan; David, Lawrence A

    2017-02-15

    Surveys of microbial communities (microbiota), typically measured as relative abundance of species, have illustrated the importance of these communities in human health and disease. Yet, statistical artifacts commonly plague the analysis of relative abundance data. Here, we introduce the PhILR transform, which incorporates microbial evolutionary models with the isometric log-ratio transform to allow off-the-shelf statistical tools to be safely applied to microbiota surveys. We demonstrate that analyses of community-level structure can be applied to PhILR transformed data with performance on benchmarks rivaling or surpassing standard tools. Additionally, by decomposing distance in the PhILR transformed space, we identified neighboring clades that may have adapted to distinct human body sites. Decomposing variance revealed that covariation of bacterial clades within human body sites increases with phylogenetic relatedness. Together, these findings illustrate how the PhILR transform combines statistical and phylogenetic models to overcome compositional data challenges and enable evolutionary insights relevant to microbial communities.

  13. Phylogenetic diversity and relationships among species of genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty six Nicotiana species were used to construct phylogenetic trees and to asses the genetic relationships between them. Genetic distances estimated from RAPD analysis was used to construct phylogenetic trees using Phylogenetic Inference Package (PHYLIP). Since phylogenetic relationships estimated for closely ...

  14. Conus pennaceus : a phylogenetic analysis of the Mozambican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Conus has over 500 species and is the most species-rich taxon of marine invertebrates. Based on mitochondrial DNA, this study focuses on the phylogenetics of Conus, particularly the pennaceus complex collected along the Mozambican coast. Phylogenetic trees based on both the 16S and the 12S ribosomal ...

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Dengue Virus in Bangkalan, Madura Island, East Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Labiqah, Amaliah; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Kameoka, Masanori

    2018-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major health issue in tropical and subtropical areas. Indonesia is one of the biggest dengue endemic countries in the world. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis of DENV in Bangkalan, Madura Island, Indonesia, was performed in order to obtain a clearer understanding of its dynamics in this country. A total of 359 blood samples from dengue-suspected patients were collected between 2012 and 2014. Serotyping was conducted using a multiplex Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction and a phylogenetic analysis of E gene sequences was performed using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. 17 out of 359 blood samples (4.7%) were positive for the isolation of DENV. Serotyping and the phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of DENV-1 genotype I (9/17, 52.9%), followed by DENV-2 Cosmopolitan type (7/17, 41.2%) and DENV-3 genotype I (1/17, 5.9%) . DENV-4 was not isolated. The Madura Island isolates showed high nucleotide similarity to other Indonesian isolates, indicating frequent virus circulation in Indonesia. The results of the present study highlight the importance of continuous viral surveillance in dengue endemic areas in order to obtain a clearer understanding of the dynamics of DENV in Indonesia.

  16. Phylogenetic resolution and habitat specificity of members of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2005-10-01

    Substantial ambiguity exists regarding the phylogenetic status of facultatively psychrophilic luminous bacteria identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, a species thought to be widely distributed in the world's oceans and believed to be the specific bioluminescent light-organ symbiont of several deep-sea fishes. Members of the P. phosphoreum species group include luminous and non-luminous strains identified phenotypically from a variety of different habitats as well as phylogenetically defined lineages that appear to be evolutionarily distinct. To resolve this ambiguity and to begin developing a meaningful knowledge of the geographic distributions, habitats and symbiotic relationships of bacteria in the P. phosphoreum species group, we carried out a multilocus, fine-scale phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and luxABFE genes of many newly isolated luminous strains from symbiotic and saprophytic habitats, together with previously isolated luminous and non-luminous strains identified as P. phosphoreum from these and other habitats. Parsimony analysis unambiguously resolved three evolutionarily distinct clades, phosphoreum, iliopiscarium and kishitanii. The tight phylogenetic clustering within these clades and the distinct separation between them indicates they are different species, P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium iliopiscarium and the newly recognized 'Photobacterium kishitanii'. Previously reported non-luminous strains, which had been identified phenotypically as P. phosphoreum, resolved unambiguously as P. iliopiscarium, and all examined deep-sea fishes (specimens of families Chlorophthalmidae, Macrouridae, Moridae, Trachichthyidae and Acropomatidae) were found to harbour 'P. kishitanii', not P. phosphoreum, in their light organs. This resolution revealed also that 'P. kishitanii' is cosmopolitan in its geographic distribution. Furthermore, the lack of phylogenetic variation within 'P. kishitanii' indicates that this facultatively

  17. Phylogenetic diversity and biodiversity indices on phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Kristina; Fischer, Mareike

    2018-04-01

    In biodiversity conservation it is often necessary to prioritize the species to conserve. Existing approaches to prioritization, e.g. the Fair Proportion Index and the Shapley Value, are based on phylogenetic trees and rank species according to their contribution to overall phylogenetic diversity. However, in many cases evolution is not treelike and thus, phylogenetic networks have been developed as a generalization of phylogenetic trees, allowing for the representation of non-treelike evolutionary events, such as hybridization. Here, we extend the concepts of phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic diversity indices from phylogenetic trees to phylogenetic networks. On the one hand, we consider the treelike content of a phylogenetic network, e.g. the (multi)set of phylogenetic trees displayed by a network and the so-called lowest stable ancestor tree associated with it. On the other hand, we derive the phylogenetic diversity of subsets of taxa and biodiversity indices directly from the internal structure of the network. We consider both approaches that are independent of so-called inheritance probabilities as well as approaches that explicitly incorporate these probabilities. Furthermore, we introduce our software package NetDiversity, which is implemented in Perl and allows for the calculation of all generalized measures of phylogenetic diversity and generalized phylogenetic diversity indices established in this note that are independent of inheritance probabilities. We apply our methods to a phylogenetic network representing the evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), a group of species characterized by widespread hybridization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole genome sequence phylogenetic analysis of four Mexican rabies viruses isolated from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcenas-Reyes, I; Loza-Rubio, E; Cantó-Alarcón, G J; Luna-Cozar, J; Enríquez-Vázquez, A; Barrón-Rodríguez, R J; Milián-Suazo, F

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the rabies virus in molecular epidemiology has been traditionally performed on partial sequences of the genome, such as the N, G, and P genes; however, that approach raises concerns about the discriminatory power compared to whole genome sequencing. In this study we characterized four strains of the rabies virus isolated from cattle in Querétaro, Mexico by comparing the whole genome sequence to that of strains from the American, European and Asian continents. Four cattle brain samples positive to rabies and characterized as AgV11, genotype 1, were used in the study. A cDNA sequence was generated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using oligo dT. cDNA samples were sequenced in an Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. The phylogenetic analysis was performed with MEGA 6.0. Minimum evolution phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Neighbor-Joining method and bootstrapped with 1000 replicates. Three large and seven small clusters were formed with the 26 sequences used. The largest cluster grouped strains from different species in South America: Brazil, and the French Guyana. The second cluster grouped five strains from Mexico. A Mexican strain reported in a different study was highly related to our four strains, suggesting common source of infection. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the type of host is different for the different regions in the American Continent; rabies is more related to bats. It was concluded that the rabies virus in central Mexico is genetically stable and that it is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and

  20. treespace: Statistical exploration of landscapes of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jombart, Thibaut; Kendall, Michelle; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Colijn, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    The increasing availability of large genomic data sets as well as the advent of Bayesian phylogenetics facilitates the investigation of phylogenetic incongruence, which can result in the impossibility of representing phylogenetic relationships using a single tree. While sometimes considered as a nuisance, phylogenetic incongruence can also reflect meaningful biological processes as well as relevant statistical uncertainty, both of which can yield valuable insights in evolutionary studies. We introduce a new tool for investigating phylogenetic incongruence through the exploration of phylogenetic tree landscapes. Our approach, implemented in the R package treespace, combines tree metrics and multivariate analysis to provide low-dimensional representations of the topological variability in a set of trees, which can be used for identifying clusters of similar trees and group-specific consensus phylogenies. treespace also provides a user-friendly web interface for interactive data analysis and is integrated alongside existing standards for phylogenetics. It fills a gap in the current phylogenetics toolbox in R and will facilitate the investigation of phylogenetic results. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. PALM: a paralleled and integrated framework for phylogenetic inference with automatic likelihood model selectors.

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    Shu-Hwa Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selecting an appropriate substitution model and deriving a tree topology for a given sequence set are essential in phylogenetic analysis. However, such time consuming, computationally intensive tasks rely on knowledge of substitution model theories and related expertise to run through all possible combinations of several separate programs. To ensure a thorough and efficient analysis and avert tedious manipulations of various programs, this work presents an intuitive framework, the phylogenetic reconstruction with automatic likelihood model selectors (PALM, with convincing, updated algorithms and a best-fit model selection mechanism for seamless phylogenetic analysis. METHODOLOGY: As an integrated framework of ClustalW, PhyML, MODELTEST, ProtTest, and several in-house programs, PALM evaluates the fitness of 56 substitution models for nucleotide sequences and 112 substitution models for protein sequences with scores in various criteria. The input for PALM can be either sequences in FASTA format or a sequence alignment file in PHYLIP format. To accelerate the computing of maximum likelihood and bootstrapping, this work integrates MPICH2/PhyML, PalmMonitor and Palm job controller across several machines with multiple processors and adopts the task parallelism approach. Moreover, an intuitive and interactive web component, PalmTree, is developed for displaying and operating the output tree with options of tree rooting, branches swapping, viewing the branch length values, and viewing bootstrapping score, as well as removing nodes to restart analysis iteratively. SIGNIFICANCE: The workflow of PALM is straightforward and coherent. Via a succinct, user-friendly interface, researchers unfamiliar with phylogenetic analysis can easily use this server to submit sequences, retrieve the output, and re-submit a job based on a previous result if some sequences are to be deleted or added for phylogenetic reconstruction. PALM results in an inference of

  2. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  3. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis and protein structure modelling identifies distinct Ca(2+)/Cation antiporters and conservation of gene family structure within Arabidopsis and rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jon K; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2016-12-01

    The Ca(2+)/Cation Antiporter (CaCA) superfamily is an ancient and widespread family of ion-coupled cation transporters found in nearly all kingdoms of life. In animals, K(+)-dependent and K(+)-indendent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX and NCX) are important CaCA members. Recently it was proposed that all rice and Arabidopsis CaCA proteins should be classified as NCX proteins. Here we performed phylogenetic analysis of CaCA genes and protein structure homology modelling to further characterise members of this transporter superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis of rice and Arabidopsis CaCAs in comparison with selected CaCA members from non-plant species demonstrated that these genes form clearly distinct families, with the H(+)/Cation exchanger (CAX) and cation/Ca(2+) exchanger (CCX) families dominant in higher plants but the NCKX and NCX families absent. NCX-related Mg(2+)/H(+) exchanger (MHX) and CAX-related Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-like (NCL) proteins are instead present. Analysis of genomes of ten closely-related rice species and four Arabidopsis-related species found that CaCA gene family structures are highly conserved within related plants, apart from minor variation. Protein structures were modelled for OsCAX1a and OsMHX1. Despite exhibiting broad structural conservation, there are clear structural differences observed between the different CaCA types. Members of the CaCA superfamily form clearly distinct families with different phylogenetic, structural and functional characteristics, and therefore should not be simply classified as NCX proteins, which should remain as a separate gene family.

  5. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  6. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study.

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    Dwueng-Chwuan Jhwueng

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs have been applied widely in analyzing data from related species but their fit to data is rarely assessed.Can one determine whether any particular comparative method is typically more appropriate than others by examining comparative data sets?I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002-2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs. The number of species in these data sets ranged from 9 to 117.I used the Akaike information criterion to compare PCMs, and then fit PCMs to bivariate data sets through REML analysis. Correlation estimates between two traits and bootstrapped confidence intervals of correlations from each model were also compared.For phylogenies of less than one hundred taxa, the Independent Contrast method and the independent, non-phylogenetic models provide the best fit.For bivariate analysis, correlations from different PCMs are qualitatively similar so that actual correlations from real data seem to be robust to the PCM chosen for the analysis. Therefore, researchers might apply the PCM they believe best describes the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their data.

  7. Comparison of Boolean analysis and standard phylogenetic methods using artificially evolved and natural mt-tRNA sequences from great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Eszter; Ittzés, Péter; Podani, János; Thi, Quynh Chi Le; Jakó, Eena

    2012-04-01

    Boolean analysis (or BOOL-AN; Jakó et al., 2009. BOOL-AN: A method for comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 887-97.), a recently developed method for sequence comparison uses the Iterative Canonical Form of Boolean functions. It considers sequence information in a way entirely different from standard phylogenetic methods (i.e. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood, Neighbor-Joining, and Bayesian analysis). The performance and reliability of Boolean analysis were tested and compared with the standard phylogenetic methods, using artificially evolved - simulated - nucleotide sequences and the 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes of the great apes. At the outset, we assumed that the phylogeny of Hominidae is generally well established, and the guide tree of artificial sequence evolution can also be used as a benchmark. These offer a possibility to compare and test the performance of different phylogenetic methods. Trees were reconstructed by each method from 2500 simulated sequences and 22 mitochondrial tRNA sequences. We also introduced a special re-sampling method for Boolean analysis on permuted sequence sites, the P-BOOL-AN procedure. Considering the reliability values (branch support values of consensus trees and Robinson-Foulds distances) we used for simulated sequence trees produced by different phylogenetic methods, BOOL-AN appeared as the most reliable method. Although the mitochondrial tRNA sequences of great apes are relatively short (59-75 bases long) and the ratio of their constant characters is about 75%, BOOL-AN, P-BOOL-AN and the Bayesian approach produced the same tree-topology as the established phylogeny, while the outcomes of Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining methods were equivocal. We conclude that Boolean analysis is a promising alternative to existing methods of sequence comparison for phylogenetic reconstruction and congruence analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Phylogenetic inertia and Darwin's higher law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2011-03-01

    The concept of 'phylogenetic inertia' is routinely deployed in evolutionary biology as an alternative to natural selection for explaining the persistence of characteristics that appear sub-optimal from an adaptationist perspective. However, in many of these contexts the precise meaning of 'phylogenetic inertia' and its relationship to selection are far from clear. After tracing the history of the concept of 'inertia' in evolutionary biology, I argue that treating phylogenetic inertia and natural selection as alternative explanations is mistaken because phylogenetic inertia is, from a Darwinian point of view, simply an expected effect of selection. Although Darwin did not discuss 'phylogenetic inertia,' he did assert the explanatory priority of selection over descent. An analysis of 'phylogenetic inertia' provides a perspective from which to assess Darwin's view. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Orthology prediction at scalable resolution by phylogenetic tree analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, R.T.J.M. van der; Snel, B.; Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthology is one of the cornerstones of gene function prediction. Dividing the phylogenetic relations between genes into either orthologs or paralogs is however an oversimplification. Already in two-species gene-phylogenies, the complicated, non-transitive nature of phylogenetic

  10. A format for phylogenetic placements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A Matsen

    Full Text Available We have developed a unified format for phylogenetic placements, that is, mappings of environmental sequence data (e.g., short reads into a phylogenetic tree. We are motivated to do so by the growing number of tools for computing and post-processing phylogenetic placements, and the lack of an established standard for storing them. The format is lightweight, versatile, extensible, and is based on the JSON format, which can be parsed by most modern programming languages. Our format is already implemented in several tools for computing and post-processing parsimony- and likelihood-based phylogenetic placements and has worked well in practice. We believe that establishing a standard format for analyzing read placements at this early stage will lead to a more efficient development of powerful and portable post-analysis tools for the growing applications of phylogenetic placement.

  11. Phylogenetic reconstruction methods: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Initially designed to infer evolutionary relationships based on morphological and physiological characters, phylogenetic reconstruction methods have greatly benefited from recent developments in molecular biology and sequencing technologies with a number of powerful methods having been developed specifically to infer phylogenies from macromolecular data. This chapter, while presenting an overview of basic concepts and methods used in phylogenetic reconstruction, is primarily intended as a simplified step-by-step guide to the construction of phylogenetic trees from nucleotide sequences using fairly up-to-date maximum likelihood methods implemented in freely available computer programs. While the analysis of chloroplast sequences from various Vanilla species is used as an illustrative example, the techniques covered here are relevant to the comparative analysis of homologous sequences datasets sampled from any group of organisms.

  12. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece, revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae

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    Domenico Davolos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to C. cavimana (Cyprus and C. garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion. Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (C. canariensis, C. gomeri, C. guancha, and C. stocki from the Canary islands, C. monticola from Madeira, and C. chevreuxi from the Azores. The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., C. cavimana, C. garbinii, and C. kosswigi (Turkish coast clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013 and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only C. stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and C. stocki from Gran Canaria.

  13. Study on Phylogenetic Status of Javan Plover Bird (Charadrius, Charadriidae, Charadriiformes through DNA Barcoding Analysis

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    Hidayat Ashari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Javan Plover named Charadrius javanicus is taxonomically under controversy and phylogenetically unresolved yet. Through an analysis of DNA barcode, this study aims (1 to confirm whether Javan Plover is separated species named Charadrius javanicus or a subspecies of C. alexandrinus which named C. a. javanicus and (2 to determine a relationship within this genus. Totally 666 bp DNA sequences of COI barcode gene were analyzed.  The results showed that a sequence divergence between Javan Plover and C. alexandrinus alexandrinus was only 1.2%, while sequence divergences between C.a.alexandrinus and others species, or between Javan Plover and others species were ranged from 9-12%.  Neighbour-joining (NJ and maximum-parsimony (MP analyses showed that all individuals of both Javan Plover and Kenith Plover were clustered together, and supported by 99 % and 100 % of bootstrap value in NJ and MP, respectively. This study tends to support the previous findings that Javan Plover was not a separated species named C. javanicus, but it was as a subspecies of C. alexandrinus; named C. a. javanicus. There were two groups of Plover in this study; (C. leschenaultii and C. javanicus + C.a.alexandrinus, and (C.dubius and C. melodus + C. semipalmatus. DNA barcoding analysis can give certainty taxonomic status of the bird. Then, this study has implication as a basic data that can be used to provide and support the planning of Javan plover conservation programs. 

  14. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of bacteriophage WO in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qian; Qiao, Huping; Gao, Jin; Yun, Yueli; Liu, Fengxiang; Peng, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Phage WO is a bacteriophage found in Wolbachia. Herein, we represent the first phylogenetic study of WOs that infect spiders (Araneae). Seven species of spiders (Araneus alternidens, Nephila clavata, Hylyphantes graminicola, Prosoponoides sinensis, Pholcus crypticolens, Coleosoma octomaculatum, and Nurscia albofasciata) from six families were infected by Wolbachia and WO, followed by comprehensive sequence analysis. Interestingly, WO could be only detected Wolbachia-infected spiders. The relative infection rates of those seven species of spiders were 75, 100, 88.9, 100, 62.5, 72.7, and 100 %, respectively. Our results indicated that both Wolbachia and WO were found in three different body parts of N. clavata, and WO could be passed to the next generation of H. graminicola by vertical transmission. There were three different sequences for WO infected in A. alternidens and two different WO sequences from C. octomaculatum. Only one sequence of WO was found for the other five species of spiders. The discovered sequence of WO ranged from 239 to 311 bp. Phylogenetic tree was generated using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the orf7 gene sequences. According to the phylogenetic tree, WOs in N. clavata and H. graminicola were clustered in the same group. WOs from A. alternidens (WAlt1) and C. octomaculatum (WOct2) were closely related to another clade, whereas WO in P. sinensis was classified as a sole cluster.

  15. A gateway for phylogenetic analysis powered by grid computing featuring GARLI 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Adam L; Zwickl, Derrick J; Cummings, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    We introduce molecularevolution.org, a publicly available gateway for high-throughput, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis powered by grid computing. The gateway features a garli 2.0 web service that enables a user to quickly and easily submit thousands of maximum likelihood tree searches or bootstrap searches that are executed in parallel on distributed computing resources. The garli web service allows one to easily specify partitioned substitution models using a graphical interface, and it performs sophisticated post-processing of phylogenetic results. Although the garli web service has been used by the research community for over three years, here we formally announce the availability of the service, describe its capabilities, highlight new features and recent improvements, and provide details about how the grid system efficiently delivers high-quality phylogenetic results. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  16. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Lafond, Manuel; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for

  17. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gambette

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide

  18. A member of the HSP90 family from ovine Babesia in China: molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong; Moreau, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key component of the molecular chaperone complex essential for activating many signalling proteins involved in the development and progression of pathogenic cellular transformation. A Hsp90 gene (BQHsp90) was cloned and characterized from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan), an ovine Babesia isolate belonging to Babesia motasi-like group, by screening a cDNA expression library and performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of BQHsp90 is 2399 bp with an open reading frame of 2154 bp encoding a predicted 83 kDa polypeptide with 717 amino acid residues. It shows significant homology and similar structural characteristics to Hsp90 of other apicomplex organisms. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the HSP90 amino acid sequences, showed that the Babesia genus is clearly separated from other apicomplexa genera. Five Chinese ovine Babesia isolates were divided into 2 phylogenetic clusters, namely Babesia sp. Xinjiang (previously designated a new species) cluster and B. motasi-like cluster which could be further divided into 2 subclusters (Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan)/Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian)/Babesia sp. Hebei). Finally, the antigenicity of rBQHSP90 protein from prokaryotic expression was also evaluated using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  19. Orthology prediction at scalable resolution by phylogenetic tree analysis

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    Huynen Martijn A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthology is one of the cornerstones of gene function prediction. Dividing the phylogenetic relations between genes into either orthologs or paralogs is however an oversimplification. Already in two-species gene-phylogenies, the complicated, non-transitive nature of phylogenetic relations results in inparalogs and outparalogs. For situations with more than two species we lack semantics to specifically describe the phylogenetic relations, let alone to exploit them. Published procedures to extract orthologous groups from phylogenetic trees do not allow identification of orthology at various levels of resolution, nor do they document the relations between the orthologous groups. Results We introduce "levels of orthology" to describe the multi-level nature of gene relations. This is implemented in a program LOFT (Levels of Orthology From Trees that assigns hierarchical orthology numbers to genes based on a phylogenetic tree. To decide upon speciation and gene duplication events in a tree LOFT can be instructed either to perform classical species-tree reconciliation or to use the species overlap between partitions in the tree. The hierarchical orthology numbers assigned by LOFT effectively summarize the phylogenetic relations between genes. The resulting high-resolution orthologous groups are depicted in colour, facilitating visual inspection of (large trees. A benchmark for orthology prediction, that takes into account the varying levels of orthology between genes, shows that the phylogeny-based high-resolution orthology assignments made by LOFT are reliable. Conclusion The "levels of orthology" concept offers high resolution, reliable orthology, while preserving the relations between orthologous groups. A Windows as well as a preliminary Java version of LOFT is available from the LOFT website http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/LOFT.

  20. Expressed sequence tags as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of placental mammal evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Kullberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigate the usefulness of expressed sequence tags, ESTs, for establishing divergences within the tree of placental mammals. This is done on the example of the established relationships among primates (human, lagomorphs (rabbit, rodents (rat and mouse, artiodactyls (cow, carnivorans (dog and proboscideans (elephant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 2000 ESTs (1.2 mega bases from a marsupial mouse and characterized the data for their use in phylogenetic analysis. The sequences were used to identify putative orthologous sequences from whole genome projects. Although most ESTs stem from single sequence reads, the frequency of potential sequencing errors was found to be lower than allelic variation. Most of the sequences represented slowly evolving housekeeping-type genes, with an average amino acid distance of 6.6% between human and mouse. Positive Darwinian selection was identified at only a few single sites. Phylogenetic analyses of the EST data yielded trees that were consistent with those established from whole genome projects. CONCLUSIONS: The general quality of EST sequences and the general absence of positive selection in these sequences make ESTs an attractive tool for phylogenetic analysis. The EST approach allows, at reasonable costs, a fast extension of data sampling from species outside the genome projects.

  1. Sequence of the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and phylogenetic origin of the gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habenicht, A; Quesada, A; Cerff, R

    1997-10-01

    A cDNA-library has been constructed from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia seedlings, and the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN, EC 1.2.1.9) was isolated by plaque hybridization using the cDNA from pea as a heterologous probe. The cDNA comprises the entire GapN coding region. A putative polyadenylation signal is identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the GapN gene family represents a separate ancient branch within the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. It can be shown that the GapN gene family and other distinct branches of the superfamily have its phylogenetic origin before the separation of primary life-forms. This further demonstrates that already very early in evolution, a broad diversification of the aldehyde dehydrogenases led to the formation of the superfamily.

  2. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONGST 10 Durio SPECIES BASED ON PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS OF TWO CHLOROPLAST GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panca J. Santoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven species of Durio have been identified in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, but their relationships have not been studied. This study was conducted to analyse phylogenetic relationships amongst 10 Durio species in Malaysia using PCR-RFLP on two chloroplast DNA genes, i.e. ndhC-trnV and rbcL. DNAs were extracted from young leaves of 11 accessions from 10 Durio species collected from the Tenom Agriculture Research Station, Sabah, and University Agriculture Park, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers, N1-N2 and rbcL1-rbcL2, were used to flank the target regions ndhC-trnV and rbcL. Eight restriction enzymes, HindIII, BsuRI, PstI, TaqI, MspI, SmaI, BshNI, and EcoR130I, were used to digest the amplicons. Based on the results of PCR-RFLP on ndhC-trnV gene, the 10 Durio species were grouped into five distinct clusters, and the accessions generally showed high variations. However, based on the results of PCR-RFLP on the rbcL gene, the species were grouped into three distinct clusters, and generally showed low variations. This means that ndhC-trnV gene is more reliable for phylogenetic analysis in lower taxonomic level of Durio species or for diversity analysis, while rbcL gene is reliable marker for phylogenetic analysis at higher taxonomic level. PCR-RFLP on the ndhC-trnV and rbcL genes could therefore be considered as useful markers to phylogenetic analysis amongst Durio species. These finding might be used for further molecular marker assisted in Durio breeding program.

  3. Inferring phylogenetic trees from the knowledge of rare evolutionary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Marc; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Long, Yangjing; Stadler, Peter F

    2018-06-01

    Rare events have played an increasing role in molecular phylogenetics as potentially homoplasy-poor characters. In this contribution we analyze the phylogenetic information content from a combinatorial point of view by considering the binary relation on the set of taxa defined by the existence of a single event separating two taxa. We show that the graph-representation of this relation must be a tree. Moreover, we characterize completely the relationship between the tree of such relations and the underlying phylogenetic tree. With directed operations such as tandem-duplication-random-loss events in mind we demonstrate how non-symmetric information constrains the position of the root in the partially reconstructed phylogeny.

  4. Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NIRAJ SINGH

    for phylogenetic analysis of Gladiolus and related taxa using combined datasets from chloroplast genome. The psbA–trnH ... phylogenetic relationships among cultivars could be useful for hybridization programmes for further improvement of the crop. [Singh N. ... breeding in nature, and exhibited diverse pollination mech-.

  5. Unrealistic phylogenetic trees may improve phylogenetic footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Treutler, Hendrik; Cerquides, Jesus; Grosse, Ivo

    2017-06-01

    The computational investigation of DNA binding motifs from binding sites is one of the classic tasks in bioinformatics and a prerequisite for understanding gene regulation as a whole. Due to the development of sequencing technologies and the increasing number of available genomes, approaches based on phylogenetic footprinting become increasingly attractive. Phylogenetic footprinting requires phylogenetic trees with attached substitution probabilities for quantifying the evolution of binding sites, but these trees and substitution probabilities are typically not known and cannot be estimated easily. Here, we investigate the influence of phylogenetic trees with different substitution probabilities on the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting using synthetic and real data. For synthetic data we find that the classification performance is highest when the substitution probability used for phylogenetic footprinting is similar to that used for data generation. For real data, however, we typically find that the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting surprisingly increases with increasing substitution probabilities and is often highest for unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one. This finding suggests that choosing realistic model assumptions might not always yield optimal predictions in general and that choosing unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one might actually improve the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting. The proposed PF is implemented in JAVA and can be downloaded from https://github.com/mgledi/PhyFoo. : martin.nettling@informatik.uni-halle.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi; Yan, Fengming; Wang, Jianyun; Song, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Here, we reconstructed the Hemiptera phylogeny based on the expanded mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, separately. The differential rates of change across lineages may associate with long-branch attraction (LBA) effect and result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny from different types of data. To reduce the potential effects of systematic biases on inferences of topology, various data coding schemes, site removal method, and different algorithms were utilized in phylogenetic reconstruction. We show that the outgroups Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, and the ingroup Sternorrhyncha share similar base composition, and exhibit "long branches" relative to other hemipterans. Thus, the long-branch attraction between these groups is suspected to cause the failure of recovering Hemiptera under the homogeneous model. In contrast, a monophyletic Hemiptera is supported when heterogeneous model is utilized in the analysis. Although higher level phylogenetic relationships within Hemiptera remain to be answered, consensus between analyses is beginning to converge on a stable phylogeny.

  7. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus novel putative Na+-channel scorpion toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy A Guerrero-Vargas

    Full Text Available Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the putative Na(+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species.cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as putative modulators of Na(+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as putative NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct groups.This communication describes new putative NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the NaScTxs is proposed.

  8. Penicillium simile sp. nov. revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolos, Domenico; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; Persiani, Anna Maria; Maggi, Oriana

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of three phenetically identical Penicillium isolates, collected from the bioaerosol in a restoration laboratory in Italy, displayed macro- and microscopic characteristics that were similar though not completely ascribable to Penicillium raistrickii. For this reason, a phylogenetic approach based on DNA sequencing analysis was performed to establish both the taxonomic status and the evolutionary relationships of these three peculiar isolates in relation to previously described species of the genus Penicillium. We used four nuclear loci (both rRNA and protein coding genes) that have previously proved useful for the molecular investigation of taxa belonging to the genus Penicillium at various evolutionary levels. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA, a region of the tubulin beta chain gene (benA) and part of the calmodulin gene (cmd) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Analysis of the rRNA genes and of the benA and cmd sequence data indicates the presence of three isogenic isolates belonging to a genetically distinct species of the genus Penicillium, here described and named Penicillium simile sp. nov. (ATCC MYA-4591(T)  = CBS 129191(T)). This novel species is phylogenetically different from P. raistrickii and other related species of the genus Penicillium (e.g. Penicillium scabrosum), from which it can be distinguished on the basis of morphological trait analysis.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of several Thermus strains from Rehai of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yunlin; Chen, Chaoyin; Peng, Qian

    2005-10-01

    Several Thermus strains were isolated from 10 hot springs of the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong, Yunnan province. The diversity of Thermus strains was examined by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes and comparing their sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16S rDNA sequences from the Rehai geothermal isolates form four branches in the phylogenetic tree and had greater than 95.9% similarity in the phylogroup. Secondary structure comparison also indicated that the 16S rRNA from the Rehai geothermal isolates have unique secondary structure characteristics in helix 6, helix 9, and helix 10 (reference to Escherichia coli). This research is the first attempt to reveal the diversity of Thermus strains that are distributed in the Rehai geothermal area.

  11. Phylogenetic diversity and genotypical complexity of H9N2 influenza A viruses revealed by genomic sequence analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Dong

    Full Text Available H9N2 influenza A viruses have become established worldwide in terrestrial poultry and wild birds, and are occasionally transmitted to mammals including humans and pigs. To comprehensively elucidate the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of H9N2 influenza viruses, we performed a large-scale sequence analysis of 571 viral genomes from the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database, representing the spectrum of H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from 1966 to 2009. Our study provides a panoramic framework for better understanding the genesis and evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses, and for describing the history of H9N2 viruses circulating in diverse hosts. Panorama phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral gene segments revealed the complexity and diversity of H9N2 influenza viruses. The 571 H9N2 viral genomes were classified into 74 separate lineages, which had marked host and geographical differences in phylogeny. Panorama genotypical analysis also revealed that H9N2 viruses include at least 98 genotypes, which were further divided according to their HA lineages into seven series (A-G. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal genes showed that H9N2 viruses are closely related to H3, H4, H5, H7, H10, and H14 subtype influenza viruses. Our results indicate that H9N2 viruses have undergone extensive reassortments to generate multiple reassortants and genotypes, suggesting that the continued circulation of multiple genotypical H9N2 viruses throughout the world in diverse hosts has the potential to cause future influenza outbreaks in poultry and epidemics in humans. We propose a nomenclature system for identifying and unifying all lineages and genotypes of H9N2 influenza viruses in order to facilitate international communication on the evolution, ecology and epidemiology of H9N2 influenza viruses.

  12. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Johan AA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly understood. Herein, we present a hypothesis of the generic relationships of this group based on Bayesian inference analyses of two nuclear introns and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The level of phylogenetic congruence between the individual genes has been investigated utilizing Bayes factors. We also explore how changes in the substitution models affected the observed incongruence between partitions of our data set. Results The phylogenetic analysis supports both novel relationships, as well as traditional groupings. Among the more interesting novel relationship suggested is that the Terenura antwrens, the wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata, the spot-winged antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris and the russet antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus are sisters to all other typical antbirds. The remaining genera fall into two major clades. The first includes antshrikes, antvireos and the Herpsilochmus antwrens, while the second clade consists of most antwren genera, the Myrmeciza antbirds, the "professional" ant-following antbirds, and allied species. Our results also support previously suggested polyphyly of Myrmotherula antwrens and Myrmeciza antbirds. The tests of phylogenetic incongruence, using Bayes factors, clearly suggests that allowing the gene partitions to have separate topology parameters clearly increased the model likelihood. However, changing a component of the nucleotide substitution model had much higher impact on the model likelihood. Conclusions The phylogenetic results are in broad agreement with traditional classification of the typical antbirds, but some relationships are unexpected based on external morphology. In these cases their true affinities may have been obscured by convergent evolution and

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens from the bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Robert J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... Inappropriate tree reconstruction methods would pose a problem only in the basal relationships rather than in terminal taxa; the paraphyly observed in this study applied mostly to terminal taxa. This study recovered sufficient phylogenetic characters to separate accessions of the same species, making.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsC gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugas Sandra L

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. A survey of GenBank shows that arsC appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects. Results Phylogenetic analysis of aligned arsC sequences shows broad similarities to the established 16S rRNA phylogeny, with separation of bacterial, archaeal, and subsequently eukaryotic arsC genes. However, inconsistencies between arsC and 16S rRNA are apparent for some taxa. Cyanobacteria and some of the γ-Proteobacteria appear to possess arsC genes that are similar to those of Low GC Gram-positive Bacteria, and other isolated taxa possess arsC genes that would not be expected based on known evolutionary relationships. There is no clear separation of plasmid-borne and chromosomal arsC genes, although a number of the Enterobacteriales (γ-Proteobacteria possess similar plasmid-encoded arsC sequences. Conclusion The overall phylogeny of the arsenate reductases suggests a single, early origin of the arsC gene and subsequent sequence divergence to give the distinct arsC classes that exist today. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA and arsC phylogenies support the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in the evolution of arsenate reductases, with a number of instances of HGT early in bacterial arsC evolution. Plasmid-borne arsC genes are not monophyletic suggesting multiple cases of chromosomal-plasmid exchange and subsequent HGT. Overall, arsC phylogeny is complex and is likely the result of a number of evolutionary mechanisms.

  17. Ixodes ricinus tick lipocalins: identification, cloning, phylogenetic analysis and biochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Beaufays

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Screening a cDNA library in association with RT-PCR and RACE methodologies allowed us to identify 14 new lipocalin genes in the salivary glands of the Ixodes ricinus hard tick. A computational in-depth structural analysis confirmed that LIRs belong to the lipocalin family. These proteins were called LIR for "Lipocalin from I. ricinus" and numbered from 1 to 14 (LIR1 to LIR14. According to their percentage identity/similarity, LIR proteins may be assigned to 6 distinct phylogenetic groups. The mature proteins have calculated pM and pI varying from 21.8 kDa to 37.2 kDa and from 4.45 to 9.57 respectively. In a western blot analysis, all recombinant LIRs appeared as a series of thin bands at 50-70 kDa, suggesting extensive glycosylation, which was experimentally confirmed by treatment with N-glycosidase F. In addition, the in vivo expression analysis of LIRs in I. ricinus, examined by RT-PCR, showed homogeneous expression profiles for certain phylogenetic groups and relatively heterogeneous profiles for other groups. Finally, we demonstrated that LIR6 codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work confirms that, regarding their biochemical properties, expression profile, and sequence signature, lipocalins in Ixodes hard tick genus, and more specifically in the Ixodes ricinus species, are segregated into distinct phylogenetic groups suggesting potential distinct function. This was particularly demonstrated by the ability of LIR6 to scavenge leukotriene B4. The other LIRs did not bind any of the ligands tested, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, ADP, norepinephrine, platelet activating factor, prostaglandins D2 and E2, and finally leukotrienes B4 and C

  18. Evolutionary tools for phytosanitary risk analysis: phylogenetic signal as a predictor of host range of plant pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Magarey, Roger; Suiter, Karl; Webb, Campbell O

    2012-12-01

    Assessing risk from a novel pest or pathogen requires knowing which local plant species are susceptible. Empirical data on the local host range of novel pests are usually lacking, but we know that some pests are more likely to attack closely related plant species than species separated by greater evolutionary distance. We use the Global Pest and Disease Database, an internal database maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine Division (USDA APHIS-PPQ), to evaluate the strength of the phylogenetic signal in host range for nine major groups of plant pests and pathogens. Eight of nine groups showed significant phylogenetic signal in host range. Additionally, pests and pathogens with more known hosts attacked a phylogenetically broader range of hosts. This suggests that easily obtained data - the number of known hosts and the phylogenetic distance between known hosts and other species of interest - can be used to predict which plant species are likely to be susceptible to a particular pest. This can facilitate rapid assessment of risk from novel pests and pathogens when empirical host range data are not yet available and guide efficient collection of empirical data for risk evaluation.

  19. Evolutionary tools for phytosanitary risk analysis: phylogenetic signal as a predictor of host range of plant pests and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Magarey, Roger; Suiter, Karl; Webb, Campbell O

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk from a novel pest or pathogen requires knowing which local plant species are susceptible. Empirical data on the local host range of novel pests are usually lacking, but we know that some pests are more likely to attack closely related plant species than species separated by greater evolutionary distance. We use the Global Pest and Disease Database, an internal database maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service – Plant Protection and Quarantine Division (USDA APHIS-PPQ), to evaluate the strength of the phylogenetic signal in host range for nine major groups of plant pests and pathogens. Eight of nine groups showed significant phylogenetic signal in host range. Additionally, pests and pathogens with more known hosts attacked a phylogenetically broader range of hosts. This suggests that easily obtained data – the number of known hosts and the phylogenetic distance between known hosts and other species of interest – can be used to predict which plant species are likely to be susceptible to a particular pest. This can facilitate rapid assessment of risk from novel pests and pathogens when empirical host range data are not yet available and guide efficient collection of empirical data for risk evaluation. PMID:23346231

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of cercospora and mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, S B; Dunkle, L D; Zismann, V L

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the 3,000 named species in the genus Cercospora have no known sexual stage, although a Mycosphaerella teleomorph has been identified for a few. Mycosphaerella is an extremely large and important genus of plant pathogens, with more than 1,800 named species and at least 43 associated anamorph genera. The goal of this research was to perform a large-scale phylogenetic analysis to test hypotheses about the past evolutionary history of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2), the genus Mycosphaerella is monophyletic. In contrast, many anamorph genera within Mycosphaerella were polyphyletic and were not useful for grouping species. One exception was Cercospora, which formed a highly supported monophyletic group. Most Cercospora species from cereal crops formed a subgroup within the main Cercospora cluster. Only species within the Cercospora cluster produced the toxin cercosporin, suggesting that the ability to produce this compound had a single evolutionary origin. Intraspecific variation for 25 taxa in the Mycosphaerella clade averaged 1.7 nucleotides (nts) in the ITS region. Thus, isolates with ITS sequences that differ by two or more nucleotides may be distinct species. ITS sequences of groups I and II of the gray leaf spot pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis differed by 7 nts and clearly represent different species. There were 6.5 nt differences on average between the ITS sequences of the sorghum pathogen Cercospora sorghi and the maize pathogen Cercospora sorghi var. maydis, indicating that the latter is a separate species and not simply a variety of Cercospora sorghi. The large monophyletic Mycosphaerella cluster contained a number of anamorph genera with no known teleomorph associations. Therefore, the number of anamorph genera related to Mycosphaerella may be much larger than suspected previously.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the light-harvesting system in Chromera velia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hao; Slapeta, Jan; Carter, Dee; Chen, Min

    2012-03-01

    Chromera velia is a newly discovered photosynthetic eukaryotic alga that has functional chloroplasts closely related to the apicoplast of apicomplexan parasites. Recently, the chloroplast in C. velia was shown to be derived from the red algal lineage. Light-harvesting protein complexes (LHC), which are a group of proteins involved in photon capture and energy transfer in photosynthesis, are important for photosynthesis efficiency, photo-adaptation/accumulation and photo-protection. Although these proteins are encoded by genes located in the nucleus, LHC peptides migrate and function in the chloroplast, hence the LHC may have a different evolutionary history compared to chloroplast evolution. Here, we compare the phylogenetic relationship of the C. velia LHCs to LHCs from other photosynthetic organisms. Twenty-three LHC homologues retrieved from C. velia EST sequences were aligned according to their conserved regions. The C. velia LHCs are positioned in four separate groups on trees constructed by neighbour-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. A major group of seventeen LHCs from C. velia formed a separate cluster that was closest to dinoflagellate LHC, and to LHC and fucoxanthin chlorophyll-binding proteins from diatoms. One C. velia LHC sequence grouped with LI1818/LI818-like proteins, which were recently identified as environmental stress-induced protein complexes. Only three LHC homologues from C. velia grouped with the LHCs from red algae.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Pneumocystis from pig lungs obtained from slaughterhouses in southern and midwestern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.C Sanches

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pneumocystis genus is comprised of pathogens dwelling in the lungs of terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic mammals. Occasionally they induce severe pneumonitis, particularly in hosts with severe impairment of the immune system and progressively may fill pulmonary alveolar cavities causing respiratory failure. Molecular genetic studies revealed that Pneumocystis gene sequences present a marked divergence with the host species concerned. In the present study, the genetic diversity of Pneumocystis obtained from lungs of swines was examined by analyzing mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU and small subunit (mtSSU rRNA sequences. The samples were obtained from two slaughterhouses located in two Brazilian states. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that genetic groupings within Pneumocystis organisms were in accordance with those of the corresponding hosts and that two clusters were formed. In conclusion, these data show that there are genetically distinct porcine Pneumocystis genotypes with at least two separate clusters in Brazil.

  3. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: a phylogenetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland F Schwarz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The major clinical challenge in the treatment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC is the development of progressive resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity resulting from clonal evolution and the emergence of subclonal tumour populations in HGSOC was associated with the development of resistant disease.Evolutionary inference and phylogenetic quantification of heterogeneity was performed using the MEDICC algorithm on high-resolution whole genome copy number profiles and selected genome-wide sequencing of 135 spatially and temporally separated samples from 14 patients with HGSOC who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Samples were obtained from the clinical CTCR-OV03/04 studies, and patients were enrolled between 20 July 2007 and 22 October 2009. Median follow-up of the cohort was 31 mo (interquartile range 22-46 mo, censored after 26 October 2013. Outcome measures were overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. There were marked differences in the degree of clonal expansion (CE between patients (median 0.74, interquartile range 0.66-1.15, and dichotimization by median CE showed worse survival in CE-high cases (PFS 12.7 versus 10.1 mo, p = 0.009; OS 42.6 versus 23.5 mo, p = 0.003. Bootstrap analysis with resampling showed that the 95% confidence intervals for the hazard ratios for PFS and OS in the CE-high group were greater than 1.0. These data support a relationship between heterogeneity and survival but do not precisely determine its effect size. Relapsed tissue was available for two patients in the CE-high group, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the prevalent clonal population at clinical recurrence arose from early divergence events. A subclonal population marked by a NF1 deletion showed a progressive increase in tumour allele fraction during chemotherapy.This study demonstrates that quantitative measures of intra

  4. Prokaryotic diversity, composition structure, and phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities in leachate sediment ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Chongjun; Sun, Faqian; Chen, Yingxu

    2011-09-01

    In order to obtain insight into the prokaryotic diversity and community in leachate sediment, a culture-independent DNA-based molecular phylogenetic approach was performed with archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from leachate sediment of an aged landfill. A total of 59 archaeal and 283 bacterial rDNA phylotypes were identified in 425 archaeal and 375 bacterial analyzed clones. All archaeal clones distributed within two archaeal phyla of the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, and well-defined methanogen lineages, especially Methanosaeta spp., are the most numerically dominant species of the archaeal community. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial library revealed a variety of pollutant-degrading and biotransforming microorganisms, including 18 distinct phyla. A substantial fraction of bacterial clones showed low levels of similarity with any previously documented sequences and thus might be taxonomically new. Chemical characteristics and phylogenetic inferences indicated that (1) ammonium-utilizing bacteria might form consortia to alleviate or avoid the negative influence of high ammonium concentration on other microorganisms, and (2) members of the Crenarchaeota found in the sediment might be involved in ammonium oxidation. This study is the first to report the composition of the microbial assemblages and phylogenetic characteristics of prokaryotic populations extant in leachate sediment. Additional work on microbial activity and contaminant biodegradation remains to be explored.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Usman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Listeria (L. monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap. Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25% were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9% of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2% from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8% from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A, when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified.

  6. Incompletely resolved phylogenetic trees inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T Jonathan; Kraft, Nathan J B; Salamin, Nicolas; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    The tendency for more closely related species to share similar traits and ecological strategies can be explained by their longer shared evolutionary histories and represents phylogenetic conservatism. How strongly species traits co-vary with phylogeny can significantly impact how we analyze cross-species data and can influence our interpretation of assembly rules in the rapidly expanding field of community phylogenetics. Phylogenetic conservatism is typically quantified by analyzing the distribution of species values on the phylogenetic tree that connects them. Many phylogenetic approaches, however, assume a completely sampled phylogeny: while we have good estimates of deeper phylogenetic relationships for many species-rich groups, such as birds and flowering plants, we often lack information on more recent interspecific relationships (i.e., within a genus). A common solution has been to represent these relationships as polytomies on trees using taxonomy as a guide. Here we show that such trees can dramatically inflate estimates of phylogenetic conservatism quantified using S. P. Blomberg et al.'s K statistic. Using simulations, we show that even randomly generated traits can appear to be phylogenetically conserved on poorly resolved trees. We provide a simple rarefaction-based solution that can reliably retrieve unbiased estimates of K, and we illustrate our method using data on first flowering times from Thoreau's woods (Concord, Massachusetts, USA).

  7. Phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-09-01

    To confirm phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences, mtDNA 16S partial sequences of ten isolates of three Demodex species from China were amplified, recombined, and sequenced and then analyzed with two Demodex folliculorum isolates from Spain. Lastly, genetic distance was computed, and phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. MEGA 4.0 analysis showed high sequence identity among 16S rDNA partial sequences of three Demodex species, which were 95.85 % in D. folliculorum, 98.53 % in Demodex canis, and 99.71 % in Demodex brevis. The divergence, genetic distance, and transition/transversions of the three Demodex species reached interspecies level, whereas there was no significant difference of the divergence (1.1 %), genetic distance (0.011), and transition/transversions (3/1) of the two geographic D. folliculorum isolates (Spain and China). Phylogenetic trees reveal that the three Demodex species formed three separate branches of one clade, where D. folliculorum and D. canis gathered first, and then gathered with D. brevis. The two Spain and five China D. folliculorum isolates did not form sister clades. In conclusion, 16S mtDNA are suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis in low taxa (genus or species), but not for intraspecies determination of Demodex. The differentiation among the three Demodex species has reached interspecies level.

  8. PyElph - a software tool for gel images analysis and phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ana Brânduşa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents PyElph, a software tool which automatically extracts data from gel images, computes the molecular weights of the analyzed molecules or fragments, compares DNA patterns which result from experiments with molecular genetic markers and, also, generates phylogenetic trees computed by five clustering methods, using the information extracted from the analyzed gel image. The software can be successfully used for population genetics, phylogenetics, taxonomic studies and other applications which require gel image analysis. Researchers and students working in molecular biology and genetics would benefit greatly from the proposed software because it is free, open source, easy to use, has a friendly Graphical User Interface and does not depend on specific image acquisition devices like other commercial programs with similar functionalities do. Results PyElph software tool is entirely implemented in Python which is a very popular programming language among the bioinformatics community. It provides a very friendly Graphical User Interface which was designed in six steps that gradually lead to the results. The user is guided through the following steps: image loading and preparation, lane detection, band detection, molecular weights computation based on a molecular weight marker, band matching and finally, the computation and visualization of phylogenetic trees. A strong point of the software is the visualization component for the processed data. The Graphical User Interface provides operations for image manipulation and highlights lanes, bands and band matching in the analyzed gel image. All the data and images generated in each step can be saved. The software has been tested on several DNA patterns obtained from experiments with different genetic markers. Examples of genetic markers which can be analyzed using PyElph are RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, RAPD

  9. [Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the WOX family genes in Solanum lycopersicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-xu; Liu, Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zeng-lin; Gao, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Hui; Guo, Yong-feng

    2016-05-01

    Members of the plant-specific WOX transcription factor family have been reported to play important roles in cell to cell communication as well as other physiological and developmental processes. In this study, ten members of the WOX transcription factor family were identified in Solanum lycopersicum with HMMER. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, maximum-likelihood tree and Bayesian-inference tree were constructed and similar topologies were shown using the protein sequences of the homeodomain. Phylogenetic study revealed that the 25 WOX family members from Arabidopsis and tomato fall into three clades and nine subfamilies. The patterns of exon-intron structures and organization of conserved domains in Arabidopsis and tomato were consistent based on the phylogenetic results. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression patterns of SlWOXs were different in different tissue types. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis suggested that, as transcription factors, the SlWOX family members could be involved in a number of biological processes including cell to cell communication and tissue development. Our results are useful for future studies on WOX family members in tomato and other plant species.

  10. Estimating phylogenetic trees from genome-scale data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Xi, Zhenxiang; Wu, Shaoyuan; Davis, Charles C; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneity of signals in the genomes of diverse organisms poses challenges for traditional phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic methods known as "species tree" methods have been proposed to directly address one important source of gene tree heterogeneity, namely the incomplete lineage sorting that occurs when evolving lineages radiate rapidly, resulting in a diversity of gene trees from a single underlying species tree. Here we review theory and empirical examples that help clarify conflicts between species tree and concatenation methods, and misconceptions in the literature about the performance of species tree methods. Considering concatenation as a special case of the multispecies coalescent model helps explain differences in the behavior of the two methods on phylogenomic data sets. Recent work suggests that species tree methods are more robust than concatenation approaches to some of the classic challenges of phylogenetic analysis, including rapidly evolving sites in DNA sequences and long-branch attraction. We show that approaches, such as binning, designed to augment the signal in species tree analyses can distort the distribution of gene trees and are inconsistent. Computationally efficient species tree methods incorporating biological realism are a key to phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome data. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Somanniathelphusa boyangensis and phylogenetic analysis of Genus Somanniathelphusa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parathelphusidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Nan Jia

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors first obtained the mitochondrial genome of Somanniathelphusa boyangensis. The results showed that the mitochondrial genome is 17,032bp in length, included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs genes, 22 tRNAs genes and 1 putative control region, and it has the characteristics of the metazoan mitochondrial genome A+T bias. All tRNA genes display the typical clover-leaf secondary structure except tRNASer(AGN, which has lost the dihydroxyuridine arm. The GenBank database contains the mitochondrial genomes of representatives of approximately 22 families of Brachyura, comprising 56 species, including 4 species of freshwater crab. The authors established the phylogenetic relationships using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The phylogenetic relationship indicated that the molecular taxonomy of S. boyangensis is consistent with current morphological classification, and Parathelphusidae and Potamidae are derived within the freshwater clade or as part of it. In addition, the authors used the COX1 sequence of Somanniathelphusa in GenBank and the COX1 sequence of S. boyangensis to estimated the divergence time of this genus. The result displayed that the divergence time of Somanniathelphusa qiongshanensis is consistent with the separation of Hainan Island from mainland China in the Beibu Gulf, and the divergence time for Somanniathelphusa taiwanensis and Somanniathelphusa amoyensis is consistent with the separation of Taiwan Province from Mainland China at Fujian Province. These data indicate that geologic events influenced speciation of the genus Somanniathelphusa.

  12. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-04-09

    The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum likelihood analyses place

  13. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alverson Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vitaceae (grape is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  15. Phylogenetic and Diversity Analysis of Dactylis glomerata Subspecies Using SSR and IT-ISJ Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Defei; Zhao, Xinxin; Cheng, Yajuan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2016-10-31

    The genus Dactylis , an important forage crop, has a wide geographical distribution in temperate regions. While this genus is thought to include a single species, Dactylis glomerata , this species encompasses many subspecies whose relationships have not been fully characterized. In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of nine representative Dactylis subspecies were examined using SSR and IT-ISJ markers. In total, 21 pairs of SSR primers and 15 pairs of IT-ISJ primers were used to amplify 295 polymorphic bands with polymorphic rates of 100%. The average polymorphic information contents (PICs) of SSR and IT-ISJ markers were 0.909 and 0.780, respectively. The combined data of the two markers indicated a high level of genetic diversity among the nine D. glomerata subspecies, with a Nei's gene diversity index value of 0.283 and Shannon's diversity of 0.448. Preliminarily phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the 20 accessions could be divided into three groups (A, B, C). Furthermore, they could be divided into five clusters, which is similar to the structure analysis with K = 5. Phylogenetic placement in these three groups may be related to the distribution ranges and the climate types of the subspecies in each group. Group A contained eight accessions of four subspecies, originating from the west Mediterranean, while Group B contained seven accessions of three subspecies, originating from the east Mediterranean.

  16. Sequence features and phylogenetic analysis of the stress protein Hsp90α in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a poikilothermic vertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, James R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1999-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a chinook salmon Hsp90 cDNA; sequence analysis shows it to be Hsp90??. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis that ?? and ?? paralogs of Hsp90 arose as a result of a gene duplication event and that they diverged early in the evolution of vertebrates, before tetrapods separated from the teleost lineage. Among several differences distinguishing poikilothermic Hsp90?? sequences from their bird and mammal orthologs, the teleost versions specifically lack a characteristic QTQDQP phosphorylation site near the N-terminus. We used the cDNA to develop an RNA (Northern) blot to quantify cellular Hsp90 mRNA levels. Chinook salmon embryonic (CHSE-214) cells responded to heat shock with a rapid rise in Hsp90 mRNA through 4 h, followed by a gradual decline over the next 20 h. Hsp90 mRNA level may be useful as a stress indicator, especially in a laboratory setting or in response to acute heat stress.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Physodactylinae (Coleoptera, Elateridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Policena Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogeny based on male morphological characters and taxonomic revision of the Physodactylinae genera are presented. The phylogenetic analysis based on 66 male characters resulted in the polyphyly of Physodactylinae which comprises four independent lineages. Oligostethius and Idiotropia from Africa were found to be sister groups. Teslasena from Brazil was corroborated as belonging to Cardiophorinae clade. The South American genera Physodactylus and Dactylophysus were found to be sister groups and phylogenetically related to Heterocrepidius species. The Oriental Toxognathus resulted as sister group of that clade plus (Dicrepidius ramicornis (Lissomus sp, Physorhynus erythrocephalus. Taxonomic revisions include diagnoses and redescriptions of genera and distributional records and illustrations of species. Key to species of Teslasena, Toxognathus, Dactylophysus and Physodactylus are also provided. Teslasena lucasi is synonymized with T. femoralis. A new species of Dactylophysus is described, D. hirtus sp. nov., and lectotypes are designated to non-conspecific D. mendax sensu Fleutiaux and Heterocrepidius mendax Candèze. Physodactylus niger is removed from synonymy under P. oberthuri; P. carreti is synonymized with P. niger; P. obesus and P. testaceus are synonymized with P. sulcatus. Nine new species are described in Physodactylus: P. asper sp. nov., P. brunneus sp. nov., P. chassaini sp. nov., P. flavifrons sp. nov., P. girardi sp. nov., P. gounellei sp. nov., P. latithorax sp. nov., P. patens sp. nov. and P. tuberculatus sp. nov.

  18. Statistical assignment of DNA sequences using Bayesian phylogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Huelsenbeck, John P.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a new automated statistical method for DNA barcoding based on a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. The method is based on automated database sequence retrieval, alignment, and phylogenetic analysis using a custom-built program for Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. We show on real data...... that the method outperforms Blast searches as a measure of confidence and can help eliminate 80% of all false assignment based on best Blast hit. However, the most important advance of the method is that it provides statistically meaningful measures of confidence. We apply the method to a re......-analysis of previously published ancient DNA data and show that, with high statistical confidence, most of the published sequences are in fact of Neanderthal origin. However, there are several cases of chimeric sequences that are comprised of a combination of both Neanderthal and modern human DNA....

  19. Analysis of Domain Architecture and Phylogenetics of Family 2 Glycoside Hydrolases (GH2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Talens-Perales

    Full Text Available In this work we report a detailed analysis of the topology and phylogenetics of family 2 glycoside hydrolases (GH2. We distinguish five topologies or domain architectures based on the presence and distribution of protein domains defined in Pfam and Interpro databases. All of them share a central TIM barrel (catalytic module with two β-sandwich domains (non-catalytic at the N-terminal end, but differ in the occurrence and nature of additional non-catalytic modules at the C-terminal region. Phylogenetic analysis was based on the sequence of the Pfam Glyco_hydro_2_C catalytic module present in most GH2 proteins. Our results led us to propose a model in which evolutionary diversity of GH2 enzymes is driven by the addition of different non-catalytic domains at the C-terminal region. This model accounts for the divergence of β-galactosidases from β-glucuronidases, the diversification of β-galactosidases with different transglycosylation specificities, and the emergence of bicistronic β-galactosidases. This study also allows the identification of groups of functionally uncharacterized protein sequences with potential biotechnological interest.

  20. Sequence exploration reveals information bias among molecular markers used in phylogenetic reconstruction for Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N; Hosein, Fazeeda N; Carrington, Christine Vf

    2014-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of isolates of quarantine importance to the intra-specific level is confounded by a number of factors that affect phylogenetic reconstruction. Information bias and quality parameters were investigated to determine whether nucleotide sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees accurately reflect the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of individuals. Sequence exploration of GAPDH, ACT, TUB2 and ITS markers indicated that the query sequences had different patterns of nucleotide substitution but were without evidence of base substitution saturation. Regions of high entropy were much more dispersed in the ACT and GAPDH marker alignments than for the ITS and TUB2 markers. A discernible bimodal gap in the genetic distance frequency histograms was produced for the ACT and GAPDH markers which indicated successful separation of intra- and inter-specific sequences in the data set. Overall, analyses indicated clear differences in the ability of these markers to phylogenetically separate individuals to the intra-specific level which coincided with information bias.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Gossypium L. using restriction fragment length polymorphism of repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Rong, Ying; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Cotton is the world's leading textile fiber crop and is also grown as a bioenergy and food crop. Knowledge of the phylogeny of closely related species and the genome origin and evolution of polyploid species is significant for advanced genomics research and breeding. We have reconstructed the phylogeny of the cotton genus, Gossypium L., and deciphered the genome origin and evolution of its five polyploid species by restriction fragment analysis of repeated sequences. Nuclear DNA of 84 accessions representing 35 species and all eight genomes of the genus were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree of the genus was reconstructed using the parsimony method on 1033 polymorphic repeated sequence restriction fragments. The genome origin of its polyploids was determined by calculating the diploid-polyploid restriction fragment correspondence (RFC). The tree is consistent with the morphological classification, genome designation and geographic distribution of the species at subgenus, section and subsection levels. Gossypium lobatum (D7) was unambiguously shown to have the highest RFC with the D-subgenomes of all five polyploids of the genus, while the common ancestor of Gossypium herbaceum (A1) and Gossypium arboreum (A2) likely contributed to the A-subgenomes of the polyploids. These results provide a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the cotton genus and new insights into the genome origin and evolution of its polyploid species. The results also further demonstrate a simple, rapid and inexpensive method suitable for phylogenetic analysis of closely related species, especially congeneric species, and the inference of genome origin of polyploids that constitute over 70 % of flowering plants.

  2. DNA Translator and Aligner: HyperCard utilities to aid phylogenetic analysis of molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eernisse, D J

    1992-04-01

    DNA Translator and Aligner are molecular phylogenetics HyperCard stacks for Macintosh computers. They manipulate sequence data to provide graphical gene mapping, conversions, translations and manual multiple-sequence alignment editing. DNA Translator is able to convert documented GenBank or EMBL documented sequences into linearized, rescalable gene maps whose gene sequences are extractable by clicking on the corresponding map button or by selection from a scrolling list. Provided gene maps, complete with extractable sequences, consist of nine metazoan, one yeast, and one ciliate mitochondrial DNAs and three green plant chloroplast DNAs. Single or multiple sequences can be manipulated to aid in phylogenetic analysis. Sequences can be translated between nucleic acids and proteins in either direction with flexible support of alternate genetic codes and ambiguous nucleotide symbols. Multiple aligned sequence output from diverse sources can be converted to Nexus, Hennig86 or PHYLIP format for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Input or output alignments can be examined with Aligner, a convenient accessory stack included in the DNA Translator package. Aligner is an editor for the manual alignment of up to 100 sequences that toggles between display of matched characters and normal unmatched sequences. DNA Translator also generates graphic displays of amino acid coding and codon usage frequency relative to all other, or only synonymous, codons for approximately 70 select organism-organelle combinations. Codon usage data is compatible with spreadsheet or UWGCG formats for incorporation of additional molecules of interest. The complete package is available via anonymous ftp and is free for non-commercial uses.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pallisentis celatus (Acanthocephala) with phylogenetic analysis of acanthocephalans and rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ting Shuang; Nie, Pin

    2013-07-01

    Acanthocephalans are a small group of obligate endoparasites. They and rotifers are recently placed in a group called Syndermata. However, phylogenetic relationships within classes of acanthocephalans, and between them and rotifers, have not been well resolved, possibly due to the lack of molecular data suitable for such analysis. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced from Pallisentis celatus (Van Cleave, 1928), an acanthocephalan in the class Eoacanthocephala, an intestinal parasite of rice-field eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793), in China. The complete mt genome sequence of P. celatus is 13 855 bp long, containing 36 genes including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) as reported for other acanthocephalan species. All genes are encoded on the same strand and in the same direction. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that acanthocephalans are closely related with a clade containing bdelloids, which then correlates with the clade containing monogononts. The class Eoacanthocephala, containing P. celatus and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Van Cleave, 1921) was closely related to the Palaeacanthocephala. It is thus indicated that acanthocephalans may be just clustered among groups of rotifers. However, the resolving of phylogenetic relationship among all classes of acanthocephalans and between them and rotifers may require further sampling and more molecular data.

  4. Large-Scale Genomic Analysis of Codon Usage in Dengue Virus and Evaluation of Its Phylogenetic Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ramírez, Edgar E.; Salazar, Ma Isabel; López-López, María de Jesús; Salas-Benito, Juan Santiago; Sánchez-Varela, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of dengue virus (DENV) genome sequences available allows identifying the contributing factors to DENV evolution. In the present study, the codon usage in serotypes 1–4 (DENV1–4) has been explored for 3047 sequenced genomes using different statistics methods. The correlation analysis of total GC content (GC) with GC content at the three nucleotide positions of codons (GC1, GC2, and GC3) as well as the effective number of codons (ENC, ENCp) versus GC3 plots revealed mutational bias and purifying selection pressures as the major forces influencing the codon usage, but with distinct pressure on specific nucleotide position in the codon. The correspondence analysis (CA) and clustering analysis on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) within each serotype showed similar clustering patterns to the phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for DENV1–4. These clustering patterns are strongly related to the virus geographic origin. The phylogenetic dependence analysis also suggests that stabilizing selection acts on the codon usage bias. Our analysis of a large scale reveals new feature on DENV genomic evolution. PMID:25136631

  5. YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Denis Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Ampelopsis: gene organization, comparative analysis and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy eRaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of

  7. One tree to link them all: a phylogenetic dataset for the European tetrapoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-08-08

    Since the ever-increasing availability of phylogenetic informative data, the last decade has seen an upsurge of ecological studies incorporating information on evolutionary relationships among species. However, detailed species-level phylogenies are still lacking for many large groups and regions, which are necessary for comprehensive large-scale eco-phylogenetic analyses. Here, we provide a dataset of 100 dated phylogenetic trees for all European tetrapods based on a mixture of supermatrix and supertree approaches. Phylogenetic inference was performed separately for each of the main Tetrapoda groups of Europe except mammals (i.e. amphibians, birds, squamates and turtles) by means of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of supermatrix applying a tree constraint at the family (amphibians and squamates) or order (birds and turtles) levels based on consensus knowledge. For each group, we inferred 100 ML trees to be able to provide a phylogenetic dataset that accounts for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assessed node support with bootstrap analyses. Each tree was dated using penalized-likelihood and fossil calibration. The trees obtained were well-supported by existing knowledge and previous phylogenetic studies. For mammals, we modified the most complete supertree dataset available on the literature to include a recent update of the Carnivora clade. As a final step, we merged the phylogenetic trees of all groups to obtain a set of 100 phylogenetic trees for all European Tetrapoda species for which data was available (91%). We provide this phylogenetic dataset (100 chronograms) for the purpose of comparative analyses, macro-ecological or community ecology studies aiming to incorporate phylogenetic information while accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty.

  8. NGS combined with phylogenetic analysis to detect HIV-1 dual infection in Romanian people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Banica, Leontina; Nicolae, Ionelia; Radu, Eugen; Niculescu, Iulia; Abagiu, Adrian; Otelea, Dan; Paraschiv, Simona

    2018-04-04

    Dual HIV infections are possible and likely in people who inject drugs (PWID). Thirty-eight newly diagnosed patients, 19 PWID and 19 heterosexually HIV infected were analysed. V2-V3 loop of HIV-1 env gene was sequenced on the NGS platform 454 GSJunior (Roche). HIV-1 dual/multiple infections were identified in five PWID. For three of these patients, the reconstructed variants belonged to pure F1 subtype and CRF14_BG strains according to phylogenetic analysis. New recombinant forms between these parental strains were identified in two PWID samples. NGS data can provide, with the help of phylogenetic analysis, important insights about the intra-host sub-population structure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Functional & phylogenetic diversity of copepod communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, F.; Ayata, S. D.; Blanco-Bercial, L.; Cornils, A.; Guilhaumon, F.

    2016-02-01

    The diversity of natural communities is classically estimated through species identification (taxonomic diversity) but can also be estimated from the ecological functions performed by the species (functional diversity), or from the phylogenetic relationships among them (phylogenetic diversity). Estimating functional diversity requires the definition of specific functional traits, i.e., phenotypic characteristics that impact fitness and are relevant to ecosystem functioning. Estimating phylogenetic diversity requires the description of phylogenetic relationships, for instance by using molecular tools. In the present study, we focused on the functional and phylogenetic diversity of copepod surface communities in the Mediterranean Sea. First, we implemented a specific trait database for the most commonly-sampled and abundant copepod species of the Mediterranean Sea. Our database includes 191 species, described by seven traits encompassing diverse ecological functions: minimal and maximal body length, trophic group, feeding type, spawning strategy, diel vertical migration and vertical habitat. Clustering analysis in the functional trait space revealed that Mediterranean copepods can be gathered into groups that have different ecological roles. Second, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree using the available sequences of 18S rRNA. Our tree included 154 of the analyzed Mediterranean copepod species. We used these two datasets to describe the functional and phylogenetic diversity of copepod surface communities in the Mediterranean Sea. The replacement component (turn-over) and the species richness difference component (nestedness) of the beta diversity indices were identified. Finally, by comparing various and complementary aspects of plankton diversity (taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity) we were able to gain a better understanding of the relationships among the zooplankton community, biodiversity, ecosystem function, and environmental forcing.

  10. Phylogenetic turnover during subtropical forest succession across environmental and phylogenetic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Oliver; Michalski, Stefan G; Bruelheide, Helge; Durka, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Although spatial and temporal patterns of phylogenetic community structure during succession are inherently interlinked and assembly processes vary with environmental and phylogenetic scales, successional studies of community assembly have yet to integrate spatial and temporal components of community structure, while accounting for scaling issues. To gain insight into the processes that generate biodiversity after disturbance, we combine analyses of spatial and temporal phylogenetic turnover across phylogenetic scales, accounting for covariation with environmental differences. We compared phylogenetic turnover, at the species- and individual-level, within and between five successional stages, representing woody plant communities in a subtropical forest chronosequence. We decomposed turnover at different phylogenetic depths and assessed its covariation with between-plot abiotic differences. Phylogenetic turnover between stages was low relative to species turnover and was not explained by abiotic differences. However, within the late-successional stages, there was high presence-/absence-based turnover (clustering) that occurred deep in the phylogeny and covaried with environmental differentiation. Our results support a deterministic model of community assembly where (i) phylogenetic composition is constrained through successional time, but (ii) toward late succession, species sorting into preferred habitats according to niche traits that are conserved deep in phylogeny, becomes increasingly important.

  11. Aujeszky's disease in red fox (Vulpes vulpes): phylogenetic analysis unravels an unexpected epidemiologic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone

    2014-07-01

    We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals.

  12. HIV forensics: pitfalls and acceptable standards in the use of phylogenetic analysis as evidence in criminal investigations of HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E J; Azad, Y; Vandamme, A M; Weait, M; Geretti, A M

    2007-09-01

    Phylogenetic analysis - the study of the genetic relatedness between HIV strains - has recently been used in criminal prosecutions as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In these trials, the expert opinion of virologists has been of critical importance. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV gene sequences is complex and its findings do not achieve the levels of certainty obtained with the forensic analysis of human DNA. Although two individuals may carry HIV strains that are closely related, these will not necessarily be unique to the two parties and could extend to other persons within the same transmission network. For forensic purposes, phylogenetic analysis should be conducted under strictly controlled conditions by laboratories with relevant expertise applying rigorous methods. It is vitally important to include the right controls, which should be epidemiologically and temporally relevant to the parties under investigation. Use of inappropriate controls can exaggerate any relatedness between the virus strains of the complainant and defendant as being strikingly unique. It will be often difficult to obtain the relevant controls. If convenient but less appropriate controls are used, interpretation of the findings should be tempered accordingly. Phylogenetic analysis cannot prove that HIV transmission occurred directly between two individuals. However, it can exonerate individuals by demonstrating that the defendant carries a virus strain unrelated to that of the complainant. Expert witnesses should acknowledge the limitations of the inferences that might be made and choose the correct language in both written and verbal testimony.

  13. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis, fumonisin production and pathogenicity of Fusarium fujikuroi strains isolated from rice in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alejandra; Marín, Patricia; González-Jaén, M Teresa; Aguilar, Kristel Grace I; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2013-09-01

    Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg is a maize and rice pathogen causing important agricultural losses and produces fumonisins - mycotoxins which pose health risk to humans and farm animals. However, little information is available about the phylogenetics of this species and its ability to produce fumonisins in rice. We studied 32 strains isolated from rice in the Philippines and performed a phylogenetic analysis using the partial sequence of Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1α) including isolates belonging to closely related species. Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) production was analyzed in 7-day-old cultures grown in fumonisin-inducing medium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method and by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers for FUM1 gene, a key gene in fumonisin biosynthesis. Nucleotide diversities per site (π) were 0.00024 ± 0.00022 (standard deviation) for the 32 F. fujikuroi strains from the Philippines and 0.00189 ± 0.00143 for all 34 F. fujikuroi strains, respectively. F. fujikuroi isolates grouped into one cluster separated from the rest of isolates belonging to the closely related F. proliferatum and showed very low variability, irrespective of their geographic origin. The cluster containing strains of F. proliferatum showed higher intraspecific variability than F. fujikuroi. Thirteen of the 32 strains analyzed were FB1 producers (40.62%), with production ranging from 0.386 to 223.83 ppm. All isolates analyzed showed FUM1 gene expression above 1 and higher than the CT value of the non-template control sample. Both seedling stunting and elongation were induced by the isolates in comparison with the control. F. fujikuroi are distinct from F. proliferatum isolates based on phytogenetic analysis and are potential fumonisin producers because all are positive for FUM1 gene expression. No relationship between fumonisin production and pathogenicity could be observed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. A bootstrap based analysis pipeline for efficient classification of phylogenetically related animal miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Xun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetically related miRNAs (miRNA families convey important information of the function and evolution of miRNAs. Due to the special sequence features of miRNAs, pair-wise sequence identity between miRNA precursors alone is often inadequate for unequivocally judging the phylogenetic relationships between miRNAs. Most of the current methods for miRNA classification rely heavily on manual inspection and lack measurements of the reliability of the results. Results In this study, we designed an analysis pipeline (the Phylogeny-Bootstrap-Cluster (PBC pipeline to identify miRNA families based on branch stability in the bootstrap trees derived from overlapping genome-wide miRNA sequence sets. We tested the PBC analysis pipeline with the miRNAs from six animal species, H. sapiens, M. musculus, G. gallus, D. rerio, D. melanogaster, and C. elegans. The resulting classification was compared with the miRNA families defined in miRBase. The two classifications were largely consistent. Conclusion The PBC analysis pipeline is an efficient method for classifying large numbers of heterogeneous miRNA sequences. It requires minimum human involvement and provides measurements of the reliability of the classification results.

  16. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. The space of ultrametric phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryushkin, Alex; Drummond, Alexei J

    2016-08-21

    The reliability of a phylogenetic inference method from genomic sequence data is ensured by its statistical consistency. Bayesian inference methods produce a sample of phylogenetic trees from the posterior distribution given sequence data. Hence the question of statistical consistency of such methods is equivalent to the consistency of the summary of the sample. More generally, statistical consistency is ensured by the tree space used to analyse the sample. In this paper, we consider two standard parameterisations of phylogenetic time-trees used in evolutionary models: inter-coalescent interval lengths and absolute times of divergence events. For each of these parameterisations we introduce a natural metric space on ultrametric phylogenetic trees. We compare the introduced spaces with existing models of tree space and formulate several formal requirements that a metric space on phylogenetic trees must possess in order to be a satisfactory space for statistical analysis, and justify them. We show that only a few known constructions of the space of phylogenetic trees satisfy these requirements. However, our results suggest that these basic requirements are not enough to distinguish between the two metric spaces we introduce and that the choice between metric spaces requires additional properties to be considered. Particularly, that the summary tree minimising the square distance to the trees from the sample might be different for different parameterisations. This suggests that further fundamental insight is needed into the problem of statistical consistency of phylogenetic inference methods. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-Scale Genomic Analysis of Codon Usage in Dengue Virus and Evaluation of Its Phylogenetic Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of dengue virus (DENV genome sequences available allows identifying the contributing factors to DENV evolution. In the present study, the codon usage in serotypes 1–4 (DENV1–4 has been explored for 3047 sequenced genomes using different statistics methods. The correlation analysis of total GC content (GC with GC content at the three nucleotide positions of codons (GC1, GC2, and GC3 as well as the effective number of codons (ENC, ENCp versus GC3 plots revealed mutational bias and purifying selection pressures as the major forces influencing the codon usage, but with distinct pressure on specific nucleotide position in the codon. The correspondence analysis (CA and clustering analysis on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU within each serotype showed similar clustering patterns to the phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for DENV1–4. These clustering patterns are strongly related to the virus geographic origin. The phylogenetic dependence analysis also suggests that stabilizing selection acts on the codon usage bias. Our analysis of a large scale reveals new feature on DENV genomic evolution.

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the sugar porters in hemiascomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Margarida; Goffeau, André; Spencer-Martins, Isabel; Baret, Philippe V

    2007-01-01

    A total of 214 members of the sugar porter (SP) family (TC 2.A.1.1) from eight hemiascomycetous yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Candida albicans and Pichia stipitis, were identified. The yeast SPs were classified in 13 different phylogenetic clusters. Specific sugar substrates could be allocated to nine phylogenetic clusters, including two novel TC clusters that are specific to fungi, i.e. the glycerol:H(+) symporter (2.A.1.1.38) and the high-affinity glucose transporter (2.A.1.1.39). Four phylogenetic clusters are identified by the preliminary fifth number Z23, Z24, Z25 and Z26 and the substrates of their members remain undetermined. The amplification of the SP clusters across the Hemiascomycetes reflects adaptation to specific carbon and energy sources available in the habitat of each yeast species. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. SNPhylo: a pipeline to construct a phylogenetic tree from huge SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Guo, Hui; Wang, Xiyin; Kim, Changsoo; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-02-26

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used for genetic and evolutionary studies in various organisms. Advanced sequencing technology has dramatically enriched data available for constructing phylogenetic trees based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, massive SNP data makes it difficult to perform reliable analysis, and there has been no ready-to-use pipeline to generate phylogenetic trees from these data. We developed a new pipeline, SNPhylo, to construct phylogenetic trees based on large SNP datasets. The pipeline may enable users to construct a phylogenetic tree from three representative SNP data file formats. In addition, in order to increase reliability of a tree, the pipeline has steps such as removing low quality data and considering linkage disequilibrium. A maximum likelihood method for the inference of phylogeny is also adopted in generation of a tree in our pipeline. Using SNPhylo, users can easily produce a reliable phylogenetic tree from a large SNP data file. Thus, this pipeline can help a researcher focus more on interpretation of the results of analysis of voluminous data sets, rather than manipulations necessary to accomplish the analysis.

  1. Principal component analysis and the locus of the Fréchet mean in the space of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Tom M W; Tang, Xiaoxian; Weyenberg, Grady; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2017-12-01

    Evolutionary relationships are represented by phylogenetic trees, and a phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences typically produces a collection of these trees, one for each gene in the analysis. Analysis of samples of trees is difficult due to the multi-dimensionality of the space of possible trees. In Euclidean spaces, principal component analysis is a popular method of reducing high-dimensional data to a low-dimensional representation that preserves much of the sample's structure. However, the space of all phylogenetic trees on a fixed set of species does not form a Euclidean vector space, and methods adapted to tree space are needed. Previous work introduced the notion of a principal geodesic in this space, analogous to the first principal component. Here we propose a geometric object for tree space similar to the [Formula: see text]th principal component in Euclidean space: the locus of the weighted Fréchet mean of [Formula: see text] vertex trees when the weights vary over the [Formula: see text]-simplex. We establish some basic properties of these objects, in particular showing that they have dimension [Formula: see text], and propose algorithms for projection onto these surfaces and for finding the principal locus associated with a sample of trees. Simulation studies demonstrate that these algorithms perform well, and analyses of two datasets, containing Apicomplexa and African coelacanth genomes respectively, reveal important structure from the second principal components.

  2. Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercês, Michelle P; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Ferreira, Wallax A S; Harada, Maria L; Silva Júnior, José S

    2015-01-01

    Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Marajó Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species Concept: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916. East Amazonian squirrel monkeys north of the Amazon have a gray crown (S. sciureus), and south of the Amazon, the crown is yellow (S. collinsi). Morphometric measurements also clearly distinguish between the two species, with the most important contributing factors including width across upper canines for both sexes. For males, the mean zygomatic breadth was significantly wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi, and for females, the width across the upper molars was wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses support this separation of the eastern Amazonian squirrel monkeys into two distinct taxa, recovering one clade (S. sciureus) distributed to the north of the Amazon River, from the Negro River and Branco River to the Guiana coast and the Brazilian state of Amapá, and another clade (S. collinsi) south of the Amazon River, from the region of the Tapaj

  3. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Bozidar; Milicevic, Vesna; Jakic-Dimic, Dobrila; Bojkovski, Jovan; Prodanovic, Radisa; Kureljusic, Branislav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Savic, Borivoje

    2012-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). To characterize and determine the genetic diversity of PCV2 in the porcine population of Serbia, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of PCV2 collected from the tissues of pigs that either had died as a result of PMWS or did not exhibit disease symptoms were analyzed. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed considerable diversity among PCV2 ORF2 sequences and the existence of two main PCV2 genotypes, PCV2b and PCV2a, with at least three clusters, 1A/B, 1C and 2D. In order to provide further proof that the 1C strain is circulating in the porcine population, the whole viral genome of one PCV2 isolate was sequenced. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis using the entire viral genome sequences confirmed that there was a PMWS-associated 1C strain emerging in Serbia. Our analysis also showed that PCV2b is dominant in the porcine population, and that it is exclusively associated with PMWS occurrences in the country. These data constitute a useful basis for further epidemiological studies regarding the heterogeneity of PCV2 strains on the European continent.

  4. [Phylogenetic analysis of genomes of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, K V; Markelov, M L; Dedkov, V G; Vodop'ianov, A S; Kermanov, A V; Pisanov, R V; Kruglikov, V D; Mazrukho, A B; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2013-01-01

    Determination of origin of 2 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region by using full genome sequencing data. Toxigenic strain 2011 EL- 301 V. cholerae 01 El Tor Inaba No. 301 (ctxAB+, tcpA+) and nontoxigenic strain V. cholerae O1 Ogawa P- 18785 (ctxAB-, tcpA+) were studied. Sequencing was carried out on the MiSeq platform. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes obtained was carried out based on comparison of conservative part of the studied and 54 previously sequenced genomes. 2011EL-301 strain genome was presented by 164 contigs with an average coverage of 100, N50 parameter was 132 kb, for strain P- 18785 - 159 contigs with a coverage of69, N50 - 83 kb. The contigs obtained for strain 2011 EL-301 were deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases with access code AJFN02000000, for strain P-18785 - ANHS00000000. 716 protein-coding orthologous genes were detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis strain P- 18785 belongs to PG-1 subgroup (a group of predecessor strains of the 7th pandemic). Strain 2011EL-301 belongs to groups of strains of the 7th pandemic and is included into the cluster with later isolates that are associated with cases of cholera in South Africa and cases of import of cholera to the USA from Pakistan. The data obtained allows to establish phylogenetic connections with V cholerae strains isolated earlier.

  5. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and heat shock response of Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Tsuboi, Yoshihiro; Taniyama, Yusuke; Uchida, Naohiro; Sato, Reeko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The Babesia gibsoni heat shock protein 90 (BgHSP90) gene was cloned and sequenced. The length of the gene was 2,610 bp with two introns. This gene was amplified from cDNA corresponding to full length coding sequence (CDS) with an open reading frame of 2,148 bp. A phylogenetic analysis of the CDS of HSP90 gene showed that B. gibsoni was most closely related to B. bovis and Babesia sp. BQ1/Lintan and lies within a phylogenetic cluster of protozoa. Moreover, mRNA transcription profile for BgHSP90 exposed to high temperature were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. BgHSP90 levels were elevated when the parasites were incubated at 43°C for 1 hr.

  6. The combination of phylogenetic analysis with epidemiological and serological data to track HIV-1 transmission in a sexual transmission case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the linkage of HIV transmission from a man to a woman through unprotected sexual contact without disclosing his HIV-positive status.Combined with epidemiological information and serological tests, phylogenetic analysis was used to test the a priori hypothesis of HIV transmission from the man to the woman. Control subjects, infected with HIV through heterosexual intercourse, from the same location were also sampled. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the consensus gag, pol and env sequences obtained from blood samples of the man, the woman and the local control subjects. The env quasispecies of the man, the woman, and two controls were also obtained using single genome amplification and sequencing (SGA/S to explore the paraphyletic relationship by phylogenetic analysis.Epidemiological information and serological tests indicated that the man was infected with HIV-1 earlier than the woman. Phylogenetic analyses of the consensus sequences showed a monophyletic cluster for the man and woman in all three genomic regions. Furthermore, gag sequences of the man and woman shared a unique recombination pattern from subtype B and C, which was different from those of CRF07_BC or CRF08_BC observed in the local samples. These indicated that the viral sequences from the two subjects display a high level of similarity. Further, viral quasispecies from the man exhibited a paraphyletic relationship with those from the woman in the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML phylogenetic trees of the env region, which supported the transmission direction from the man to the woman.In the context of epidemiological and serological evidence, the results of phylogenetic analyses support the transmission from the man to the woman.

  7. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, D; Eissler, Y; Torres, P; Jorquera, E; Espinoza, J C; Kuznar, J

    2015-10-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that is endemic to salmon farming in Chile and causes great economic losses to the industry. Here we compared different diagnostic methods to detect IPNV in field samples, including 3 real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, cell culture isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genogroups prevailing in Chile, as well as their geographic distribution and virulence. The 3 qRT-PCR assays used primers that targeted regions of the VP2 and VP1 genes of the virus and were tested in 46 samples, presenting a fair agreement within their results. All samples were positive for at least 2 of the qRT-PCR assays, 29 were positive for cell culture, and 23 for IFAT, showing less sensitivity for these latter 2 methods. For the phylogenetic analysis, portions of 1180 and 523 bp of the VP2 region of segment A were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared with sequences from reference strains and from isolates reported by previous studies carried out in Chile. Most of the sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (European origin), and 5 were classified within genogroup 1 (American origin). Chilean isolates formed clusters within each of the genogroups found, evidencing a clear differentiation from the reference strains. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study completed for IPNV in Chile, covering isolates from sea- and freshwater salmon farms and showing a high prevalence of this virus in the country.

  8. A Phylogenetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden, an Emerging Agent of Diarrheal Disease in Tropical Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Makendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden is an emerging cause of diarrheal and invasive disease in humans residing in tropical regions. Despite the regional and international emergence of this Salmonella serovar, relatively little is known about its genetic diversity, genomics or virulence potential in model systems. Here we used whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to define the phylogenetic structure of a diverse global selection of S. Weltevreden. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 100 isolates demonstrated that the population of S. Weltevreden can be segregated into two main phylogenetic clusters, one associated predominantly with continental Southeast Asia and the other more internationally dispersed. Subcluster analysis suggested the local evolution of S. Weltevreden within specific geographical regions. Four of the isolates were sequenced using long read sequencing to produce high quality reference genomes. Phenotypic analysis in Hep-2 cells and in a murine infection model indicated that S. Weltevreden were significantly attenuated in these models compared to the classical S. Typhimurium reference strain SL1344. Our work outlines novel insights into this important emerging pathogen and provides a baseline understanding for future research studies.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...

  10. BIMLR: a method for constructing rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Guo, Maozu; Xing, Linlin; Che, Kai; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu

    2013-09-15

    Rooted phylogenetic trees constructed from different datasets (e.g. from different genes) are often conflicting with one another, i.e. they cannot be integrated into a single phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic networks have become an important tool in molecular evolution, and rooted phylogenetic networks are able to represent conflicting rooted phylogenetic trees. Hence, the development of appropriate methods to compute rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees has attracted considerable research interest of late. The CASS algorithm proposed by van Iersel et al. is able to construct much simpler networks than other available methods, but it is extremely slow, and the networks it constructs are dependent on the order of the input data. Here, we introduce an improved CASS algorithm, BIMLR. We show that BIMLR is faster than CASS and less dependent on the input data order. Moreover, BIMLR is able to construct much simpler networks than almost all other methods. BIMLR is available at http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/wangjuan/BIMLR/. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of Apple scar skin viroid Isolates in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hee Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify genome sequences of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd isolates in Korea, the field survey was performed from ‘Hongro’ apple orchards located in eight sites in South Korea (Bongwha, Cheongsong, Dangjin, Gimchoen, Muju, Mungyeong, Suwon, and Yeongwol. ASSVd was detected by RT-PCR and PCR fragments were cloned into cloning vector. Full-length viral genomes of eight ASSVd isolates were sequenced and compared with 21 isolates reported previously from Korea, India, China, Japan and Greece. Eight isolates in this study showed 92.2-99.7% nucleotide sequence identities with those reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven isolates reported in this study belong to the same group distinct from other groups.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan mastiffs based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhanjun; Chen, Huiling; Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Chengdong

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the number of Tibetan mastiffs, which is a precious germplasm resource and cultural heritage, is decreasing sharply. Therefore, the genetic diversity of Tibetan mastiffs needs to be studied to clarify its phylogenetics relationships and lay the foundation for resource protection, rational development and utilization of Tibetan mastiffs. We sequenced hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 110 individuals from Tibet region and Gansu province. A total of 12 polymorphic sites were identified which defined eight haplotypes of which H4 and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being identified first. The haplotype diversity (Hd: 0.808), nucleotide diversity (Pi: 0.603%), the average number of nucleotide difference (K: 3.917) of Tibetan mastiffs from Gansu were higher than those from Tibet region (Hd: 0.794; Pi: 0.589%; K: 3.831), which revealed higher genetic diversity in Gansu. In terms of total population, the genetic variation was low. The median-joining network and phylogenetic tree based on the mtDNA hypervariable region I showed that Tibetan mastiffs originated from grey wolves, as the other domestic dogs and had different history of maternal origin. The mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated that Tibetan mastiffs were in genetic equilibrium or in a population decline.

  13. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  14. Effect of site-specific heterogeneous evolution on phylogenetic reconstruction: a simple evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqun; Su, Zhixi; Zhong, Yang; Gu, Xun

    2009-07-15

    Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous evolution may mislead phylogenetic analysis, which has been neglected for a long time. We evaluate the effect of heterogeneous evolution on phylogenetic analysis, using 18 fish mitogenomic coding sequences as an example. Using the software DIVERGE, we identify 198 amino acid sites that have experienced heterogeneous evolution. After removing these sites, the rest of sites are shown to be virtually homogeneous in the evolutionary rate. There are some differences between phylogenetic trees built with heterogeneous sites ("before tree") and without heterogeneous sites ("after tree"). Our study demonstrates that for phylogenetic reconstruction, an effective approach is to identify and remove sites with heterogeneous evolution, and suggests that researchers can use the software DIVERGE to remove the influence of heterogeneous evolution before reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus isolated in Italy in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, G; Monaco, F; Calistri, P; Lelli, R

    2008-11-27

    In Italy the first occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in Tuscany region during the late summer of 1998. In August 2008, the WNV infection re-emerged in Italy, in areas surrounding the Po river delta, and involving three regions Lombardy, Emilia Romagna and Veneto. WNV was isolated from blood and organs samples of one horse, one donkey, one pigeon (Columba livia) and three magpies (Pica pica). The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, conducted on 255 bp in the region coding for the E protein, indicates that these isolates belong to the lineage I among the European strains. According to the analysis, both the 1998 and 2008 Italian strains as well as isolates from Romania, Russia, Senegal and Kenya fell in the same sub-cluster.

  16. Are Ichthyosporea animals or fungi? Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of elongation factor 1alpha of Ichthyophonus irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Mark A; Murphy, Colleen A; Rand, Thomas G

    2003-12-01

    Ichthyosporea is a recently recognized group of morphologically simple eukaryotes, many of which cause disease in aquatic organisms. Ribosomal RNA sequence analyses place Ichthyosporea near the divergence of the animal and fungal lineages, but do not allow resolution of its exact phylogenetic position. Some of the best evidence for a specific grouping of animals and fungi (Opisthokonta) has come from elongation factor 1alpha, not only phylogenetic analysis of sequences but also the presence or absence of short insertions and deletions. We sequenced the EF-1alpha gene from the ichthyosporean parasite Ichthyophonus irregularis and determined its phylogenetic position using neighbor-joining, parsimony and Bayesian methods. We also sequenced EF-1alpha genes from four chytrids to provide broader representation within fungi. Sequence analyses and the presence of a characteristic 12 amino acid insertion strongly indicate that I. irregularis is a member of Opisthokonta, but do not resolve whether I. irregularis is a specific relative of animals or of fungi. However, the EF-1alpha of I. irregularis exhibits a two amino acid deletion heretofore reported only among fungi.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of SINA family in plants and their phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Jin, Ying; Fu, Junjie; Zhu, Yun; Zheng, Jun; Hu, Jian; Wang, Guoying

    2008-06-01

    SINA genes in plants are part of a multigene family with 5 members in Arabidopsis thaliana, 10 members in Populus trichocarpa, 6 members in Oryza sativa, at least 6 members in Zea mays and at least 1 member in Physcomitrella patens. Six members in maize were confirmed by RT-PCR. All SINAs have one RING domain and one SINA domain. These two domains are highly conserved in plants. According to the motif organization and phylogenetic tree, SINA family members were divided into 2 groups. In addition, through semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of maize members and Digital Northern analysis of Arabidopsis and rice members, we found that the tissue expression patterns are more diverse in monocot than in Arabidopsis.

  18. Continental scale patterns and predictors of fern richness and phylogenetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eNagalingum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because ferns have a wide range of habitat preferences and are widely distributed, they are an ideal group for understanding how diversity is distributed. Here we examine fern diversity on a broad-scale using standard and corrected richness measures as well as phylogenetic indices; in addition we determine the environmental predictors of each diversity metric. Using the combined records of Australian herbaria, a dataset of over 60,000 records was obtained for 89 genera to infer richness. A phylogenetic tree of all the genera was constructed and combined with the herbarium records to obtain phylogenetic diversity patterns. A hotspot of both taxic and phylogenetic diversity occurs in the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia. Although considerable diversity is distributed along the eastern coast, some important regions of diversity are identified only after sample-standardization of richness and through the phylogenetic metric. Of all of the metrics, annual precipitation was identified as the most explanatory variable, in part, in agreement with global and regional fern studies. Precipitation was combined with a different variable for each different metric. For corrected richness, precipitation is combined with temperature seasonality, while correlation of phylogenetic diversity to precipitation plus radiation indicates support for the species-energy hypothesis. Significantly high and significantly low phylogenetic diversity were found in geographically separate areas. These areas are correlated with different climatic conditions such as seasonality in precipitation. The use of phylogenetic metrics identifies additional areas of significant diversity, some of which have not been revealed using traditional taxonomic analyses, suggesting that different ecological and evolutionary processes have operated over the continent. Our study demonstrates that it is possible and vital to incorporate evolutionary metrics when inferring biodiversity hotspots

  19. Identification of Tunisian Leishmania spp. by PCR amplification of cysteine proteinase B (cpb) genes and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Melek; Fathallah-Mili, Akila; Driss, Mehdi; Lahmadi, Ramzi; Ayari, Chiraz; Guizani, Ikram; Ben Said, Moncef; Benabderrazak, Souha

    2013-03-01

    Discrimination of the Old World Leishmania parasites is important for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. We have developed PCR assays that allow the discrimination between Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum Tunisian species. The identification was performed by a simple PCR targeting cysteine protease B (cpb) gene copies. These PCR can be a routine molecular biology tools for discrimination of Leishmania spp. from different geographical origins and different clinical forms. Our assays can be an informative source for cpb gene studying concerning drug, diagnostics and vaccine research. The PCR products of the cpb gene and the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) Leishmania gene were sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic trees of Leishmania based cpb and nagt sequences are close in topology and present the classic distribution of Leishmania in the Old World. The phylogenetic analysis has enabled the characterization and identification of different strains, using both multicopy (cpb) and single copy (nagt) genes. Indeed, the cpb phylogenetic analysis allowed us to identify the Tunisian Leishmania killicki species, and a group which gathers the least evolved isolates of the Leishmania donovani complex, that was originated from East Africa. This clustering confirms the African origin for the visceralizing species of the L. donovani complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A measure of the denseness of a phylogenetic network. [by sequenced proteins from extant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    An objective measure of phylogenetic denseness is developed to examine various phylogenetic criteria: alpha- and beta-hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome c, and the parvalbumin family. Attention is given to the number of nucleotide replacements separating homologous sequences, and to the topology of the network (in other words, to the qualitative nature of the network as defined by how closely the studied species are related). Applications include quantitative comparisons of species origin, relation, and rates of evolution.

  1. Conformation of phylogenetic relationship of Penaeidae shrimp based on morphometric and molecular investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumaran, P; Vaseeharan, B; Jayakumar, R; Chidambara, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of accurate phylogenetic relationship among Penaeidae shrimp is important for academic and fisheries industry. The Morphometric and Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to make the phylogenetic relationsip among 13 Penaeidae shrimp. For morphometric analysis forty variables and total lengths of shrimp were measured for each species, and removed the effect of size variation. The size normalized values obtained was subjected to UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) cluster analysis. For RAPD analysis, the four primers showed reliable differentiation between species, and used correlation coefficient between the DNA banding patterns of 13 Penaeidae species to construct UPGMA dendrogram. Phylogenetic relationship from morphometric and molecular analysis for Penaeidae species found to be congruent. We concluded that as the results from morphometry investigations concur with molecular one, phylogenetic relationship obtained for the studied Penaeidae are considered to be reliable.

  2. Evolution of oil-producing trichomes in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): insights from the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Raquin, Christian; Silvério, Adriano; Brown, Spencer; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corine; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Yockteng, Roxana; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Nadot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Iridoideae: Sisyrinchieae) is one of the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genera in Iridaceae, with all species except one native to the American continent. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures related to specialized oil-bee pollination examined. Methods Phylogenetic analyses based on eight molecular markers obtained from 101 Sisyrinchium accessions representing 85 species were conducted in the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Total evidence analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and retrieved nine major clades weakly connected to the subdivisions previously recognized. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to reconstruct biogeographical patterns, and to trace the evolutionary origin of glandular trichomes present in the flowers of several species. Key Results and Conclusions Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paraná river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing. PMID:21527419

  3. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  4. Molecular phylogenetic and expression analysis of the complete WRKY transcription factor family in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai-Fa; Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wu, Ling-Juan; Xie, Dao-Xin

    2012-04-01

    The WRKY transcription factors function in plant growth and development, and response to the biotic and abiotic stresses. Although many studies have focused on the functional identification of the WRKY transcription factors, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression analysis of the complete WRKY family in maize. In this study, we identified 136 WRKY proteins coded by 119 genes in the B73 inbred line from the complete genome and named them in an orderly manner. Then, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five species was performed to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these WRKY genes, and the result showed that gene duplication is the major driving force for the origin of new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. Chromosomal location analysis of maize WRKY genes indicated that 20 gene clusters are distributed unevenly in the genome. Microarray-based expression analysis has revealed that 131 WRKY transcripts encoded by 116 genes may participate in the regulation of maize growth and development. Among them, 102 transcripts are stably expressed with a coefficient of variation (CV) value of WRKY genes with the CV value of >15% are further analysed to discover new organ- or tissue-specific genes. In addition, microarray analyses of transcriptional responses to drought stress and fungal infection showed that maize WRKY proteins are involved in stress responses. All these results contribute to a deep probing into the roles of WRKY transcription factors in maize growth and development and stress tolerance.

  5. Phylogenetic turnover during subtropical forest succession across environmental and phylogenetic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Purschke, Oliver; Michalski, Stefan G.; Bruelheide, Helge; Durka, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although spatial and temporal patterns of phylogenetic community structure during succession are inherently interlinked and assembly processes vary with environmental and phylogenetic scales, successional studies of community assembly have yet to integrate spatial and temporal components of community structure, while accounting for scaling issues. To gain insight into the processes that generate biodiversity after disturbance, we combine analyses of spatial and temporal phylogenetic ...

  6. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in different genotypes of cotton for future breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To make the plants well adapted and more resistant to diseases and other environmental stresses there is always a need to improve the quality of plant’s genome i.e. to increase its genetic diversity. Methods: In the present study six variety and six lines of cotton were investigated for their genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship. For this purpose 35 different RAPD primers obtained from the Gene Link Technologies, USA were used. Results: Among 35 RAPD primers, 13 primers produced reproducible PCR bands while the rest failed to show any amplification product. Our results indicated that the total count of the reproducible bands was 670 and polymorphic loci were counted to be 442 which constitute 66% of total loci. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major groups each consists of 7 and 5 genotypes respectively. Genotypes Lp1 and Tp4 were placed at maximum genetic distance and in separate groups and could be utilized for future cotton breeding. Conclusions: RAPD analysis is a cheaper and time saving technique for the determination of genetic diversity of different cotton genotypes. Cotton genotype Lp1 and Tp4 could be the best candidates for future breeding programs as both genotypes are genetically distant from each other.

  7. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dodonaea viscosa: comparative and phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saina, Josphat K; Gichira, Andrew W; Li, Zhi-Zhong; Hu, Guang-Wan; Wang, Qing-Feng; Liao, Kuo

    2018-02-01

    The plant chloroplast (cp) genome is a highly conserved structure which is beneficial for evolution and systematic research. Currently, numerous complete cp genome sequences have been reported due to high throughput sequencing technology. However, there is no complete chloroplast genome of genus Dodonaea that has been reported before. To better understand the molecular basis of Dodonaea viscosa chloroplast, we used Illumina sequencing technology to sequence its complete genome. The whole length of the cp genome is 159,375 base pairs (bp), with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 27,099 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) 87,204 bp, and small single copy (SSC) 17,972 bp. The annotation analysis revealed a total of 115 unique genes of which 81 were protein coding, 30 tRNA, and four ribosomal RNA genes. Comparative genome analysis with other closely related Sapindaceae members showed conserved gene order in the inverted and single copy regions. Phylogenetic analysis clustered D. viscosa with other species of Sapindaceae with strong bootstrap support. Finally, a total of 249 SSRs were detected. Moreover, a comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates in D. viscosa showed very low values. The availability of cp genome reported here provides a valuable genetic resource for comprehensive further studies in genetic variation, taxonomy and phylogenetic evolution of Sapindaceae family. In addition, SSR markers detected will be used in further phylogeographic and population structure studies of the species in this genus.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA genomes organization and phylogenetic relationships analysis of eight anemonefishes (pomacentridae: amphiprioninae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlong Li

    Full Text Available Anemonefishes (Pomacentridae Amphiprioninae are a group of 30 valid coral reef fish species with their phylogenetic relationships still under debate. The eight available mitogenomes of anemonefishes were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogenetic tree; six were obtained from this study (Amphiprion clarkii, A. frenatus, A. percula, A. perideraion, A. polymnus and Premnas biaculeatus and two from GenBank (A. bicinctus and A. ocellaris. The seven Amphiprion species represent all four subgenera and P. biaculeatus is the only species from Premnas. The eight mitogenomes of anemonefishes encoded 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two main non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and translation direction basically identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. Among the 13 protein-coding genes, A. ocellaris (AP006017 and A. percula (KJ174497 had the same length in ND5 with 1,866 bp, which were three nucleotides less than the other six anemonefishes. Both structures of ND5, however, could translate to amino acid successfully. Only four mitogenomes had the tandem repeats in D-loop; the tandem repeats were located in downstream after Conserved Sequence Block rather than the upstream and repeated in a simply way. The phylogenetic utility was tested with Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods using all 13 protein-coding genes. The results strongly supported that the subfamily Amphiprioninae was monophyletic and P. biaculeatus should be assigned to the genus Amphiprion. Premnas biaculeatus with the percula complex were revealed to be the ancient anemonefish species. The tree forms of ND1, COIII, ND4, Cytb, Cytb+12S rRNA, Cytb+COI and Cytb+COI+12S rRNA were similar to that 13 protein-coding genes, therefore, we suggested that the suitable single mitochondrial gene for phylogenetic analysis of anemonefishes maybe Cytb. Additional mitogenomes of anemonefishes with a combination of nuclear markers will be useful to

  9. Partial characterization of Maize rayado fino virus isolates from Ecuador: phylogenetic analysis supports a Central American origin of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, Mauricio; Caviedes, Mario; Hammond, Rosemarie; Madriz, Kenneth; Albertazzi, Federico; Villalobos, Heydi; Ramírez, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) infects maize and appears to be restricted to, yet widespread in, the Americas. MRFV was previously unreported from Ecuador. Maize plants exhibiting symptoms of MRFV infection were collected at the Santa Catalina experiment station in Quito, Ecuador. RT-PCR reactions were performed on total RNA extracted from the symptomatic leaves using primers specific for the capsid protein (CP) gene and 3' non-translated region of MRFV and first strand cDNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence comparisons to previously sequenced MRFV isolates from other geographic regions revealed 88-91% sequence identity. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Likelihood, UPGMA, Minimal Evolution, Neighbor Joining, and Maximum Parsimony methods separated the MRFV isolates into four groups. These groups may represent geographic isolation generated by the mountainous chains of the American continent. Analysis of the sequences and the genetic distances among the different isolates suggests that MRFV may have originated in Mexico and/or Guatemala and from there it dispersed to the rest of the Americas.

  10. A taxonomic and phylogenetic re-appraisal of the genus Curvularia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Curvularia are important plant and human pathogens worldwide. In this study, the genus Curvularia is re-assessed based on molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphological observations of available isolates and specimens. A multi-gene phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS, TEF and GPDH gene...

  11. A RAD-based phylogenetics for Orestias fishes from Lake Titicaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Moreno, Edmundo

    2015-12-01

    The fish genus Orestias is endemic to the Andes highlands, and Lake Titicaca is the centre of the species diversity of the genus. Previous phylogenetic studies based on a single locus of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA strongly support the monophyly of a group composed of many of species endemic to the Lake Titicaca basin (the Lake Titicaca radiation), but the relationships among the species in the radiation remain unclear. Recently, restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, which can produce a vast number of short sequences from various loci of nuclear DNA, has emerged as a useful way to resolve complex phylogenetic problems. To propose a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Orestias fishes of the Lake Titicaca radiation, we conducted a cluster analysis based on morphological similarities among fish samples and a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on RAD sequencing. From a morphological cluster analysis, we recognised four species groups in the radiation, and three of the four groups were resolved as monophyletic groups in maximum-likelihood trees based on RAD sequencing data. The other morphology-based group was not resolved as a monophyletic group in molecular phylogenies, and some members of the group were diverged from its sister group close to the root of the Lake Titicaca radiation. The evolution of these fishes is discussed from the phylogenetic relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PhyDesign: an online application for profiling phylogenetic informativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Townsend Jeffrey P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid increase in number of sequenced genomes for species across of the tree of life is revealing a diverse suite of orthologous genes that could potentially be employed to inform molecular phylogenetic studies that encompass broader taxonomic sampling. Optimal usage of this diversity of loci requires user-friendly tools to facilitate widespread cost-effective locus prioritization for phylogenetic sampling. The Townsend (2007 phylogenetic informativeness provides a unique empirical metric for guiding marker selection. However, no software or automated methodology to evaluate sequence alignments and estimate the phylogenetic informativeness metric has been available. Results Here, we present PhyDesign, a platform-independent online application that implements the Townsend (2007 phylogenetic informativeness analysis, providing a quantitative prediction of the utility of loci to solve specific phylogenetic questions. An easy-to-use interface facilitates uploading of alignments and ultrametric trees to calculate and depict profiles of informativeness over specified time ranges, and provides rankings of locus prioritization for epochs of interest. Conclusions By providing these profiles, PhyDesign facilitates locus prioritization increasing the efficiency of sequencing for phylogenetic purposes compared to traditional studies with more laborious and low capacity screening methods, as well as increasing the accuracy of phylogenetic studies. Together with a manual and sample files, the application is freely accessible at http://phydesign.townsend.yale.edu.

  13. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of core gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... and antisense primers, a single band of 573 base pairs .... Amino acid sequence alignment of Cluster I and Cluster II of phylogenetic tree. First ten sequences ... sequence weighting, postion-spiecific gap penalties and weight.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-09-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was also conducted on the natto-fermenting strains. The ability to ferment natto was inferred from the two principal components of the AFLP banding pattern, and natto-fermenting strains formed a tight cluster within the B. subtilis subsp. subtilis group.

  15. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 variants circulating in Italy

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    Sbreglia Costanza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The continuous identification of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant forms in Italy indicates the need of constant molecular epidemiology survey of genetic forms circulating and transmitted in the resident population. Methods The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes has been evaluated in 25 seropositive individuals residing in Italy, most of whom were infected through a sexual route during the 1995–2005 period. Each sample has been characterized by detailed molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Results 18 of the 25 samples were positive at HIV-1 PCR amplification. Three samples showed a nucleotide divergence compatible with a non-B subtype classification. The phylogenetic analysis, performed on both HIV-1 env and gag regions, confirms the molecular sub-typing prediction, given that 1 sample falls into the C subtype and 2 into the G subtype. The B subtype isolates show high levels of intra-subtype nucleotide divergence, compatible with a long-lasting epidemic and a progressive HIV-1 molecular diversification. Conclusion The Italian HIV-1 epidemic is still mostly attributable to the B subtype, regardless the transmission route, which shows an increasing nucleotide heterogeneity. Heterosexual transmission and the interracial blending, however, are slowly introducing novel HIV-1 subtypes. Therefore, a molecular monitoring is needed to follow the constant evolution of the HIV-1 epidemic.

  16. Separation of atropisomers by chiral liquid chromatography and thermodynamic analysis of separation mechanism

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    Ling Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical industry, the analysis of atropisomers is of considerable interest from a scientific and regulatory perspective. The compound of interest contains two stereogenic axes due to the hindered rotation around the single bonds connecting the aryl groups, which results in four potential configurational isomers (atropisomers. The separation of the four atropisomers is achieved on a derivatized β-cyclodextrin bonded stationary phase. Further investigation shows that low temperature conditions, including sample preparation (−70 °C, sample storage (−70 °C, and chromatographic separation (6 °C, were critical to preventing interconversion. LC-UV-Laser Polarimetric analysis identified peak 1/2 as a pair of enantiomers and peak 3/4 as another. Thermodynamic analysis of the retention data indicated that the separation of the pairs of enantiomers is primarily enthalpy controlled as indicated by the positive slope of the van’t Huff plot. The difference in absolute Δ (Δ H, ranged from 2.20 kJ/mol to 2.42 kJ/mol.

  17. Estimating phylogenetic relationships despite discordant gene trees across loci: the species tree of a diverse species group of feather mites (Acari: Proctophyllodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Lacey L; Klimov, Pavel B

    2011-11-01

    With the increased availability of multilocus sequence data, the lack of concordance of gene trees estimated for independent loci has focused attention on both the biological processes producing the discord and the methodologies used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. What has emerged is a suite of new analytical tools for phylogenetic inference--species tree approaches. In contrast to traditional phylogenetic methods that are stymied by the idiosyncrasies of gene trees, approaches for estimating species trees explicitly take into account the cause of discord among loci and, in the process, provides a direct estimate of phylogenetic history (i.e. the history of species divergence, not divergence of specific loci). We illustrate the utility of species tree estimates with an analysis of a diverse group of feather mites, the pinnatus species group (genus Proctophyllodes). Discord among four sequenced nuclear loci is consistent with theoretical expectations, given the short time separating speciation events (as evident by short internodes relative to terminal branch lengths in the trees). Nevertheless, many of the relationships are well resolved in a Bayesian estimate of the species tree; the analysis also highlights ambiguous aspects of the phylogeny that require additional loci. The broad utility of species tree approaches is discussed, and specifically, their application to groups with high speciation rates--a history of diversification with particular prevalence in host/parasite systems where species interactions can drive rapid diversification.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

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    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis and DNA-based species confirmation in Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus.

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    Peter G Foster

    Full Text Available Specimens of neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus were collected and identified morphologically. We amplified three genes for phylogenetic analysis-the single copy nuclear white and CAD genes, and the COI barcode region. Since we had multiple specimens for most species we were able to test how well the single or combined genes were able to corroborate morphologically defined species by placing the species into exclusive groups. We found that single genes, including the COI barcode region, were poor at confirming species, but that the three genes combined were able to do so much better. This has implications for species identification, species delimitation, and species discovery, and we caution that single genes are not enough. Higher level groupings were partially resolved with some well-supported groupings, whereas others were found to be either polyphyletic or paraphyletic. There were examples of known groups, such as the Myzorhynchella Section, which were poorly supported with single genes but were well supported with combined genes. From this we can infer that more sequence data will be needed in order to show more higher-level groupings with good support. We got unambiguously good support (0.94-1.0 Bayesian posterior probability from all DNA-based analyses for a grouping of An. dunhami with An. nuneztovari and An. goeldii, and because of this and because of morphological similarities we propose that An. dunhami be included in the Nuneztovari Complex. We obtained phylogenetic corroboration for new species which had been recognised by morphological differences; these will need to be formally described and named.

  20. [Phylogenetic analysis of closely related Leuconostoc citreum species based on partial housekeeping genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiang; Chen, Ming; Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Dan, Tong; Sun, Tiansong

    2013-07-04

    Using the 16S rRNA, dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, we identified the phylogenetic relationship among closely related Leuconostoc citreum species. Seven Leu. citreum strains originally isolated from sourdough were characterized by PCR methods to amplify the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, which were determined to assess the suitability as phylogenetic markers. Then, we estimated the genetic distance and constructed the phylogenetic trees including 16S rRNA and above mentioned three housekeeping genes combining with published corresponding sequences. By comparing the phylogenetic trees, the topology of three housekeeping genes trees were consistent with that of 16S rRNA gene. The homology of closely related Leu. citreum species among dnaA, murC, pyrG and 16S rRNA gene sequences were different, ranged from75.5% to 97.2%, 50.2% to 99.7%, 65.0% to 99.8% and 98.5% 100%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship of three housekeeping genes sequences were highly consistent with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence, while the genetic distance of these housekeeping genes were extremely high than 16S rRNA gene. Consequently, the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene are suitable for classification and identification closely related Leu. citreum species.

  1. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of five aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae and phylogenetic implications.

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    Yuan Wang

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes are of great interest in exploring molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Only two mitogenomes have been previously released in the insect group Aphididae, which consists of about 5,000 known species including some agricultural, forestry and horticultural pests. Here we report the complete 16,317 bp mitogenome of Cavariella salicicola and two nearly complete mitogenomes of Aphis glycines and Pterocomma pilosum. We also present a first comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of aphids. Results showed that aphid mitogenomes share conserved genomic organization, nucleotide and amino acid composition, and codon usage features. All 37 genes usually present in animal mitogenomes were sequenced and annotated. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed the lowest and highest rates for COI and ATP8, respectively. A unique repeat region exclusively in aphid mitogenomes, which included variable numbers of tandem repeats in a lineage-specific manner, was highlighted for the first time. This region may have a function as another origin of replication. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on protein-coding genes and the stem-loop structures of control regions confirmed a sister relationship between Cavariella and pterocommatines. Current evidence suggest that pterocommatines could be formally transferred into Macrosiphini. Our paper also offers methodological instructions for obtaining other Aphididae mitochondrial genomes.

  2. Confirmation of a novel siadenovirus species detected in raptors: partial sequence and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Endre R; Benko, Mária

    2009-03-01

    Partial genome characterisation of a novel adenovirus, found recently in organ samples of multiple species of dead birds of prey, was carried out by sequence analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments. The virus, named as raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), has originally been detected by a nested PCR method with consensus primers targeting the adenoviral DNA polymerase gene. Phylogenetic analysis with the deduced amino acid sequence of the small PCR product has implied a new siadenovirus type present in the samples. Since virus isolation attempts remained unsuccessful, further characterisation of this putative novel siadenovirus was carried out with the use of PCR on the infected organ samples. The DNA sequence of the central genome part of RAdV-1, encompassing nine full (pTP, 52K, pIIIa, III, pVII, pX, pVI, hexon, protease) and two partial (DNA polymerase and DBP) genes and exceeding 12 kb pairs in size, was determined. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, based on several genes, unambiguously confirmed the preliminary classification of RAdV-1 as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Further study of RAdV-1 is of interest since it represents a rare adenovirus genus of yet undetermined host origin.

  3. Community phylogenetic analysis of moderately thermophilic cyanobacterial mats from China, the Philippines and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei, Jing; Aitchison, Jonathan C; Lacap, Donnabella C; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; Sompong, Udomluk; Pointing, Stephen B

    2005-08-01

    Most community molecular studies of thermophilic cyanobacterial mats to date have focused on Synechococcus occurring at temperatures of approximately 50-65 degrees C. These reveal that molecular diversity exceeds that indicated by morphology, and that phylogeographic lineages exist. The moderately thermophilic and generally filamentous cyanobacterial mat communities occurring at lower temperatures have not previously been investigated at the community molecular level. Here we report community diversity in mats of 42-53 degrees C recovered from previously unstudied geothermal locations. Separation of 16S rRNA gene-defined genotypes from community DNA was achieved by DGGE. Genotypic diversity was greater than morphotype diversity in all mats sampled, although genotypes generally corresponded to observed morphotypes. Thirty-six sequences were recovered from DGGE bands. Phylogenetic analyses revealed these to form novel thermophilic lineages distinct from their mesophilic counterparts, within Calothrix, Cyanothece, Fischerella, Phormidium, Pleurocapsa, Oscillatoria and Synechococcus. Where filamentous cyanobacterial sequences belonging to the same genus were recovered from the same site, these were generally closely affiliated. Location-specific sequences were observed for some genotypes recovered from geochemically similar yet spatially separated sites, thus providing evidence for phylogeographic lineages that evolve in isolation. Other genotypes were more closely affiliated to geographically remote counterparts from similar habitats suggesting that adaptation to certain niches is also important.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses (H3N2 circulating in Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season

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    Boyalska O. G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H3N2 viruses circulating in the Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season. To make comparison of the HA and NA genes sequences of the Zhytomyr region isolates with the HA and NA genes sequences of influenza viruses circulating in the world. Methods. Laboratory diagnosis was conducted by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. Results. For the first time the genes of influenza A(H3N2 viruses isolated in the Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season, coding hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were compared with their orthologs. According to the results of this comparison the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Additionally, the amino acid substitutions of the influenza viruses circulating in Ukraine and worldwide were analyzed. Conclusions. The nucleotide sequences of the influenza A(H3N2 viruses genes HA and NA isolated in the Zhytomyr region were identified. Based on the nucleotide sequences of HA and NA we constructed the influenza virus phylogenetic tree demonstrating that the virus isolated in the Zhytomyr region was closely related to the Ukrainian isolate from Kharkov and in the world to the isolates from Germany, Romania, Italy.

  5. Phylogenetic reconstruction and polymorphism analysis of BK virus VP2 gene isolated from renal transplant recipients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang-Yang; Hong, Wei-Long; Zhu, Zhe-Hui; Chen, Yun-Hao; Ye, Wen-LE; Chu, Guang-Yu; Li, Jia-Lin; Chen, Bi-Cheng; Xia, Peng

    2015-11-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) is important pathogen for kidney transplant recipients, as it is frequently re-activated, leading to nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic reconstruction and polymorphism of the VP2 gene in BKV isolated from Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out in the VP2 region from 135 BKV-positive samples and 28 reference strains retrieved from GenBank. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) grouped all strains into subtypes, but failed to subdivide strains into subgroups. Among the plasma and urine samples, all plasma (23/23) and 82 urine samples (82/95) were identified to contain subtype I; the other 10 urine samples contained subtype IV. A 86-bp fragment was identified as a highly conserved sequence. Following alignment with 36 published BKV sequences from China, 92 sites of polymorphism were identified, including 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) prevalent in Chinese individuals and 30 SNPs that were specific to the two predominant subtypes I and IV. The limitations of the VP2 gene segment in subgrouping were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The conserved sequence and polymorphism identified in this study may be helpful in the detection and genotyping of BKV.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of ferlin genes reveals ancient eukaryotic origins

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    Lek Monkol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ferlin gene family possesses a rare and identifying feature consisting of multiple tandem C2 domains and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Much currently remains unknown about the fundamental function of this gene family, however, mutations in its two most well-characterised members, dysferlin and otoferlin, have been implicated in human disease. The availability of genome sequences from a wide range of species makes it possible to explore the evolution of the ferlin family, providing contextual insight into characteristic features that define the ferlin gene family in its present form in humans. Results Ferlin genes were detected from all species of representative phyla, with two ferlin subgroups partitioned within the ferlin phylogenetic tree based on the presence or absence of a DysF domain. Invertebrates generally possessed two ferlin genes (one with DysF and one without, with six ferlin genes in most vertebrates (three DysF, three non-DysF. Expansion of the ferlin gene family is evident between the divergence of lamprey (jawless vertebrates and shark (cartilaginous fish. Common to almost all ferlins is an N-terminal C2-FerI-C2 sandwich, a FerB motif, and two C-terminal C2 domains (C2E and C2F adjacent to the transmembrane domain. Preservation of these structural elements throughout eukaryotic evolution suggests a fundamental role of these motifs for ferlin function. In contrast, DysF, C2DE, and FerA are optional, giving rise to subtle differences in domain topologies of ferlin genes. Despite conservation of multiple C2 domains in all ferlins, the C-terminal C2 domains (C2E and C2F displayed higher sequence conservation and greater conservation of putative calcium binding residues across paralogs and orthologs. Interestingly, the two most studied non-mammalian ferlins (Fer-1 and Misfire in model organisms C. elegans and D. melanogaster, present as outgroups in the phylogenetic analysis, with results suggesting

  7. Untangling hybrid phylogenetic signals: horizontal gene transfer and artifacts of phylogenetic reconstruction.

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    Beiko, Robert G; Ragan, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenomic methods can be used to investigate the tangled evolutionary relationships among genomes. Building 'all the trees of all the genes' can potentially identify common pathways of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among taxa at varying levels of phylogenetic depth. Phylogenetic affinities can be aggregated and merged with the information about genetic linkage and biochemical function to examine hypotheses of adaptive evolution via HGT. Additionally, the use of many genetic data sets increases the power of statistical tests for phylogenetic artifacts. However, large-scale phylogenetic analyses pose several challenges, including the necessary abandonment of manual validation techniques, the need to translate inferred phylogenetic discordance into inferred HGT events, and the challenges involved in aggregating results from search-based inference methods. In this chapter we describe a tree search procedure to recover the most parsimonious pathways of HGT, and examine some of the assumptions that are made by this method.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Iranian Leishmania Parasites Based on HSP70 Gene PCR-RFLP and Sequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Sara; Fazaeli, Asghar; Hajjaran, Homa; Khamesipour, Ali; Anbaran, Mohsen Falahati; Bozorgomid, Arezoo; Zarei, Fatah

    2017-08-01

    Despite the broad distribution of leishmaniasis among Iranians and animals across the country, little is known about the genetic characteristics of the causative agents. Applying both HSP70 PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses, this study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Leishmania spp. isolated from Iranian endemic foci and available reference strains. A total of 36 Leishmania isolates from almost all districts across the country were genetically analyzed for the HSP70 gene using both PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis. The original HSP70 gene sequences were aligned along with homologous Leishmania sequences retrieved from NCBI, and subjected to the phylogenetic analysis. Basic parameters of genetic diversity were also estimated. The HSP70 PCR-RFLP presented 3 different electrophoretic patterns, with no further intraspecific variation, corresponding to 3 Leishmania species available in the country, L. tropica, L. major, and L. infantum. Phylogenetic analyses presented 5 major clades, corresponding to 5 species complexes. Iranian lineages, including L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum, were distributed among 3 complexes L. major, L. tropica, and L. donovani. However, within the L. major and L. donovani species complexes, the HSP70 phylogeny was not able to distinguish clearly between the L. major and L. turanica isolates, and between the L. infantum, L. donovani, and L. chagasi isolates, respectively. Our results indicated that both HSP70 PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses are medically applicable tools for identification of Leishmania species in Iranian patients. However, the reduced genetic diversity of the target gene makes it inevitable that its phylogeny only resolves the major groups, namely, the species complexes.

  9. Diversity structure of culturable bacteria isolated from the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica): A phylogenetic analysis perspective.

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    González-Rocha, Gerardo; Muñoz-Cartes, Gabriel; Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Lima, Celia A; Domínguez-Yévenes, Mariana; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Hernández, Cristián E

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that Antarctic environments select microorganisms with unique biochemical adaptations, based on the tenet 'Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' by Baas-Becking. However, this is a hypothesis that has not been extensively evaluated. This study evaluated the fundamental prediction contained in this hypothesis-in the sense that species are structured in the landscape according to their local habitats-, using as study model the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable bacteria of Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica). Eighty bacterial strains isolated from 10 different locations in the area, were recovered. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were grouped into twenty-six phylotypes distributed in three main clades, of which only six are exclusive to Antarctica. Results showed that phylotypes do not group significantly by habitat type; however, local habitat types had phylogenetic signal, which support the phylogenetic niche conservatism hypothesis and not a selective role of the environment like the Baas-Becking hypothesis suggests. We propose that, more than habitat selection resulting in new local adaptations and diversity, local historical colonization and species sorting (i.e. differences in speciation and extinction rates that arise by interaction of species level traits with the environment) play a fundamental role on the culturable bacterial diversity in Antarctica.

  10. The best of both worlds: Phylogenetic eigenvector regression and mapping

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    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eigenfunction analyses have been widely used to model patterns of autocorrelation in time, space and phylogeny. In a phylogenetic context, Diniz-Filho et al. (1998 proposed what they called Phylogenetic Eigenvector Regression (PVR, in which pairwise phylogenetic distances among species are submitted to a Principal Coordinate Analysis, and eigenvectors are then used as explanatory variables in regression, correlation or ANOVAs. More recently, a new approach called Phylogenetic Eigenvector Mapping (PEM was proposed, with the main advantage of explicitly incorporating a model-based warping in phylogenetic distance in which an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U process is fitted to data before eigenvector extraction. Here we compared PVR and PEM in respect to estimated phylogenetic signal, correlated evolution under alternative evolutionary models and phylogenetic imputation, using simulated data. Despite similarity between the two approaches, PEM has a slightly higher prediction ability and is more general than the original PVR. Even so, in a conceptual sense, PEM may provide a technique in the best of both worlds, combining the flexibility of data-driven and empirical eigenfunction analyses and the sounding insights provided by evolutionary models well known in comparative analyses.

  11. Molecular typing of canine parvovirus from Sulaimani, Iraq and phylogenetic analysis using partial VP2 gene

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    M.O.Baba Sheikh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV remains the most significant viral cause of haemorrhagic enteritis and bloody diarrhoea in puppies over the age of 12 weeks. The objective of the present study was to detect and genotype CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and to perform phylogenetic analysis using partial VP2 gene sequences. We analysed eight faecal samples of unvaccinated dogs with signs of vomiting and bloody diarrhoea during the period from December 2013 to May 2014 in different locations in Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq. After PCR detection, we found that all viral sequences in our study were CPV-2b variants, which differed genetically by 0.8% to 3.6% from five commercially available vaccines. Alignment between eight nucleotides of field virus sequences showed 95% to 99.5% similarity. The phylogenetic analysis for the 8 field sequences formed two distinct clusters with two sequences belonging to strains from China and Thailand and the other six – with a strain from Egypt. Molecular characterisation and CPV typing are crucial in epidemiological studies for future prevention and control of the disease.

  12. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 variants circulating among injecting drug users in Mashhad-Iran

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    Buonaguro FM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic and phylogenetic information on the HIV-1 epidemic in Middle-East Countries, and in particular in Iran, are extremely limited. By March 2004, the Iranian Ministry of Health officially reported a cumulative number of 6'532 HIV positive individuals and 214 AIDS cases in the Iranian HIV-1 epidemic. The intra-venous drug users (IDUs represent the group at highest risk for HIV-1 infection in Iran, accounting for almost 63% of all HIV-infected population. In this regards, a molecular phylogenetic study has been performed on a sentinel cohort of HIV-1 seropositive IDUs enrolled at the end of 2005 at the University of Mashhad, the largest city North East of Tehran. The study has been performed on both gag and env subgenomic regions amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and characterized by direct DNA sequence analysis. The results reported here show that the HIV-1 subtype A is circulating in this IDUs sentinel cohort. Moreover, the single phylogenetic cluster as well as the intra-group low nucleotide divergence is indicative of a recent outbreak. Unexpectedly, the Iranian samples appear to be phylogenetically derived from African Sub-Saharan subtype A viruses, raising stirring speculations on HIV-1 introduction into the IDUs epidemic in Mashhad. This sentinel study could represent the starting point for a wider molecular survey of the HIV-1 epidemics in Iran to evaluate in detail the distribution of genetic subtypes and possible natural drug-resistant variants, which are extremely helpful information to design diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the sharpshooter genus Subrasaca Young, 1977 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberta dos Santos; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Cavichioli, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The South American sharpshooter genus Subrasaca comprises 14 species. Some species of this genus are quite common in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In this paper, a phylogenetic analysis of Subrasaca, based on a matrix of 20 terminal taxa and 72 morphological characters of the head, thorax, and male and female genitalia, is presented. The analysis yielded six equally most parsimonious trees (197 steps, CI = 0.6091, RI = 0.5722, and RC = 0.3486). The results suggest that Subrasaca is a monophyletic taxon, although the genus branch is not robust. The clade showing the highest bootstrap and Bremer scores is formed by species with longitudinal dark brown to black stripes on the forewings (Subrasaca bimaculata, Subrasaca constricta, Subrasaca curvovittata, and Subrasaca flavolineata), followed by Subrasaca atronasa + Subrasaca austera. PMID:25829841

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bee Tribe Anthidiini | Combey | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic relationships among members of long tongue bee tribe Anthidiini (Megachilidae: Megachilinae) were investigated at the Department of Entomology and Wildlife, University of Cape Coast (Ghana) and the Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria (South Af-rica) from July, 2006 to May, 2007. Ten museums ...

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Demodex caprae based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2013-11-01

    Demodex caprae infests the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of goats worldwide, which not only seriously impairs goat farming, but also causes a big economic loss. However, there are few reports on the DNA level of D. caprae. To reveal the taxonomic position of D. caprae within the genus Demodex, the present study conducted phylogenetic analysis of D. caprae based on mt16S rDNA sequence data. D. caprae adults and eggs were obtained from a skin nodule of the goat suffering demodicidosis. The mt16S rDNA sequences of individual mite were amplified using specific primers, and then cloned, sequenced, and aligned. The sequence divergence, genetic distance, and transition/transversion rate were computed, and the phylogenetic trees in Demodex were reconstructed. Results revealed the 339-bp partial sequences of six D. caprae isolates were obtained, and the sequence identity was 100% among isolates. The pairwise divergences between D. caprae and Demodex canis or Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis were 22.2-24.0%, 24.0-24.9%, and 22.9-23.2%, respectively. The corresponding average genetic distances were 2.840, 2.926, and 2.665, and the average transition/transversion rates were 0.70, 0.55, and 0.54, respectively. The divergences, genetic distances, and transition/transversion rates of D. caprae versus the other three species all reached interspecies level. The five phylogenetic trees all presented that D. caprae clustered with D. brevis first, and then with D. canis, D. folliculorum, and Demodex injai in sequence. In conclusion, D. caprae is an independent species, and it is closer to D. brevis than to D. canis, D. folliculorum, or D. injai.

  16. Phylogenetic versus functional signals in the evolution of form-function relationships in terrestrial vision.

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    Motani, Ryosuke; Schmitz, Lars

    2011-08-01

    Phylogeny is deeply pertinent to evolutionary studies. Traits that perform a body function are expected to be strongly influenced by physical "requirements" of the function. We investigated if such traits exhibit phylogenetic signals, and, if so, how phylogenetic noises bias quantification of form-function relationships. A form-function system that is strongly influenced by physics, namely the relationship between eye morphology and visual optics in amniotes, was used. We quantified the correlation between form (i.e., eye morphology) and function (i.e., ocular optics) while varying the level of phylogenetic bias removal through adjusting Pagel's λ. Ocular soft-tissue dimensions exhibited the highest correlation with ocular optics when 1% of phylogenetic bias expected from Brownian motion was removed (i.e., λ= 0.01); the value for hard-tissue data were 8%. A small degree of phylogenetic bias therefore exists in morphology despite of the stringent functional constraints. We also devised a phylogenetically informed discriminant analysis and recorded the effects of phylogenetic bias on this method using the same data. Use of proper λ values during phylogenetic bias removal improved misidentification rates in resulting classifications when prior probabilities were assumed to be equal. Even a small degree of phylogenetic bias affected the classification resulting from phylogenetically informed discriminant analysis. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Nonbinary Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Laura; van Iersel, Leo

    2018-01-01

    Rooted phylogenetic networks are used to describe evolutionary histories that contain non-treelike evolutionary events such as hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. In some cases, such histories can be described by a phylogenetic base-tree with additional linking arcs, which can, for example, represent gene transfer events. Such phylogenetic networks are called tree-based. Here, we consider two possible generalizations of this concept to nonbinary networks, which we call tree-based and strictly-tree-based nonbinary phylogenetic networks. We give simple graph-theoretic characterizations of tree-based and strictly-tree-based nonbinary phylogenetic networks. Moreover, we show for each of these two classes that it can be decided in polynomial time whether a given network is contained in the class. Our approach also provides a new view on tree-based binary phylogenetic networks. Finally, we discuss two examples of nonbinary phylogenetic networks in biology and show how our results can be applied to them.

  18. Developmental and Ultrastructural Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp. of Brazilian Leptodactilydae Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Márcia; Sato, Lyslaine H; Ferreira, Robson C; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G; de Souza, Wanderley

    2016-09-01

    We described the phylogenetic affiliation, development in cultures and ultrastructural features of a trypanosome of Leptodacylus chaquensis from the Pantanal biome of Brazil. In the inferred phylogeny, this trypanosome nested into the Anura clade of the basal Aquatic clade of Trypanosoma, but was separate from all known species within this clade. This finding enabled us to describe it as Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp., which also infects other Leptodacylus species from the Pantanal and Caatinga biomes. Trypanosoma herthameyeri multiplies as small rounded forms clumped together and evolving into multiple-fission forms and rosettes of epimastigotes released as long forms with long flagella; scarce trypomastigotes and glove-like forms are common in stationary-phase cultures. For the first time, a trypanosome from an amphibian was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a cytostome opening, well-developed flagellar lamella, and many grooves in pumpkin-like forms. Transmission electron microscopy showed highly developed Golgi complexes, relaxed catenation of KDNA, and a rich set of spongiome tubules in a regular parallel arrangement to the flagellar pocket as confirmed by electron tomography. Considering the basal position in the phylogenetic tree, developmental and ultrastructural data of T. herthameyeri are valuable for evolutionary studies of trypanosome architecture and cell biology. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Naila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections have caused heavy economic losses to the poultry industry in Pakistan as well as numerous other regions worldwide. The first introduction of H7N3 AIV to Pakistan occurred during 1995, since then H7N3, H9N2 and H5N1 AIVs have each been sporadically isolated. This report evaluates the genetic origin of the H7N3 viruses from Pakistan collected 1995-2004 and how they disseminated within the country. To accomplish this we produced whole genome sequences for 6 H7N3 viruses and data for the HA and NA genes of an additional 7 isolates. All available sequence from H7N3 AIV from Pakistan was included in the analysis. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were two introductions of H7 into Pakistan and one N3 introduction. Only one of the H7 introductions appears to have become established in poultry in Pakistan, while the other was isolated from two separate outbreaks 6 years apart. The data also shows that reassortment has occurred between H7N3 and H9N2 viruses in the field, likely during co-infection of poultry. Also, with the exception of these few reassortant isolates, all 8 genes in the predominant H7N3 virus lineage have evolved to be phylogenetically distinct. Conclusions Although rigorous control measures have been implemented in commercial poultry in Pakistan, AIV is sporadically transmitted to poultry and among the different poultry industry compartments (broilers, broiler breeders, table egg layers. Since there is one primary H7 lineage which persists and that has reassorted with the H9N2 AIV in poultry, it suggests that there is a reservoir with some link commercial poultry. On a general level, this offers insight into the molecular ecology of AIV in poultry where the virus has persisted despite vaccination and biosecurity. This data also illustrates the importance of sustained surveillance for AIVs in poultry.

  20. MulRF: a software package for phylogenetic analysis using multi-copy gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ruchi; Fernández-Baca, David; Burleigh, John Gordon

    2015-02-01

    MulRF is a platform-independent software package for phylogenetic analysis using multi-copy gene trees. It seeks the species tree that minimizes the Robinson-Foulds (RF) distance to the input trees using a generalization of the RF distance to multi-labeled trees. The underlying generic tree distance measure and fast running time make MulRF useful for inferring phylogenies from large collections of gene trees, in which multiple evolutionary processes as well as phylogenetic error may contribute to gene tree discord. MulRF implements several features for customizing the species tree search and assessing the results, and it provides a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) with tree visualization. The species tree search is implemented in C++ and the GUI in Java Swing. MulRF's executable as well as sample datasets and manual are available at http://genome.cs.iastate.edu/CBL/MulRF/, and the source code is available at https://github.com/ruchiherself/MulRFRepo. ruchic@ufl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the ...

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among and within species of Phalaenopsis (Epidendroideae: Orchidaceae) based on RAPD analysis. ... Ph. parishii, Ph. labbi nepal, Ph. speciosa, Ph. lobbi yellow, Ph. venosa, Ph. hieroglyphica, and Ph. maculata; the third group consisted of Ph. minho princess, ...

  3. Phylogenetic signals in the climatic niches of the world's amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2010-01-01

    amphibian orders and across biogeographical regions. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing a comprehensive analysis of the phylogenetic signal in species climatic niches for an entire clade across the world. Even though our results do not provide a strong test of the niche conservatism......The question of whether closely related species share similar ecological requirements has attracted increasing attention, because of its importance for understanding global diversity gradients and the impacts of climate change on species distributions. In fact, the assumption that related species...... are also ecologically similar has often been made, although the prevalence of such a phylogenetic signal in ecological niches remains heavily debated. Here, we provide a global analysis of phylogenetic niche relatedness for the world's amphibians. In particular, we assess which proportion of the variance...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F causing invasive pneumococcal disease using whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H B Demczuk

    Full Text Available Since implementation of the 13-valent polyvalent conjugate vaccine (PCV13 in Canada during 2010, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD has declined from 55% (n = 1492 in 2010 to 31% (n = 764 in 2014. A concurrent increase of non-PCV13 serotypes has occurred and 22F has become the most prevalent serotype in Canada increasing from 7% (n = 183 to 11% (n = 283. Core single nucleotide variant phylogenetic analysis was performed on 137 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F isolates collected across Canada from 2005-2015. Six phylogenetic lineages (n = 117 were identified among a serotype 22F/ST433 clonal complex (CC, including a recently expanding erythromycin-resistant clone. Erythromycin-resistance was observed in 25 isolates possessing ermB, mef or a 23S rRNA A2061G point mutation; 2 penicillin-resistant isolates had recombinant pbp1a, pbp2a and/or pbp2x; 3 tetracycline-resistant isolates contained tetM; and 1 isolate was multidrug-resistant. Virulence factor analysis indicated a high level of homogeneity among the 22F/ST433 clonal complex strains. A group of 6 phylogenetic outlier strains had differing MLST, antimicrobial resistance and molecular profiles suggestive of capsule switching events. While capsule switch events among S. pneumoniae serotype 22F has been observed, increasing prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotype 22F can be attributed to an evolving homogenous clone expanding nationally through local transmission events.

  5. Discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven species of Dendrobium using infrared spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congpei; He, Tao; Chun, Ze

    2013-04-01

    Dendrobium is a commonly used and precious herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The high biodiversity of Dendrobium and the therapeutic needs require tools for the correct and fast discrimination of different Dendrobium species. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by cluster analysis for discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven Dendrobium species. Despite the general pattern of the IR spectra, different intensities, shapes, peak positions were found in the IR spectra of these samples, especially in the range of 1800-800 cm-1. The second derivative transformation and alcoholic extracting procedure obviously enlarged the tiny spectral differences among these samples. The results indicated each Dendrobium species had a characteristic IR spectra profile, which could be used to discriminate them. The similarity coefficients among the samples were analyzed based on their second derivative IR spectra, which ranged from 0.7632 to 0.9700, among the seven Dendrobium species, and from 0.5163 to 0.9615, among the ethanol extracts. A dendrogram was constructed based on cluster analysis the IR spectra for studying the chemical phylogenetic relationships among the samples. The results indicated that D. denneanum and D. crepidatum could be the alternative resources to substitute D. chrysotoxum, D. officinale and D. nobile which were officially recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In conclusion, with the advantages of high resolution, speediness and convenience, the experimental approach can successfully discriminate and construct the chemical phylogenetic relationships of the seven Dendrobium species.

  6. Analyzing Phylogenetic Trees with Timed and Probabilistic Model Checking: The Lactose Persistence Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Model checking is a generic verification technique that allows the phylogeneticist to focus on models and specifications instead of on implementation issues. Phylogenetic trees are considered as transition systems over which we interrogate phylogenetic questions written as formulas of temporal logic. Nonetheless, standard logics become insufficient for certain practices of phylogenetic analysis since they do not allow the inclusion of explicit time and probabilities. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of model checking techniques beyond qualitative phylogenetic properties and adapt the existing logical extensions and tools to the field of phylogeny. The introduction of time and probabilities in phylogenetic specifications is motivated by the study of a real example: the analysis of the ratio of lactose intolerance in some populations and the date of appearance of this phenotype.

  7. Introgression evidence and phylogenetic relationships among three (ParaMisgurnus species as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovlić I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of (ParaMisgurnus genera is still debated. We therefore used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus fossilis. Differing phylogenetic signals from mitochondrial and nuclear marker data suggest an introgression event in the history of M. anguillicaudatus and M. mohoity. No substantial genetic evidence was found that Paramisgurnus dabryanus should be classified as a separate genus.

  8. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier [University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble (France); D' Onofrio, Mauro [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (INAF), Padua (Italy); Marziani, Paola, E-mail: didier.fraix-burnet@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2017-10-10

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z < 0.7) which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. Cladistics is not only able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars and properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, but it suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission as already proposed elsewhere. An interesting interpretation from this work is that the phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1,500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  9. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z < 0.7) which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. Cladistics is not only able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars and properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, but it suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission as already proposed elsewhere. An interesting interpretation from this work is that the phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1,500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  10. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  11. On the use of cartographic projections in visualizing phylo-genetic tree space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phylogenetic analysis is becoming an increasingly important tool for biological research. Applications include epidemiological studies, drug development, and evolutionary analysis. Phylogenetic search is a known NP-Hard problem. The size of the data sets which can be analyzed is limited by the exponential growth in the number of trees that must be considered as the problem size increases. A better understanding of the problem space could lead to better methods, which in turn could lead to the feasible analysis of more data sets. We present a definition of phylogenetic tree space and a visualization of this space that shows significant exploitable structure. This structure can be used to develop search methods capable of handling much larger data sets.

  12. Generalized Analysis of a Distribution Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Separating two probability distributions from a mixture model that is made up of the combinations of the two is essential to a wide range of applications. For example, in information retrieval (IR, there often exists a mixture distribution consisting of a relevance distribution that we need to estimate and an irrelevance distribution that we hope to get rid of. Recently, a distribution separation method (DSM was proposed to approximate the relevance distribution, by separating a seed irrelevance distribution from the mixture distribution. It was successfully applied to an IR task, namely pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF, where the query expansion model is often a mixture term distribution. Although initially developed in the context of IR, DSM is indeed a general mathematical formulation for probability distribution separation. Thus, it is important to further generalize its basic analysis and to explore its connections to other related methods. In this article, we first extend DSM’s theoretical analysis, which was originally based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, to entropy-related measures, including the KL-divergence (Kullback–Leibler divergence, the symmetrized KL-divergence and the JS-divergence (Jensen–Shannon divergence. Second, we investigate the distribution separation idea in a well-known method, namely the mixture model feedback (MMF approach. We prove that MMF also complies with the linear combination assumption, and then, DSM’s linear separation algorithm can largely simplify the EM algorithm in MMF. These theoretical analyses, as well as further empirical evaluation results demonstrate the advantages of our DSM approach.

  13. An autochthonous case of hepatitis C virus genotype 5a in Brazil: phylogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, L.C.; Souto, F.J.D.; do Espirito-Santo, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Genotype 5 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been rarely identified in South America. A female of African descent who never left Brazil was found to be infected by this genotype in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil. The patient denied drug injections and revealed that she had received blood...... transfusions several years before. One of her blood donors was identified and tested negative for anti-HCV and HCV RNA, as were her husband and offspring. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 and NS5B regions confirmed that this HCV strain belonged to genotype 5a. However, the E1 region analysis indicates that our...

  14. Phylogenetic Inference of HIV Transmission Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Novitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding the structure and dynamics of HIV transmission networks is essential for designing the most efficient interventions to prevent new HIV transmissions, and ultimately for gaining control of the HIV epidemic. The inference of phylogenetic relationships and the interpretation of results rely on the definition of the HIV transmission cluster. The definition of the HIV cluster is complex and dependent on multiple factors, including the design of sampling, accuracy of sequencing, precision of sequence alignment, evolutionary models, the phylogenetic method of inference, and specified thresholds for cluster support. While the majority of studies focus on clusters, non-clustered cases could also be highly informative. A new dimension in the analysis of the global and local HIV epidemics is the concept of phylogenetically distinct HIV sub-epidemics. The identification of active HIV sub-epidemics reveals spreading viral lineages and may help in the design of targeted interventions.HIVclustering can also be affected by sampling density. Obtaining a proper sampling density may increase statistical power and reduce sampling bias, so sampling density should be taken into account in study design and in interpretation of phylogenetic results. Finally, recent advances in long-range genotyping may enable more accurate inference of HIV transmission networks. If performed in real time, it could both inform public-health strategies and be clinically relevant (e.g., drug-resistance testing.

  15. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2015-10-07

    and demonstrates that the improved DFT dissimilarity measure is an efficient and effective similarity measure of DNA sequences. Due to its high efficiency and accuracy, the proposed DFT similarity measure is successfully applied on phylogenetic analysis for individual genes and large whole bacterial genomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  17. Comparative analysis of DNA polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships among Syzygium cumini Skeels based on phenotypic characters and RAPD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra P; Singh, Ak; Bajpai, Anju; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2014-01-01

    The Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini Skeels) has a great nutraceutical and medicinal properties. As in other fruit crops, the fruit characteristics are important attributes for differentiation were also determined for different accessions of S. cumini. The fruit weight, length, breadth, length: breadth ratio, pulp weight, pulp content, seed weight and pulp: seed ratio significantly varied in different accessions. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR based RAPD technique. Out of 80 RAPD primers, only 18 primers produced stable polymorphisms that were used to examine the phylogenetic relationship. A sum of 207 loci were generated out of which 201 loci found polymorphic. The average genetic dissimilarity was 97 per cent among jamun accessions. The phylogenetic relationship was also determined by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) that explained 46.95 per cent cumulative variance. The two-dimensional PCoA analysis showed grouping of the different accessions that were plotted into four sub-plots, representing clustering of accessions. The UPGMA (r = 0.967) and NJ (r = 0.987) dendrogram constructed based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed a good degree of fit with the cophenetic correlation value. The dendrogram grouped the accessions into three main clusters according to their eco-geographical regions which given useful insight into their phylogenetic relationships.

  18. Short segment search method for phylogenetic analysis using nested sliding windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, A. A.; Bustamam, A.; Trimarsanto, H.

    2017-10-01

    To analyze phylogenetics in Bioinformatics, coding DNA sequences (CDS) segment is needed for maximal accuracy. However, analysis by CDS cost a lot of time and money, so a short representative segment by CDS, which is envelope protein segment or non-structural 3 (NS3) segment is necessary. After sliding window is implemented, a better short segment than envelope protein segment and NS3 is found. This paper will discuss a mathematical method to analyze sequences using nested sliding window to find a short segment which is representative for the whole genome. The result shows that our method can find a short segment which more representative about 6.57% in topological view to CDS segment than an Envelope segment or NS3 segment.

  19. Transforming phylogenetic networks: Moving beyond tree space

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Katharina T.; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent reticulate evolution. Unrooted phylogenetic networks form a special class of such networks, which naturally generalize unrooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we define two operations on unrooted phylogenetic networks, one of which is a generalization of the well-known nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) operation on phylogenetic trees. We show that any unrooted phylogenetic network can be transforme...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2004-05-01

    The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).

  1. Ontogeny reversal and phylogenetic analysis of Turritopsis sp.5 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Oceaniidae, a possible new species endemic to Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontogeny reversal, as seen in some cnidarians, is an unprecedented phenomenon in the animal kingdom involving reversal of the ordinary life cycle. Three species of Turritopsis have been shown to be capable of inverted metamorphosis, a process in which the pelagic medusa transforms back into a juvenile benthic polyp stage when faced with adverse conditions. Turritopsis sp.5 is a species of Turritopsis collected from Xiamen, China which presents a similar ability, being able to reverse its life cycle if injured by mechanical stress. Phylogenetic analysis based on both 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI genetic barcodes shows that Turritopsis sp.5 is phylogenetically clustered in a clade separate from other species of Turritopsis. The genetic distance between T. sp.5 and the Japanese species T. sp.2 is the shortest, when measured by the Kimura 2-Parameter metric, and the distance to the New Zealand species T. rubra is the largest. An experimental assay on the induction of reverse development in this species was initiated by cutting medusae into upper and lower parts. We show, for the first time, that the two dissected parts have significantly different potentials to transform into polyps. Also, a series of morphological changes of the reversed life cycle can be recognised, including medusa stage, contraction stage I, contraction stage II, cyst, cyst with stolons, and polyp. The discovery of species capable of reverse ontogeny caused by unfavorable conditions adds to the available systems with which to study the cell types that contribute to the developmental reversal and the molecular mechanisms of the directional determination of ontogeny.

  2. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: The compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2016-05-01

    Discovery of cupulate ovules of Doylea tetrahedrasperma within a compact, compound seed cone highlights the rich diversity of fructification morphologies, pollination biologies, postpollination enclosure of seeds, and systematic diversity of Early Cretaceous gymnosperms. Specimens were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique, three-dimensional reconstructions (in AVIZO), and morphological phylogenetic analyses (in TNT). Doylea tetrahedrasperma has bract/fertile short shoot complexes helically arranged within a compact, compound seed cone. Complexes diverge from the axis as a single unit and separate distally into a free bract tip and two sporophylls. Each sporophyll bears a single, abaxial seed, recurved toward the cone axis, that is enveloped after pollinaton by sporophyll tissue, forming a closed cupule. Ovules are pollinated by bisaccate grains captured by micropylar pollination horns. The unique combination of characters shown by D. tetrahedrasperma includes the presence of cupulate seeds borne in conifer-like compound seed cones, an ovuliferous scale analogue structurally equivalent to the ovulate stalk of Ginkgo biloba, gymnospermous pollination, and nearly complete enclosure of mature seeds. These features characterize the Doyleales ord. nov., clearly distinguish it from the seed fern order Corystospermales, and allow for recognition of another recently described Early Cretaceous seed plant as a second species in genus Doylea. A morphological phylogenetic analysis highlights systematic relationships of the Doyleales ord. nov. and emphasizes the explosive phylogenetic diversification of gymnosperms that was underway at the time when flowering plants may have originated and/or first began to radiate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Phylogenetic reconstruction and shell evolution of the Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole B; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2012-06-01

    The fascinating and often unlikely shell shapes in the terrestrial micromollusc family Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) provide a particularly attractive set of multiple morphological traits to investigate evolutionary patterns of shape variation. Here, a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, based on five genes and 2700 bp, was undertaken for this family, integrated with ancestral state reconstruction and phylogenetic PCA of discrete and quantitative traits, respectively. We found strong support for the Diplommatininae as a monophyletic group, separating the Cochlostomatidae into a separate family. Five main clades appear within the Diplommatininae, corresponding with both coiling direction and biogeographic patterns. A Belau clade (A) with highly diverse (but always sinistral) morphology comprised Hungerfordia, Palaina, and some Diplommatina. Arinia (dextral) and Opisthostoma (sinistroid) are sister groups in clade B. Clade C and D solely contain sinistral Diplommatina that are robust and little ornamented (clade C) or slender and sculptured (clade D). Clade E is dextral but biogeographically diverse with species from all sampled regions save the Caroline Islands. Adelopoma, Diplommatina, Palaina, and Hungerfordia require revision to allow taxonomy to reflect phylogeny, whereas Opisthostoma is clearly monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests a sinistral origin for the Diplommatinidae, with three reversals to dextrality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, B.J.F.; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective

  5. Potentials and limitations of histone repeat sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of Sophophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, A M; Les, D H; Strausbaugh, L D

    1999-11-01

    Simplified DNA sequence acquisition has provided many new data sets that are useful for phylogenetic reconstruction, including single- and multiple-copy nuclear and organellar genes. Although transcribed regions receive much attention, nontranscribed regions have recently been added to the repertoire of sequences suitable for phylogenetic studies, especially for closely related taxa. We evaluated the efficacy of a small portion of the histone repeat for phylogenetic reconstruction among Drosophila species. Histone repeats in invertebrates offer distinct advantages similar to those of widely used ribosomal repeats. First, the units are tandemly repeated and undergo concerted evolution. Second, histone repeats include both highly conserved coding and variable intergenic regions. This composition facilitates application of "universal" primers spanning potentially informative sites. We examined a small region of the histone repeat, including the intergenic spacer segments of coding regions from the divergently transcribed H2A and H2B histone genes. The spacer (about 230 bp) exists as a mosaic with highly conserved functional motifs interspersed with rapidly diverging regions; the former aid in alignment of the spacer. There are no ambiguities in alignment of coding regions. Coding and noncoding regions were analyzed together and separately for phylogenetic information. Parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood methods successfully retrieve the corroborated phylogeny for the taxa examined. This study demonstrates the resolving power of a small histone region which may now be added to the growing collection of phylogenetically useful DNA sequences.

  6. Short communication. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Izedin Goga; Kristaq Berxholi; Beqe Hulaj; Driton Sylejmani; Boris Yakobson; Yehuda Stram

    2014-01-01

    Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of B...

  7. Using genes as characters and a parsimony analysis to explore the phylogenetic position of turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a "genes as characters" approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis, similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as

  8. Using Genes as Characters and a Parsimony Analysis to Explore the Phylogenetic Position of Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Weizhao; Dai, Qiang; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a “genes as characters” approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog) and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara) but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis), similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as characters

  9. Reliability analysis for thermal cutting method based non-explosive separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Woo; Hwang, Kuk Ha; Kim, Byung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the reliability of a separation device for a small satellite, a new non-explosive separation device is invented. This device is activated using a thermal cutting method with a Ni-Cr wire. A reliability analysis is carried out for the proposed non-explosive separation device by applying the Fault tree analysis (FTA) method. In the FTA results for the separation device, only ten single-point failure modes are found. The reliability modeling and analysis for the device are performed considering failure of the power supply, the Ni-Cr wire burns failure and unwinds, the holder separation failure, the balls separation failure, and the pin release failure. Ultimately, the reliability of the proposed device is calculated as 0.999989 with five Ni-Cr wire coils

  10. Reliability analysis for thermal cutting method based non-explosive separation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Woo; Hwang, Kuk Ha; Kim, Byung Kyu [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In order to increase the reliability of a separation device for a small satellite, a new non-explosive separation device is invented. This device is activated using a thermal cutting method with a Ni-Cr wire. A reliability analysis is carried out for the proposed non-explosive separation device by applying the Fault tree analysis (FTA) method. In the FTA results for the separation device, only ten single-point failure modes are found. The reliability modeling and analysis for the device are performed considering failure of the power supply, the Ni-Cr wire burns failure and unwinds, the holder separation failure, the balls separation failure, and the pin release failure. Ultimately, the reliability of the proposed device is calculated as 0.999989 with five Ni-Cr wire coils.

  11. NASA Armstrong's Approach to Store Separation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Chris; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities. It will include discussions on the use of NAVSEP and Cart3D, as well as some Python scripting work to perform the analysis, and a short overview of this methodology applied to the Towed Glider Air Launch System. Collaboration with potential customers in this area could lead to funding for the further development of a store separation capability at NASA Armstrong, which would boost the portfolio of engineering expertise at the center.

  12. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  13. PhyLIS: a simple GNU/Linux distribution for phylogenetics and phyloinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Robert C

    2009-07-30

    PhyLIS is a free GNU/Linux distribution that is designed to provide a simple, standardized platform for phylogenetic and phyloinformatic analysis. The operating system incorporates most commonly used phylogenetic software, which has been pre-compiled and pre-configured, allowing for straightforward application of phylogenetic methods and development of phyloinformatic pipelines in a stable Linux environment. The software is distributed as a live CD and can be installed directly or run from the CD without making changes to the computer. PhyLIS is available for free at http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/rcthomson/phylis/.

  14. The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa), the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously. PMID:21388552

  15. The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM test in phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapointe François-Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa, the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously.

  16. Type I STS markers are more informative than cytochrome B in phylogenetic reconstruction of the Mustelidae (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Wayne, Robert K

    2003-10-01

    We compared the utility of five nuclear gene segments amplified with type I sequence-tagged site (STS) primers versus the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae, a large and ecomorphologically diverse family of mammalian carnivores. Maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of separate and combined data sets were used to address questions regarding the levels of homoplasy, incongruence, and information content within and among loci. All loci showed limited resolution in the separate analyses because of either a low amount of informative variation (nuclear genes) or high levels of homoplasy (cyt b). Individually or combined, the nuclear gene sequences had less homoplasy, retained more signal, and were more decisive, even though cyt b contained more potentially informative variation than all the nuclear sequences combined. We obtained a well-resolved and supported phylogeny when the nuclear sequences were combined. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the total combined data (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences) were able to better accommodate the high levels of homoplasy in the cyt b data than was an equally weighted maximum parsimony analysis. Furthermore, partition Bremer support analyses of the total combined tree showed that the relative support of the nuclear and mitochondrial genes differed according to whether or not the homoplasy in the cyt b gene was downweighted. Although the cyt b gene contributed phylogenetic signal for most major groupings, the nuclear gene sequences were more effective in reconstructing the deeper nodes of the combined tree in the equally weighted parsimony analysis, as judged by the variable-length bootstrap method. The total combined data supported the monophyly of the Lutrinae (otters), whereas the Melinae (badgers) and Mustelinae (weasels, martens) were both paraphyletic. The American badger, Taxidea taxus (Taxidiinae), was the most

  17. Atelinae phylogenetic relationships: the trichotomy revived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C

    2004-08-01

    This research examines phylogenetic relationships between members of the Atelinae subfamily (Alouatta, Ateles, Brachyteles, and Lagothrix), based on analysis of three genetic regions. Two loci, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and the hypervariable I portion of the control region, are part of the mitochondrial genome. The other is a single-copy nuclear gene, Aldolase A Intron V. Analysis of these genetic regions provides support for tribe Alouattini containing the Alouatta species, while tribe Atelini contains the other three genera. However, these three genetic regions produce conflicting results for relationships among tribe Atelini members. Previous genetic studies supported grouping Brachyteles with Lagothrix, leaving Ateles in a separate subclade. The present data sets vary based on the genetic region analyzed and method of analysis suggesting all possible cladistic relationships. These results are more consistent with investigations of morphology and behavior among these primates. The primary cause of discrepancy between this study and previous genetic studies is postulated to reside in increased sampling in the present study of genetic variation among members of the Atelinae, specifically Ateles. The present study utilized samples of Ateles from all postulated species for this genetically variable primate, while previous studies used only one or two species of Ateles. This paper demonstrates that shifting relationships are produced when different species of Ateles are used to reconstruct phylogenies. This research concludes that a trichotomy should still be supported between members of tribe Atelini until further analyses, which include additional Atelinae haplotypes are conducted. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Let's jump in: A phylogenetic study of the great basin springfishes and poolfishes, Crenichthys and Empetrichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cooper Campbell

    Full Text Available North America's Great Basin has long been of interest to biologists due to its high level of organismal endemicity throughout its endorheic watersheds. One example of such a group is the subfamily Empetricthyinae. In this paper, we analyzed the relationships of the Empetrichtyinae and assessed the validity of the subspecies designations given by Williams and Wilde within the group using concatenated phylogenetic tree estimation and species tree estimation. Samples from 19 populations were included covering the entire distribution of the three extant species of Empetricthyinae-Crenichthys nevadae, Crenichthys baileyi and Empetricthys latos. Three nuclear introns (S8 intron 4, S7 intron 1, and P0 intron 1 and one mitochondrial gene (Cytb were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Using these sequences, we generated two separate hypotheses of the evolutionary relationships of Empetrichtyinae- one based on the mitochondrial data and one based on the nuclear data using Bayesian phylogenetics. Haplotype networks were also generated to look at the relationships of the populations within Empetrichthyinae. After comparing the two phylogenetic hypotheses, species trees were generated using *BEAST with the nuclear data to further test the validity of the subspecies within Empetrichthyinae. The mitochondrial analyses supported four lineages within C. baileyi and 2 within C. nevadae. The concatenated nuclear tree was more conserved, supporting one clade and an unresolved polytomy in both species. The species tree analysis supported the presence of two species within both C. baileyi and C. nevadae. Based on the results of these analyses, the subspecies designations of Williams and Wilde are not valid, rather a conservative approach suggests there are two species within C. nevadae and two species within C. baileyi. No structure was found for E. latos or the populations of Empetricthyinae. This study represents one of many demonstrating the invalidity of

  19. Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-06-19

    Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.

  20. Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-Z; Wang, Q-M; Göker, M; Groenewald, M; Kachalkin, A V; Lumbsch, H T; Millanes, A M; Wedin, M; Yurkov, A M; Boekhout, T; Bai, F-Y

    2015-06-01

    Families and genera assigned to Tremellomycetes have been mainly circumscribed by morphology and for the yeasts also by biochemical and physiological characteristics. This phenotype-based classification is largely in conflict with molecular phylogenetic analyses. Here a phylogenetic classification framework for the Tremellomycetes is proposed based on the results of phylogenetic analyses from a seven-genes dataset covering the majority of tremellomycetous yeasts and closely related filamentous taxa. Circumscriptions of the taxonomic units at the order, family and genus levels recognised were quantitatively assessed using the phylogenetic rank boundary optimisation (PRBO) and modified general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) tests. In addition, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis on an expanded LSU rRNA (D1/D2 domains) gene sequence dataset covering as many as available teleomorphic and filamentous taxa within Tremellomycetes was performed to investigate the relationships between yeasts and filamentous taxa and to examine the stability of undersampled clades. Based on the results inferred from molecular data and morphological and physiochemical features, we propose an updated classification for the Tremellomycetes. We accept five orders, 17 families and 54 genera, including seven new families and 18 new genera. In addition, seven families and 17 genera are emended and one new species name and 185 new combinations are proposed. We propose to use the term pro tempore or pro tem. in abbreviation to indicate the species names that are temporarily maintained.

  1. Detection, molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of Leishmania isolated from cases of leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Salloum

    2016-06-01

    Two molecular typing methods of 39 FFPE Leishmania isolates were used: the ITS1-PCR RFLP and the nested ITS1-5.8S rDNA gene amplification followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The efficiency of these two techniques in Leishmania identification was compared and the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates were illustrated based on the neighbor-joining (NJ method. The results were statistically correlated with the parasitic index (PI. The DNA storage in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues was assessed as well. The parasites identified were all L. tropica as determined by both techniques. ITS1-5.8S rDNA gene based typing proved to be more sensitive in the detection of parasites (positive in 69.2% of the isolates as opposed to the ITS1-PCR RFLP method that was successful in identifying L. tropica in only 43.6% of the isolates. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed high levels of heterogeneity. A statistically significant correlation was observed between PI and the results of the nested ITS1-5.8S rDNA gene PCR. Genotyping at the species level is essential for monitoring the relative frequency of CL in the Mediterranean area that is correlated to three different Leishmania species (Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major and L. tropica, each characterized by distinct epidemiological features. The obtained results highlight the need to find a universally accepted diagnostic tool for Leishmania typing.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 pol gene: first subgenomic evidence of CRF29-BF among Iranian HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Baesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the dominant subtype among the HIV-1 strains circulation in Iran. Methods: In this cross sectional study 100 HIV positive patients participated. HIV-1 RNA was extracted from plasma. RT nested-PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed; reference sequences were downloaded from Los Alamos, aligned with Iranian pol sequences in the study and analyzed by neighbor-joining method. Results: The results of the phylogenetic analysis showed that HIV-1 subtype CRF-35AD was the dominant subtype among HIV-1 infected patients in Iran; this analysis also suggested a new circulating recombinant form that had not previously been identified in Iran: CRF-29BF. Conclusions: The impact of HIV diversity on pathogenesis, transmission and clinical management have been discussed in different studies; therefore, analyses of HIV genetic diversity is required to design effective antiretroviral strategies for different HIV subtypes.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Applicable to Natto (Fermented Soybean) Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-01-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was also conducted on the natto-fermenting strains. The ability to ferment natto was inferred from the two principal components of the AFLP banding pattern, and natto-fermenting strains formed a tight cluster within the B. subtilis subsp. subtilis group. PMID:21764950

  4. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article "Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum" [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information." [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8) with the Pfam database, "Pfam: the protein families database" [4].

  5. The power and pitfalls of HIV phylogenetics in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, James I; Sandstrom, Paul A

    2013-07-25

    Phylogenetics is the application of comparative studies of genetic sequences in order to infer evolutionary relationships among organisms. This tool can be used as a form of molecular epidemiology to enhance traditional population-level communicable disease surveillance. Phylogenetic study has resulted in new paradigms being created in the field of communicable diseases and this commentary aims to provide the reader with an explanation of how phylogenetics can be used in tracking infectious diseases. Special emphasis will be placed upon the application of phylogenetics as a tool to help elucidate HIV transmission patterns and the limitations to these methods when applied to forensic analysis. Understanding infectious disease epidemiology in order to prevent new transmissions is the sine qua non of public health. However, with increasing epidemiological resolution, there may be an associated potential loss of privacy to the individual. It is within this context that we aim to promote the discussion on how to use phylogenetics to achieve important public health goals, while at the same time protecting the rights of the individual.

  6. The origin and evolution of Basigin(BSG) gene: A comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyan; Wang, Shenglan; Shao, Mingjie; Yan, Jie; Liu, Fei

    2017-07-01

    Basigin (BSG), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), plays various fundamental roles in the intercellular recognition involved in immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development. In this study, we aimed to compare the similarities and differences of BSG among organisms and explore possible evolutionary relationships based on the comparison result. We used the extensive BLAST tool to search the metazoan genomes, N-glycosylation sites, the transmembrane region and other functional sites. We then identified BSG homologs from genomic sequences and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. We identified that BSG genes exist not only in the vertebrate metazoans but also in the invertebrate metazoans such as Amphioxus B. floridae, D. melanogaster, A. mellifera, S. japonicum, C. gigas, and T. patagoniensis. After sequence analysis, we confirmed that only vertebrate metazoans and Cephalochordate (amphioxus B. floridae) have the classic structure (a signal peptide, two Ig-like domains (IgC2 and IgI), a transmembrane region, and an intracellular domain). The invertebrate metazoans (excluding amphioxus B. floridae) lack the N-terminal signal peptides and IgC2 domain. We then generated a phylogenetic tree, genome organization comparison, and chromosomal disposition analysis based on the biological information obtained from the NCBI and Ensembl databases. Finally, we established the possible evolutionary scenario of the BSG gene, which showed the restricted exon rearrangement that has occurred during evolution, forming the present-day BSG gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated Automatic Workflow for Phylogenetic Tree Analysis Using Public Access and Local Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkliang, Kasikrit; Tandayya, Pichaya; Sangket, Unitsa; Pasomsub, Ekawat

    2016-11-28

    At the present, coding sequence (CDS) has been discovered and larger CDS is being revealed frequently. Approaches and related tools have also been developed and upgraded concurrently, especially for phylogenetic tree analysis. This paper proposes an integrated automatic Taverna workflow for the phylogenetic tree inferring analysis using public access web services at European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), and our own deployed local web services. The workflow input is a set of CDS in the Fasta format. The workflow supports 1,000 to 20,000 numbers in bootstrapping replication. The workflow performs the tree inferring such as Parsimony (PARS), Distance Matrix - Neighbor Joining (DIST-NJ), and Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithms of EMBOSS PHYLIPNEW package based on our proposed Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) similarity score. The local web services are implemented and deployed into two types using the Soaplab2 and Apache Axis2 deployment. There are SOAP and Java Web Service (JWS) providing WSDL endpoints to Taverna Workbench, a workflow manager. The workflow has been validated, the performance has been measured, and its results have been verified. Our workflow's execution time is less than ten minutes for inferring a tree with 10,000 replicates of the bootstrapping numbers. This paper proposes a new integrated automatic workflow which will be beneficial to the bioinformaticians with an intermediate level of knowledge and experiences. All local services have been deployed at our portal http://bioservices.sci.psu.ac.th.

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae) using Chloroplast DNA RFLP

    OpenAIRE

    ANDO, TOSHIO; KOKUBUN, HISASHI; WATANABE, HITOSHI; TANAKA, NORIO; YUKAWA, TOMOHISA; HASHIMOTO, GORO; MARCHESI, EDUARDO; SUÁREZ, ENRIQUE; BASUALDO, ISABEL L.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The phylogenetic relationships of Petunia sensu Jussieu (Petunia sensu Wijsman plus Calibrachoa) are unclear. This study aimed to resolve this uncertainty using molecular evidence.

  9. 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, phylogenetic tree was constructed using suitable bioinformatics tools to identify the similarity which showed 97% similarity between strains. Moreover, all the selected strains of actinomycetes were subjected to study the protein and plasmid DNA expression profiles which showed prominent bands with ...

  10. Comparison of sequence-based and structure-based phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    phylogenetic tree construction methods, has been considered as an equivalent of .... Further detailed analysis described is restricted to the first two groups only. ..... Aspartate-ammonia ligase. Plant virus ..... enzymatic activities?; Trends ...

  11. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for phylogenetic analysis of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Mojtaba; Najafi, Akram

    2017-06-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is among major pathogens causing 80-90% of all episodes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Recently, E. coli strains are divided into eight main phylogenetic groups including A, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, and clade I. This study was aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific multiplex real time PCR method capable of detecting phylogenetic groups of E. coli strains. This study was carried out on E. coli strains (isolated from the patient with UTI) in which the presence of all seven target genes had been confirmed in our previous phylogenetic study. An EvaGreen-based singleplex and multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was designed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these genes. The primers were selected mainly based on the production of amplicons with melting temperatures (T m ) ranging from 82°C to 93°C and temperature difference of more than 1.5°C between each peak.The multiplex real-time PCR assays that have been developed in the present study were successful in detecting the eight main phylogenetic groups. Seven distinct melting peaks were discriminated, with Tm value of 93±0.8 for arpA, 89.2±0.1for chuA, 86.5±0.1 for yjaA, 82.3±0.2 for TspE4C2, 87.8±0.1for trpAgpC, 85.4±0.6 for arpAgpE genes, and 91±0.5 for the internal control. To our knowledge, this study is the first melting curve-based real-time PCR assay developed for simultaneous and discrete detection of these seven target genes. Our findings showed that this assay has the potential to be a rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative for routine phylotyping of E. coli strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transforming phylogenetic networks: Moving beyond tree space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-09-07

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent reticulate evolution. Unrooted phylogenetic networks form a special class of such networks, which naturally generalize unrooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we define two operations on unrooted phylogenetic networks, one of which is a generalization of the well-known nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) operation on phylogenetic trees. We show that any unrooted phylogenetic network can be transformed into any other such network using only these operations. This generalizes the well-known fact that any phylogenetic tree can be transformed into any other such tree using only NNI operations. It also allows us to define a generalization of tree space and to define some new metrics on unrooted phylogenetic networks. To prove our main results, we employ some fascinating new connections between phylogenetic networks and cubic graphs that we have recently discovered. Our results should be useful in developing new strategies to search for optimal phylogenetic networks, a topic that has recently generated some interest in the literature, as well as for providing new ways to compare networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Source Signals Separation and Reconstruction Following Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For separation and reconstruction of source signals from observed signals problem, the physical significance of blind source separation modal and independent component analysis is not very clear, and its solution is not unique. Aiming at these disadvantages, a new linear and instantaneous mixing model and a novel source signals separation reconstruction solving method from observed signals based on principal component analysis (PCA are put forward. Assumption of this new model is statistically unrelated rather than independent of source signals, which is different from the traditional blind source separation model. A one-to-one relationship between linear and instantaneous mixing matrix of new model and linear compound matrix of PCA, and a one-to-one relationship between unrelated source signals and principal components are demonstrated using the concept of linear separation matrix and unrelated of source signals. Based on this theoretical link, source signals separation and reconstruction problem is changed into PCA of observed signals then. The theoretical derivation and numerical simulation results show that, in despite of Gauss measurement noise, wave form and amplitude information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal and normalized; only wave form information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal but not normalized, unrelated source signal cannot be separated and reconstructed by PCA when mixing matrix is not column orthogonal or linear.

  14. Social Mating System and Sex-Biased Dispersal in Mammals and Birds: A Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Karen E.; Shelley, Erin L.; Davis, Katie E.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that patterns of sex-biased dispersal are related to social mating system in mammals and birds has gained widespread acceptance over the past 30 years. However, two major complications have obscured the relationship between these two behaviors: 1) dispersal frequency and dispersal distance, which measure different aspects of the dispersal process, have often been confounded, and 2) the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in these vertebrate groups has not been examined using modern phylogenetic comparative methods. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in mammals and birds. Results indicate that the evolution of female-biased dispersal in mammals may be more likely on monogamous branches of the phylogeny, and that females may disperse farther than males in socially monogamous mammalian species. However, we found no support for a relationship between social mating system and sex-biased dispersal in birds when the effects of phylogeny are taken into consideration. We caution that although there are larger-scale behavioral differences in mating system and sex-biased dispersal between mammals and birds, mating system and sex-biased dispersal are far from perfectly associated within these taxa. PMID:23483957

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidian isolates infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori using small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B Surendra; Gupta, S K; Bajpai, A K

    2012-12-01

    The life cycle, spore morphology, pathogenicity, tissue specificity, mode of transmission and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis of the five new microsporidian isolates viz., NIWB-11bp, NIWB-12n, NIWB-13md, NIWB-14b and NIWB-15mb identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori have been studied along with type species, NIK-1s_mys. The life cycle of the microsporidians identified exhibited the sequential developmental cycles that are similar to the general developmental cycle of the genus, Nosema. The spores showed considerable variations in their shape, length and width. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIWB-15mb was found to be more virulent than other isolates. All of the microsporidians were found to infect most of the tissues examined and showed gonadal infection and transovarial transmission in the infected silkworms. SSU-rRNA sequence based phylogenetic tree placed NIWB-14b, NIWB-12n and NIWB-11bp in a separate branch along with other Nosema species and Nosema bombycis; while NIWB-15mb and NIWB-13md together formed another cluster along with other Nosema species. NIK-1s_mys revealed a signature sequence similar to standard type species, N. bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s_mys is similar to N. bombycis. Based on phylogenetic relationships, branch length information based on genetic distance and nucleotide differences, we conclude that the microsporidian isolates identified are distinctly different from the other known species and belonging to the genus, Nosema. This SSU-rRNA gene sequence analysis method is found to be more useful approach in detecting different and closely related microsporidians of this economically important domestic insect.

  16. Molecular, phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis of the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene family in the Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameaux, Sabine; Cockram, James; Thiel, Thomas; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Stein, Nils; Taudien, Stefan; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gray, John C; Greenland, Andy J; Powell, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) are large and therefore problematic for the map-based cloning of agronomicaly important traits. However, comparative approaches within the Poaceae permit transfer of molecular knowledge between species, despite their divergence from a common ancestor sixty million years ago. The finding that null variants of the rice gene cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase 2 (OsCKX2) result in large yield increases provides an opportunity to explore whether similar gains could be achieved in other Poaceae members. Here, phylogenetic, molecular and comparative analyses of CKX families in the sequenced grass species rice, brachypodium, sorghum, maize and foxtail millet, as well as members identified from the transcriptomes/genomes of wheat and barley, are presented. Phylogenetic analyses define four Poaceae CKX clades. Comparative analyses showed that CKX phylogenetic groupings can largely be explained by a combination of local gene duplication, and the whole-genome duplication event that predates their speciation. Full-length OsCKX2 homologues in barley (HvCKX2.1, HvCKX2.2) and wheat (TaCKX2.3, TaCKX2.4, TaCKX2.5) are characterized, with comparative analysis at the DNA, protein and genetic/physical map levels suggesting that true CKX2 orthologs have been identified. Furthermore, our analysis shows CKX2 genes in barley and wheat have undergone a Triticeae-specific gene-duplication event. Finally, by identifying ten of the eleven CKX genes predicted to be present in barley by comparative analyses, we show that next-generation sequencing approaches can efficiently determine the gene space of large-genome crops. Together, this work provides the foundation for future functional investigation of CKX family members within the Poaceae. © 2011 National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB). Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell

  17. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia; assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures.

  18. Functional and phylogenetic ecology in R

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, Nathan G

    2014-01-01

    Functional and Phylogenetic Ecology in R is designed to teach readers to use R for phylogenetic and functional trait analyses. Over the past decade, a dizzying array of tools and methods were generated to incorporate phylogenetic and functional information into traditional ecological analyses. Increasingly these tools are implemented in R, thus greatly expanding their impact. Researchers getting started in R can use this volume as a step-by-step entryway into phylogenetic and functional analyses for ecology in R. More advanced users will be able to use this volume as a quick reference to understand particular analyses. The volume begins with an introduction to the R environment and handling relevant data in R. Chapters then cover phylogenetic and functional metrics of biodiversity; null modeling and randomizations for phylogenetic and functional trait analyses; integrating phylogenetic and functional trait information; and interfacing the R environment with a popular C-based program. This book presents a uni...

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sesarmops sinensis reveals gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships in Brachyura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo-Ping; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Bin; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Liu, Qiu-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is very important to understand molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Herein, in this study, the complete mitogenome of Sesarmops sinensis was reported. The mitogenome was 15,905 bp in size, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew and the GC skew are both negative in the mitogenomes of S. sinensis. The nucleotide composition of the S. sinensis mitogenome was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (75.7%). All tRNA genes displayed a typical mitochondrial tRNA cloverleaf structure, except for the trnS1 gene, which lacked a dihydroxyuridine arm. S. sinensis exhibits a novel rearrangement compared with the Pancrustacean ground pattern and other Brachyura species. Based on the 13 PCGs, the phylogenetic analysis showed that S. sinensis and Sesarma neglectum were clustered on one branch with high nodal support values, indicating that S. sinensis and S. neglectum have a sister group relationship. The group (S. sinensis + S. neglectum) was sister to (Parasesarmops tripectinis + Metopaulias depressus), suggesting that S. sinensis belongs to Grapsoidea, Sesarmidae. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using BI and ML respectively indicate that section Eubrachyura consists of four groups clearly. The resulting phylogeny supports the establishment of a separate subsection Potamoida. These four groups correspond to four subsections of Raninoida, Heterotremata, Potamoida, and Thoracotremata.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. © 2013.

  1. An attempt to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within Caribbean nummulitids: simulating relationships and tracing character evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Ives Torres-Silva, Ana; Hohenegger, Johann

    2017-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis and trees based on molecular data are broadly applied and used to infer genetical and biogeographic relationship in recent larger foraminifera. Molecular phylogenetic is intensively used within recent nummulitids, however for fossil representatives these trees are only of minor informational value. Hence, within paleontological studies a phylogenetic approach through morphometric analysis is of much higher value. To tackle phylogenetic relationships within the nummulitid family, a much higher number of morphological character must be measured than are commonly used in biometric studies, where mostly parameters describing embryonic size (e.g., proloculus diameter, deuteroloculus diameter) and/or the marginal spiral (e.g., spiral diagrams, spiral indices) are studied. For this purpose 11 growth-independent and/or growth-invariant characters have been used to describe the morphological variability of equatorial thin sections of seven Carribbean nummulitid taxa (Nummulites striatoreticulatus, N. macgillavry, Palaeonummulites willcoxi, P.floridensis, P. soldadensis, P.trinitatensis and P.ocalanus) and one outgroup taxon (Ranikothalia bermudezi). Using these characters, phylogenetic trees were calculated using a restricted maximum likelihood algorithm (REML), and results are cross-checked by ordination and cluster analysis. Square-change parsimony method has been run to reconstruct ancestral states, as well as to simulate the evolution of the chosen characters along the calculated phylogenetic tree and, independent - contrast analysis was used to estimate confidence intervals. Based on these simulations, phylogenetic tendencies of certain characters proposed for nummulitids (e.g., Cope's rule or nepionic acceleration) can be tested, whether these tendencies are valid for the whole family or only for certain clades. At least, within the Carribean nummulitids, phylogenetic trends along some growth-independent characters of the embryo (e.g., first

  2. Phylogenetic classification of the halichondrids (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Díaz, Maria Cristina; Pomponi, Shirley A.

    1990-01-01

    Using a multicharacter approach and numerical cladistic computer programs a phylogenetic analysis is made of a newly defined order Halichondrida (which includes all Halichondrida and parts of the Axinellida sensu Lévi, 1973), with emphasis on the newly defined family Halichondriidae (which includes

  3. Phylogenetically informed logic relationships improve detection of biological network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A "phylogenetic profile" refers to the presence or absence of a gene across a set of organisms, and it has been proven valuable for understanding gene functional relationships and network organization. Despite this success, few studies have attempted to search beyond just pairwise relationships among genes. Here we search for logic relationships involving three genes, and explore its potential application in gene network analyses. Results Taking advantage of a phylogenetic matrix constructed from the large orthologs database Roundup, we invented a method to create balanced profiles for individual triplets of genes that guarantee equal weight on the different phylogenetic scenarios of coevolution between genes. When we applied this idea to LAPP, the method to search for logic triplets of genes, the balanced profiles resulted in significant performance improvement and the discovery of hundreds of thousands more putative triplets than unadjusted profiles. We found that logic triplets detected biological network organization and identified key proteins and their functions, ranging from neighbouring proteins in local pathways, to well separated proteins in the whole pathway, and to the interactions among different pathways at the system level. Finally, our case study suggested that the directionality in a logic relationship and the profile of a triplet could disclose the connectivity between the triplet and surrounding networks. Conclusion Balanced profiles are superior to the raw profiles employed by traditional methods of phylogenetic profiling in searching for high order gene sets. Gene triplets can provide valuable information in detection of biological network organization and identification of key genes at different levels of cellular interaction. PMID:22172058

  4. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  5. PhyLIS: A Simple GNU/Linux Distribution for Phylogenetics and Phyloinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Thomson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PhyLIS is a free GNU/Linux distribution that is designed to provide a simple, standardized platform for phylogenetic and phyloinformatic analysis. The operating system incorporates most commonly used phylogenetic software, which has been pre-compiled and pre-configured, allowing for straightforward application of phylogenetic methods and development of phyloinformatic pipelines in a stable Linux environment. The software is distributed as a live CD and can be installed directly or run from the CD without making changes to the computer. PhyLIS is available for free at http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/rcthomson/phylis/.

  6. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junha Shin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life-Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota-suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co

  7. The transposition distance for phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Rossello, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The search for similarity and dissimilarity measures on phylogenetic trees has been motivated by the computation of consensus trees, the search by similarity in phylogenetic databases, and the assessment of clustering results in bioinformatics. The transposition distance for fully resolved phylogenetic trees is a recent addition to the extensive collection of available metrics for comparing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we generalize the transposition distance from fully resolved to arbi...

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data highlights uncertainty in the relationships of fossil and living species of Elopomorpha (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt; Near, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Elopomorpha is one of the three main clades of living teleost fishes and includes a range of disparate lineages including eels, tarpons, bonefishes, and halosaurs. Elopomorphs were among the first groups of fishes investigated using Hennigian phylogenetic methods and continue to be the object of intense phylogenetic scrutiny due to their economic significance, diversity, and crucial evolutionary status as the sister group of all other teleosts. While portions of the phylogenetic backbone for Elopomorpha are consistent between studies, the relationships among Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes, and Anguilliformes remain contentious and difficult to evaluate. This lack of phylogenetic resolution is problematic as fossil lineages are often described and placed taxonomically based on an assumed sister group relationship between Albula and Pterothrissus. In addition, phylogenetic studies using morphological data that sample elopomorph fossil lineages often do not include notacanthiform or anguilliform lineages, potentially introducing a bias toward interpreting fossils as members of the common stem of Pterothrissus and Albula. Here we provide a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear genes that include representative taxa from Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes and Anguilliformes. We integrate our molecular dataset with a morphological character matrix that spans both living and fossil elopomorph lineages. Our results reveal substantial uncertainty in the placement of Pterothrissus as well as all sampled fossil lineages, questioning the stability of the taxonomy of fossil Elopomorpha. However, despite topological uncertainty, our integration of fossil lineages into a Bayesian time calibrated framework provides divergence time estimates for the clade that are consistent with previously published age estimates based on the elopomorph fossil record and molecular estimates resulting from traditional node-dating methods. Copyright

  9. The Independent Evolution Method Is Not a Viable Phylogenetic Comparative Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi H Griffin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs use data on species traits and phylogenetic relationships to shed light on evolutionary questions. Recently, Smaers and Vinicius suggested a new PCM, Independent Evolution (IE, which purportedly employs a novel model of evolution based on Felsenstein's Adaptive Peak Model. The authors found that IE improves upon previous PCMs by producing more accurate estimates of ancestral states, as well as separate estimates of evolutionary rates for each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Here, we document substantial theoretical and computational issues with IE. When data are simulated under a simple Brownian motion model of evolution, IE produces severely biased estimates of ancestral states and changes along individual branches. We show that these branch-specific changes are essentially ancestor-descendant or "directional" contrasts, and draw parallels between IE and previous PCMs such as "minimum evolution". Additionally, while comparisons of branch-specific changes between variables have been interpreted as reflecting the relative strength of selection on those traits, we demonstrate through simulations that regressing IE estimated branch-specific changes against one another gives a biased estimate of the scaling relationship between these variables, and provides no advantages or insights beyond established PCMs such as phylogenetically independent contrasts. In light of our findings, we discuss the results of previous papers that employed IE. We conclude that Independent Evolution is not a viable PCM, and should not be used in comparative analyses.

  10. Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Peter; Toth, Alfred

    2003-07-22

    Indo-European is the largest and best-documented language family in the world, yet the reconstruction of the Indo-European tree, first proposed in 1863, has remained controversial. Complications may include ascertainment bias when choosing the linguistic data, and disregard for the wave model of 1872 when attempting to reconstruct the tree. Essentially analogous problems were solved in evolutionary genetics by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic network methods, respectively. We now adapt these tools to linguistics, and analyze Indo-European language data, focusing on Celtic and in particular on the ancient Celtic language of Gaul (modern France), by using bilingual Gaulish-Latin inscriptions. Our phylogenetic network reveals an early split of Celtic within Indo-European. Interestingly, the next branching event separates Gaulish (Continental Celtic) from the British (Insular Celtic) languages, with Insular Celtic subsequently splitting into Brythonic (Welsh, Breton) and Goidelic (Irish and Scottish Gaelic). Taken together, the network thus suggests that the Celtic language arrived in the British Isles as a single wave (and then differentiated locally), rather than in the traditional two-wave scenario ("P-Celtic" to Britain and "Q-Celtic" to Ireland). The phylogenetic network furthermore permits the estimation of time in analogy to genetics, and we obtain tentative dates for Indo-European at 8100 BC +/- 1,900 years, and for the arrival of Celtic in Britain at 3200 BC +/- 1,500 years. The phylogenetic method is easily executed by hand and promises to be an informative approach for many problems in historical linguistics.

  11. Intraspecific differentiation of Paramecium novaurelia strains (Ciliophora, Protozoa) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcz, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Paramecium novaurelia Beale and Schneller, 1954, was first found in Scotland and is known to occur mainly in Europe, where it is the most common species of the P. aurelia complex. In recent years, two non-European localities have been described: Turkey and the United States of America. This article presents the analysis of intraspecific variability among 25 strains of P. novaurelia with the application of ribosomal and mitochondrial loci (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 5' large subunit rDNA (5'LSU rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) mtDNA). The mean distance observed for all of the studied P. novaurelia sequence pairs was p=0.008/0.016/0.092 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2/5'LSU rDNA/COI). Phylogenetic trees (NJ/MP/BI) based on a comparison of all of the analysed sequences show that the studied strains of P. novaurelia form a distinct clade, separate from the P. caudatum outgroup, and are divided into two clusters (A and B) and two branches (C and D). The occurrence of substantial genetic differentiation within P. novaurelia, confirmed by the analysed DNA fragments, indicates a rapid evolution of particular species within the Paramecium genus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Ghost-tree: creating hybrid-gene phylogenetic trees for diversity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Jennifer; Rideout, Jai Ram; Bolyen, Evan; Chase, John; Shiffer, Arron; McDonald, Daniel; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Kelley, Scott T

    2016-02-24

    Fungi play critical roles in many ecosystems, cause serious diseases in plants and animals, and pose significant threats to human health and structural integrity problems in built environments. While most fungal diversity remains unknown, the development of PCR primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) combined with next-generation sequencing has substantially improved our ability to profile fungal microbial diversity. Although the high sequence variability in the ITS region facilitates more accurate species identification, it also makes multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis unreliable across evolutionarily distant fungi because the sequences are hard to align accurately. To address this issue, we created ghost-tree, a bioinformatics tool that integrates sequence data from two genetic markers into a single phylogenetic tree that can be used for diversity analyses. Our approach starts with a "foundation" phylogeny based on one genetic marker whose sequences can be aligned across organisms spanning divergent taxonomic groups (e.g., fungal families). Then, "extension" phylogenies are built for more closely related organisms (e.g., fungal species or strains) using a second more rapidly evolving genetic marker. These smaller phylogenies are then grafted onto the foundation tree by mapping taxonomic names such that each corresponding foundation-tree tip would branch into its new "extension tree" child. We applied ghost-tree to graft fungal extension phylogenies derived from ITS sequences onto a foundation phylogeny derived from fungal 18S sequences. Our analysis of simulated and real fungal ITS data sets found that phylogenetic distances between fungal communities computed using ghost-tree phylogenies explained significantly more variance than non-phylogenetic distances. The phylogenetic metrics also improved our ability to distinguish small differences (effect sizes) between microbial communities, though results were similar to non-phylogenetic

  13. Molecular cytogenetic (FISH and genome analysis of diploid wheatgrasses and their phylogenetic relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Linc

    Full Text Available This paper reports detailed FISH-based karyotypes for three diploid wheatgrass species Agropyron cristatum (L. Beauv., Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul.&Rayss A. Löve, Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh A. Löve, the supposed ancestors of hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth & D.R.Dewey, compiled using DNA repeats and comparative genome analysis based on COS markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with repetitive DNA probes proved suitable for the identification of individual chromosomes in the diploid JJ, StSt and PP genomes. Of the seven microsatellite markers tested only the (GAAn trinucleotide sequence was appropriate for use as a single chromosome marker for the P. spicata AS chromosome. Based on COS marker analysis, the phylogenetic relationship between diploid wheatgrasses and the hexaploid bread wheat genomes was established. These findings confirmed that the J and E genomes are in neighbouring clusters.

  14. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-07-01

    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Separate enrichment analysis of pathways for up- and downregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guini; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Hongdong; Shen, Xiaopei; Guo, Zheng

    2014-03-06

    Two strategies are often adopted for enrichment analysis of pathways: the analysis of all differentially expressed (DE) genes together or the analysis of up- and downregulated genes separately. However, few studies have examined the rationales of these enrichment analysis strategies. Using both microarray and RNA-seq data, we show that gene pairs with functional links in pathways tended to have positively correlated expression levels, which could result in an imbalance between the up- and downregulated genes in particular pathways. We then show that the imbalance could greatly reduce the statistical power for finding disease-associated pathways through the analysis of all-DE genes. Further, using gene expression profiles from five types of tumours, we illustrate that the separate analysis of up- and downregulated genes could identify more pathways that are really pertinent to phenotypic difference. In conclusion, analysing up- and downregulated genes separately is more powerful than analysing all of the DE genes together.

  16. Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rachelle Lea

    2005-12-01

    Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from

  17. The value function as a criterion of analysis in separation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, Marius

    2005-01-01

    Production costs of heavy water are described by two functions: φ(ε), the energy function which represents the variable costs and φ(τ), the technologic function which represents the stable costs. The Dirac value function related to the circulation in the separation cascade allows calculating φ(ε) and consequently the technologic function may be represented in relation to the specific separation process. This representation allows the qualitative analysis of different separation processes or, for a given process, provides the analysis of different technological solutions which were worked out. An example is given referring to the analysis of heavy water technologies of separation through the dual temperature process of H 2 O-H 2 S isotopic exchange

  18. Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San

    In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.

  19. The phylogenetic likelihood library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, T; Izquierdo-Carrasco, F; Darriba, D; Aberer, A J; Nguyen, L-T; Minh, B Q; Von Haeseler, A; Stamatakis, A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Phylogenetic Likelihood Library (PLL), a highly optimized application programming interface for developing likelihood-based phylogenetic inference and postanalysis software. The PLL implements appropriate data structures and functions that allow users to quickly implement common, error-prone, and labor-intensive tasks, such as likelihood calculations, model parameter as well as branch length optimization, and tree space exploration. The highly optimized and parallelized implementation of the phylogenetic likelihood function and a thorough documentation provide a framework for rapid development of scalable parallel phylogenetic software. By example of two likelihood-based phylogenetic codes we show that the PLL improves the sequential performance of current software by a factor of 2-10 while requiring only 1 month of programming time for integration. We show that, when numerical scaling for preventing floating point underflow is enabled, the double precision likelihood calculations in the PLL are up to 1.9 times faster than those in BEAGLE. On an empirical DNA dataset with 2000 taxa the AVX version of PLL is 4 times faster than BEAGLE (scaling enabled and required). The PLL is available at http://www.libpll.org under the GNU General Public License (GPL). © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  20. Forensic application of phylogenetic analyses - Exploration of suspected HIV-1 transmission case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljic, Marina; Salemovic, Dubravka; Cirkovic, Valentina; Pesic-Pavlovic, Ivana; Ranin, Jovan; Todorovic, Marija; Nikolic, Slobodan; Jevtovic, Djordje; Stanojevic, Maja

    2017-03-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man. Phylogenetic methods included relevant neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic trees reconstruction and hypothesis testing, that has been shown to be the most sensitive for the reconstruction of epidemiological links mostly from sexually infected individuals. End-point limiting-dilution PCR (EPLD-PCR) assay, generating the minimum of 10 sequences per genetic region per subject, was performed to assess HIV quasispecies distribution and to explore the direction of HIV transmission between three subjects. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the viral sequences from the three subjects were more genetically related to each other than to other strains circulating in the same area with the similar epidemiological profile, forming strongly supported transmission chain, which could be in favour of a priori hypothesis of one of the women infecting the man. However, in the EPLD based phylogenetic trees for both pol and env genetic region, viral sequences of one subject (man) were paraphyletic to those of two other subjects (women), implying the direction of transmission opposite to the a priori assumption. The dated tree in our analysis confirmed the clustering pattern of query sequences. Still, in the context of unsampled sequences and

  1. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a novel starch synthase in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmei eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is an important reserve of carbon and energy in plants, providing the majority of calories in the human diet and animal feed. Its synthesis is orchestrated by several key enzymes, and the amount and structure of starch, affecting crop yield and quality, are determined mainly by starch synthase (SS activity. To date, five SS isoforms, including SSI-IV and Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS have been identified and their physiological functions have been well characterized. Here, we report the identification of a new SS isoform in maize, designated SSV. By searching sequenced genomes, SSV has been found in all green plants with conserved sequences and gene structures. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 780 base pairs has suggested that SSIV and SSV resulted from a gene duplication event, which may have occurred before the algae formation. An expression profile analysis of SSV in maize has indicated that ZmSSV is mainly transcribed in the kernel and ear leaf during the grain filling stage, which is partly similar to other SS isoforms. Therefore, it is likely that SSV may play an important role in starch biosynthesis. Subsequent analysis of SSV function may facilitate understanding the mechanism of starch granules formation, number and structure.

  2. Analysis of plasmid genes by phylogenetic profiling and visualization of homology relationships using Blast2Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzicalupo Marco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic methods are well-established bioinformatic tools for sequence analysis, allowing to describe the non-independencies of sequences because of their common ancestor. However, the evolutionary profiles of bacterial genes are often complicated by hidden paralogy and extensive and/or (multiple horizontal gene transfer (HGT events which make bifurcating trees often inappropriate. In this context, plasmid sequences are paradigms of network-like relationships characterizing the evolution of prokaryotes. Actually, they can be transferred among different organisms allowing the dissemination of novel functions, thus playing a pivotal role in prokaryotic evolution. However, the study of their evolutionary dynamics is complicated by the absence of universally shared genes, a prerequisite for phylogenetic analyses. Results To overcome such limitations we developed a bioinformatic package, named Blast2Network (B2N, allowing the automatic phylogenetic profiling and the visualization of homology relationships in a large number of plasmid sequences. The software was applied to the study of 47 completely sequenced plasmids coming from Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella spps. Conclusion The tools implemented by B2N allow to describe and visualize in a new way some of the evolutionary features of plasmid molecules of Enterobacteriaceae; in particular it helped to shed some light on the complex history of Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella plasmids and to focus on possible roles of unannotated proteins. The proposed methodology is general enough to be used for comparative genomic analyses of bacteria.

  3. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Li, Qi; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment. In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2. The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  4. Locating a tree in a phylogenetic network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van L.J.J.; Semple, C.; Steel, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees and networks are leaf-labelled graphs that are used to describe evolutionary histories of species. The Tree Containment problem asks whether a given phylogenetic tree is embedded in a given phylogenetic network. Given a phylogenetic network and a cluster of species, the Cluster

  5. Hal: an automated pipeline for phylogenetic analyses of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Barbara; Yoder, Ryan J; Boyd, Alex; Reeves, John; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2011-02-07

    The rapid increase in genomic and genome-scale data is resulting in unprecedented levels of discrete sequence data available for phylogenetic analyses. Major analytical impasses exist, however, prior to analyzing these data with existing phylogenetic software. Obstacles include the management of large data sets without standardized naming conventions, identification and filtering of orthologous clusters of proteins or genes, and the assembly of alignments of orthologous sequence data into individual and concatenated super alignments. Here we report the production of an automated pipeline, Hal that produces multiple alignments and trees from genomic data. These alignments can be produced by a choice of four alignment programs and analyzed by a variety of phylogenetic programs. In short, the Hal pipeline connects the programs BLASTP, MCL, user specified alignment programs, GBlocks, ProtTest and user specified phylogenetic programs to produce species trees. The script is available at sourceforge (http://sourceforge.net/projects/bio-hal/). The results from an example analysis of Kingdom Fungi are briefly discussed.

  6. Global phylogenetic analysis of contemporary aleutian mink disease viruses (AMDVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hagberg, E. E.; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    a strain originating from Sweden. In contrast, we did not identify any potential source for the other and more widespread outbreak strain. To the authors knowledge this is the first major global phylogenetic study of contemporary AMDV partial NS1 sequences. The study proved that partial NS1 sequencing can...

  7. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Tams1 of Theileria annulata isolates from three continents between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiay; Yang, Xianyong; Wang, Yuge; Jing, Zhihong; Meng, Kai; Liu, Jianzhu; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Ruixue; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Theileria annulata, which is part of the Theileria sergenti/Theileria buffeli/Theileria orientalis group, preferentially infects cattle and results in high mortality and morbidity in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Central Asia. The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of T. annulata that could be used as a marker for epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, a total of 155 Tams1 sequences were investigated for genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships through phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that the Tams1 sequences were divided into two major groups and that distribution for some isolates also exhibited geographic specificity. As targeting polymorphic genes for parasite detection may result in underestimation of infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using two different probes targeting tams-1 genes of these two groups can be more credible. In addition, the direction of the spread of the disease was discovered to be from the Mediterranean or the tropical zone to the Eurasian peninsula, Middle East, Southern Asia, and Africa, particularly for Group 2. A similar occurrence was also found between the Ms1 gene of Theileria lestoquardi and the Tams1 gene of T. annulata, which explains cross-immunogenicity to a certain extent. However, no potential glycosylation site in the Tams1 of T. annulata was found in this study, which illustrated that instead of N-glycosylation, other modifications have more significant effects on the immunogenicity of the Tams1 protein.

  8. XplorSeq: a software environment for integrated management and phylogenetic analysis of metagenomic sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daniel N

    2008-10-07

    Advances in automated DNA sequencing technology have accelerated the generation of metagenomic DNA sequences, especially environmental ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. As the scale of rDNA-based studies of microbial ecology has expanded, need has arisen for software that is capable of managing, annotating, and analyzing the plethora of diverse data accumulated in these projects. XplorSeq is a software package that facilitates the compilation, management and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences. XplorSeq was developed for, but is not limited to, high-throughput analysis of environmental rRNA gene sequences. XplorSeq integrates and extends several commonly used UNIX-based analysis tools by use of a Macintosh OS-X-based graphical user interface (GUI). Through this GUI, users may perform basic sequence import and assembly steps (base-calling, vector/primer trimming, contig assembly), perform BLAST (Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool; 123) searches of NCBI and local databases, create multiple sequence alignments, build phylogenetic trees, assemble Operational Taxonomic Units, estimate biodiversity indices, and summarize data in a variety of formats. Furthermore, sequences may be annotated with user-specified meta-data, which then can be used to sort data and organize analyses and reports. A document-based architecture permits parallel analysis of sequence data from multiple clones or amplicons, with sequences and other data stored in a single file. XplorSeq should benefit researchers who are engaged in analyses of environmental sequence data, especially those with little experience using bioinformatics software. Although XplorSeq was developed for management of rDNA sequence data, it can be applied to most any sequencing project. The application is available free of charge for non-commercial use at http://vent.colorado.edu/phyloware.

  9. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part "creates" the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies....

  10. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Kolar, P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part 'creates' the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  11. Locating a tree in a phylogenetic network

    OpenAIRE

    van Iersel, Leo; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees and networks are leaf-labelled graphs that are used to describe evolutionary histories of species. The Tree Containment problem asks whether a given phylogenetic tree is embedded in a given phylogenetic network. Given a phylogenetic network and a cluster of species, the Cluster Containment problem asks whether the given cluster is a cluster of some phylogenetic tree embedded in the network. Both problems are known to be NP-complete in general. In this article, we consider t...

  12. Nonbinary tree-based phylogenetic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jetten, Laura; van Iersel, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Rooted phylogenetic networks are used to describe evolutionary histories that contain non-treelike evolutionary events such as hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. In some cases, such histories can be described by a phylogenetic base-tree with additional linking arcs, which can for example represent gene transfer events. Such phylogenetic networks are called tree-based. Here, we consider two possible generalizations of this concept to nonbinary networks, which we call tree-based and st...

  13. Encoding phylogenetic trees in terms of weighted quartets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Stefan; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Semple, Charles

    2008-04-01

    One of the main problems in phylogenetics is to develop systematic methods for constructing evolutionary or phylogenetic trees. For a set of species X, an edge-weighted phylogenetic X-tree or phylogenetic tree is a (graph theoretical) tree with leaf set X and no degree 2 vertices, together with a map assigning a non-negative length to each edge of the tree. Within phylogenetics, several methods have been proposed for constructing such trees that work by trying to piece together quartet trees on X, i.e. phylogenetic trees each having four leaves in X. Hence, it is of interest to characterise when a collection of quartet trees corresponds to a (unique) phylogenetic tree. Recently, Dress and Erdös provided such a characterisation for binary phylogenetic trees, that is, phylogenetic trees all of whose internal vertices have degree 3. Here we provide a new characterisation for arbitrary phylogenetic trees.

  14. In Silico Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Modelling Study of 2-Haloalkanoic Acid Dehalogenase Enzymes from Bacterial and Fungal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Satpathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-Haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase enzymes have broad range of applications, starting from bioremediation to chemical synthesis of useful compounds that are widely distributed in fungi and bacteria. In the present study, a total of 81 full-length protein sequences of 2-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase from bacteria and fungi were retrieved from NCBI database. Sequence analysis such as multiple sequence alignment (MSA, conserved motif identification, computation of amino acid composition, and phylogenetic tree construction were performed on these primary sequences. From MSA analysis, it was observed that the sequences share conserved lysine (K and aspartate (D residues in them. Also, phylogenetic tree indicated a subcluster comprised of both fungal and bacterial species. Due to nonavailability of experimental 3D structure for fungal 2-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase in the PDB, molecular modelling study was performed for both fungal and bacterial sources of enzymes present in the subcluster. Further structural analysis revealed a common evolutionary topology shared between both fungal and bacterial enzymes. Studies on the buried amino acids showed highly conserved Leu and Ser in the core, despite variation in their amino acid percentage. Additionally, a surface exposed tryptophan was conserved in all of these selected models.

  15. Global patterns of amphibian phylogenetic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Susanne; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Aim  Phylogenetic diversity can provide insight into how evolutionary processes may have shaped contemporary patterns of species richness. Here, we aim to test for the influence of phylogenetic history on global patterns of amphibian species richness, and to identify areas where macroevolutionary...... processes such as diversification and dispersal have left strong signatures on contemporary species richness. Location  Global; equal-area grid cells of approximately 10,000 km2. Methods  We generated an amphibian global supertree (6111 species) and repeated analyses with the largest available molecular...... phylogeny (2792 species). We combined each tree with global species distributions to map four indices of phylogenetic diversity. To investigate congruence between global spatial patterns of amphibian species richness and phylogenetic diversity, we selected Faith’s phylogenetic diversity (PD) index...

  16. Analysis of Acorus calamus chloroplast genome and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Holland, Barbara; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen I; Hellwig, Frank H

    2005-09-01

    Determining the phylogenetic relationships among the major lines of angiosperms is a long-standing problem, yet the uncertainty as to the phylogenetic affinity of these lines persists. While a number of studies have suggested that the ANITA (Amborella-Nymphaeales-Illiciales-Trimeniales-Aristolochiales) grade is basal within angiosperms, studies of complete chloroplast genome sequences also suggested an alternative tree, wherein the line leading to the grasses branches first among the angiosperms. To improve taxon sampling in the existing chloroplast genome data, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of the monocot Acorus calamus. We generated a concatenated alignment (89,436 positions for 15 taxa), encompassing almost all sequences usable for phylogeny reconstruction within spermatophytes. The data still contain support for both the ANITA-basal and grasses-basal hypotheses. Using simulations we can show that were the ANITA-basal hypothesis true, parsimony (and distance-based methods with many models) would be expected to fail to recover it. The self-evident explanation for this failure appears to be a long-branch attraction (LBA) between the clade of grasses and the out-group. However, this LBA cannot explain the discrepancies observed between tree topology recovered using the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the topologies recovered using the parsimony and distance-based methods when grasses are deleted. Furthermore, the fact that neither maximum parsimony nor distance methods consistently recover the ML tree, when according to the simulations they would be expected to, when the out-group (Pinus) is deleted, suggests that either the generating tree is not correct or the best symmetric model is misspecified (or both). We demonstrate that the tree recovered under ML is extremely sensitive to model specification and that the best symmetric model is misspecified. Hence, we remain agnostic regarding phylogenetic relationships among basal angiosperm lineages.

  17. Phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome patchiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackenberg Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome structure (i.e. mosaic compositional patchiness has been explored mainly by analytical ultracentrifugation of bulk DNA. However, with the availability of large, good-quality chromosome sequences, and the recently developed computational methods to directly analyze patchiness on the genome sequence, an evolutionary comparative analysis can be carried out at the sequence level. Results The local variations in the scaling exponent of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis are used here to analyze large-scale genome structure and directly uncover the characteristic scales present in genome sequences. Furthermore, through shuffling experiments of selected genome regions, computationally-identified, isochore-like regions were identified as the biological source for the uncovered large-scale genome structure. The phylogenetic distribution of short- and large-scale patchiness was determined in the best-sequenced genome assemblies from eleven eukaryotic genomes: mammals (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Canis familiaris, birds (Gallus gallus, fishes (Danio rerio, invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found large-scale patchiness of genome structure, associated with in silico determined, isochore-like regions, throughout this wide phylogenetic range. Conclusion Large-scale genome structure is detected by directly analyzing DNA sequences in a wide range of eukaryotic chromosome sequences, from human to yeast. In all these genomes, large-scale patchiness can be associated with the isochore-like regions, as directly detected in silico at the sequence level.

  18. Calibrated birth-death phylogenetic time-tree priors for bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J

    2015-05-01

    Here we introduce a general class of multiple calibration birth-death tree priors for use in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. All tree priors in this class separate ancestral node heights into a set of "calibrated nodes" and "uncalibrated nodes" such that the marginal distribution of the calibrated nodes is user-specified whereas the density ratio of the birth-death prior is retained for trees with equal values for the calibrated nodes. We describe two formulations, one in which the calibration information informs the prior on ranked tree topologies, through the (conditional) prior, and the other which factorizes the prior on divergence times and ranked topologies, thus allowing uniform, or any arbitrary prior distribution on ranked topologies. Although the first of these formulations has some attractive properties, the algorithm we present for computing its prior density is computationally intensive. However, the second formulation is always faster and computationally efficient for up to six calibrations. We demonstrate the utility of the new class of multiple-calibration tree priors using both small simulations and a real-world analysis and compare the results to existing schemes. The two new calibrated tree priors described in this article offer greater flexibility and control of prior specification in calibrated time-tree inference and divergence time dating, and will remove the need for indirect approaches to the assessment of the combined effect of calibration densities and tree priors in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  19. The limitations of ontogenetic data in phylogenetic analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenemann, Stefan; Schram, Frederick R.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of consecutive ontogenetic stages, or events, introduces a new class of data to phylogenetic systematics that are distinctly different from traditional morphological characters and molecular sequence data. Ontogenetic event sequences are distinguished by varying degrees of both a

  20. Measures of phylogenetic differentiation provide robust and complementary insights into microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Donovan H; Beiko, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing techniques have made large-scale spatial and temporal surveys of microbial communities routine. Gaining insight into microbial diversity requires methods for effectively analyzing and visualizing these extensive data sets. Phylogenetic β-diversity measures address this challenge by allowing the relationship between large numbers of environmental samples to be explored using standard multivariate analysis techniques. Despite the success and widespread use of phylogenetic β-diversity measures, an extensive comparative analysis of these measures has not been performed. Here, we compare 39 measures of phylogenetic β diversity in order to establish the relative similarity of these measures along with key properties and performance characteristics. While many measures are highly correlated, those commonly used within microbial ecology were found to be distinct from those popular within classical ecology, and from the recently recommended Gower and Canberra measures. Many of the measures are surprisingly robust to different rootings of the gene tree, the choice of similarity threshold used to define operational taxonomic units, and the presence of outlying basal lineages. Measures differ considerably in their sensitivity to rare organisms, and the effectiveness of measures can vary substantially under alternative models of differentiation. Consequently, the depth of sequencing required to reveal underlying patterns of relationships between environmental samples depends on the selected measure. Our results demonstrate that using complementary measures of phylogenetic β diversity can further our understanding of how communities are phylogenetically differentiated. Open-source software implementing the phylogenetic β-diversity measures evaluated in this manuscript is available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/Software/ExpressBetaDiversity.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-based phylogenetic relationship ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cophaga ranges from 0.037–0.106 and 0.049–0.207 for COI and ND5 genes, respectively (tables 2 and 3). Analysis of genetic distance on the basis of sequence difference for both the mitochondrial genes shows very little genetic difference. The discrepancy in the phylogenetic trees based on individ- ual genes may be due ...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF Spondias(Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the correlation between the phenolic composition and the molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of five Spondias species (Anacardiaceae. Two of these species (S. venulosa and Spondias sp. occur in rainforest areas and the other three are widely distributed in Brazil (S. dulcis, S.mombin, and S. purpurea. The flavonoid enriched fraction of the S. venulosa leaf extract also underwent a chemical study. The results indicate that the presence of flavonol 3-O-glycosides are a synapomorphic character of the studied American Spondias and the production of rhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside is a synapomorphy of the Atlantic forest species. This is the first report of flavonoids in S. venulosa, an endemic species from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

  3. Tree-Based Unrooted Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, A; Huber, K T; Moulton, V

    2018-02-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent non-tree-like evolutionary histories that arise in organisms such as plants and bacteria, or uncertainty in evolutionary histories. An unrooted phylogenetic network on a non-empty, finite set X of taxa, or network, is a connected, simple graph in which every vertex has degree 1 or 3 and whose leaf set is X. It is called a phylogenetic tree if the underlying graph is a tree. In this paper we consider properties of tree-based networks, that is, networks that can be constructed by adding edges into a phylogenetic tree. We show that although they have some properties in common with their rooted analogues which have recently drawn much attention in the literature, they have some striking differences in terms of both their structural and computational properties. We expect that our results could eventually have applications to, for example, detecting horizontal gene transfer or hybridization which are important factors in the evolution of many organisms.

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoni Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), with phylogenetic analysis in phasianidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Sha, Tao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pavo cristatus, known as the Indian peafowl, is endemic to India and Sri Lanka and has been domesticated for its ornamental and food value. However, its phylogenetic status is still debated. Here, to clarify the phylogenetic status of P. cristatus within Phasianidae, we analyzed its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome was determined using 34 pairs of primers. Our data show that the mtDNA genome of P. cristatus is 16,686 bp in length. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of P. cristatus was performed along with 22 complete mtDNA genomes belonging to other species in Phasianidae using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, where Aythya americana and Anas platyrhynchos were used as outgroups. Our results show that P. critatus has its closest genetic affinity with Pavo muticus and belongs to clade that contains Gallus, Bambusicola and Francolinus.

  6. A New Perspective on Polyploid Fragaria (Strawberry) Genome Composition Based on Large-Scale, Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Ac...

  7. Short communication. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izedin Goga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates.

  8. Magnetic separation techniques in sample preparation for biological analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jincan; Huang, Meiying; Wang, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2014-12-01

    Sample preparation is a fundamental and essential step in almost all the analytical procedures, especially for the analysis of complex samples like biological and environmental samples. In past decades, with advantages of superparamagnetic property, good biocompatibility and high binding capacity, functionalized magnetic materials have been widely applied in various processes of sample preparation for biological analysis. In this paper, the recent advancements of magnetic separation techniques based on magnetic materials in the field of sample preparation for biological analysis were reviewed. The strategy of magnetic separation techniques was summarized. The synthesis, stabilization and bio-functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles were reviewed in detail. Characterization of magnetic materials was also summarized. Moreover, the applications of magnetic separation techniques for the enrichment of protein, nucleic acid, cell, bioactive compound and immobilization of enzyme were described. Finally, the existed problems and possible trends of magnetic separation techniques for biological analysis in the future were proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships within the cyst-forming nematodes (Nematoda, Heteroderidae) based on analysis of sequences from the ITS regions of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, S A; Vierstraete, A; De Ley, P; Rowe, J; Waeyenberge, L; Moens, M; Vanfleteren, J R

    2001-10-01

    The ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 40 taxa of the family Heteroderidae (including the genera Afenestrata, Cactodera, Heterodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Meloidodera, Cryphodera, and Thecavermiculatus) were sequenced and analyzed. The ITS regions displayed high levels of sequence divergence within Heteroderinae and compared to outgroup taxa. Unlike recent findings in root knot nematodes, ITS sequence polymorphism does not appear to complicate phylogenetic analysis of cyst nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses with maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, and maximum-likelihood methods were performed with a range of computer alignments, including elision and culled alignments. All multiple alignments and phylogenetic methods yielded similar basic structure for phylogenetic relationships of Heteroderidae. The cyst-forming nematodes are represented by six main clades corresponding to morphological characters and host specialization, with certain clades assuming different positions depending on alignment procedure and/or method of phylogenetic inference. Hypotheses of monophyly of Punctoderinae and Heteroderinae are, respectively, strongly and moderately supported by the ITS data across most alignments. Close relationships were revealed between the Avenae and the Sacchari groups and between the Humuli group and the species H. salixophila within Heteroderinae. The Goettingiana group occupies a basal position within this subfamily. The validity of the genera Afenestrata and Bidera was tested and is discussed based on molecular data. We conclude that ITS sequence data are appropriate for studies of relationships within the different species groups and less so for recovery of more ancient speciations within Heteroderidae. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in wild felines from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoplasma infections are emerging and wild fauna can represent an important reservoir of these pathogens. However, there are very few epidemiological studies about the occurrence of hemoplasmas in wild cats around the world. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1 evaluate the occurrence and phylogeny of hemoplasmas in captive wild felines at a zoo in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and (2 verify the correlation between subpopulations of these bacteria and the hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals. PCR was used to detect hemoplasmas in the blood of three cougars (Puma concolor, a jaguar (Panthera onca, a tiger (Panthera tigris and a lion (Panthera leo, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cougars and jaguar were found to be hemoplasma-positive by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences enabled the identification of genotypes of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ circulating in this zoo. The identified sequences were closely related to hemoplasma sequences originating from domestic cats and other wild cats, but the infected cougars and jaguar were healthy and showed no hematological or biochemical changes. It was concluded that P. concolor and P. onca are exposed to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in Paraná, but further research is suggested to assess the resistance of wild cats to different hemoplasma subpopulations.

  11. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M

    2010-04-01

    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi.

  12. Ant-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction (ABPR: A new distance algorithm for phylogenetic estimation based on ant colony optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Vittori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new distance algorithm for phylogenetic estimation based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, named Ant-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction (ABPR. ABPR joins two taxa iteratively based on evolutionary distance among sequences, while also accounting for the quality of the phylogenetic tree built according to the total length of the tree. Similar to optimization algorithms for phylogenetic estimation, the algorithm allows exploration of a larger set of nearly optimal solutions. We applied the algorithm to four empirical data sets of mitochondrial DNA ranging from 12 to 186 sequences, and from 898 to 16,608 base pairs, and covering taxonomic levels from populations to orders. We show that ABPR performs better than the commonly used Neighbor-Joining algorithm, except when sequences are too closely related (e.g., population-level sequences. The phylogenetic relationships recovered at and above species level by ABPR agree with conventional views. However, like other algorithms of phylogenetic estimation, the proposed algorithm failed to recover expected relationships when distances are too similar or when rates of evolution are very variable, leading to the problem of long-branch attraction. ABPR, as well as other ACO-based algorithms, is emerging as a fast and accurate alternative method of phylogenetic estimation for large data sets.

  13. Parallel phylogenetic analyses using the N, G or Nv gene from a fixed group of VHSV isolates reveal the same overall genetic typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ahrens, Peter; Lorenzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    . The overall genotyping of the selected isolates was identical for the 7 target regions, but separation of Genotype I sub-lineages was best when the analysis was performed on the full length G gene (1524 nucleotides, nt). Good resolution was furthermore obtained using smaller sequencing windows represented...... by a G gene fragment (nt 360 to 720) or the Nv gene (366 nt), although these regions had different characteristics with respect to resolution of Genotype I sublineages and resolution within Sub-lineage Ia. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences was also performed...... genotyping and serotyping with neutralising (G protein specific) antibodies was observed, stressing that epidemiological analysis based on phenotypic characteristics such as serotype could be misleading....

  14. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  15. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity.

  16. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  17. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Dan F; Wisecaver, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor), an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/.

  18. SICLE: a high-throughput tool for extracting evolutionary relationships from phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan F. DeBlasio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the phylogeny analysis software SICLE (Sister Clade Extractor, an easy-to-use, high-throughput tool to describe the nearest neighbors to a node of interest in a phylogenetic tree as well as the support value for the relationship. The application is a command line utility that can be embedded into a phylogenetic analysis pipeline or can be used as a subroutine within another C++ program. As a test case, we applied this new tool to the published phylome of Salinibacter ruber, a species of halophilic Bacteriodetes, identifying 13 unique sister relationships to S. ruber across the 4,589 gene phylogenies. S. ruber grouped with bacteria, most often other Bacteriodetes, in the majority of phylogenies, but 91 phylogenies showed a branch-supported sister association between S. ruber and Archaea, an evolutionarily intriguing relationship indicative of horizontal gene transfer. This test case demonstrates how SICLE makes it possible to summarize the phylogenetic information produced by automated phylogenetic pipelines to rapidly identify and quantify the possible evolutionary relationships that merit further investigation. SICLE is available for free for noncommercial use at http://eebweb.arizona.edu/sicle/.

  19. DendroBLAST: approximate phylogenetic trees in the absence of multiple sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven; Maini, Philip K

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly growing availability of genome information has created considerable demand for both fast and accurate phylogenetic inference algorithms. We present a novel method called DendroBLAST for reconstructing phylogenetic dendrograms/trees from protein sequences using BLAST. This method differs from other methods by incorporating a simple model of sequence evolution to test the effect of introducing sequence changes on the reliability of the bipartitions in the inferred tree. Using realistic simulated sequence data we demonstrate that this method produces phylogenetic trees that are more accurate than other commonly-used distance based methods though not as accurate as maximum likelihood methods from good quality multiple sequence alignments. In addition to tests on simulated data, we use DendroBLAST to generate input trees for a supertree reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Archaea. This independent analysis produces an approximate phylogeny of the Archaea that has both high precision and recall when compared to previously published analysis of the same dataset using conventional methods. Taken together these results demonstrate that approximate phylogenetic trees can be produced in the absence of multiple sequence alignments, and we propose that these trees will provide a platform for improving and informing downstream bioinformatic analysis. A web implementation of the DendroBLAST method is freely available for use at http://www.dendroblast.com/.

  20. DendroBLAST: approximate phylogenetic trees in the absence of multiple sequence alignments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kelly

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing availability of genome information has created considerable demand for both fast and accurate phylogenetic inference algorithms. We present a novel method called DendroBLAST for reconstructing phylogenetic dendrograms/trees from protein sequences using BLAST. This method differs from other methods by incorporating a simple model of sequence evolution to test the effect of introducing sequence changes on the reliability of the bipartitions in the inferred tree. Using realistic simulated sequence data we demonstrate that this method produces phylogenetic trees that are more accurate than other commonly-used distance based methods though not as accurate as maximum likelihood methods from good quality multiple sequence alignments. In addition to tests on simulated data, we use DendroBLAST to generate input trees for a supertree reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Archaea. This independent analysis produces an approximate phylogeny of the Archaea that has both high precision and recall when compared to previously published analysis of the same dataset using conventional methods. Taken together these results demonstrate that approximate phylogenetic trees can be produced in the absence of multiple sequence alignments, and we propose that these trees will provide a platform for improving and informing downstream bioinformatic analysis. A web implementation of the DendroBLAST method is freely available for use at http://www.dendroblast.com/.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal heterotrimeric G protein-encoding genes and their expression during dimorphism in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Maldonado, Marco Iván; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin Eduardo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Martínez-Cadena, Guadalupe; Campos-García, Jesús; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha Isela; Reyes-De la Cruz, Homero; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Díaz-Pérez, César; Meza-Carmen, Víctor

    2015-12-01

    In fungi, heterotrimeric G proteins are key regulators of biological processes such as mating, virulence, morphology, among others. Mucor circinelloides is a model organism for many biological processes, and its genome contains the largest known repertoire of genes that encode putative heterotrimeric G protein subunits in the fungal kingdom: twelve Gα (McGpa1-12), three Gβ (McGpb1-3), and three Gγ (McGpg1-3). Phylogenetic analysis of fungal Gα showed that they are divided into four distinct groups as reported previously. Fungal Gβ and Gγ are also divided into four phylogenetic groups, and to our understanding this is the first report of a phylogenetic classification for fungal Gβ and Gγ subunits. Almost all genes that encode putative heterotrimeric G subunits in M. circinelloides are differentially expressed during dimorphic growth, except for McGpg1 (Gγ) that showed very low mRNA levels at all developmental stages. Moreover, several of the subunits are expressed in a similar pattern and at the same level, suggesting that they constitute discrete complexes. For example, McGpb3 (Gβ), and McGpg2 (Gγ), are co-expressed during mycelium growth, and McGpa1, McGpb2, and McGpg2, are co-expressed during yeast development. These findings provide the conceptual framework to study the biological role of these genes during M. circinelloides morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus i>species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene Nørby

    2015-01-01

    described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while...... variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting...... antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family...

  3. Multidisciplinary approach and multi-scale elemental analysis and separation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariet, Clarisse

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for the analysis of trace elements is an important component of my research activities either for a radiometric measure or mass spectrometric detection. Many studies raise the question of the chemical signature of a sample or a process: eruptive behavior of a volcano, indicator of pollution, ion exchange in vectors vesicles of active principles,... Each time, highly sensitive analytical procedures, accurate and multi-elementary as well as the development of specific protocols were needed. Neutron activation analysis has often been used as reference procedure and allowed to validate the chemical lixiviation and the measurement by ICP-MS. Analysis of radioactive samples requires skills in analysis of trace but also separation chemistry. Two separation methods occupy an important place in the separation chemistry of radionuclides: chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction. The study of extraction of Lanthanide (III) by the oxide octyl (phenyl)-n, N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl phosphine (CMPO) and a calixarene-CMPO led to better understand and quantify the influence of operating conditions on their performance of extraction and selectivity. The high concentration of salts in aqueous solutions required to reason in terms of thermodynamic activities in relying on a comprehensive approach to quantification of deviations from ideality. In order to reduce the amount of waste generated and costs, alternatives to the hydrometallurgical extraction processes were considered using ionic liquids at low temperatures as alternative solvents in biphasic processes. Remaining in this logic of effluent reduction, miniaturization of the liquid-liquid extraction is also study so as to exploit the characteristics of microscopic scale (very large specific surface, short diffusion distances). The miniaturization of chromatographic separations carries the same ambitions of gain of volumes of wastes and reagents. The miniaturization of the separation Uranium

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Chaetomium isolates based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotech Unit

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Phylogenetic analysis of Chaetomium species. The evolutionary history was inferred using the maximum parsimony method. The bootstrap consensus tree inferred from. 1000 replicates is taken to represent the evolutionary history of the taxa analyzed (Felsenstein, 1985). The MP tree was obtained using.

  5. SigTree: A Microbial Community Analysis Tool to Identify and Visualize Significantly Responsive Branches in a Phylogenetic Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, John R.; Jones, Todd R.; Lefevre, Michael; Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Weimer, Bart C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial community analysis experiments to assess the effect of a treatment intervention (or environmental change) on the relative abundance levels of multiple related microbial species (or operational taxonomic units) simultaneously using high throughput genomics are becoming increasingly common. Within the framework of the evolutionary phylogeny of all species considered in the experiment, this translates to a statistical need to identify the phylogenetic branches that exhibit a significan...

  6. Fundamentals of convex analysis duality, separation, representation, and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Panik, Michael J

    1993-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convex Analysis offers an in-depth look at some of the fundamental themes covered within an area of mathematical analysis called convex analysis. In particular, it explores the topics of duality, separation, representation, and resolution. The work is intended for students of economics, management science, engineering, and mathematics who need exposure to the mathematical foundations of matrix games, optimization, and general equilibrium analysis. It is written at the advanced undergraduate to beginning graduate level and the only formal preparation required is some familiarity with set operations and with linear algebra and matrix theory. Fundamentals of Convex Analysis is self-contained in that a brief review of the essentials of these tool areas is provided in Chapter 1. Chapter exercises are also provided. Topics covered include: convex sets and their properties; separation and support theorems; theorems of the alternative; convex cones; dual homogeneous systems; basic solutions and comple...

  7. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...... biodiversity is challenging, but significant advances have been made in the last few decades. Since Hennig first discussed the monophyly of major groupings, Diptera has attracted much study, but most researchers have used non-numerical qualitative methods to assess morphological data. More recently......, quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used on both morphological and molecular data. All previous quantitative morphological studies addressed narrower phylogenetic problems, often below the suborder or infraorder level. Here we present the first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships...

  8. On Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Louxin

    2016-07-01

    A large class of phylogenetic networks can be obtained from trees by the addition of horizontal edges between the tree edges. These networks are called tree-based networks. We present a simple necessary and sufficient condition for tree-based networks and prove that a universal tree-based network exists for any number of taxa that contains as its base every phylogenetic tree on the same set of taxa. This answers two problems posted by Francis and Steel recently. A byproduct is a computer program for generating random binary phylogenetic networks under the uniform distribution model.

  9. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of multi-continent human influenza A(H1N2) reassortant viruses isolated in 2001 through 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; La, T; Zhao, P; Tam, J S; Rappaport, R; Cheng, S-M

    2006-12-01

    Genetic analyses were performed on 228 influenza A(H1) viruses derived from clinical subjects participating in an experimental vaccine trial conducted in 20 countries on four continents between 2001 and 2003. HA1 phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed multiple clades circulated around the world with regional prevalence patterns. Sixty-five of the A(H1) viruses were identified as A(H1N2), 40 of which were isolated from South Africa. The A(H1) sequences of these viruses cluster with published H1N2 viruses phylogenetically and share with them diagnostic signature V169A and A193T changes. The results also showed for the first time that H1N2 viruses were prominent in South Africa during the 2001-2002 influenza season, accounting for over 90% of the A(H1) cases in our study, and infecting both children (29/31) and the elderly (11/13). Phylogenetic analysis of the 65 H1N2 viruses we identified, in conjunction with the 56 recent H1N2 viruses currently available in the database, provided a comprehensive view of the circulation and evolution of distinct clades of H1N2 viruses in a temporal manner between early 2001 and mid-2003, shortly after the appearance of these recent reassortant viruses in or near year 2000.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Rhinolophus bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffberg, Samantha; Jacobs, David S; Mackie, Iain J; Matthee, Conrad A

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within the horseshoe bats (genus Rhinolophus) are poorly resolved, particularly at deeper levels within the tree. We present a better-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for 30 rhinolophid species based on parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and three nuclear introns (TG, THY and PRKC1). Strong support was found for the existence of two geographic clades within the monophyletic Rhinolophidae: an African group and an Oriental assemblage. The relaxed Bayesian clock method indicated that the two rhinolophid clades diverged approximately 35 million years ago and results from Dispersal Vicariance (DIVA) analysis suggest that the horseshoe bats arose in Asia and subsequently dispersed into Europe and Africa.

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparisons with Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T.Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site (Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains), Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparison with Other Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T. Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site [Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains], Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of local-scale tree soil associations in a lowland moist tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Schreeg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water. We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the 'traits' (i.e., soil variables evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny

  14. The SOD gene family in tomato: identification, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kun feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutases (SODs are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.

  15. Phenotypic Microdiversity and Phylogenetic Signal Analysis of Traits Related to Social Interaction in Bacillus spp. from Sediment Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, María Dolores; Islas-Robles, África; Gómez-Lunar, Zulema; Delaye, Luis; Hernández-González, Ismael; Souza, Valeria; Travisano, Michael; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between phylogeny and predicted traits is important to uncover the dimension of the predictive power of a microbial composition approach. Numerous works have addressed the taxonomic composition of bacteria in communities, but little is known about trait heterogeneity in closely related bacteria that co-occur in communities. We evaluated a sample of 467 isolates from the Churince water system of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), enriched for Bacillus spp. The 16S rRNA gene revealed a random distribution of taxonomic groups within this genus among 11 sampling sites. A subsample of 141 Bacillus spp. isolates from sediment, with seven well-represented species was chosen to evaluate the heterogeneity and the phylogenetic signal of phenotypic traits that are known to diverge within small clades, such as substrate utilization, and traits that are conserved deep in the lineage, such as prototrophy, swarming and biofilm formation. We were especially interested in evaluating social traits, such as swarming and biofilm formation, for which cooperation is needed to accomplish a multicellular behavior and for which there is little information from natural communities. The phylogenetic distribution of traits, evaluated by the Purvis and Fritz's D statistics approached a Brownian model of evolution. Analysis of the phylogenetic relatedness of the clusters of members sharing the trait using consenTRAIT algorithm, revealed more clustering and deeper phylogenetic signal for prototrophy, biofilm and swimming compared to the data obtained for substrate utilization. The explanation to the observed Brownian evolution of social traits could be either loss due to complete dispensability or to compensated trait loss due to the availability of public goods. Since many of the evaluated traits can be considered to be collective action traits, such as swarming, motility and biofilm formation, the observed microdiversity within taxonomic groups might be explained

  16. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines. phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node.

  17. Nonbinary Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, L.; van Iersel, L.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Rooted phylogenetic networks are used to describe evolutionary histories that contain non-treelike evolutionary events such as hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. In some cases, such histories can be described by a phylogenetic base-tree with additional linking arcs, which can for example

  18. Molecular Characterization and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis of Phytases from Fungi with Their Prospective Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds that have high phytate content are used as animal feed. Phytases, enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of phytate into inorganic phosphorus and myoinositol phosphate derivatives, have been intensively studied in recent years and gained immense attention because of their application in reducing phytate content in animal feed and food for human consumption, thus indirectly lowering environmental pollution caused by undigested phytate. This review is focused on summarising the current knowledge on recent developments of fungal and yeast phytases. Comparative account on diverse sources and physiological roles, molecular characteristics and regulation mechanisms of phytases are discussed. Phylogenetic relationship of phytases from different classes of fungi is studied in details. It is inferred on the basis of phylogeny that phytases from Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes differ in the amino acid sequences, therefore they fall in separate clade in the tree. The prospective biotechnological applications of microbial phytases such as animal feed additives, probiotics, pharmaceuticals, as well as in aquaculture, food industry, paper manufacturing, development of transgenic plants and animals with special reference to its use as biofertilizers are also emphasised in this review.

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis and Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in Women with Several Cervical Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Alp Avcı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determinate the prevalence of HPV types in patients with cervical cancers in our legion by Real time PCR and DNA sequence analysis and to make phylogenetic analysis was aimed in this study. Material and methods: From January to October 2010, cervical swap samples of 77 patients directed to colposcopy were included in the study. HPV DNA and HPV type 16 were detected by Real Time polymerase chain reaction using the L1 region. Real Time PCR amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV DNA and HPV type 16 specific probe. HPV types determinate by GP5+/GP6+. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences was calculated by Kimura’s two parameters method. Statistically analyses were by using Pearson chi-square and odss ratio tests. Results: Forty seven samples (prevalence; 61% of total seventy seven cervical samples detected as HPV DNA positive. While HPV type 16; 52%, HPV type 16+11; 4%, HPV type 16+6; 1% and non-typing HPV DNA 4% of seventy seven samples determining, 39% of samples observed as negative HPV. Participated in the study population, HPV DNA positive individuals are among 34-56 years. Most HPV DNA positivity rate of 80.0% was between the ages of 31-40. 52.2% of HPV DNA positivity between the ages of 41-50 to fall, but again, 83.3% between the ages of 51-60 to a second peak was determined that increased. 60.0% of 20 ASC-H cases, 63.8% of 36 ASC-US cases, 100% 9 of HSIL cases and 25.0% of 12 LSIL cases were positive for HPV DNA. Conclusion: The investigation of the distribution of HPV genotypes in women with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in our region is important. Early diagnosis of HPV by using improved technological assays, play a key role to prevent the turn precancerous lesions into invasive cancers.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of Monascus and new species from honey, pollen and nests of stingless bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, R. N.; Leong, Su-lin L.; Vinnere-Pettersson, O.

    2017-01-01

    on this polyphasic approach, the genus Monascus is resolved in nine species, including three new species associated with stingless bees (M. flavipigmentosus sp. nov., M. mellicola sp. nov., M. recifensis sp. nov., M. argentinensis, M. floridanus, M. lunisporas, M. pallens, M. purpureus, M. ruber), and split in two...... new sections (section Floridani sect. nov., section Rubri sect. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the xerophile Monascus eremophilus does not belong in Monascus and monophyly in Monascus is restored with the transfer of M. eremophilus to Penicillium (P. eremophilum comb. nov.). A list...

  1. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske

    2008-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  2. Identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , Alternaria alternata , Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani ). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of tested pathogens but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a positive correlation between the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma isolates towards fungal pathogens and their lytic enzyme production. The Trichoderma isolates were initially sorted according to morphology and based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence similarity, the isolates were designated as Trichoderma harzianum , T. koningii , T. asperellum , T. virens and T. viride . PCA analysis explained 31.53, 61.95, 62.22 and 60.25% genetic variation among Trichoderma isolates based on RAPD, REP-, ERIC- and BOX element analysis, respectively. ERG - 1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase has been used for the first time for diversity analysis of antagonistic Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere. Phylogenetic analysis of ERG -1 gene sequences revealed close relatedness of ERG -1sequences with earlier reported sequences of Hypocrea lixii , T. arundinaceum and T. reesei. However, ERG -1 gene also showed heterogeneity among some antagonistic isolates and indicated the possibility of occurrence of squalene epoxidase driven triterpene biosynthesis as an alternative biocontrol mechanism in Trichoderma species.

  3. The long and winding road of molecular data in phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2014-01-01

    The use of molecules and reactions as evidence, markers and/or traits for evolutionary processes has a history more than a century long. Molecules have been used in studies of intra-specific variation and studies of similarity among species that do not necessarily result in the analysis of phylogenetic relations. Promoters of the use of molecular data have sustained the need for quantification as the main argument to make use of them. Moreover, quantification has allowed intensive statistical analysis, as a condition and a product of increasing automation. All of these analyses are subject to the methodological anxiety characteristic of a community in search of objectivity (Suárez-Díaz and Anaya-Munoz, Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 39:451–458, 2008). It is in this context that scientists compared and evaluated protein and nucleic acid sequence data with other types of molecular data – including immunological, electrophoretic and hybridization data. This paper argues that by looking at longterm historical processes, such as the use of molecular evidence in evolutionary biology, we gain valuable insights into the history of science. In that sense, it accompanies a growing concern among historians for big-pictures of science that incorporate the fruitful historical research on local cases of the last decades.

  4. Different relationships between temporal phylogenetic turnover and phylogenetic similarity and in two forests were detected by a new null model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian; Shen, Yong; Lian, Ju-yu; Cao, Hong-lin; Ye, Wan-hui; Wu, Lin-fang; Bin, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists have been monitoring community dynamics with the purpose of understanding the rates and causes of community change. However, there is a lack of monitoring of community dynamics from the perspective of phylogeny. We attempted to understand temporal phylogenetic turnover in a 50 ha tropical forest (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) and a 20 ha subtropical forest (Dinghushan in southern China, DHS). To obtain temporal phylogenetic turnover under random conditions, two null models were used. The first shuffled names of species that are widely used in community phylogenetic analyses. The second simulated demographic processes with careful consideration on the variation in dispersal ability among species and the variations in mortality both among species and among size classes. With the two models, we tested the relationships between temporal phylogenetic turnover and phylogenetic similarity at different spatial scales in the two forests. Results were more consistent with previous findings using the second null model suggesting that the second null model is more appropriate for our purposes. With the second null model, a significantly positive relationship was detected between phylogenetic turnover and phylogenetic similarity in BCI at a 10 m×10 m scale, potentially indicating phylogenetic density dependence. This relationship in DHS was significantly negative at three of five spatial scales. This could indicate abiotic filtering processes for community assembly. Using variation partitioning, we found phylogenetic similarity contributed to variation in temporal phylogenetic turnover in the DHS plot but not in BCI plot. The mechanisms for community assembly in BCI and DHS vary from phylogenetic perspective. Only the second null model detected this difference indicating the importance of choosing a proper null model.

  5. Hydraulic separation of plastic wastes: Analysis of liquid-solid interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; La Marca, Floriana

    2017-08-01

    The separation of plastic wastes in mechanical recycling plants is the process that ensures high-quality secondary raw materials. An innovative device employing a wet technology for particle separation is presented in this work. Due to the combination of the characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, it allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. The kinematic investigation of the fluid flowing within the apparatus seeded with a passive tracer was conducted via image analysis for different hydraulic configurations. The two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy results strictly connected to the apparatus separation efficacy. Image analysis was also employed to study the behaviour of mixtures of passive tracer and plastic particles with different physical characteristics in order to understand the coupling regime between fluid and solid phases. The two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy analysis turned out to be fundamental to this aim. For the tested operating conditions, two-way coupling takes place, i.e., the fluid exerts an influence on the plastic particle and the opposite occurs too. Image analysis confirms the outcomes from the investigation of the two-phase flow via non-dimensional numbers (particle Reynolds number, Stokes number and solid phase volume fraction). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cuong Q; Humphreys, Aelys M; Fontaneto, Diego; Barraclough, Timothy G; Paradis, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The generalised mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson tree process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such as DNA barcodes. Here, we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic reconstruction and branch smoothing methods. We reconstruct over 400 ultrametric trees using up to 30 different combinations of phylogenetic and smoothing methods and perform over 2000 separate species delimitation analyses across 16 empirical data sets. We then assess how variable diversity estimates are, in terms of richness and identity, with respect to species delimitation, phylogenetic and smoothing methods. The PTP method generally generates diversity estimates that are more robust to different phylogenetic methods. The GMYC is more sensitive, but provides consistent estimates for BEAST trees. The lower consistency of GMYC estimates is likely a result of differences among gene trees introduced by the smoothing step. Unresolved nodes (real anomalies or methodological artefacts) affect both GMYC and PTP estimates, but have a greater effect on GMYC estimates. Branch smoothing is a difficult step and perhaps an underappreciated source of bias that may be widespread among studies of diversity and diversification. Nevertheless, careful choice of phylogenetic method does produce equivalent PTP and GMYC diversity estimates. We recommend simultaneous use of the PTP model with any model-based gene tree (e.g. RAxML) and GMYC approaches with BEAST trees for obtaining species hypotheses.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of partial RNA-polymerase blocks II and III of Rabies virus isolated from the main rabies reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnieli, Pedro; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; de Oliveira Fahl, Willian; de Carvalho Ruthner Batista, Helena Beatriz; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Castilho, Juliana Galera

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the results of the sequencing and analysis of segments of Blocks II and III of the RNA polymerase L gene of Rabies virus isolates from different reservoir species of Brazil. The phylogenetic relations of the virus were determined and a variety of species-specific nucleotides were found in the analyzed areas, but the majority of these mutations were found to be synonymous. However, an analysis of the putative amino acid sequences were shown to have some characteristic mutations between some reservoir species of Brazil, indicating that there was positive selection in the RNA polymerase L gene of Rabies virus. On comparing the putative viral sequences obtained from the Brazilian isolates and other Lyssavirus, it was determined that amino acid mutations occurred in low-restriction areas. This study of the L gene of Rabies virus is the first to be conducted with samples of virus isolates from Brazil, and the results obtained will help in the determination of the phylogenetic relations of the virus.

  8. Undergraduate Students’ Difficulties in Reading and Constructing Phylogenetic Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Tapilouw, F. S.; Hidayat, T.

    2017-02-01

    Representation is a very important communication tool to communicate scientific concepts. Biologists produce phylogenetic representation to express their understanding of evolutionary relationships. The phylogenetic tree is visual representation depict a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship and widely used in the biological sciences. Phylogenetic tree currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about phylogenetic tree become an important part of biological education and an interesting area for biology education research. However, research showed many students often struggle with interpreting the information that phylogenetic trees depict. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students’ difficulties in reading and constructing a phylogenetic tree. The method of this study is a descriptive method. In this study, we used questionnaires, interviews, multiple choice and open-ended questions, reflective journals and observations. The findings showed students experiencing difficulties, especially in constructing a phylogenetic tree. The students’ responds indicated that main reasons for difficulties in constructing a phylogenetic tree are difficult to placing taxa in a phylogenetic tree based on the data provided so that the phylogenetic tree constructed does not describe the actual evolutionary relationship (incorrect relatedness). Students also have difficulties in determining the sister group, character synapomorphy, autapomorphy from data provided (character table) and comparing among phylogenetic tree. According to them building the phylogenetic tree is more difficult than reading the phylogenetic tree. Finding this studies provide information to undergraduate instructor and students to overcome learning difficulties of reading and constructing phylogenetic tree.

  9. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship analysis of Jatropha curcas L. inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guo-Ye; Chen, Fang; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Yin-Shuai; Yu, Mao-Qun; Han, Xue-Qin; Yuan, Li-Chun; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among 102 Jatropha curcas accessions from Asia, Africa, and the Americas were assessed using the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS). The average G+C content (65.04%) was considerably higher than the A+T (34.96%) content. The estimated genetic diversity revealed moderate genetic variation. The pairwise genetic divergences (GD) between haplotypes were evaluated and ranged from 0.000 to 0.017, suggesting a higher level of genetic differentiation in Mexican accessions than those of other regions. Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific divergence were inferred by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and median joining (MJ) network analysis and were generally resolved. The J. curcas accessions were consistently divided into three lineages, groups A, B, and C, which demonstrated distant geographical isolation and genetic divergence between American accessions and those from other regions. The MJ network analysis confirmed that Central America was the possible center of origin. The putative migration route suggested that J. curcas was distributed from Mexico or Brazil, via Cape Verde and then split into two routes. One route was dispersed to Spain, then migrated to China, eventually spreading to southeastern Asia, while the other route was dispersed to Africa, via Madagascar and migrated to China, later spreading to southeastern Asia. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation of trace uranium from plutonium for subsequent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    Trace uranium quantities are separated from plutonium metal and plutonium oxide for subsequent analysis. Samples are dissolved in hydrobromic acid or a hydrobromic acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The U(VI)-halide complex is separated from nonsorbed Pu(III) on an anion exchange column using sequential washes of 9M HBr, a 0.1M HI-12M HCl mixture and 0.1M HCl

  11. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Catherine H; Parra, Juan L; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic...... composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern...... that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining...

  12. Constructing phylogenetic trees using interacting pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Che, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are used to represent evolutionary relationships among biological species or organisms. The construction of phylogenetic trees is based on the similarities or differences of their physical or genetic features. Traditional approaches of constructing phylogenetic trees mainly focus on physical features. The recent advancement of high-throughput technologies has led to accumulation of huge amounts of biological data, which in turn changed the way of biological studies in various aspects. In this paper, we report our approach of building phylogenetic trees using the information of interacting pathways. We have applied hierarchical clustering on two domains of organisms-eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our preliminary results have shown the effectiveness of using the interacting pathways in revealing evolutionary relationships.

  13. Robust identification of noncoding RNA from transcriptomes requires phylogenetically-informed sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stinus Lindgreen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Noncoding RNAs are integral to a wide range of biological processes, including translation, gene regulation, host-pathogen interactions and environmental sensing. While genomics is now a mature field, our capacity to identify noncoding RNA elements in bacterial and archaeal genomes is hampered by the difficulty of de novo identification. The emergence of new technologies for characterizing transcriptome outputs, notably RNA-seq, are improving noncoding RNA identification and expression quantification. However, a major challenge is to robustly distinguish functional outputs from transcriptional noise. To establish whether annotation of existing transcriptome data has effectively captured all functional outputs, we analysed over 400 publicly available RNA-seq datasets spanning 37 different Archaea and Bacteria. Using comparative tools, we identify close to a thousand highly-expressed candidate noncoding RNAs. However, our analyses reveal that capacity to identify noncoding RNA outputs is strongly dependent on phylogenetic sampling. Surprisingly, and in stark contrast to protein-coding genes, the phylogenetic window for effective use of comparative methods is perversely narrow: aggregating public datasets only produced one phylogenetic cluster where these tools could be used to robustly separate unannotated noncoding RNAs from a null hypothesis of transcriptional noise. Our results show that for the full potential of transcriptomics data to be realized, a change in experimental design is paramount: effective transcriptomics requires phylogeny-aware sampling.

  14. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSs protein demonstrates the isolated emergence of resistance-breaking strains in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almási, Asztéria; Csilléry, Gábor; Csömör, Zsófia; Nemes, Katalin; Palkovics, László; Salánki, Katalin; Tóbiás, István

    2015-02-01

    Resurgence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) worldwide as well as in Hungary causing heavy economic losses directed the attention to the factors contributing to the outbreak of this serious epidemics. The introgression of Tsw resistance gene into various pepper cultivars seemed to solve TSWV control, but widely used resistant pepper cultivars bearing the same, unique resistance locus evoked the rapid emergence of resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains. In Hungary, the sporadic appearance of RB strains in pepper-producing region was first observed in 2010-2011, but in 2012 it was detected frequently. Previously, the non-structural protein (NSs) encoded by small RNA (S RNA) of TSWV was verified as the avirulence factor for Tsw resistance, therefore we analyzed the S RNA of the Hungarian RB and wild type (WT) isolates and compared to previously analyzed TSWV strains with RB properties from different geographical origins. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the different RB strains had the closest relationship with the local WT isolates and there is no conserved mutation present in all the NSs genes of RB isolates from different geographical origins. According to these results, we concluded that the RB isolates evolved separately in geographic point of view, and also according to the RB mechanism.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus strains from naturally infected cats in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Taffin, Elien R L; Daminet, Sylvie; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-01-22

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a major pathogen in feline populations worldwide, with seroprevalences up to 26%. Virus strains circulating in domestic cats are subdivided into different phylogenetic clades (A-E), based on the genetic diversity of the V3-V4 region of the env gene. In this report, a phylogenetic analysis of the V3-V4 env region, and a variable region in the gag gene was made for 36 FIV strains isolated in Belgium and The Netherlands. All newly generated gag sequences clustered together with previously known clade A FIV viruses, confirming the dominance of clade A viruses in Northern Europe. The same was true for the obtained env sequences, with only one sample of an unknown env subtype. Overall, the genetic diversity of FIV strains sequenced in this report was low. This indicates a relatively recent introduction of FIV in Belgium and The Netherlands. However, the sample with an unknown env subtype indicates that new introductions of FIV from unknown origin do occur and this will likely increase genetic variability in time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks Using PhyloNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Zhu, Jiafan; Nakhleh, Luay

    2018-07-01

    PhyloNet was released in 2008 as a software package for representing and analyzing phylogenetic networks. At the time of its release, the main functionalities in PhyloNet consisted of measures for comparing network topologies and a single heuristic for reconciling gene trees with a species tree. Since then, PhyloNet has grown significantly. The software package now includes a wide array of methods for inferring phylogenetic networks from data sets of unlinked loci while accounting for both reticulation (e.g., hybridization) and incomplete lineage sorting. In particular, PhyloNet now allows for maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference of phylogenetic networks from gene tree estimates. Furthermore, Bayesian inference directly from sequence data (sequence alignments or biallelic markers) is implemented. Maximum parsimony is based on an extension of the "minimizing deep coalescences" criterion to phylogenetic networks, whereas maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference are based on the multispecies network coalescent. All methods allow for multiple individuals per species. As computing the likelihood of a phylogenetic network is computationally hard, PhyloNet allows for evaluation and inference of networks using a pseudolikelihood measure. PhyloNet summarizes the results of the various analyzes and generates phylogenetic networks in the extended Newick format that is readily viewable by existing visualization software.

  18. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  19. Phylogenetic reconstruction of endophytic fungal isolates using internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GokulRaj, Kathamuthu; Sundaresan, Natesan; Ganeshan, Enthai Jagan; Rajapriya, Pandi; Muthumary, Johnpaul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Pandi, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are inhabitants of plants, living most part of their lifecycle asymptomatically which mainly confer protection and ecological advantages to the host plant. In this present study, 48 endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants and characterized based on ITS2 sequence - secondary structure analysis. ITS2 secondary structures were elucidated with minimum free energy method (MFOLD version 3.1) and consensus structure of each genus was generated by 4SALE. ProfDistS was used to generate ITS2 sequence structure based phylogenetic tree respectively. Our elucidated isolates were belonging to Ascomycetes family, representing 5 orders and 6 genera. Colletotrichum/Glomerella spp., Diaporthae/Phomopsis spp., and Alternaria spp., were predominantly observed while Cochliobolus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Emericella sp., were represented by singletons. The constructed phylogenetic tree has well resolved monophyletic groups with >50% bootstrap value support. Secondary structures based fungal systematics improves not only the stability; it also increases the precision of phylogenetic inference. Above ITS2 based phylogenetic analysis was performed for our 48 isolates along with sequences of known ex-types taken from GenBank which confirms the efficiency of the proposed method. Further, we propose it as superlative marker for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels due to their lesser length.

  20. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Laccases from Trichoderma: A Bioinformatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-García, Saila Viridiana; Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Ma. Soledad; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Trichoderma includes species of great biotechnological value, both for their mycoparasitic activities and for their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Although activity of extracellular laccase has previously been reported in Trichoderma spp., the possible number of isoenzymes is still unknown, as are the structural and functional characteristics of both the genes and the putative proteins. In this study, the system of laccases sensu stricto in the Trichoderma species, the genomes of which are publicly available, were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The intron/exon structure of the genes and the identification of specific motifs in the sequence of amino acids of the proteins generated in silico allow for clear differentiation between extracellular and intracellular enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the common ancestor of the genus possessed a functional gene for each one of these enzymes, which is a characteristic preserved in T. atroviride and T. virens. This analysis also reveals that T. harzianum and T. reesei only retained the intracellular activity, whereas T. asperellum added an extracellular isoenzyme acquired through horizontal gene transfer during the mycoparasitic process. The evolutionary analysis shows that in general, extracellular laccases are subjected to purifying selection, and intracellular laccases show neutral evolution. The data provided by the present study will enable the generation of experimental approximations to better understand the physiological role of laccases in the genus Trichoderma and to increase their biotechnological potential. PMID:23383142

  1. Inferring 'weak spots' in phylogenetic trees: application to mosasauroid nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzia, Daniel; Cau, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Mosasauroid squamates represented the apex predators within the Late Cretaceous marine and occasionally also freshwater ecosystems. Proper understanding of the origin of their ecological adaptations or paleobiogeographic dispersals requires adequate knowledge of their phylogeny. The studies assessing the position of mosasauroids on the squamate evolutionary tree and their origins have long given conflicting results. The phylogenetic relationships within Mosasauroidea, however, have experienced only little changes throughout the last decades. Considering the substantial improvements in the development of phylogenetic methodology that have undergone in recent years, resulting, among others, in numerous alterations in the phylogenetic hypotheses of other fossil amniotes, we test the robustness in our understanding of mosasauroid beginnings and their evolutionary history. We re-examined a data set that results from modifications assembled in the course of the last 20 years and performed multiple parsimony analyses and Bayesian tip-dating analysis. Following the inferred topologies and the 'weak spots' in the phylogeny of mosasauroids, we revise the nomenclature of the 'traditionally' recognized mosasauroid clades, to acknowledge the overall weakness among branches and the alternative topologies suggested previously, and discuss several factors that might have an impact on the differing phylogenetic hypotheses and their statistical support.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  3. PAL: an object-oriented programming library for molecular evolution and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A; Strimmer, K

    2001-07-01

    Phylogenetic Analysis Library (PAL) is a collection of Java classes for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics. PAL provides a modular environment for the rapid construction of both special-purpose and general analysis programs. PAL version 1.1 consists of 145 public classes or interfaces in 13 packages, including classes for models of character evolution, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the coalescent, with a total of more than 27000 lines of code. The PAL project is set up as a collaborative project to facilitate contributions from other researchers. AVAILIABILTY: The program is free and is available at http://www.pal-project.org. It requires Java 1.1 or later. PAL is licensed under the GNU General Public License.

  4. Multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Lomholt, Hans B.

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer...... schemes were compared with reference to a phylogenetic tree based on 78 P. acnes genomes and their gene contents. Further support for a basically clonal population structure of P. acnes and a scenario of the global spread of epidemic clones of P. acnes was obtained. Compared to the Belfast scheme...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  6. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae, a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryder Oliver A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the small number of ursid species, bear phylogeny has long been a focus of study due to their conservation value, as all bear genera have been classified as endangered at either the species or subspecies level. The Ursidae family represents a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation. Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt gene or a small number of mt genes either provide weak support or a large unresolved polytomy for ursids. We revisit the contentious relationships within Ursidae by analyzing complete mt genome sequences and evaluating the performance of both entire mt genomes and constituent mtDNA genes in recovering a phylogeny of extremely recent speciation events. Results This mitochondrial genome-based phylogeny provides strong evidence that the spectacled bear diverged first, while within the genus Ursus, the sloth bear is the sister taxon of all the other five ursines. The latter group is divided into the brown bear/polar bear and the two black bears/sun bear assemblages. These findings resolve the previous conflicts between trees using partial mt genes. The ability of different categories of mt protein coding genes to recover the correct phylogeny is concordant with previous analyses for taxa with deep divergence times. This study provides a robust Ursidae phylogenetic framework for future validation by additional independent evidence, and also has significant implications for assisting in the resolution of other similarly difficult phylogenetic investigations. Conclusion Identification of base composition bias and utilization of the combined data of whole mitochondrial genome sequences has allowed recovery of a strongly supported phylogeny that is upheld when using multiple alternative outgroups for the Ursidae, a mammalian family that underwent a rapid radiation since the mid- to late Pliocene. It remains to be seen if the reliability of mt genome analysis will hold up in studies of other

  7. First evidence of Leishmania infection in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Greece: GIS analysis and phylogenetic position within the Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation.

  8. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus among domestic dogs in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Van; Suzuki, Junko; Minami, Shohei; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Nagata, Nao; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Vu, Chien Kim; Truong, Thuy Quoc; Maeda, Ken

    2017-01-20

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most serious pathogens found in many species of carnivores, including domestic dogs. In this study, hemagglutinin (H) genes were detected in five domestic Vietnamese dogs with diarrhea, and two CDVs were successfully isolated from dogs positive for H genes. The complete genome of one isolate, CDV/dog/HCM/33/140816, was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all Vietnamese CDVs belonged to the Asia-1 genotype. In addition, the H proteins of Vietnamese CDV strains were the most homologous to those of Chinese CDVs (98.4% to 99.3% identity). These results indicated that the Asia-1 genotype of CDV was the predominant genotype circulating among the domestic dog population in Vietnam and that transboundary transmission of CDV has occurred between Vietnam and China.

  9. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of tobacco virus 2, a polerovirus from Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benguo; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhang, Lina; Lin, Huafeng

    2017-07-01

    The complete genome sequence of a new virus, provisionally named tobacco virus 2 (TV2), was determined and identified from leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) exhibiting leaf mosaic, yellowing, and deformity, in Anhui Province, China. The genome sequence of TV2 comprises 5,979 nucleotides, with 87% nucleotide sequence identity to potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Its genome organization is similar to that of PLRV, containing six open reading frames (ORFs) that potentially encode proteins with putative functions in cell-to-cell movement and suppression of RNA silencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence placed TV2 alongside members of the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. To the best our knowledge, this study is the first report of a complete genome sequence of a new polerovirus identified in tobacco.

  10. Undergraduate Students’ Initial Ability in Understanding Phylogenetic Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Hidayat, T.; Sudargo, Fransisca

    2017-04-01

    The Phylogenetic tree is a visual representation depicts a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship among taxa. Evolutionary experts use this representation to evaluate the evidence for evolution. The phylogenetic tree is currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about the phylogenetic tree has become an important part of biological education and an interesting area of biology education research. Skill to understanding and reasoning of the phylogenetic tree, (called tree thinking) is an important skill for biology students. However, research showed many students have difficulty in interpreting, constructing, and comparing among the phylogenetic tree, as well as experiencing a misconception in the understanding of the phylogenetic tree. Students are often not taught how to reason about evolutionary relationship depicted in the diagram. Students are also not provided with information about the underlying theory and process of phylogenetic. This study aims to investigate the initial ability of undergraduate students in understanding and reasoning of the phylogenetic tree. The research method is the descriptive method. Students are given multiple choice questions and an essay that representative by tree thinking elements. Each correct answer made percentages. Each student is also given questionnaires. The results showed that the undergraduate students’ initial ability in understanding and reasoning phylogenetic tree is low. Many students are not able to answer questions about the phylogenetic tree. Only 19 % undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator evaluate the evolutionary relationship among taxa, 25% undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator applying concepts of the clade, 17% undergraduate student who answered correctly on indicator determines the character evolution, and only a few undergraduate student who can construct the phylogenetic tree.

  11. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  12. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, rDNA: finding the molecular and morphological gap in Caribbean gorgonian corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Juan A

    2007-06-01

    morphological characteristics (sclerites. Eunicea flexuosa, E. pallida, E. laxispica and E. mammosa formed a separate clade in the molecular phylogenies, and were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to other Eunicea (Euniceopsis subgenus, e.g. E. tourneforti and E. laciniata in the molecular morphometrics tree, with the exception of E. fusca. Moreover, we suggest a new diagnostic character for Eunicea, also present in E. flexuosa: middle layer sclerites > 1 mm in length. Conclusion ITS2 was a reliable sequence for intrageneric studies in gorgonian octocorals because of the amount of phylogenetic signal, and was corroborated against morphological characters separating Eunicea from Plexaura. The ITS2 RNA secondary structure approach to phylogeny presented here did not rely on alignment methods such as INDELS, but provided clearly homologous characters for partition analysis and RNA molecular morphometrics. These approaches support the divergence of Eunicea flexuosa comb. nov. from the outgroup Plexaura, although it has been considered part of this outgroup for nearly two centuries because of morphological resemblance.

  13. Universal artifacts affect the branching of phylogenetic trees, not universal scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaba, Cristian R

    2009-01-01

    The superficial resemblance of phylogenetic trees to other branching structures allows searching for macroevolutionary patterns. However, such trees are just statistical inferences of particular historical events. Recent meta-analyses report finding regularities in the branching pattern of phylogenetic trees. But is this supported by evidence, or are such regularities just methodological artifacts? If so, is there any signal in a phylogeny? In order to evaluate the impact of polytomies and imbalance on tree shape, the distribution of all binary and polytomic trees of up to 7 taxa was assessed in tree-shape space. The relationship between the proportion of outgroups and the amount of imbalance introduced with them was assessed applying four different tree-building methods to 100 combinations from a set of 10 ingroup and 9 outgroup species, and performing covariance analyses. The relevance of this analysis was explored taking 61 published phylogenies, based on nucleic acid sequences and involving various taxa, taxonomic levels, and tree-building methods. All methods of phylogenetic inference are quite sensitive to the artifacts introduced by outgroups. However, published phylogenies appear to be subject to a rather effective, albeit rather intuitive control against such artifacts. The data and methods used to build phylogenetic trees are varied, so any meta-analysis is subject to pitfalls due to their uneven intrinsic merits, which translate into artifacts in tree shape. The binary branching pattern is an imposition of methods, and seldom reflects true relationships in intraspecific analyses, yielding artifactual polytomies in short trees. Above the species level, the departure of real trees from simplistic random models is caused at least by two natural factors--uneven speciation and extinction rates; and artifacts such as choice of taxa included in the analysis, and imbalance introduced by outgroups and basal paraphyletic taxa. This artifactual imbalance accounts

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Chaetomium isolates based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 18 Chaetomium isolates collected from India based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene sequences was done. Phylogenetic analysis of full length ITS region showed that Chaetomium globosum isolates, Cg1, Cg2, Cg6, Cg11 and Cg15, Chaetomium spp. isolates, ...

  15. A program for verification of phylogenetic network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Andreas D M; Lu, Bingxin; Zhang, Louxin

    2016-09-01

    Genetic material is transferred in a non-reproductive manner across species more frequently than commonly thought, particularly in the bacteria kingdom. On one hand, extant genomes are thus more properly considered as a fusion product of both reproductive and non-reproductive genetic transfers. This has motivated researchers to adopt phylogenetic networks to study genome evolution. On the other hand, a gene's evolution is usually tree-like and has been studied for over half a century. Accordingly, the relationships between phylogenetic trees and networks are the basis for the reconstruction and verification of phylogenetic networks. One important problem in verifying a network model is determining whether or not certain existing phylogenetic trees are displayed in a phylogenetic network. This problem is formally called the tree containment problem. It is NP-complete even for binary phylogenetic networks. We design an exponential time but efficient method for determining whether or not a phylogenetic tree is displayed in an arbitrary phylogenetic network. It is developed on the basis of the so-called reticulation-visible property of phylogenetic networks. A C-program is available for download on http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/∼matzlx/tcp_package matzlx@nus.edu.sg Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of 23S rRNA gene sequences of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... glycol plus control. All isolates exhibited good drought-tolerant efficiencies at 10% PEG. While most of the isolates could not tolerate up to 20% PEG, isolates of Rlv6, Rlv9, Rlv12 and Rlv13 tolerated up to 20% PEG. Keywords: Rhizobium leguminosarum, 23S rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree, diversity and drought tolerance ...

  17. Sequencing, description and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome of Sarcocheilichthys sinensis sinensis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; He, Liping; Chen, Chong; Cai, Lingchao; Chen, Pingping; Yang, Shoubao

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocheilichthys sinensis sinensis (Bleeker, 1871), is a small benthopelagic freshwater species with high nutritional and ornamental value. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. sinensis sinensis was determined; the phylogenetic analysis with another individual and closely related species of Sarcocheilichthys fishes was carried out. The complete mitogenome of S. sinensis sinensis was 16683 bp in length, consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: (D-loop and OL). It indicated that D-loop, ND2, and CytB may be appropriate molecular markers for studying population genetics and conservation biology of Sarcocheilichthys fishes.

  18. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is “Proterosuchia,” which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic “Prolacertiformes” and “Protorosauria,” in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived “disaster” clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. “Proterosuchia” is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more

  19. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  20. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  1. Reliability Omnipotent Analysis For First Stage Separator On The Separation Process Of Gas, Oil And Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony Tjahyani, D. T.; Ismu W, Puradwi; Asmara Santa, Sigit

    2001-01-01

    Reliability of industry can be evaluated based on two aspects which are risk and economic aspects. From these points, optimation value can be determined optimation value. Risk of the oil refinery process are fire and explosion, so assessment of this system must be done. One system of the oil refinery process is first stage separator which is used to separate gas, oil and water. Evaluation of reliability for first stage separator system has been done with FAMECA and HAZap method. The analysis results, the probability of fire and explosion of 1.1x10 - 2 3 /hour and 1.2x10 - 1 1 /hour, respectively. The reliability value of the system is high because each undesired event is anticipated with safety system or safety component

  2. Ecomorphology and phylogenetic risk: Implications for habitat reconstruction using fossil bovids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert S; Barr, W Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Reconstructions of paleohabitats are necessary aids in understanding hominin evolution. The morphology of species from relevant sites, understood in terms of functional relationships to habitat (termed ecomorphology), offers a direct link to habitat. Bovids are a speciose radiation that includes many habitat specialists and are abundant in the fossil record. Thus, bovids are extremely common in ecomorphological analyses. However, bovid phylogeny and habitat preference are related, which raises the possibility that analyses linking habitat with morphology are not 'taxon free' but 'taxon-dependent.' Here we analyze eight relative dimensions and one shape index of the metatarsal for a sample of 72 bovid species and one antilocaprid. The selected variables have been previously shown to have strong associations with habitat and to have functional explanations for these associations. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses of these variables, including habitat and size, resulted in estimates for the parameter lambda (used to model phylogenetic signal) varying from zero to one. Thus, while phylogeny, morphology, and habitat all march together among the bovids, the odds that phylogeny confounds ecomorphological analyses may vary depending on particular morphological characteristics. While large values of lambda do not necessarily indicate that habitat differences are unimportant drivers of morphology, we consider the low value of lambda for relative metatarsal width suggestive that conclusions about habitat built on observations of this particular morphology carry with them less 'phylogenetic risk.' We suggest that the way forward for ecomorphology is grounded in functionally relevant observations and careful consideration of phylogeny designed to bracket probable habitat preferences appropriately. Separate consideration of different morphological variables may help to determine the level of 'phylogenetic risk' attached to conclusions linking habitat and morphology

  3. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives. The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg, Papaveraceae (opium poppy, Cactaceae (peyote, Convolvulaceae (morning glory, Solanaceae (tobacco, Lamiaceae (mints, Apocynaceae (dogbane have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence. However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants

  4. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest D; Coll, Francesc; Furnham, Nick; McNerney, Ruth; Glynn, Judith R; Campino, Susana; Pain, Arnab; Mohareb, Fady R; Clark, Taane G

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights

  5. Keeping All the PIECES: Phylogenetically Informed Ex Situ Conservation of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Daniel J; Jacobi, Sarah K; Hipp, Andrew L; Kramer, Andrea T

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation in germplasm and living collections is a major focus of global plant conservation strategies. Prioritizing species for ex situ collection is a necessary component of this effort for which sound strategies are needed. Phylogenetic considerations can play an important role in prioritization. Collections that are more phylogenetically diverse are likely to encompass more ecological and trait variation, and thus provide stronger conservation insurance and richer resources for future restoration efforts. However, phylogenetic criteria need to be weighed against other, potentially competing objectives. We used ex situ collection and threat rank data for North American angiosperms to investigate gaps in ex situ coverage and phylogenetic diversity of collections and to develop a flexible framework for prioritizing species across multiple objectives. We found that ex situ coverage of 18,766 North American angiosperm taxa was low with respect to the most vulnerable taxa: just 43% of vulnerable to critically imperiled taxa were in ex situ collections, far short of a year-2020 goal of 75%. In addition, species held in ex situ collections were phylogenetically clustered (P species been drawn at random. These patterns support incorporating phylogenetic considerations into ex situ prioritization in a manner balanced with other criteria, such as vulnerability. To meet this need, we present the 'PIECES' index (Phylogenetically Informed Ex situ Conservation of Endangered Species). PIECES integrates phylogenetic considerations into a flexible framework for prioritizing species across competing objectives using multi-criteria decision analysis. Applying PIECES to prioritizing ex situ conservation of North American angiosperms, we show strong return on investment across multiple objectives, some of which are negatively correlated with each other. A spreadsheet-based decision support tool for North American angiosperms is provided; this tool can be customized to

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of the ubiquitous electron transfer flavoprotein families ETF-alpha and ETF-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M H; Saier, M H

    1995-06-01

    Electron transfer flavoproteins (ETF) are alpha beta-heterodimers found in eukaryotic mitochondria and bacteria. We have identified currently sequenced protein members of the ETF-alpha and ETF-beta families. Members of these two families include (a) the ETF subunits of mammals and bacteria, (b) homologous pairs of proteins (FixB/FixA) that are essential for nitrogen fixation in some bacteria, and (c) a pair of carnitine-inducible proteins encoded by two open reading frames in Escherichia coli (YaaQ and YaaR). These three groups of proteins comprise three clusters on both the ETF-alpha and ETF-beta phylogenetic trees, separated from each other by comparable phylogenetic distances. This fact suggests that these two protein families evolved with similar overall rates of evolutionary divergence. Relative regions of sequence conservation are evaluated, and signature sequences for both families are derived.

  7. Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The last four decades have seen an increasing integration of phylogenetics and biogeography. However, a dearth of phylogenetic studies has precluded such biogeographic analyses in South Asia until recently. Noting the increase in phylogenetic research and interest in phylogenetic biogeography in the region, we ...

  8. Fourier transform inequalities for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Frederick A

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic invariants are not the only constraints on site-pattern frequency vectors for phylogenetic trees. A mutation matrix, by its definition, is the exponential of a matrix with non-negative off-diagonal entries; this positivity requirement implies non-trivial constraints on the site-pattern frequency vectors. We call these additional constraints "edge-parameter inequalities". In this paper, we first motivate the edge-parameter inequalities by considering a pathological site-pattern frequency vector corresponding to a quartet tree with a negative internal edge. This site-pattern frequency vector nevertheless satisfies all of the constraints described up to now in the literature. We next describe two complete sets of edge-parameter inequalities for the group-based models; these constraints are square-free monomial inequalities in the Fourier transformed coordinates. These inequalities, along with the phylogenetic invariants, form a complete description of the set of site-pattern frequency vectors corresponding to bona fide trees. Said in mathematical language, this paper explicitly presents two finite lists of inequalities in Fourier coordinates of the form "monomial < or = 1", each list characterizing the phylogenetically relevant semialgebraic subsets of the phylogenetic varieties.

  9. Efficient parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir

    2007-01-15

    Phylogenies--the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms-play a major role in representing relationships among biological entities. Although many biological processes can be effectively modeled as tree-like relationships, others, such as hybrid speciation and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), result in networks, rather than trees, of relationships. Hybrid speciation is a significant evolutionary mechanism in plants, fish and other groups of species. HGT plays a major role in bacterial genome diversification and is a significant mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for phylogenetic tree inference. Roughly speaking, inference based on this criterion seeks the tree that minimizes the amount of evolution. In 1990, Jotun Hein proposed using this criterion for inferring the evolution of sequences subject to recombination. Preliminary results on small synthetic datasets. Nakhleh et al. (2005) demonstrated the criterion's application to phylogenetic network reconstruction in general and HGT detection in particular. However, the naive algorithms used by the authors are inapplicable to large datasets due to their demanding computational requirements. Further, no rigorous theoretical analysis of computing the criterion was given, nor was it tested on biological data. In the present work we prove that the problem of scoring the parsimony of a phylogenetic network is NP-hard and provide an improved fixed parameter tractable algorithm for it. Further, we devise efficient heuristics for parsimony-based reconstruction of phylogenetic networks. We test our methods on both synthetic and biological data (rbcL gene in bacteria) and obtain very promising results.

  10. Phylogenetic search through partial tree mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent advances in sequencing technology have created large data sets upon which phylogenetic inference can be performed. Current research is limited by the prohibitive time necessary to perform tree search on a reasonable number of individuals. This research develops new phylogenetic algorithms that can operate on tens of thousands of species in a reasonable amount of time through several innovative search techniques. Results When compared to popular phylogenetic search algorithms, better trees are found much more quickly for large data sets. These algorithms are incorporated in the PSODA application available at http://dna.cs.byu.edu/psoda Conclusions The use of Partial Tree Mixing in a partition based tree space allows the algorithm to quickly converge on near optimal tree regions. These regions can then be searched in a methodical way to determine the overall optimal phylogenetic solution. PMID:23320449

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus in domestic dogs in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenwei; Wang, Yongshan; Wang, Xiaoli; Xia, Xingxia

    2015-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. The hemagglutinin gene, which encodes the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, has been widely used to determine the relationship between CDV strains of different lineages circulating worldwide. We determined the full-length H gene sequences of seven CDV field strains detected in domestic dogs in Nanjing, China. A phylogenetic analysis of the H gene sequences of CDV strains from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Four of the seven CDV strains were grouped in the same cluster of the Asia-1 lineage to which the vast majority of Chinese CDV strains belong, whereas the other three were clustered within the Asia-4 lineage, which has never been detected in China. This represents the first record of detection of strains of the Asia-4 lineage in China since this lineage was reported in Thailand in 2013.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, I?aki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation...

  13. Phylogenetic Signal in AFLP Data Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    AFLP markers provide a potential source of phylogenetic information for molecular systematic studies. However, there are properties of restriction fragment data that limit phylogenetic interpretation of AFLPs. These are (a) possible nonindependence of fragments, (b) problems of homology assignment

  14. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850

  15. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L; Matthews, Luke J; Hare, Brian A; Nunn, Charles L; Anderson, Rindy C; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M; Emery, Nathan J; Haun, Daniel B M; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F; Platt, Michael L; Rosati, Alexandra G; Sandel, Aaron A; Schroepfer, Kara K; Seed, Amanda M; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P; Wobber, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution.

  16. [Analysis of phylogenetic criteria for estimation of the rank of taxa in methane-oxidizing bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V

    2011-01-01

    To determine a possibility of application of phylogenetic criteria for estimating the taxa rank, the intra- and interspecies, as well as intergeneric relatedness of methanotrophs on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was estimated. We used sequences of 16S rRNA genes of the studied isolates of obligate methanotrophs which have been deposited in UCM (Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms), and of type strains of other obligate methanotrophs species (from GenBank database). It is shown, that the levels of interspecies and intergeneric relatedness in different families of methanotrophs are not identical, and therefore they can be used for differentiation of taxa only within one family. The carried out analysis has shown, that it is necessary to reconsider taxonomic position: (1) of two phenotypically similar species of Methylomonas (M. aurantiaca and M. fodinarum), similarity of 16S rRNA genes which is 99.4%, similarity of their total DNA--up to 80% that rather testifies to strain differences, than to species differences; (2) of species Methylomicrobium agile and M album which are phylogenetically more related to genus Methylobacter (97% of affinity), than Methylomicrobium (94% of affinity); (3) of genera of the family Beijerinckiaceae (Methylocella and Methylocapsa), and also genera of the family Methylocystaceae (Methylosinus and Methylocystis), whereas high level of relatedness (97% and more) of these bacteria with other methanotrophic genera (within one family) practically corresponds to a range of relatedness of species (within some genera) in the family Methylococcaceae. When determining phylogenetic criteria which can characterize the ranks of taxa, it was revealed, that the levels of interspecies relatedness of methanotrophic genera of the families Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae (97.8-99.1% and 97.8%, accordingly) considerably exceed the level of genera formation in the family Methylococcaceae (94.0-98.2%) and, moreover, approach the value of

  17. Separation of atropisomers by chiral liquid chromatography and thermodynamic analysis of separation mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Zhang; Yue Hu; Elizabeth Galella; Frank P. Tomasella; William P. Fish

    2017-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, the analysis of atropisomers is of considerable interest from a scientific and regulatory perspective. The compound of interest contains two stereogenic axes due to the hindered rotation around the single bonds connecting the aryl groups, which results in four potential configurational isomers (atropisomers). The separation of the four atropisomers is achieved on a derivatized β-cyclodextrin bonded stationary phase. Further investigation shows that low temperat...

  18. Comparative myology of the unicornfishes, Naso (Acanthuridae, Percomorpha), with implications for phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, W Calvin

    1999-02-01

    Striated muscles of 15 species of unicornfishes (Naso, Acanthuridae) are described in detail. Of 93 muscles dissected, only five demonstrate intrageneric variation, providing only ten characters suitable for phylogenetic analysis. Thus, myology appears to be highly conservative at the species level and has been so for approximately 50-55 million years in this particular group of fishes. Furthermore, myology is static relative to osteology in Naso and at any taxonomic rank within fishes, implying osteology provides a larger but not necessarily more valuable data source for systematic studies. Although important for their epistomological value, these descriptions provide a basis for further studies ranging from functional, comparative, and systematic analyses, ultimately with the potential to address questions of historical ecology (i.e., speciation, adaptation, coevolution) within Naso. J. Morphol. 239:191-224, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1 gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  20. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  1. Restingomyces, a new sequestrate genus from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest that is phylogenetically related to early-diverging taxa in Trappeaceae (Phallales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzbacher, Marcelo A; Grebenc, Tine; Cabral, Tiara S; Giachini, Admir J; Goto, Bruno T; Smith, Matthew E; Baseia, Iuri G

    2016-09-01

    Restingomyces reticulatus gen. et sp. nov. is a recently discovered false truffle species from Atlantic "restinga" rainforest in northeastern Brazil. Molecular and morphological characters separate this new sequestrate species from other described taxa in the order Phallales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). In our phylogenetic analysis based on nuc 28S rDNA and atp6, R. reticulatus forms a sister clade to Trappea darkeri and Phallobata alba, with the three taxa forming the earliest diverging lineage within Phallales. Morphological and molecular data warrant the recognition of the new genus and species, described here, and we also amend the taxonomic description for the family Trappeaceae. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of ciliates: Assessment of molecular phylogenetic content and morphological homology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vďačný, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies. (2) Network analysis can depict all possible evolutionary trajectories inferable from the dataset and locate and measure the conflict between them. (3) A priori likelihood mapping tests the suitability of data for reconstruction of a well resolved tree, visualizes the tree-likeness of quartets, and assesses the support of an internal branch of a given tree topology. (4) Reconstruction of ancestral morphologies can be applied for analyzing homology and apomorphy statements without circular reasoning. Since these phylogenetic tools are rarely used, their principles and interpretation are introduced and exemplified using various groups of ciliates. Finally, environmental sequencing data are discussed in this light. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. Darbysh. is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN], the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first

  4. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a sheep pox virus isolated from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X L; Yang, F; Li, H X; Dou, Y X; Meng, X L; Li, H; Luo, X N; Cai, X P

    2013-05-14

    An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus.

  5. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the Saudi strain Riyadh 105/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almajhdi Fahad N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.

  6. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LEARNING-RELATED NEUROMODULATION IN MOLLUSCAN MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William G; Kirschman, David; Rozen, Danny; Maynard, Barbara

    1996-12-01

    In spite of significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of learning and memory in a variety of organisms, little is known about how such mechanisms evolve. Even mechanisms of simple forms of learning, such as habituation and sensitization, have not been studied phylogenetically. Here we begin an evolutionary analysis of learning-related neuromodulation in species related to the well-studied opisthobranch gastropod, Aplysia californica. In Aplysia, increased spike duration and excitability in mechanosensory neurons contribute to several forms of learning-related changes to defensive withdrawal reflexes. The modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT), is thought to play a critical role in producing these firing property changes. In the present study, we tested mechanosensory homologs of the tail-withdrawal reflex in species related to Aplysia for 5-HT-mediated increases in spike duration and excitability. Criteria used to identify homologous tail-sensory neurons included position, relative size, resting electrical properties, expression of a sensory neuron-specific protein, neuroanatomy, and receptive field. The four ingroup species studied (Aplysia californica, Dolabella auricularia, Bursatella leachii, and Dolabrifera dolabrifera) belong to two clades (two species each) within the family Aplysiidae. In the first clade (Aplysia/Dolabella), we found that the tail-sensory neurons of A. californica and tail-sensory homologs of a closely related species, D. auricularia, responded to bath-applied serotonin in essentially similar fashion: significant increases in spike duration as well as excitability. In the other clade (Dolabrifera/Bursatella), more distantly related to Aplysia, one species (B. leachii) showed spike broadening and increased excitability. However, the other species (D. dolabrifera) showed neither spike broadening nor increased excitability. The firing properties of tail-sensory homologs of D. dolabrifera were insensitive

  7. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  9. Np Analysis of Freshly Separated Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Np analysis has historically relied upon the Pa/Np secular equilibrium for quantitative results. The Savannah River Site has recently undertaken a mission concerning Np. In this application, Np is separated from Pa, packaged, possibly mixed with other batches, and assayed. The fresh separation and mixing of batches prevents the use of the Pa133 prodigy peaks for assay. This effort was a developmental project novel in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the challenges encountered in the design of instrumentation to assay Np directly. The most abundant Np peak that is unfettered by Pa prodigy, Am, or other SNM materials is the 29.6keV. Quantitative measurement of such a low energy peak presents significant problems with attenuation, Compton effects, and other such issues that arise while trying to maximize the effects of low energy peaks. The solutions rely on exploiting the ''tried and true'' methods with regard to shielding, detector technology, and calibration techniques, but wit h a very low energy perspective. The results are intriguing and, with some assumptions regarding sample homogeneity, quantitative within normal MC and A statistics

  10. An Improved Binary Differential Evolution Algorithm to Infer Tumor Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Liao, Bo; Zhu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Tumourigenesis is a mutation accumulation process, which is likely to start with a mutated founder cell. The evolutionary nature of tumor development makes phylogenetic models suitable for inferring tumor evolution through genetic variation data. Copy number variation (CNV) is the major genetic marker of the genome with more genes, disease loci, and functional elements involved. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) accurately measures multiple gene copy number of hundreds of single cells. We propose an improved binary differential evolution algorithm, BDEP, to infer tumor phylogenetic tree based on FISH platform. The topology analysis of tumor progression tree shows that the pathway of tumor subcell expansion varies greatly during different stages of tumor formation. And the classification experiment shows that tree-based features are better than data-based features in distinguishing tumor. The constructed phylogenetic trees have great performance in characterizing tumor development process, which outperforms other similar algorithms.

  11. Origin and evolution of group XI secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum) based on phylogenetic analysis of conserved domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Payal; Saini, Raman; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-07-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) belongs to class of lipolytic enzymes (EC 3.1.1.4). Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and free fatty acids (FFAs) are the products of PLA 2 catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides at sn-2 position. LPA and FFA that act as second mediators involved in the development and maturation of plants and animals. Mining of flax genome identified two phospholipase A 2 encoding genes, viz., LusPLA 2 I and LusPLA 2 II (Linum usitatissimum secretory phospholipase A 2 ). Molecular simulation of LusPLA 2 s with already characterized plant sPLA 2 s revealed the presence of conserved motifs and signature domains necessary to classify them as secretory phospholipase A 2 . Phylogenetic analysis of flax sPLA 2 with representative sPLA 2 s from other organisms revealed that they evolved rapidly via gene duplication/deletion events and shares a common ancestor. Our study is the first report of detailed phylogenetic analysis for secretory phospholipase A 2 in flax. Comparative genomic analysis of two LusPLA 2 s with earlier reported plant sPLA 2 s, based on their gene architectures, sequence similarities, and domain structures are presented elucidating the uniqueness of flax sPLA 2 .

  12. Patterns of forest phylogenetic community structure across the United States and their possible forest health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of phylogenetic relationships among co-occurring tree species offers insights into the ecological organization of forest communities from an evolutionary perspective and, when employed regionally across thousands of plots, can assist in forest health assessment. Phylogenetic clustering of species, when species are more closely related than expected by...

  13. Sustainable process design & analysis of hybrid separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Befort, Bridgette; Garg, Nipun

    2016-01-01

    Distillation is an energy intensive operation in chemical process industries. There are around 40,000 distillation columns in operation in the US, requiring approximately 40% of the total energy consumption in US chemical process industries. However, analysis of separations by distillation has...... shown that more than 50% of energy is spent in purifying the last 5-10% of the distillate product. Membrane modules on the other hand can achieve high purity separations at lower energy costs, but if the flux is high, it requires large membrane area. A hybrid scheme where distillation and membrane...... modules are combined such that each operates at its highest efficiency, has the potential for significant energy reduction without significant increase of capital costs. This paper presents a method for sustainable design of hybrid distillation-membrane schemes with guaranteed reduction of energy...

  14. Phylogenetic Position of Barbus lacerta Heckel, 1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-11-01

    As a result, five clades come out from phylogenetic reconstruction and in phylogenetic tree Barbus lacerta determined to be sister group of Barbus macedonicus, Barbus oligolepis and Barbus plebejus complex.

  15. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS WHITHIN THE PRISTIMANTIS UNISTRIGATUS (ANURA, CRAUGASTORIDAE GROUP BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO MARIO HOYOS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a phylogenetic analysis within the Pristimantis unistrigatus group (Anura, Craugastoridae of Colombia . Characters from the superficial muscles of the hands and feet as well as external characters were taken for analysis. Most of the muscle characters were observed directly, and some were taken from the literature. Similarly, the external ones were taken mostly from the original descriptions and others from the literature as well. Two matrices were constructed, as the species belonging to this group have changed in recent years with respect to the initially proposed when the group was defined. The results lead us to conclude that the group is not monophyletic, although there are some relationships that are worth to survey because they are kept in the very last cladograms obtained for both proposals. It is suggested that these last relationships should be explored in particular, and the overall group in general, increasing the number of characters and taxa that belong to P. unistrigatus. An open question we left is whether actually is worth to keep these informal taxonomic hierarchy called group within the genera of anurans.

  16. Effects of Phylogenetic Tree Style on Student Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Jonathan Andrew

    Phylogenetic trees are powerful tools of evolutionary biology that have become prominent across the life sciences. Consequently, learning to interpret and reason from phylogenetic trees is now an essential component of biology education. However, students often struggle to understand these diagrams, even after explicit instruction. One factor that has been observed to affect student understanding of phylogenetic trees is style (i.e., diagonal or bracket). The goal of this dissertation research was to systematically explore effects of style on student interpretations and construction of phylogenetic trees in the context of an introductory biology course. Before instruction, students were significantly more accurate with bracket phylogenetic trees for a variety of interpretation and construction tasks. Explicit instruction that balanced the use of diagonal and bracket phylogenetic trees mitigated some, but not all, style effects. After instruction, students were significantly more accurate for interpretation tasks involving taxa relatedness and construction exercises when using the bracket style. Based on this dissertation research and prior studies on style effects, I advocate for introductory biology instructors to use only the bracket style. Future research should examine causes of style effects and variables other than style to inform the development of research-based instruction that best supports student understanding of phylogenetic trees.

  17. [Comparative leaf anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of 11 species of Laeliinae with emphasis on Brassavola (Orchidaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Savelli, Eliana; Jáuregui, Damelis

    2011-09-01

    Brassavola inhabits a wide altitude range and habitat types from Northern Mexico to Northern Argentina. Classification schemes in plants have normally used vegetative and floral characters, but when species are very similar, as in this genus, conflicts arise in species delimitation, and alternative methods should be applied. In this study we explored the taxonomic and phylogenetic value of the anatomical structure of leaves in Brassavola; as ingroup, seven species of Brassavola were considered, and as an outgroup Guarianthe skinneri, Laelia anceps, Rhyncholaelia digbyana and Rhyncholaelia glauca were evaluated. Leaf anatomical characters were studied in freehand cross sections of the middle portion with a light microscope. Ten vegetative anatomical characters were selected and coded for the phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out under maximum parsimony using the program NONA through WinClada. Overall, Brassavola species reveal a wide variety of anatomical characters, many of them associated with xeromorphic plants: thick cuticle, hypodermis and cells of the mesophyll with spiral thickenings in the secondary wall. Moreover, mesophyll is either homogeneous or heterogeneous, often with extravascular bundles of fibers near the epidermis at both terete and flat leaves. All vascular bundles are collateral, arranged in more than one row in the mesophyll. The phylogenetic analysis did not resolve internal relationships of the genus; we obtained a polytomy, indicating that the anatomical characters by themselves have little phylogenetic value in Brassavola. We concluded that few anatomical characters are phylogenetically important; however, they would provide more support to elucidate the phylogenetic relantionships in the Orchidaceae and other plant groups if they are used in conjunction with morphological and/or molecular characters.

  18. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  19. Fast and accurate phylogenetic reconstruction from high-resolution whole-genome data and a novel robustness estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Rajan, V; Moret, B M E

    2011-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of whole-genome data has renewed interest in the study of genomic rearrangements. Comparative genomics, evolutionary biology, and cancer research all require models and algorithms to elucidate the mechanisms, history, and consequences of these rearrangements. However, even simple models lead to NP-hard problems, particularly in the area of phylogenetic analysis. Current approaches are limited to small collections of genomes and low-resolution data (typically a few hundred syntenic blocks). Moreover, whereas phylogenetic analyses from sequence data are deemed incomplete unless bootstrapping scores (a measure of confidence) are given for each tree edge, no equivalent to bootstrapping exists for rearrangement-based phylogenetic analysis. We describe a fast and accurate algorithm for rearrangement analysis that scales up, in both time and accuracy, to modern high-resolution genomic data. We also describe a novel approach to estimate the robustness of results-an equivalent to the bootstrapping analysis used in sequence-based phylogenetic reconstruction. We present the results of extensive testing on both simulated and real data showing that our algorithm returns very accurate results, while scaling linearly with the size of the genomes and cubically with their number. We also present extensive experimental results showing that our approach to robustness testing provides excellent estimates of confidence, which, moreover, can be tuned to trade off thresholds between false positives and false negatives. Together, these two novel approaches enable us to attack heretofore intractable problems, such as phylogenetic inference for high-resolution vertebrate genomes, as we demonstrate on a set of six vertebrate genomes with 8,380 syntenic blocks. A copy of the software is available on demand.

  20. Using ESTs for phylogenomics: Can one accurately infer a phylogenetic tree from a gappy alignment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Stefanie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While full genome sequences are still only available for a handful of taxa, large collections of partial gene sequences are available for many more. The alignment of partial gene sequences results in a multiple sequence alignment containing large gaps that are arranged in a staggered pattern. The consequences of this pattern of missing data on the accuracy of phylogenetic analysis are not well understood. We conducted a simulation study to determine the accuracy of phylogenetic trees obtained from gappy alignments using three commonly used phylogenetic reconstruction methods (Neighbor Joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood and studied ways to improve the accuracy of trees obtained from such datasets. Results We found that the pattern of gappiness in multiple sequence alignments derived from partial gene sequences substantially compromised phylogenetic accuracy even in the absence of alignment error. The decline in accuracy was beyond what would be expected based on the amount of missing data. The decline was particularly dramatic for Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony, where the majority of gappy alignments contained 25% to 40% incorrect quartets. To improve the accuracy of the trees obtained from a gappy multiple sequence alignment, we examined two approaches. In the first approach, alignment masking, potentially problematic columns and input sequences are excluded from from the dataset. Even in the absence of alignment error, masking improved phylogenetic accuracy up to 100-fold. However, masking retained, on average, only 83% of the input sequences. In the second approach, alignment subdivision, the missing data is statistically modelled in order to retain as many sequences as possible in the phylogenetic analysis. Subdivision resulted in more modest improvements to alignment accuracy, but succeeded in including almost all of the input sequences. Conclusion These results demonstrate that partial gene

  1. Using ESTs for phylogenomics: can one accurately infer a phylogenetic tree from a gappy alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Vision, Todd J

    2008-03-26

    While full genome sequences are still only available for a handful of taxa, large collections of partial gene sequences are available for many more. The alignment of partial gene sequences results in a multiple sequence alignment containing large gaps that are arranged in a staggered pattern. The consequences of this pattern of missing data on the accuracy of phylogenetic analysis are not well understood. We conducted a simulation study to determine the accuracy of phylogenetic trees obtained from gappy alignments using three commonly used phylogenetic reconstruction methods (Neighbor Joining, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood) and studied ways to improve the accuracy of trees obtained from such datasets. We found that the pattern of gappiness in multiple sequence alignments derived from partial gene sequences substantially compromised phylogenetic accuracy even in the absence of alignment error. The decline in accuracy was beyond what would be expected based on the amount of missing data. The decline was particularly dramatic for Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony, where the majority of gappy alignments contained 25% to 40% incorrect quartets. To improve the accuracy of the trees obtained from a gappy multiple sequence alignment, we examined two approaches. In the first approach, alignment masking, potentially problematic columns and input sequences are excluded from from the dataset. Even in the absence of alignment error, masking improved phylogenetic accuracy up to 100-fold. However, masking retained, on average, only 83% of the input sequences. In the second approach, alignment subdivision, the missing data is statistically modelled in order to retain as many sequences as possible in the phylogenetic analysis. Subdivision resulted in more modest improvements to alignment accuracy, but succeeded in including almost all of the input sequences. These results demonstrate that partial gene sequences and gappy multiple sequence alignments can pose a

  2. Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, David B; Cain, Daniel J; Martin, Caitrin A; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, Samuel N; Garland, Theodore

    2008-06-17

    We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature.

  3. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S

    2002-04-01

    The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.

  4. Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2 attached at the base of tree as the diverging Iridaceae relative's lineage. Present study revealed that psbA-trnH region are useful in addressing questions of phylogenetic relationships among the Gladiolus cultivars, as these intergenic spacers are more variable and have more phylogenetically informative sites than the ...

  5. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis reveals that shochu-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains form a distinct sub-clade of the Japanese sake cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Taiki; Kadooka, Chihiro; Ando, Yoshinori; Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Setoguchi, Shinji; Takamine, Kazunori; Kawai, Mikihiko; Tamaki, Hisanori

    2017-10-01

    Shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled spirit. The formation of the distinguishing flavour of shochu produced in individual distilleries is attributed to putative indigenous yeast strains. In this study, we performed the first (to our knowledge) phylogenetic classification of shochu strains based on nucleotide gene sequences. We performed phylogenetic classification of 21 putative indigenous shochu yeast strains isolated from 11 distilleries. All of these strains were shown or confirmed to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sharing species identification with 34 known S. cerevisiae strains (including commonly used shochu, sake, ale, whisky, bakery, bioethanol and laboratory yeast strains and clinical isolate) that were tested in parallel. Our analysis used five genes that reflect genome-level phylogeny for the strain-level classification. In a first step, we demonstrated that partial regions of the ZAP1, THI7, PXL1, YRR1 and GLG1 genes were sufficient to reproduce previous sub-species classifications. In a second step, these five analysed regions from each of 25 strains (four commonly used shochu strains and the 21 putative indigenous shochu strains) were concatenated and used to generate a phylogenetic tree. Further analysis revealed that the putative indigenous shochu yeast strains form a monophyletic group that includes both the shochu yeasts and a subset of the sake group strains; this cluster is a sister group to other sake yeast strains, together comprising a sake-shochu group. Differences among shochu strains were small, suggesting that it may be possible to correlate subtle phenotypic differences among shochu flavours with specific differences in genome sequences. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Point estimates in phylogenetic reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Philipp; Bacak, Miroslav; Bourguignon, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The construction of statistics for summarizing posterior samples returned by a Bayesian phylogenetic study has so far been hindered by the poor geometric insights available into the space of phylogenetic trees, and ad hoc methods such as the derivation of a consensus tree makeup for the ill-definition of the usual concepts of posterior mean, while bootstrap methods mitigate the absence of a sound concept of variance. Yielding satisfactory results with sufficiently concentrated pos...

  7. Phylogenetic analysis and inflow route of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Bemisia tabaci in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejung; Song, Woogeun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jae-Deok; Park, Jungan; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2010-11-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, members of which are characterized by closed circular single-stranded DNA genomes of 2.7-2.8 kb in length, and include viruses transmitted by the Bemisia tabaci whitefly. No reports of TYLCV in Korea are available prior to 2008, after which TYLCV spread rapidly to most regions of the southern Korean peninsula (Gyeongsang-Do, Jeolla-Do and Jeju-Do). Fifty full sequences of TYLCV were analyzed in this study, and the AC1, AV1, IR, and full sequences were analyzed via the muscle program and bayesian analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Korea TYLCVs were divided into two subgroups. The TYLCV Korea 1 group (Masan) originated from TYLCV Japan (Miyazaki) and the TYLCV Korea 2 group (Jeju/Jeonju) from TYLCV Japan (Tosa/Haruno). A B. tabaci phylogenetic tree was constructed with 16S rRNA and mitochondria cytochrome oxidase I (MtCOI) sequences using the muscle program and MEGA 4.0 in the neighbor-joining algorithm. The sequence data of 16S rRNA revealed that Korea B. tabaci was closely aligned to B. tabaci isolated in Iran and Nigeria. The Q type of B. tabaci, which was originally identified as a viruliferous insect in 2008, was initially isolated in Korea as a non-viruliferous insect in 2005. Therefore, we suggest that two TYLCV Japan isolates were introduced to Korea via different routes, and then transmitted by native B. tabaci.

  8. Bayesian nonparametric clustering in phylogenetics: modeling antigenic evolution in influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybis, Gabriela B; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A

    2018-01-30

    Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods. We propose a phylogenetic Chinese restaurant process that extends the current process to incorporate the phylogenetic dependency structure between strains in the modeling of antigenic clusters. With this method, we are able to use the genetic information to better understand the evolution of antigenicity throughout epidemics, as shown in applications of this model to H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from giant panda and raccoon dogs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species. Conclusions These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China. PMID:23566727

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  11. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.R.; Hanson, D.E.; Hall, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

  13. PHYLOGEOrec: A QGIS plugin for spatial phylogeographic reconstruction from phylogenetic tree and geographical information data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashrulloh, Maulana Malik; Kurniawan, Nia; Rahardi, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The increasing availability of genetic sequence data associated with explicit geographic and environment (including biotic and abiotic components) information offers new opportunities to study the processes that shape biodiversity and its patterns. Developing phylogeography reconstruction, by integrating phylogenetic and biogeographic knowledge, provides richer and deeper visualization and information on diversification events than ever before. Geographical information systems such as QGIS provide an environment for spatial modeling, analysis, and dissemination by which phylogenetic models can be explicitly linked with their associated spatial data, and subsequently, they will be integrated with other related georeferenced datasets describing the biotic and abiotic environment. We are introducing PHYLOGEOrec, a QGIS plugin for building spatial phylogeographic reconstructions constructed from phylogenetic tree and geographical information data based on QGIS2threejs. By using PHYLOGEOrec, researchers can integrate existing phylogeny and geographical information data, resulting in three-dimensional geographic visualizations of phylogenetic trees in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Such formats can be overlaid on a map using QGIS and finally, spatially viewed in QGIS by means of a QGIS2threejs engine for further analysis. KML can also be viewed in reputable geobrowsers with KML-support (i.e., Google Earth).

  14. Climate and life-history evolution in evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae): a phylogenetic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Margaret E K; Hearn, David J; Hahn, William J; Spangle, Jennifer M; Venable, D Lawrence

    2005-09-01

    Evolutionary ecologists have long sought to understand the conditions under which perennial (iteroparous) versus annual (semelparous) plant life histories are favored. We evaluated the idea that aridity and variation in the length of droughts should favor the evolution of an annual life history, both by decreasing adult survival and by increasing the potential for high seedling survival via reduced plant cover. We calculated phylogenetically independent contrasts of climate with respect to life history in a clade of winter-establishing evening primroses (sections Anogra and Kleinia; Oenothera; Onagraceae), which includes seven annuals, 12 perennials, and two variable taxa. Climate variables were quantified from long-term records at weather stations near collection localities. To explicitly account for phylogenetic uncertainty, contrasts were calculated on a random sample of phylogenetic trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data. Statements of association are based on comparing the per-tree mean contrast, which has a null expectation of zero, to a set of per-tree mean contrasts calculated on the same trees, after randomizing the climate data. As predicted, increased annual aridity, increased annual potential evapotranspiration, and decreased annual precipitation were associated with transitions to the annual habit, but these trends were not significantly different from the null pattern. Transitions to the annual habit were not significantly associated with increases in one measure of aridity in summer nor with increased summer drought, but they were associated with significantly increased maximum summer temperatures. In winter, increased aridity and decreased precipitation were significantly associated with transitions to the annual habit. Changes in life history were not significantly associated with changes in the coefficient of variation of precipitation, either on an annual or seasonal (summer vs. winter) basis. Though we

  15. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  16. Conservation threats and the phylogenetic utility of IUCN Red List rankings in Incilius toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachat, Sandra R; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Mendelson, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of extinction threat is an emerging tool in the field of conservation. However, there are problems with the methods and data as commonly used. Phylogenetic sampling usually extends to the level of family or genus, but International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rankings are available only for individual species, and, although different species within a taxonomic group may have the same IUCN rank, the species may have been ranked as such for different reasons. Therefore, IUCN rank may not reflect evolutionary history and thus may not be appropriate for use in a phylogenetic context. To be used appropriately, threat-risk data should reflect the cause of extinction threat rather than the IUCN threat ranking. In a case study of the toad genus Incilius, with phylogenetic sampling at the species level (so that the resolution of the phylogeny matches character data from the IUCN Red List), we analyzed causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings by calculating metrics of phylogenetic signal (such as Fritz and Purvis' D). We also analyzed the extent to which cause of decline and threat ranking overlap by calculating phylogenetic correlation between these 2 types of character data. Incilius species varied greatly in both threat ranking and cause of decline; this variability would be lost at a coarser taxonomic resolution. We found far more phylogenetic signal, likely correlated with evolutionary history, for causes of decline than for IUCN threat ranking. Individual causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings were largely uncorrelated on the phylogeny. Our results demonstrate the importance of character selection and taxonomic resolution when extinction threat is analyzed in a phylogenetic context. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Biosynthesis of ribose-5-phosphate and erythrose-4-phosphate in archaea: a phylogenetic analysis of archaeal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Soderberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP pathway, and the chorismate pathway of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, employing data from 13 complete archaeal genomes, provides a potential explanation for the enigmatic phylogenetic patterns of the PPP genes in archaea. Genomic and biochemical evidence suggests that three archaeal species (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Thermoplasma acidophilum and Thermoplasma volcanium produce ribose-5-phosphate via the nonoxidative PPP (NOPPP, whereas nine species apparently lack an NOPPP but may employ a reverse RuMP pathway for pentose synthesis. One species (Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 lacks both the NOPPP and the RuMP pathway but may possess a modified oxidative PPP (OPPP, the details of which are not yet known. The presence of transketolase in several archaeal species that are missing the other two NOPPP genes can be explained by the existence of differing requirements for erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P among archaea: six species use transketolase to make E4P as a precursor to aromatic amino acids, six species apparently have an alternate biosynthetic pathway and may not require the ability to make E4P, and one species (Pyrococcus horikoshii probably does not synthesize aromatic amino acids at all.

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli strains mainly fall into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and that virulent extra‑intestinal strains mainly belong to groups B2 and D. Aim: The aim was to determine the association between phylogenetic groups of E. coli causing extraintestinal infections (ExPEC) regarding the site of ...

  19. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Thermophile Community Within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Yohandini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A community of thermophiles within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring (South Sumatera have been cultivated and identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The hot spring has temperature 80 °C–91 °C and pH 7–8. We used a simple method for culturing the microbes, by enriching the spring water with nutrient broth media. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the method could recover microbes, which clustered within four distinct taxonomic groups: Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. These microbes closely related to Anoxybacillus rupiensis, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Geobacillus pallidus, Brevibacillus thermoruber, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of one isolate only had 96% similarity with Brevibacillus sequence in GenBank.

  20. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though computationally intensive alternative for model selection. Application of the algorithm is illustrated using Fisher's iris data set and Howells' craniometric data set. Mixed ICA/PCA is of potential interest in any field of scientific investigation where the authenticity of blindly separated non-Gaussian sources might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian. PMID:25811988

  1. Theoretic analysis for gravity separation of water droplets in PWR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shixun

    1995-10-01

    Gravity separation space of water droplets in the PWR steam generator is one of three important separating mechanisms and provides a link between primary (vane) separator and chevron dryer. The design of steam generator should not only have highly efficient and compact separator and dryer, but also an adequate height of gravity separation space. Too short a gravity separation space will not sufficiently separate the moisture and adversely affect the performance of the dryer; too long a gravity separation space will add additional costs for steam generator and nuclear island installation. The droplet entrainment in the process of gravity separation space was theoretically studied and droplet trajectory was analytically modelled. A general expression for the height required by gravity separation, diameter and velocity of those droplets carried over was also obtained. In the analysis, the slip between two phases was considered and a combined term of diameter and viscosity was introduced. The modelling can provide a theoretical basis for determining the height of the gravity separation space. (2 refs., 2 figs.)

  2. Phylogenetic and Functional Structure of Wintering Waterbird Communities Associated with Ecological Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xianli; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Qing; Møller, Anders; Zou, Fasheng

    2018-01-19

    Ecological differences may be related to community component divisions between Oriental (west) and Sino-Japanese (east) realms, and such differences may result in weak geographical breaks in migratory species that are highly mobile. Here, we conducted comparative phylogenetic and functional structure analyses of wintering waterbird communities in southern China across two realms and subsequently examined possible climate drivers of the observed patterns. An analysis based on such highly migratory species is particularly telling because migration is bound to reduce or completely eliminate any divergence between communities. Phylogenetic and functional structure of eastern communities showed over-dispersion while western communities were clustered. Basal phylogenetic and functional turnover of western communities was significant lower than that of eastern communities. The break between eastern and western communities was masked by these two realms. Geographic patterns were related to mean temperature changes and temperature fluctuations, suggesting that temperature may filter waterbird lineages and traits, thus underlying geographical community divisions. These results suggest phylogenetic and functional divisions in southern China, coinciding with biogeography. This study shows that temperature fluctuations constitute an essential mechanism shaping geographical divisions that have largely gone undetected previously, even under climate change.

  3. A Practical Algorithm for Reconstructing Level-1 Phylogenetic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T. Huber; L.J.J. van Iersel (Leo); S.M. Kelk (Steven); R. Suchecki

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractRecently much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks - a type of

  4. A practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, K.T.; Iersel, van L.J.J.; Kelk, S.M.; Suchecki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here, we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks-a type of network

  5. Fast Computations for Measures of Phylogenetic Beta Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Tsirogiannis

    Full Text Available For many applications in ecology, it is important to examine the phylogenetic relations between two communities of species. More formally, let [Formula: see text] be a phylogenetic tree and let A and B be two samples of its tips, representing the examined communities. We want to compute a value that expresses the phylogenetic diversity between A and B in [Formula: see text]. There exist several measures that can do this; these are the so-called phylogenetic beta diversity (β-diversity measures. Two popular measures of this kind are the Community Distance (CD and the Common Branch Length (CBL. In most applications, it is not sufficient to compute the value of a beta diversity measure for two communities A and B; we also want to know if this value is relatively large or small compared to all possible pairs of communities in [Formula: see text] that have the same size. To decide this, the ideal approach is to compute a standardised index that involves the mean and the standard deviation of this measure among all pairs of species samples that have the same number of elements as A and B. However, no method exists for computing exactly and efficiently this index for CD and CBL. We present analytical expressions for computing the expectation and the standard deviation of CD and CBL. Based on these expressions, we describe efficient algorithms for computing the standardised indices of the two measures. Using standard algorithmic analysis, we provide guarantees on the theoretical efficiency of our algorithms. We implemented our algorithms and measured their efficiency in practice. Our implementations compute the standardised indices of CD and CBL in less than twenty seconds for a hundred pairs of samples on trees with 7 ⋅ 10(4 tips. Our implementations are available through the R package PhyloMeasures.

  6. Bias in phylogenetic reconstruction of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B S; Campbell, D L

    2000-08-01

    Two spurious nodes were found in phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences in comparison with well-established vertebrate relationships. These spurious reconstructions were well supported in bootstrap analyses and occurred independently of the method of phylogenetic analysis used (parsimony, distance, or likelihood). Use of this data set of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences allowed us to exploit established vertebrate relationships, as well as the considerable amount known about the molecular evolution of this gene, in order to identify important factors contributing to the spurious reconstructions. Simulation studies using parametric bootstrapping indicate that it is unlikely that the spurious nodes in the parsimony analyses are due to long branches or other topological effects. Rather, they appear to be due to base compositional bias at third positions, codon bias, and convergent evolution at nucleotide positions encoding the hydrophobic residues isoleucine, leucine, and valine. LogDet distance methods, as well as maximum-likelihood methods which allow for nonstationary changes in base composition, reduce but do not entirely eliminate support for the spurious resolutions. Inclusion of five additional rhodopsin sequences in the phylogenetic analyses largely corrected one of the spurious reconstructions while leaving the other unaffected. The additional sequences not only were more proximal to the corrected node, but were also found to have intermediate levels of base composition and codon bias as compared with neighboring sequences on the tree. This study shows that the spurious reconstructions can be corrected either by excluding third positions, as well as those encoding the amino acids Ile, Val, and Leu (which may not be ideal, as these sites can contain useful phylogenetic signal for other parts of the tree), or by the addition of sequences that reduce problems associated with convergent evolution.

  7. Accelerating phylogenetics computing on the desktop: experiments with executing UPGMA in programmable logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J P; Akella, S; Waddell, P H

    2004-01-01

    Having greater computational power on the desktop for processing taxa data sets has been a dream of biologists/statisticians involved in phylogenetics data analysis. Many existing algorithms have been highly optimized-one example being Felsenstein's PHYLIP code, written in C, for UPGMA and neighbor joining algorithms. However, the ability to process more than a few tens of taxa in a reasonable amount of time using conventional computers has not yielded a satisfactory speedup in data processing, making it difficult for phylogenetics practitioners to quickly explore data sets-such as might be done from a laptop computer. We discuss the application of custom computing techniques to phylogenetics. In particular, we apply this technology to speed up UPGMA algorithm execution by a factor of a hundred, against that of PHYLIP code running on the same PC. We report on these experiments and discuss how custom computing techniques can be used to not only accelerate phylogenetics algorithm performance on the desktop, but also on larger, high-performance computing engines, thus enabling the high-speed processing of data sets involving thousands of taxa.

  8. Folding and unfolding phylogenetic trees and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Steel, Mike; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-12-01

    Phylogenetic networks are rooted, labelled directed acyclic graphswhich are commonly used to represent reticulate evolution. There is a close relationship between phylogenetic networks and multi-labelled trees (MUL-trees). Indeed, any phylogenetic network N can be "unfolded" to obtain a MUL-tree U(N) and, conversely, a MUL-tree T can in certain circumstances be "folded" to obtain aphylogenetic network F(T) that exhibits T. In this paper, we study properties of the operations U and F in more detail. In particular, we introduce the class of stable networks, phylogenetic networks N for which F(U(N)) is isomorphic to N, characterise such networks, and show that they are related to the well-known class of tree-sibling networks. We also explore how the concept of displaying a tree in a network N can be related to displaying the tree in the MUL-tree U(N). To do this, we develop aphylogenetic analogue of graph fibrations. This allows us to view U(N) as the analogue of the universal cover of a digraph, and to establish a close connection between displaying trees in U(N) and reconciling phylogenetic trees with networks.

  9. Transcriptional and phylogenetic analysis of five complete ambystomatid salamander mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Amy K; Weisrock, David W; Smith, Jeramiah J; France, Katherine J; Walker, John A; Putta, Srikrishna; Voss, S Randal

    2005-04-11

    We report on a study that extended mitochondrial transcript information from a recent EST project to obtain complete mitochondrial genome sequence for 5 tiger salamander complex species (Ambystoma mexicanum, A. t. tigrinum, A. andersoni, A. californiense, and A. dumerilii). We describe, for the first time, aspects of mitochondrial transcription in a representative amphibian, and then use complete mitochondrial sequence data to examine salamander phylogeny at both deep and shallow levels of evolutionary divergence. The available mitochondrial ESTs for A. mexicanum (N=2481) and A. t. tigrinum (N=1205) provided 92% and 87% coverage of the mitochondrial genome, respectively. Complete mitochondrial sequences for all species were rapidly obtained by using long distance PCR and DNA sequencing. A number of genome structural characteristics (base pair length, base composition, gene number, gene boundaries, codon usage) were highly similar among all species and to other distantly related salamanders. Overall, mitochondrial transcription in Ambystoma approximated the pattern observed in other vertebrates. We inferred from the mapping of ESTs onto mtDNA that transcription occurs from both heavy and light strand promoters and continues around the entire length of the mtDNA, followed by post-transcriptional processing. However, the observation of many short transcripts corresponding to rRNA genes indicates that transcription may often terminate prematurely to bias transcription of rRNA genes; indeed an rRNA transcription termination signal sequence was observed immediately following the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analyses of salamander family relationships consistently grouped Ambystomatidae in a clade containing Cryptobranchidae and Hynobiidae, to the exclusion of Salamandridae. This robust result suggests a novel alternative hypothesis because previous studies have consistently identified Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae as closely related taxa. Phylogenetic analyses of tiger

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli isolates from healthy and diarrhoeic calves in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barzan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates. Certain Escherichia coli strains have been associated with neonatal diarrhoea in ruminants. These strains can be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups, A, B1, B2 and D. Several studies have shown the rela-tionship between phylogeny and pathogenicity of E. coli, a great deal can be obtained by determining the phylogroup of unknown E. coli strains. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diar-rhoea on the genetic composition of E. coli populations isolated from calves. A total of 80 Es-cherichia coli isolates were obtained from healthy and diarrhoeic calves. Phylogenetic grouping was done based on the Clermont triplex PCR method using primers targeted at three genetic markers, chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2. According to our results, phylogenetic group A strains was the most prevalent in both healthy (37.5% and diarrhoeic calves (55%. Group B1 contained 27.5% of isolates in healthy calves, followed by group B2 (17.5%, and group D (7.5%. Also, four isolates from healthy calves were not included in the major phylogenetic groups or subgroups. A total of 14% and 4% of isolates from diarrhoeic calves beloned to phylogroups B2 and D respectively. Although no isolate from diarrhoeic calves was found to belong to group B1, there was no significant difference between healthy and diarrhoeic calves for other phylogroups. There was not a dramatic shift in E. coli phylogroup/subgroup due to occurrence of diarrhoea in calves, except for phylogroup B1 which was higher in healthy calves. This can be due to the difference in secretions of digestive system in diarrhoeic calves which can prevent the conditions for instability of Escherichia coli isolates of phy-logroup B1. The majority of isolates from both healthy and diarrhoeic calves belonged to non-pathogenic phylogentic group A and B1.

  11. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Maria Fernanda; Wiens, John J

    2014-11-22

    The evolution of climatic niche specialization has important implications for many topics in ecology, evolution and conservation. The climatic niche reflects the set of temperature and precipitation conditions where a species can occur. Thus, specialization to a limited set of climatic conditions can be important for understanding patterns of biogeography, species richness, community structure, allopatric speciation, spread of invasive species and responses to climate change. Nevertheless, the factors that determine climatic niche width (level of specialization) remain poorly explored. Here, we test whether species that occur in more extreme climates are more highly specialized for those conditions, and whether there are trade-offs between niche widths on different climatic niche axes (e.g. do species that tolerate a broad range of temperatures tolerate only a limited range of precipitation regimes?). We test these hypotheses in amphibians, using phylogenetic comparative methods and global-scale datasets, including 2712 species with both climatic and phylogenetic data. Our results do not support either hypothesis. Rather than finding narrower niches in more extreme environments, niches tend to be narrower on one end of a climatic gradient but wider on the other. We also find that temperature and precipitation niche breadths are positively related, rather than showing trade-offs. Finally, our results suggest that most amphibian species occur in relatively warm and dry environments and have relatively narrow climatic niche widths on both of these axes. Thus, they may be especially imperilled by anthropogenic climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Topological variation in single-gene phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Castresana, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A recent large-scale phylogenomic study has shown the great degree of topological variation that can be found among eukaryotic phylogenetic trees constructed from single genes, highlighting the problems that can be associated with gene sampling in phylogenetic studies.

  13. A new classification of the Xanthoidea sensu lato (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) based on phylogenetic analysis and traditional systematics and evaluation of all fossil Xanthoidea sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karasawa, H.; Schweitzer, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis was conducted including representatives from all recognized extant and extinct families of the Xanthoidea sensu lato, resulting in one new family, Hypothalassiidae. Four xanthoid families are elevated to superfamily status, resulting in Carpilioidea, Pilumnoidoidea,

  14. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research.

  15. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian; Lomholt, Hans B

    2011-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer...... with reference to a phylogenetic tree based on 78 P. acnes genomes and their gene contents. Further support for a basically clonal population structure of P. acnes and a scenario of global spread of epidemic clones of P. acnes was obtained. Compared with the Belfast scheme, the Aarhus MLST scheme (http...

  16. The use of the discriminant analysis method for e π μ separation in BES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhijin; Wang Taijie; Xie Yigang; Huang Tao

    1994-01-01

    We use the discriminant analysis method in multivariate statistical theory to handle the e π μ separation in BES, describing the principle of the discriminant analysis method, deriving the unstandardized discriminant functions (responsible for particle separation), giving the discriminant efficiency for e π μ and comparing the results from the discriminant analysis method with those obtained in a conventional way. ((orig.))

  17. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252C, 7001 Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2005-11-04