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Sample records for phyllosphere colonization process

  1. Systems-level Proteomics of Two Ubiquitous Leaf Commensals Reveals Complementary Adaptive Traits for Phyllosphere Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B; Schubert, Olga T; Röst, Hannes; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vorholt, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves whereas Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be coregulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Systems-level Proteomics of Two Ubiquitous Leaf Commensals Reveals Complementary Adaptive Traits for Phyllosphere Colonization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B.; Schubert, Olga T.; Röst, Hannes; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves whereas Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be coregulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota. PMID:27457762

  3. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily ...

  4. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-11-29

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands.

  5. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

  6. Site and plant species are important determinants of the Methylobacterium community composition in the plant phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Claudia; Ramette, Alban; Frances, Lisa; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Vorholt, Julia A

    2010-06-01

    The plant phyllosphere constitutes a habitat for numerous microorganisms; among them are members of the genus Methylobacterium. Owing to the ubiquitous occurrence of methylobacteria on plant leaves, they represent a suitable target for studying plant colonization patterns. The influence of the factor site, host plant species, time and the presence of other phyllosphere bacteria on Methylobacterium community composition and population size were evaluated in this study. Leaf samples were collected from Arabidopsis thaliana or Medicago truncatula plants and from the surrounding plant species at several sites. The abundance of cultivable Methylobacterium clearly correlated with the abundance of other phyllosphere bacteria, suggesting that methylobacteria constitute a considerable and rather stable fraction of the phyllosphere microbiota under varying environmental conditions. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was applied to characterize the Methylobacterium community composition and showed the presence of similar communities on A. thaliana plants at most sites in 2 consecutive years of sampling. A substantial part of the observed variation in the community composition was explained by site and plant species, especially in the case of the plants collected at the Arabidopsis sites (50%). The dominating ARISA peaks that were detected on A. thaliana plants were found on other plant species grown at the same site, whereas some different peaks were detected on A. thaliana plants from other sites. This indicates that site-specific factors had a stronger impact on the Methylobacterium community composition than did plant-specific factors and that the Methylobacterium-plant association is not highly host plant species specific.

  7. Interspecific variation of the bacterial community structure in the phyllosphere of the three major plant components of mangrove forests

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    Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests encompass a group of trees species that inhabit the intertidal zones, where soil is characterized by the high salinity and low availability of oxygen. The phyllosphere of these trees represent the habitat provided on the aboveground parts of plants, supporting in a global scale, a large and complex microbial community. The structure of phyllosphere communities reflects immigration, survival and growth of microbial colonizers, which is influenced by numerous environmental factors in addition to leaf physical and chemical properties. Here, a combination of culture-base methods with PCR-DGGE was applied to test whether local or plant specific factors shape the bacterial community of the phyllosphere from three plant species (Avicenia shaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle, found in two mangroves. The number of bacteria in the phyllosphere of these plants varied between 3.62 x 10(4 in A. schaeriana and 6.26 x 10³ in R. mangle. The results obtained by PCR-DGGE and isolation approaches were congruent and demonstrated that each plant species harbor specific bacterial communities in their leaves surfaces. Moreover, the ordination of environmental factors (mangrove and plant species, by redundancy analysis (RDA, also indicated that the selection exerted by plant species is higher than mangrove location on bacterial communities at phyllosphere.

  8. [Processes of plant colonization by Methylobacterium strains and some bacterial properties ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Stoliar, S M; Malashenko, Iu R; Dodatko, T N

    2001-01-01

    The pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMB) of the genus Methylobacterium are indespensible inhabitants of the plant phyllosphere. Using maize Zea mays as a model, the ways of plant colonization by PPFMB and some properties of the latter that might be beneficial to plants were studied. A marked strain, Methylobacterium mesophilicum APR-8 (pULB113), was generated to facilitate the detection of the methylotrophic bacteria inoculated into the soil or applied to the maize leaves. Colonization of maize leaves by M. mesophilicum APR-8 (pULB113) occurred only after the bacteria were applied onto the leaf surface. In this case, the number of PPFMB cells on inoculated leaves increased with plant growth. During seed germination, no colonization of maize leaves with M. mesophilicum cells occurred immediately from the soil inoculated with the marked strain. Thus, under natural conditions, colonization of plant leaves with PPFMB seems to occur via soil particle transfer to the leaves by air. PPFMB monocultures were not antagonistic to phytopathogenic bacteria. However, mixed cultures of epiphytic bacteria containing Methylobacterium mesophilicum or M. extorquens did exhibit an antagonistic effect against the phytopathogenic bacteria studied (Xanthomonas camprestris, Pseudomonas syringae, Erwinia carotovora, Clavibacter michiganense, and Agrobacterium tumifaciens). Neither epiphytic and soil strains of Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophillum, M. mesophilicum, and M. fujisawaense catalyzed ice nucleation. Hence, they cause no frost injury to plants. Thus, the results indicate that the strains of the genus Methylobacterium can protect plants against adverse environmental factors.

  9. Ideology of white racial supremacy: colonization and de-colonization processes

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    Simone Gibran Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review on how the ideology of white racial supremacy dehumanizes and colonizes the minds of Whites and Blacks in Brazil. For this aim I use critical references about whiteness to highlight dehumanization processes in Whites, and I make use of critical references of Black and African studies to examine specific dehumanization processes of the Black population. Furthermore, the work seeks to reflect on possibilities of mental humanization and de-colonization in both groups considering current policies of Affirmative Action in Education in Brazil.

  10. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

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    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  11. Impact of solar radiation exposure on phyllosphere bacterial community of red-pigmented baby leaf lettuce.

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    Truchado, Pilar; Gil, M Isabel; Reboleiro, Patricia; Rodelas, Belén; Allende, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Solar radiation has been identified as a stress factor affecting phyllosphere associated bacteria colonization and survival during primary production. In the present study, the impact of different solar radiation doses on the phyllosphere microbiota of red-pigmented baby leaf lettuce cultivated in open field under commercial conditions was evaluated. Four weeks before harvest, the growing field was divided into four plots; each one was consecutively covered with one-week-interval with a light-excluding plastic to reduce the sunlight exposure. Four different solar radiation treatments were generated and cumulative photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was used to differentiate treatments as follows: 4889 ± 428 μmol/m 2 /s (uncovered), 4265 ± 356 μmol/m 2 /s (covered for 1 week), 3602 ± 225 μmol/m 2 /s (covered for 2 weeks) and 3115 ± 313 μmol/m 2 /s (covered for 3 weeks). The size and composition of the phyllosphere bacterial community were determined by cultivation-depended (plate count) and independent (qPCR) techniques. Exposure to decreased levels of cumulative PAR did not produce significant differences in total bacterial community size, regardless of the chosen quantification techniques. However, total bacteria size quantified by qPCR was around 3.5 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained by plate count. The observed differences between cultivation-depended and independent techniques could be attributed to the presence of non-viable or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria. The bacterial community structure was analyzed using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and significant differences were detected when the four solar treatment were compared. A qPCR approach was applied to the quantification of specific bacterial phyla and classes, previously identified in the phyllosphere of plants available literature, confirming that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacterias and Firmicutes were the most abundantly

  12. Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Phyllosphere of Espeletia Species in an Andean High-Mountain Ecosystem.

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    Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Restrepo, Silvia; Zambrano, María Mercedes

    2016-01-08

    Microbial populations residing in close contact with plants can be found in the rhizosphere, in the phyllosphere as epiphytes on the surface, or inside plants as endophytes. Here, we analyzed the microbiota associated with Espeletia plants, endemic to the Páramo environment of the Andes Mountains and a unique model for studying microbial populations and their adaptations to the adverse conditions of high-mountain neotropical ecosystems. Communities were analyzed using samples from the rhizosphere, necromass, and young and mature leaves, the last two analyzed separately as endophytes and epiphytes. The taxonomic composition determined by performing sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated differences among populations of the leaf phyllosphere, the necromass, and the rhizosphere, with predominance of some phyla but only few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Functional profiles predicted on the basis of taxonomic affiliations differed from those obtained by GeoChip microarray analysis, which separated community functional capacities based on plant microenvironment. The identified metabolic pathways provided insight regarding microbial strategies for colonization and survival in these ecosystems. This study of novel plant phyllosphere microbiomes and their putative functional ecology is also the first step for future bioprospecting studies in search of enzymes, compounds, or microorganisms relevant to industry or for remediation efforts. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

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    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.

  14. Simulation of the process of the forest colonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Enrique; Zambrano, Ana Maria; Villegas P, Clara Ines

    1998-01-01

    A mathematic model was developed, using system's dynamic, in order to simulate the forest colonization process, taking in consideration variables as the birth and mortality rates in the country sites, the annual income, the migrations of population associated to the economic growth, the available areas for colonization and the technologic cycles of the newly prepared parcel of land. The model is composed by three basic cycles: men in productive age, productive units and available forest, connected through demographic and economic variables. Using several possible scenarios, such as road construction, economic growth due to an exceptional harvest, change in minimum wages in the country, it has been found that the model results coincide with those in the references. This model allows analyzing the influence of several economic policies such as changes in wages, birth control or the prosecution of illegal plantations, on the total area of remaining forest in a specific region

  15. Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Natália; Barnett, Ross; Cucchi, Thomas; Struchen, Rahel; Pascal, Marine; Pascal, Michel; Fischer, Martin C; Higham, Thomas; Brace, Selina; Ho, Simon Y W; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; O'Higgins, Paul; Excoffier, Laurent; Heckel, Gerald; Hoelzel, A Rus; Dobney, Keith M; Searle, Jeremy B

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range of species, including those with low dispersal capabilities. We use morphology, modern and ancient sequences of cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite genotypes to examine colonization history and evolutionary change associated with occupation of the Orkney archipelago by the common vole (Microtus arvalis), a species found in continental Europe but not in Britain. Among possible colonization scenarios, our results are most consistent with human introduction at least 5100 bp (confirmed by radiocarbon dating). We used approximate Bayesian computation of population history to infer the coast of Belgium as the possible source and estimated the evolutionary timescale using a Bayesian coalescent approach. We showed substantial morphological divergence of the island populations, including a size increase presumably driven by selection and reduced microsatellite variation likely reflecting founder events and genetic drift. More surprisingly, our results suggest that a recent and widespread cytb replacement event in the continental source area purged cytb variation there, whereas the ancestral diversity is largely retained in the colonized islands as a genetic 'ark'. The replacement event in the continental M. arvalis was probably triggered by anthropogenic causes (land-use change). Our studies illustrate that small offshore islands can act as field laboratories for studying various evolutionary processes over relatively short timescales, informing about the mainland source area as well as the island. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neutral processes forming large clones during colonization of new areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafajlović, M; Kleinhans, D; Gulliksson, C; Fries, J; Johansson, D; Ardehed, A; Sundqvist, L; Pereyra, R T; Mehlig, B; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2017-08-01

    In species reproducing both sexually and asexually clones are often more common in recently established populations. Earlier studies have suggested that this pattern arises due to natural selection favouring generally or locally successful genotypes in new environments. Alternatively, as we show here, this pattern may result from neutral processes during species' range expansions. We model a dioecious species expanding into a new area in which all individuals are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, and all individuals have equal survival rates and dispersal distances. Even under conditions that favour sexual recruitment in the long run, colonization starts with an asexual wave. After colonization is completed, a sexual wave erodes clonal dominance. If individuals reproduce more than one season, and with only local dispersal, a few large clones typically dominate for thousands of reproductive seasons. Adding occasional long-distance dispersal, more dominant clones emerge, but they persist for a shorter period of time. The general mechanism involved is simple: edge effects at the expansion front favour asexual (uniparental) recruitment where potential mates are rare. Specifically, our model shows that neutral processes (with respect to genotype fitness) during the population expansion, such as random dispersal and demographic stochasticity, produce genotype patterns that differ from the patterns arising in a selection model. The comparison with empirical data from a post-glacially established seaweed species (Fucus radicans) shows that in this case, a neutral mechanism is strongly supported. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on Behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Bacterial Flux by Net Precipitation from the Phyllosphere to the Forest Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, P.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Moore, L. D.; Bittar, T.

    2016-12-01

    Transport pathways of microbes between ecosystem spheres (atmosphere, phyllosphere, and pedosphere) represent major fluxes in nutrient cycles and have the potential to significantly affect microbial ecological processes. We quantified a previously unexamined microbial flux from the phyllosphere to the pedosphere during rainfall and found it to be substantial. Net rainfall bacterial fluxes for throughfall and stemflow were quantified using flow cytometry and a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assay for a Quercus virginiana (Mill., southern live oak) forest with heavy epiphyte cover of Tillandsia usneoides (L., Spanish moss) and Pleopeltis polypodiodes (L., resurrection fern) in coastal Georgia (Southeast USA). Total net precipitation flux of bacteria was 15 quadrillion cells year-1 ha-1, which (assuming a bacterial cell mass of 1 pg) is approximately 15 kg of bacterial biomass supply per year. Stemflow generation was low in this stand (rarely exceeded 10 L storm-1) yet still delivered half the annual net precipitation flux due to high bacterial concentration. The role of this previously unquantified bacterial flux in the forest floor has also been under studied, yet it may be significant by contributing functional community members (if living) or labile lysates (if dead).

  18. Colon cancer and the consumption of red and processed meat: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colon cancer and the consumption of red and processed meat: an association that is medium, rare or well done? ... South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) indicated that red meat is a probable cause of colon cancer, while processed meat was classified ...

  19. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandar, D.; Raja, P.; Sundaram, SP.

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

  20. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, D; Raja, P; Sundaram, Sp

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

  1. Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Natália; Barnett, R.; Cucchi, T.; Struchen, R.; Pascal, M.; Pascal, M.; Fischer, M. C.; Higham, T.; Brace, S.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Quéré, J.-P.; O'Higgins, P.; Excoffier, L.; Heckel, G.; Hoelzel, A. R.; Dobney, K. M.; Searle, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 20 (2013), s. 5205-5220 ISSN 0962-1083 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : demographic analysis * genetic replacement * island colonization * Microtus arvalis * phylogeography Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.840, year: 2013

  2. Long-Term Warming Shifts the Composition of Bacterial Communities in the Phyllosphere of Galium album in a Permanent Grassland Field-Experiment

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    Ebru L. Aydogan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is currently a much discussed topic with as yet largely unexplored consequences for agro-ecosystems. Little is known about the warming effect on the bacterial microbiota inhabiting the plant surface (phyllosphere, which can have a strong impact on plant growth and health, as well as on plant diseases and colonization by human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate surface warming on the diversity and composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota of the herbaceous plant Galium album. Leaves were collected from four control and four surface warmed (+2°C plots located at the field site of the Environmental Monitoring and Climate Impact Research Station Linden in Germany over a 6-year period. Warming had no effect on the concentration of total number of cells attached to the leaf surface as counted by Sybr Green I staining after detachment, but changes in the diversity and phylogenetic composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon sequencing were observed. The bacterial phyllosphere microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Warming caused a significant higher relative abundance of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, and a lower relative abundance of members of the Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Plant beneficial bacteria like Sphingomonas spp. and Rhizobium spp. occurred in significantly lower relative abundance in leaf samples of warmed plots. In contrast, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae, especially Enterobacter and Erwinia, and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. occurred in higher relative abundances in the phyllosphere samples from warmed plots. This study showed for the first time the long-term impact of moderate (+2°C surface warming on the phyllosphere microbiota on

  3. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

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    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  4. Phyllosphere Metaproteomes of Trees from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Show High Levels of Functional Redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambais, M R; Barrera, S E; Santos, E C; Crowley, D E; Jumpponen, A

    2017-01-01

    The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately 20000 plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest (Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia) and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa. Using LC-ESI-Q-TOF, we identified 216 nonredundant proteins, based on 3503 peptide mass spectra. Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here. Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces.

  5. Colon cancer and the consumption of red and processed meat: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect. Although this association was mainly observed for colorectal cancer, associations were also found for pancreatic and prostate ... vegetarian diet in order to prevent colon cancer. ... cancers than males at 5.2% versus 4.8%.3 Stefan4 explains that .... Smoking. X-radiation, gamma radiation. Processed meat consumption.

  6. Assessing the impact of fungicide enostroburin application on bacterial community in wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Likun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Hu, Qing; Wang, Huili; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    Fungicides have been used extensively for controlling fungal pathogens of plants. However, little is known regarding the effects that fungicides upon the indigenous bacterial communities within the plant phyllosphere. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of fungicide enostroburin upon bacterial communities in wheat phyllosphere. Culture-independent methodologies of 16S rDNA clone library and 16S rDNA directed polymerase chain reaction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used for monitoring the change of bacterial community. The 16S rDNA clone library and PCR-DGGE analysis both confirmed the microbial community of wheat plant phyllosphere were predominantly of the gamma-Proteobacteria phyla. Results from PCR-DGGE analysis indicated a significant change in bacterial community structure within the phyllosphere following fungicide enostroburin application. Bands sequenced within control cultures were predominantly of Pseudomonas genus, but those bands sequenced in the treated samples were predominantly strains of Pantoea genus and Pseudomonas genus. Of interest was the appearance of two DGGE bands following fungicide treatment, one of which had sequence similarities (98%) to Pantoea sp. which might be a competitor of plant pathogens. This study revealed the wheat phyllosphere bacterial community composition and a shift in the bacterial community following fungicide enostroburin application.

  7. Measurement of smaller colon polyp in CT colonography images using morphological image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, K N; Siddalingaswamy, P C; Prabhu, G K

    2017-11-01

    Automated measurement of the size and shape of colon polyps is one of the challenges in Computed tomography colonography (CTC). The objective of this retrospective study was to improve the sensitivity and specificity of smaller polyp measurement in CTC using image processing techniques. A domain knowledge-based method has been implemented with hybrid method of colon segmentation, morphological image processing operators for detecting the colonic structures, and the decision-making system for delineating the smaller polyp-based on a priori knowledge. The method was applied on 45 CTC dataset. The key finding was that the smaller polyps were accurately measured. In addition to 6-9 mm range, polyps of even processing. It takes [Formula: see text] min for measuring the smaller polyp in a dataset of 500 CTC images. With this method, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were achieved. The domain-based approach with morphological image processing has given good results. The smaller polyps were measured accurately which helps in making right clinical decisions. Qualitatively and quantitatively the results were acceptable when compared to the ground truth at [Formula: see text].

  8. Importance of regional species pools and functional traits in colonization processes: predicting re-colonization after large-scale destruction of ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirmer, A.; Tischew, S.; Ozinga, W.A.; Lampe, von M.; Baasch, A.; Groenendael, van J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale destruction of ecosystems caused by surface mining provides an opportunity for the study of colonization processes starting with primary succession. Surprisingly, over several decades and without any restoration measures, most of these sites spontaneously developed into valuable biotope

  9. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  10. Season, Irrigation, Leaf Age, and Escherichia coli Inoculation Influence the Bacterial Diversity in the Lettuce Phyllosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Moyne, Anne-Laure; Harris, Linda J.; Marco, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and temporal succession patterns and disturbance responses of phyllosphere bacterial communities are largely unknown. These factors might influence the capacity of human pathogens to persist in association with those communities on agriculturally-relevant plants. In this study, the phyllosphere microbiota was identified for Romaine lettuce plants grown in the Salinas Valley, CA, USA from four plantings performed over 2 years and including two irrigation methods and inoculations with an attenuated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-throughput DNA pyrosequencing of the V5 to V9 variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered in lettuce leaf washes revealed that the bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere was distinct for each field trial but was also strongly correlated with the season of planting. Firmicutes were generally most abundant in early season (June) plantings and Proteobacteria comprised the majority of bacteria recovered later in the year (August and October). Comparisons within individual field trials showed that bacterial diversity differed between sprinkler (overhead) and drip (surface) irrigated lettuce and increased over time as the plants grew. The microbiota were also distinct between control and E. coli O157:H7-inoculated plants and between E. coli O157:H7-inoculated plants with and without surviving pathogen cells. The bacterial inhabitants of the phyllosphere therefore appear to be affected by seasonal, irrigation, and biological factors in ways that are relevant for assessments of fresh produce food safety. PMID:23844230

  11. The Genetic Diversity of Endophytic and Phyllosphere Bacteria from Several Indonesian Herbal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rachelia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have been believed by Indonesians to be an alternative medicine to treat illnesses. The bioactivecompounds in the plant can be derived from secondary metabolites or from endophytic and phyllosphere bacteria whichcoexist within medicinal plants. A total of 18 endophytic bacteria and 32 phyllosphere bacteria were isolated from theherbal plants of Citrus sp., Pluchea indica, Curcuma longa, Nothopanax scuttelarium, Piper crocatum, andAndrographis paniculata. About 72% of endophytic bacteria isolates have proteolytic activity and about 11% havelipolytic activity. On the other hand, about 59% of phyllosphere bacteria isolates have proteolytic activity and about19% have lipolytic activity. Phylogenetic diversity analysis was conducted by using the amplified ribosomal DNArestriction analysis (ARDRA method and the sequence of 16S rDNA was digested with endonuclease restrictionenzymes: MspI, RsaI, and Sau961. The diversity of endophytic and phyllosphere bacterium from the samples of herbalplants was high. Bacteria isolated from the same herbal plant does not always have a close genetic relationship exceptfor the bacteria isolated from the P. indica plant which showed a close genetic relationship with each other.

  12. Maps of the Resettlement Administration and colonization process in Tomsk-Chulym taiga (1905–1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom V. Vasilyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the maps of Resettlements Administration as a valuable source for the history of social infrastructure of Tomsk-Chulym taiga in beginning of 20 century. Due the lack of available areas for colonization, the flow of migrants was forwarded into Siberian taiga spaces. This required a great effort form authorities on the preparation of resettlements: a study of the region, development of communications, construction of social infrastructure, the church building etc. Measures taken by the Resettlement Administration has found its reflection in the map data, attached to the reports of the Administration. Maps of Resettlement Administration are an informative source for the study of colonization of Tomsk-Chulym taiga. More than any other source, they provide a glimpse on the direction of government policies on settling the area, allow to make conclusions about the success of various measures of the authorities and to reconstruct the main stages of the infrastructure and administrative development of the region, as well as the economic activities of migrants. In diachronic aspect they reveal the development of resettlement processes of region; in compression with other sources they allow to analyze the role of those factors, which on a small degree depended on the policy of Resettlement Administration, but affected the colonization of taiga. This is such a strong source as an illegal skit colonization, the influence of which can be traced on the maps. Considering the maps in terms of the audiences for which they were intended, we can also analyze the peasant and official representation of colonial space.

  13. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  14. Plant colonization by pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Zahra S; Tombolini, Riccardo; Gerhardson, Berndt

    2004-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium are characterized by being able to rely on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source and by presenting a more or less intense pink reddish pigmentation. These bacteria, also referred to as pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere and are found in many other environmental samples. Since they grow slowly they are often overlooked and their impact on phyllosphere microbial communities and on the plants harboring them is not well studied nor has their ecology been elucidated. In a survey of PPFM colonization in three different agricultural sites, PPFM populations were identified on both red clover and winter wheat, but red clover was more consistently colonized. Isolations from collected leaves showed PPFM populations to decrease from spring towards summer, but they increased again towards the end of the cropping season. Isolates from red clover readily colonized winter wheat leaves and vice versa in greenhouse experiments, but population sizes were dependent on the application procedure. Tested isolates had also good potential to colonize the rhizosphere, especially after seed inoculations. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed gfp-tagged isolates to colonize the surface of clover leaves by forming large aggregates.

  15. Facebook as a Digital Public Sphere: Processes of Colonization and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarki Valtysson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Facebook, as a communicative space, is treated as a public sphere in order to identify processes of colonization and emancipation. The analysis focuses on Facebook’s communicative-structural contexts, in particular from the viewpoint of user terms, user manoeuvre, privacy/data use policy, and ownership and use of uploaded material. The analysis is also based on qualitative data from Danish Facebook users, where the focus was on the users’ motivation and use, their perceptions of ownership and consumerism, as well as their views on the public/private distinction that Facebook allows for/commands for. Theoretically, the article is grounded in Jürgen Habermas’ various writings on the public sphere, as well as ‘digital adaptations’ to his theory. When looked upon from the communicative-structural contexts, processes of colonization are apparent, particularly in the various grey zones identified in Facebook’s privacy/data use policy, its state-ments of rights and responsibilities and in the fashion in which users are treated as consumers. Even though the Danish Facebook users identified with this, they still conceive of Facebook as being an emancipative communicative space, as they prioritize different features of Facebook, namely networking, practical organisation, maintaining friendships, and leisure.

  16. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H+/2e- processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H + /2e - ), i.e., the first 1H + /1e - (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H + /1e - (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H + /2e - processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pumpkin powdery mildew disease severity influences the fungal diversity of the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Luyun; Tan, Xinqiu; Kong, Xiao; Yang, Jianguo; Wang, Duanhua; Zhang, Deyong; Jin, Decai; Liu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Phyllosphere microbiota play a crucial role in plant-environment interactions and their microbial community and function are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. However, there is little research on how pathogens affect the microbial community of phyllosphere fungi. In this study, we collected 16 pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) leaf samples which exhibited powdery mildew disease, with a severity ranging from L1 (least severe) to L4 (most severe). The fungal community structure and diversity was examined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the fungal communities were dominated by members of the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. The Podosphaera was the most dominant genus on these infected leaves, which was the key pathogen responsible for the pumpkin powdery mildew. The abundance of Ascomycota and Podosphaera increased as disease severity increased from L1 to L4, and was significantly higher at disease severity L4 ( P powdery mildew disease severity.

  18. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city. Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  19. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighigna, L; Gori, A; Gonnelli, S; Favilli, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José) with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city). Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  20. Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. The bacterial diversity on laboratory-grown plants was also significantly lower and contained relatively higher proportions of Betaproteobacteria as opposed to the Gammaproteobacteria-enriched communities on field lettuce. Incubation of field-grown Romaine lettuce plants in environmental growth chambers for 2 weeks resulted in bacterial cell densities and taxa similar to those on plants in the field but with less diverse bacterial populations overall. In comparison, the inoculation of laboratory-grown Romaine lettuce plants with either freshly collected or cryopreserved microorganisms recovered from field lettuce resulted in the development of a field-like microbiota on the lettuce within 2 days of application. The survival of an inoculated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was unchanged by microbial community transfer; however, the inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 onto those plants resulted in significant shifts in the abundance of certain taxa. This finding was strictly dependent on the presence of a field-associated as opposed to a laboratory-associated microbiota on the plants. Phyllosphere microbiota transplantation in the laboratory will be useful for elucidating microbial interactions on plants that are important to agriculture and microbial food safety. PMID:25118240

  1. Diversity and functional traits of culturable microbiome members, including cyanobacteria in the rice phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, S; Ranjan, K; Prasanna, R; Ramakrishnan, B; Thapa, S; Kanchan, A

    2016-07-01

    The diversity and abundance of culturable microbiome members of the rice phyllosphere was investigated using cv. Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509. Both diversity and species richness of bacteria were significantly higher in plants in pots in a semi-controlled environment than those in fields. Application of fertilisers reduced both diversity and species richness in field-grown plants under a conventional flooded system of rice intensification (SRI) and in dry-seeded rice (DSR) modes. Sequence analyses of 16S rDNA of culturable bacteria, those selected after amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), showed the dominance of α-proteobacteria (35%) and actinobacteria (38%); Pantoea, Exiguobacterium and Bacillus were common among the culturable phyllospheric bacteria. About 34% of 83 culturable bacterial isolates had higher potential (>2 μg·ml(-1) ) for indole acetic acid production in the absence of tryptophan. Interestingly, the phyllosphere bacterial isolates from the pot experiment had significantly higher potential for nitrogen fixation than isolates from the field experiment. Enrichment for cyanobacteria showed both unicellular forms and non-heterocystous filaments under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. PCR-DGGE analysis of these showed that aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as the three modes of cultivation of rice in the field strongly influenced the number and abundance of phylotypes. The adaptability and functional traits of these culturable microbiome members suggest enormous diversity in the phyllosphere, including potential for plant growth promotion, which was also significantly influenced by the different methods of growing rice. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembel, Steven W.; O’Connor, Timothy K.; Arnold, Holly K.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Wright, S. Joseph; Green, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The phyllosphere—the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves—is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density–growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant–microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function. PMID:25225376

  3. Metagenomic Signatures of Bacterial Adaptation to Life in the Phyllosphere of a Salt-Secreting Desert Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Omri M; Delmont, Tom O; Post, Anton F; Belkin, Shimshon

    2016-05-01

    The leaves of Tamarix aphylla, a globally distributed, salt-secreting desert tree, are dotted with alkaline droplets of high salinity. To successfully inhabit these organic carbon-rich droplets, bacteria need to be adapted to multiple stress factors, including high salinity, high alkalinity, high UV radiation, and periodic desiccation. To identify genes that are important for survival in this harsh habitat, microbial community DNA was extracted from the leaf surfaces of 10 Tamarix aphylla trees along a 350-km longitudinal gradient. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing, contig assembly, and binning yielded 17 genome bins, six of which were >80% complete. These genomic bins, representing three phyla (Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes), were closely related to halophilic and alkaliphilic taxa isolated from aquatic and soil environments. Comparison of these genomic bins to the genomes of their closest relatives revealed functional traits characteristic of bacterial populations inhabiting the Tamarix phyllosphere, independent of their taxonomic affiliation. These functions, most notably light-sensing genes, are postulated to represent important adaptations toward colonization of this habitat. Plant leaves are an extensive and diverse microbial habitat, forming the main interface between solar energy and the terrestrial biosphere. There are hundreds of thousands of plant species in the world, exhibiting a wide range of morphologies, leaf surface chemistries, and ecological ranges. In order to understand the core adaptations of microorganisms to this habitat, it is important to diversify the type of leaves that are studied. This study provides an analysis of the genomic content of the most abundant bacterial inhabitants of the globally distributed, salt-secreting desert tree Tamarix aphylla Draft genomes of these bacteria were assembled, using the culture-independent technique of assembly and binning of metagenomic data. Analysis of the genomes reveals traits that

  4. Negative plant-phyllosphere feedbacks in native Asteraceae hosts - a novel extension of the plant-soil feedback framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Briana K; Bauer, Jonathan T; Bever, James D; Clay, Keith

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 25 years, the plant-soil feedback (PSF) framework has catalyzed our understanding of how belowground microbiota impact plant fitness and species coexistence. Here, we apply a novel extension of this framework to microbiota associated with aboveground tissues, termed 'plant-phyllosphere feedback (PPFs)'. In parallel greenhouse experiments, rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiota of con- and heterospecific hosts from four species were independently manipulated. In a third experiment, we tested the combined effects of soil and phyllosphere feedback under field conditions. We found that three of four species experienced weak negative PSF whereas, in contrast, all four species experienced strong negative PPFs. Field-based feedback estimates were highly negative for all four species, though variable in magnitude. Our results suggest that phyllosphere microbiota, like rhizosphere microbiota, can potentially mediate plant species coexistence via negative feedbacks. Extension of the PSF framework to the phyllosphere is needed to more fully elucidate plant-microbiota interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Effect of streptomycin treatment on bacterial community structure in the apple phyllosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Yashiro

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of many years of streptomycin use in apple orchards on the proportion of phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin and bacterial community structure. Leaf samples were collected during early July through early September from four orchards that had been sprayed with streptomycin during spring of most years for at least 10 years and four orchards that had not been sprayed. The percentage of cultured phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin at non-sprayed orchards (mean of 65% was greater than at sprayed orchards (mean of 50% (P = 0.0271. For each orchard, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed from leaf samples. Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities at all orchards, accounting for 71 of 104 OTUs (determined at 97% sequence similarity and 93% of all sequences. The genera Massilia, Methylobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were shared across all sites. Shannon and Simpson's diversity indices and Pielou's evenness index were similar among orchards regardless of streptomycin use. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM indicated that long-term streptomycin treatment did not account for the observed variability in community structure among orchards (R = -0.104, P = 0.655. Other variables, including time of summer, temperature and time at sampling, and relative distance of the orchards from each other, also had no significant effect on bacterial community structure. We conclude that factors other than streptomycin exposure drive both the proportion of streptomycin-resistant bacteria and phylogenetic makeup of bacterial communities in the apple phyllosphere in middle to late summer.

  6. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...... and location have minor effects. We found many host-specific fungal pathogens, but also a large diversity of fungi that were relatively insensitive to host genetic background, indicating that host-specific pathogens live in a 'sea' of nonspecific fungi....

  7. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mortelliti, Alessio; Kay, Geoffrey M; Florance, Daniel; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation. We used dynamic occupancy models to investigate the effects of multiple threats (tree cover, grazing, and presence of an hyperaggressive competitor, the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala) on bird-population dynamics in an endangered woodland community in southeastern Australia. The 3 threatening processes had different effects on different species. We used predicted patch-colonization probabilities to estimate the benefit to each species of removing one or more threats. We then determined the complementary set of threat-mitigation strategies that maximized colonization of all species while ensuring that redundant actions with little benefit were avoided. The single action that resulted in the highest colonization was increasing tree cover, which increased patch colonization by 5% and 11% on average across all species and for declining species, respectively. Combining Noisy Miner control with increasing tree cover increased species colonization by 10% and 19% on average for all species and for declining species respectively, and was a higher priority than changing grazing regimes. Guidance for prioritizing threat mitigation is critical in the face of cumulative threatening processes. By incorporating population dynamics in prioritization of threat management, our approach helps ensure funding is not wasted on ineffective management programs that target the wrong threats or species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Distinct effects of struvite and biochar amendment on the class 1 integron antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in phyllosphere and rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin-Li; Chen, Qing-Lin; Zhu, Dong; Su, Jian-Qiang

    2018-08-01

    Struvite recovered from wastewater is promising for recycling phosphorus into soil as fertilizers. However, struvite application may prompt the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant. This study examined the impacts of struvite application and biochar amendment on integrons abundance and gene cassette contexts in rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere using quantitative PCR and clone library analysis. Microcosm experiments revealed that class 1 integron was the most prevalent in all samples, with higher concentration and higher relative abundance in rhizosphere than those in phyllosphere. The majority of resistance gene cassettes were associated with genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and chloramphenicols. Struvite application significantly increased the genetic diversity of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in both rhizosphere and phyllosphere. However, biochar amendment attenuated the increasing effect of struvite application exerting on the class 1 integron antibiotic resistance gene cassette pool in phyllosphere. These findings highlighted human activities to be the source of integron gene cassette pool and raised the possibility of using biochar amendment as an alternative mean for mitigating antibiotic resistance in environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonally dynamic fungal communities in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere differ between urban and nonurban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, A; Jones, K L

    2010-04-01

    *The fungal richness, diversity and community composition in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere were compared across a growing season in trees located in six stands within and outside a small urban center using 454-sequencing and DNA tagging. The approaches did not differentiate between endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities. *Fungi accumulated in the phyllosphere rapidly and communities were temporally dynamic, with more than a third of the analyzed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and half of the BLAST-inferred genera showing distinct seasonal patterns. The seasonal patterns could be explained by fungal life cycles or environmental tolerances. *The communities were hyperdiverse and differed between the urban and nonurban stands, albeit not consistently across the growing season. Foliar macronutrients (nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sulfur (S)), micronutrients (boron (B), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se)) and trace elements (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were enriched in the urban trees, probably as a result of anthropogenic activities. Because of correlations with the experimental layout, these chemical elements should not be considered as community drivers without further empirical studies. *We suggest that a combination of mechanisms leads to differences between urban and nonurban communities. Among those are stand isolation and size, nutrient and pollutant accumulation plus stand management, including fertilization and litter removal.

  10. Organic farming increases richness of fungal taxa in the wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2017-07-01

    Organic farming is often advocated as an approach to mitigate biodiversity loss on agricultural land. The phyllosphere provides a habitat for diverse fungal communities that are important for plant health and productivity. However, it is still unknown how organic farming affects the diversity of phyllosphere fungi in major crops. We sampled wheat leaves from 22 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical location and wheat cultivar. Fungal communities were described using amplicon sequencing and real-time PCR. Species richness was higher on wheat leaves from organically managed fields, with a mean of 54 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared with 40 OTUs for conventionally managed fields. The main components of the fungal community were similar throughout the 350-km-long sampling area, and seven OTUs were present in all fields: Zymoseptoria, Dioszegia fristingensis, Cladosporium, Dioszegia hungarica, Cryptococcus, Ascochyta and Dioszegia. Fungal abundance was highly variable between fields, 10 3 -10 5 internal transcribed spacer copies per ng wheat DNA, but did not differ between cropping systems. Further analyses showed that weed biomass was the strongest explanatory variable for fungal community composition and OTU richness. These findings help provide a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of organic farming on the diversity of organism groups in different habitats within the agroecosystem. © 2017 The Authors Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of Systemic Pesticides Imidacloprid and Metalaxyl on the Phyllosphere of Pepper Plants

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    Constantinos Moulas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes inhabiting the phyllosphere of crops are exposed to pesticides applied either directly onto plant foliage or indirectly through soil. Although, phyllosphere microbiology has been rapidly evolving, little is still known regarding the impact of pesticides on the epiphytic microbial community and especially on fungi. We determined the impact of two systemic pesticides (metalaxyl and imidacloprid, applied either on foliage or through soil, on the epiphytic fungal and bacterial communities via DGGE and cloning. Both pesticides induced mild effects on the fungal and the bacterial communities. The only exception was the foliage application of imidacloprid which showed a more prominent effect on the fungal community. Cloning showed that the fungal community was dominated by putative plant pathogenic ascomycetes (Erysiphaceae and Cladosporium, while a few basidiomycetes were also present. The former ribotypes were not affected by pesticides application, while selected yeasts (Cryptococcus were stimulated by the application of imidacloprid suggesting a potential role in its degradation. A less diverse bacterial community was identified in pepper plants. Metalaxyl stimulated an Enterobacteriaceae clone which is an indication of the involvement of members of this family in fungicide degradation. Further studies will focus on the isolation of epiphytic microbes which appear to be stimulated by pesticides application.

  12. Tree phyllosphere bacterial communities: exploring the magnitude of intra- and inter-individual variation among host species

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    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The diversity and composition of the microbial community of tree leaves (the phyllosphere varies among trees and host species and along spatial, temporal, and environmental gradients. Phyllosphere community variation within the canopy of an individual tree exists but the importance of this variation relative to among-tree and among-species variation is poorly understood. Sampling techniques employed for phyllosphere studies include picking leaves from one canopy location to mixing randomly selected leaves from throughout the canopy. In this context, our goal was to characterize the relative importance of intra-individual variation in phyllosphere communities across multiple species, and compare this variation to inter-individual and interspecific variation of phyllosphere epiphytic bacterial communities in a natural temperate forest in Quebec, Canada. Methods We targeted five dominant temperate forest tree species including angiosperms and gymnosperms: Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca. For one randomly selected tree of each species, we sampled microbial communities at six distinct canopy locations: bottom-canopy (1–2 m height, the four cardinal points of mid-canopy (2–4 m height, and the top-canopy (4–6 m height. We also collected bottom-canopy leaves from five additional trees from each species. Results Based on an analysis of bacterial community structure measured via Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene, we demonstrate that 65% of the intra-individual variation in leaf bacterial community structure could be attributed to the effect of inter-individual and inter-specific differences while the effect of canopy location was not significant. In comparison, host species identity explains 47% of inter-individual and inter-specific variation in leaf bacterial community structure followed by individual identity (32% and canopy location (6%. Discussion Our results suggest that

  13. Bacterial strains diversity in Musa spp. phyllosphere with antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

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    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternatives to agricultural pesticides used for the management of black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet includes the selection of microorganisms strains with potential for the control of this pathogen. The objective of the work was to characterize bacterial strains isolated from the phylosphere of Musa spp. with antifungal effect against M. fijiensis. A morphological, cultural, physiological and molecular characterization of the strains was performed and the antifungal activity of these strains was quantified by dual culture. It was verified the diversity of bacteria with antifungal properties against M. fijiensis present in the phylosphere of Musa spp.  In addition, it was found that the phyllosphere of these crops can be used as a source of obtaining possible biological controls of M. fijiensis.   Keywords: bacteria, biocontrol, Black Sigatoka, epiphytes

  14. Genome information of Methylobacterium oryzae, a plant-probiotic methylotroph in the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Jeong, Haeyoung; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Lee, Yi; Sa, Tong-Min; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the Rhizobiales are widespread in the environment, and many Methylobacterium species associated with plants produce plant growth-promoting substances. To gain insights into the life style at the phyllosphere and the genetic bases of plant growth promotion, we determined and analyzed the complete genome sequence of Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20T, a strain isolated from rice stem. The genome consists of a 6.29-Mb chromosome and four plasmids, designated as pMOC1 to pMOC4. Among the 6,274 coding sequences in the chromosome, the bacterium has, besides most of the genes for the central metabolism, all of the essential genes for the assimilation and dissimilation of methanol that are either located in methylotrophy islands or dispersed. M. oryzae is equipped with several kinds of genes for adaptation to plant surfaces such as defense against UV radiation, oxidative stress, desiccation, or nutrient deficiency, as well as high proportion of genes related to motility and signaling. Moreover, it has an array of genes involved in metabolic pathways that may contribute to promotion of plant growth; they include auxin biosynthesis, cytokine biosynthesis, vitamin B12 biosynthesis, urea metabolism, biosorption of heavy metals or decrease of metal toxicity, pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination, phosphate solubilization, and thiosulfate oxidation. Through the genome analysis of M. oryzae, we provide information on the full gene complement of M. oryzae that resides in the aerial parts of plants and enhances plant growth. The plant-associated lifestyle of M. oryzae pertaining to methylotrophy and plant growth promotion, and its potential as a candidate for a bioinoculant targeted to the phyllosphere and focused on phytostimulation are illuminated.

  15. Genome information of Methylobacterium oryzae, a plant-probiotic methylotroph in the phyllosphere.

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    Min-Jung Kwak

    Full Text Available Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the Rhizobiales are widespread in the environment, and many Methylobacterium species associated with plants produce plant growth-promoting substances. To gain insights into the life style at the phyllosphere and the genetic bases of plant growth promotion, we determined and analyzed the complete genome sequence of Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20T, a strain isolated from rice stem. The genome consists of a 6.29-Mb chromosome and four plasmids, designated as pMOC1 to pMOC4. Among the 6,274 coding sequences in the chromosome, the bacterium has, besides most of the genes for the central metabolism, all of the essential genes for the assimilation and dissimilation of methanol that are either located in methylotrophy islands or dispersed. M. oryzae is equipped with several kinds of genes for adaptation to plant surfaces such as defense against UV radiation, oxidative stress, desiccation, or nutrient deficiency, as well as high proportion of genes related to motility and signaling. Moreover, it has an array of genes involved in metabolic pathways that may contribute to promotion of plant growth; they include auxin biosynthesis, cytokine biosynthesis, vitamin B12 biosynthesis, urea metabolism, biosorption of heavy metals or decrease of metal toxicity, pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination, phosphate solubilization, and thiosulfate oxidation. Through the genome analysis of M. oryzae, we provide information on the full gene complement of M. oryzae that resides in the aerial parts of plants and enhances plant growth. The plant-associated lifestyle of M. oryzae pertaining to methylotrophy and plant growth promotion, and its potential as a candidate for a bioinoculant targeted to the phyllosphere and focused on phytostimulation are illuminated.

  16. Modulation of electrogenic transport processes in the porcine proximal colon by enteric neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Mauksch, A; Gäbel, G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the involvement of essential pro- and antisecretory neurotransmitters in regulation of secretion in porcine proximal colon. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), somatostatin (SOM) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were located immunohistochemically in the epithelium and subepithelial layer. Modulation of epithelial secretion was studied in Ussing chambers. Application of carbachol (CA), sodium nitroprussid (SNP), VIP and SP but not of NPY or SOM resulted in a chloride dependent increase in short circuit current (I(sc) ). I(sc) increase induced by CA, VIP or SNP was not altered by preincubation with tetrodotoxin or indomethacin. In contrast, SP-induced I(sc) increase was diminished by preincubation with tetrodotoxin, indomethacin, L-nitro-arginin-methyl-ester, and atropine but not hexamethonium. Simultaneous application of CA and VIP, or CA and SNP increased the I(sc) stronger as expected. Applying SP/CA led to a smaller increase in I(sc) as calculated. It is concluded that mainly prosecretory neurotransmitters are involved in regulation of colonic secretion. Cross-potentiations of acetylcholine and nitric oxide and acetylcholine and VIP suggest activation of different intracellular cascades. Similar intracellular pathways may be stimulated by acetylcholine and SP, thus preventing an additive effect of the transmitters. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  18. Phyllosphere microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindow, S.E.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial plant surfaces harbor large numbers of microbes, some of which are deleterious to plants whereas others are benign or beneficial. Commercial formulations of bacteria antagonistic to plant pathogenic microbes and ice nucleation active bacteria have been utilized as an environmentally safe

  19. Quantification of 18FDG in the Normal Colon-A First Step in Investigating Whether Its Presence Is a Marker of a Physiological Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Karna D; Cullis, James; Williams, Nigel R; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Wilson, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of the colon in positron emission tomography (PET) scans of patients without gastrointestinal disease indicating the presence of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) is well recognised, but unquantified and unexplained. In this paper a qualitative scoring system was applied to PET scans from 30 randomly selected patients without gastrointestinal disease to detect the presence of 18FDG in 4 different sections of the colon and then both the total pixel value and the pixel value per unit length of each section of the colon were determined to quantify the amount of 18FDG from a randomly selected subset of 10 of these patients. Analysis of the qualitative scores using a non-parametric ANOVA showed that all sections of the colon contained 18FDG but there were differences in the amount of 18FDG present between sections (p0.05), but a difference in the amount/unit length between sections (p<0.01) with only the caecum and ascending colon and the descending colon having a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). These results are consistent since the eye is drawn to focal localisation of the 18FDG when qualitatively scoring the scans. The presence of 18FDG in the colon is counterintuitive since it must be passing from the blood to the lumen through the colonic wall. There is no active mechanism to achieve this and therefore we hypothesise that the transport is a passive process driven by the concentration gradient of 18FDG across the colonic wall. This hypothesis is consistent with the results obtained from the qualitative and quantitative measures analysed.

  20. Quantification of 18FDG in the Normal Colon-A First Step in Investigating Whether Its Presence Is a Marker of a Physiological Process.

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    Karna D Bardhan

    Full Text Available The visibility of the colon in positron emission tomography (PET scans of patients without gastrointestinal disease indicating the presence of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG is well recognised, but unquantified and unexplained. In this paper a qualitative scoring system was applied to PET scans from 30 randomly selected patients without gastrointestinal disease to detect the presence of 18FDG in 4 different sections of the colon and then both the total pixel value and the pixel value per unit length of each section of the colon were determined to quantify the amount of 18FDG from a randomly selected subset of 10 of these patients. Analysis of the qualitative scores using a non-parametric ANOVA showed that all sections of the colon contained 18FDG but there were differences in the amount of 18FDG present between sections (p0.05, but a difference in the amount/unit length between sections (p<0.01 with only the caecum and ascending colon and the descending colon having a statistically significant difference (p<0.05. These results are consistent since the eye is drawn to focal localisation of the 18FDG when qualitatively scoring the scans. The presence of 18FDG in the colon is counterintuitive since it must be passing from the blood to the lumen through the colonic wall. There is no active mechanism to achieve this and therefore we hypothesise that the transport is a passive process driven by the concentration gradient of 18FDG across the colonic wall. This hypothesis is consistent with the results obtained from the qualitative and quantitative measures analysed.

  1. Diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging leaves of pontic azalea Azalea pontica

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    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at verifi cation of fungi species colonizing phyllosphere of pontic azalea Azalea pontica L. and at comparison of the fungi species composition: – in the natural stand in the Kołacznia nature reserve, – in arboretum collections at Bolestraszyce and Rogów. 600 fragments of healthy, infected and fallen leaves of pontic azalea were collected for mycological analyses. The species forming the largest number of colonies identified from the healthy leaves were: A. alternata, Ph. cyclaminis, E. nigrum, Ph. medicaginis and B. cinerea, from infected leaves: A. alternata, E. nigrum, Ph. cyclaminis, S. fi micola, T. viride and A. phaeospermum, whereas: E. nigrum, A. alternata, S. fi micola, Ph. cyclaminis and B. cinerea were isolated from the fallen leaves, which indicates that a majority of fungi persistently colonize the leaves during vegetation period and damage them, which leads to defoliation. Colonization of pontic azalea phyllosphere in arboreta by more numerous fungi colonies and species than under conditions of natural sites evidences their increased pressure in the arboreta environment.

  2. In vivo imaging of T cell lymphoma infiltration process at the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshibumi; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Shinji, Seiichi; Arai, Tomio; Matsuda, Yoko; Aida, Junko; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Okazaki, Toshiro; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Sato, Moritoshi

    2018-03-05

    The infiltration and proliferation of cancer cells in the secondary organs are of great interest, since they contribute to cancer metastasis. However, cancer cell dynamics in the secondary organs have not been elucidated at single-cell resolution. In the present study, we established an in vivo model using two-photon microscopy to observe how infiltrating cancer cells form assemblages from single T-cell lymphomas, EL4 cells, in the secondary organs. Using this model, after inoculation of EL4 cells in mice, we discovered that single EL4 cells infiltrated into the colon. In the early stage, sporadic elongated EL4 cells became lodged in small blood vessels. Real-time imaging revealed that, whereas more than 70% of EL4 cells did not move during a 1-hour observation, other EL4 cells irregularly moved even in small vessels and dynamically changed shape upon interacting with other cells. In the late stages, EL4 cells formed small nodules composed of several EL4 cells in blood vessels as well as crypts, suggesting the existence of diverse mechanisms of nodule formation. The present in vivo imaging system is instrumental to dissect cancer cell dynamics during metastasis in other organs at the single-cell level.

  3. Methylobacterium gossipiicola sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the cotton phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Senthilkumar, Murugaiyan; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun-Chul

    2012-01-01

    A pink, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic, motile, Gram-negative rod, designated Gh-105(T), was isolated from the phyllosphere of cotton from Coimbatore (Tamilnadu, India). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed clearly that the isolate belonged to the Methylobacterium cluster. Strain Gh-105(T) was most closely related to Methylobacterium adhaesivum AR27(T) (99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Methylobacterium iners 5317S-33(T) (97.5%). The isolate grew with C(1) compounds such as methanol and dichloromethane, but not with formaldehyde, formate, methylamine, trimethylamine or methane, as sole carbon sources and carried mxaF, which encodes methanol dehydrogenase and supports methylotrophic metabolism. The major fatty acid was C(18:1)ω7c and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.2 mol%. Physiological and biochemical data and DNA-DNA relatedness with M. adhaesivum KACC 12195(T) and M. iners KACC 11765(T) revealed clear phenotypic and genotypic differences. For this reason, we propose that strain Gh-105(T) (=CCM 7572(T) =NRRL B-51692(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, with the name Methylobacterium gossipiicola sp. nov.

  4. Exact solutions of linear reaction-diffusion processes on a uniformly growing domain: criteria for successful colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Simpson

    Full Text Available Many processes during embryonic development involve transport and reaction of molecules, or transport and proliferation of cells, within growing tissues. Mathematical models of such processes usually take the form of a reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE on a growing domain. Previous analyses of such models have mainly involved solving the PDEs numerically. Here, we present a framework for calculating the exact solution of a linear reaction-diffusion PDE on a growing domain. We derive an exact solution for a general class of one-dimensional linear reaction-diffusion process on 0colonizes the entire length of the domain by reaching the boundary where x = L(t.

  5. Exact solutions of linear reaction-diffusion processes on a uniformly growing domain: criteria for successful colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Many processes during embryonic development involve transport and reaction of molecules, or transport and proliferation of cells, within growing tissues. Mathematical models of such processes usually take the form of a reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) on a growing domain. Previous analyses of such models have mainly involved solving the PDEs numerically. Here, we present a framework for calculating the exact solution of a linear reaction-diffusion PDE on a growing domain. We derive an exact solution for a general class of one-dimensional linear reaction-diffusion process on 0exact solutions with numerical approximations confirms the veracity of the method. Furthermore, our examples illustrate a delicate interplay between: (i) the rate at which the domain elongates, (ii) the diffusivity associated with the spreading density profile, (iii) the reaction rate, and (iv) the initial condition. Altering the balance between these four features leads to different outcomes in terms of whether an initial profile, located near x = 0, eventually overcomes the domain growth and colonizes the entire length of the domain by reaching the boundary where x = L(t).

  6. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West.

  7. Colon interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  8. Presence and persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of spray-irrigated parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisluk, Guy; Yaron, Sima

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the major food-borne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat fresh foods. Although polluted water might be a significant source of contamination in the field, factors that influence the transfer of Salmonella from water to the crops are not well understood, especially under conditions of low pathogen levels in water. The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term (1 h to 28 days) persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of parsley following spray irrigation with contaminated water. Plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based methods were implemented for the quantification. By applying qRT-PCR with enrichment, we were able to show that even irrigation with water containing as little as ∼300 CFU/ml resulted in the persistence of S. Typhimurium on the plants for 48 h. Irrigation with water containing 8.5 log CFU/ml resulted in persistence of the bacteria in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere for at least 4 weeks, but the population steadily declined with a major reduction in bacterial counts, of ∼2 log CFU/g, during the first 2 days. Higher levels of Salmonella were detected in the phyllosphere when plants were irrigated during the night compared to irrigation during the morning and during winter compared to the other seasons. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated water to crops, as well as its persistence over time, will enable the implementation of effective irrigation and control strategies.

  9. Distance-decay relationships partially determine diversity patterns of phyllosphere bacteria on Tamarix trees across the Sonoran Desert [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Omri M; Burch, Adrien Y; Elad, Tal; Huse, Susan M; Lindow, Steven E; Post, Anton F; Belkin, Shimshon

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal limitation in phyllosphere communities was measured on the leaf surfaces of salt-excreting Tamarix trees, which offer unique, discrete habitats for microbial assemblages. We employed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to measure bacterial community dissimilarity on leaves of spatially dispersed Tamarix specimens in sites with uniform climatic conditions across the Sonoran Desert in the Southwestern United States. Our analyses revealed diverse bacterial communities with four dominant phyla that exhibited differential effects of environmental and geographic variables. Geographical distance was the most important parameter that affected community composition, particularly that of betaproteobacteria, which displayed a statistically significant, distance-decay relationship.

  10. Competition assays and physiological experiments of soil and phyllosphere yeasts identify Candida subhashii as a novel antagonist of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber-Bodmer, Maja; Schmid, Michael; Ahrens, Christian H; Freimoser, Florian M

    2017-01-05

    While recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled researchers to readily identify countless microbial species in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere microbiomes, the biological functions of the majority of these species are unknown. Functional studies are therefore urgently needed in order to characterize the plethora of microorganisms that are being identified and to point out species that may be used for biotechnology or plant protection. Here, we used a dual culture assay and growth analyses to characterise yeasts (40 different isolates) and their antagonistic effect on 16 filamentous fungi; comprising plant pathogens, antagonists, and saprophytes. Overall, this competition screen of 640 pairwise combinations revealed a broad range of outcomes, ranging from small stimulatory effects of some yeasts up to a growth inhibition of more than 80% by individual species. On average, yeasts isolated from soil suppressed filamentous fungi more strongly than phyllosphere yeasts and the antagonistic activity was a species-/isolate-specific property and not dependent on the filamentous fungus a yeast was interacting with. The isolates with the strongest antagonistic activity were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora sp., Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, and Pichia kluyveri. Among these, the soil yeasts (C. sargentensis, A. pullulans, C. subhashii) assimilated and/or oxidized more di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides and organic acids than yeasts from the phyllosphere. Only the two yeasts C. subhashii and M. pulcherrima were able to grow with N-acetyl-glucosamine as carbon source. The competition assays and physiological experiments described here identified known antagonists that have been implicated in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi in the past, but also little characterised species such as C. subhashii. Overall, soil yeasts were more antagonistic and metabolically versatile than yeasts from

  11. Colonic lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  12. Colonic angiodysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  13. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  14. Proposal of Mucilaginibacter phyllosphaerae sp. nov. isolated from the phyllosphere of Galium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ebru L; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2016-10-01

    A pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, PP-F2F-G21T, was isolated from the phyllosphere of Galium album. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PP-F2F-G21T showed the closest relationship to type strains of the species Mucilaginibacter lutimaris (97.7 %), Mucilaginibacter soli (97.3 %) and Mucilaginibacter rigui (97.1 %). Sequence similarities to all other type strains were below 97 %. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain PP-F2F-G21T are C16 : 1 ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (measured as summed feature 3 fatty acids) and iso-C15 : 0 followed by iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1 ω5c and C16 : 0. The major compound in the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine and the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The quinone system was exclusively composed of menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and in addition 18 unidentified lipids. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses, we propose a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter named Mucilaginibacter phyllosphaeraesp. nov. The type strain is PP-F2F-G21T (=CCM 8625T=CIP 110921T=LMG 29118T).

  15. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  17. Infection processes of xylem-colonizing pathogenic bacteria: possible explanations for the scarcity of qualitative disease resistance genes against them in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chungyun; Han, Sang Wook; Song, Yu-Rim; Kim, Bo-Young; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Je-Min; Yeam, Inhwa; Heu, Sunggi; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-07-01

    Disease resistance against xylem-colonizing pathogenic bacteria in crops. Plant pathogenic bacteria cause destructive diseases in many commercially important crops. Among these bacteria, eight pathogens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, Erwinia amylovora, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, and Xylella fastidiosa, infect their host plants through different infection sites and paths and eventually colonize the xylem tissues of their host plants, resulting in wilting symptoms by blocking water flow or necrosis of xylem tissues. Noticeably, only a relatively small number of resistant cultivars in major crops against these vascular bacterial pathogens except X. oryzae pv. oryzae have been found or generated so far, although these pathogens threaten productivity of major crops. In this review, we summarize the lifestyles of major xylem-colonizing bacterial pathogens and then discuss the progress of current research on disease resistance controlled by qualitative disease resistance genes or quantitative trait loci against them. Finally, we propose infection processes of xylem-colonizing bacterial pathogens as one of possible reasons for why so few qualitative disease resistance genes against these pathogens have been developed or identified so far in crops.

  18. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  19. Multiple primary malignancies of the liver and the colon: a complex diagnostic and decisional process with a final unanswered question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Baronchelli, Carla; Gheza, Federico; Giulini, Stefano Maria

    2014-03-29

    We herein present the case of a 78-year-old man with an incidental finding of a solid hepatic mass without symptoms and only a laparotomic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in the past surgical history. A colonoscopy, a magnetic resonance imaging scan, a positron emission tomography scan, and a computed tomography scan completed the preoperative workup: a neoplastic lesion 4.3×3 cm in size was diagnosed at segments IV and V, associated with a neoplastic involvement of the splenic flexure without signs of colonic occlusion. After colonic resection, a frozen section on a granulomatous-like tissue at gastric border suggested a diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma of bilio-pancreatic type, changing the surgical strategy to include gastric resection and hepatic pedicle node dissection. The discussion turns around the idea that a final diagnosis of colon cancer with regional nodal involvement (pT3N1) and metastatic gallbladder cancer with multiple peritoneal seedings cannot be excluded.

  20. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effect of processing on folic acid fortified Baladi bread and its possible effect on the prevention of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Phyllospheric Bacteria Possessing Antimicrobial Activity from Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinani, Zohreh; Zamani, Marzieh; Sardari, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products. In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts (stems and leaves) of Astragalus obtusifolius , Prosopis juliflora , Xanthium strumarium , and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features. The inhibitory effects of these strains on the growth of two fungi ( Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus fumigatus ), two yeasts ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Candida albicans ) and six bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacillus subtilis , Salmonella typhi , Streptococcus pyogenes ) were tested. In total, 113 bacterial strains were isolated. Twenty five bacterial strains (B-1 to B-25) indicated promising antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activities against aforementioned pathogens. The identification of the bacterial strains was ascertained by morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and two strains with the strongest antimicrobial activities were further characterized based on 16s rRNA sequencing. These two strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens . Our results provide evidence that phyllospheric microorganisms are capable of producing some compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  4. CoMiniGut—a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Nielsen, Sebastian; Sørensen, Helena; van den Berg, Frans; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput. This allows e.g., the investigation of interpersonal variations in gut microbial dynamics and the acquisition of larger data sets with enhanced statistical inference. The functionality of the in vitro colon model, Copenhagen MiniGut (CoMiniGut) was first demonstrated in experiments with two common prebiotics using the oligosaccharide inulin and the disaccharide lactulose at 1% (w/v). We then investigated fermentation of the scarce and expensive human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) 3-Fucosyllactose, 3-Sialyllactose, 6-Sialyllactose and the more common Fructooligosaccharide in fermentations with infant gut microbial communities. Investigations of microbial community composition dynamics in the CoMiniGut reactors by MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon high throughput sequencing showed excellent experimental reproducibility and allowed us to extract significant differences in gut microbial composition after 24 h of fermentation for all investigated substrates and fecal donors. Furthermore, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were quantified for all treatments and donors. Fermentations with inulin and lactulose showed that inulin leads to a microbiota dominated by obligate anaerobes, with high relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, while the more easily fermented lactulose leads to higher relative abundance of

  5. CoMiniGut-a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Maria; Khakimov, Bekzod; Nielsen, Sebastian; Sørensen, Helena; van den Berg, Frans; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput. This allows e.g., the investigation of interpersonal variations in gut microbial dynamics and the acquisition of larger data sets with enhanced statistical inference. The functionality of the in vitro colon model, Copenhagen MiniGut (CoMiniGut) was first demonstrated in experiments with two common prebiotics using the oligosaccharide inulin and the disaccharide lactulose at 1% (w/v). We then investigated fermentation of the scarce and expensive human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) 3-Fucosyllactose, 3-Sialyllactose, 6-Sialyllactose and the more common Fructooligosaccharide in fermentations with infant gut microbial communities. Investigations of microbial community composition dynamics in the CoMiniGut reactors by MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon high throughput sequencing showed excellent experimental reproducibility and allowed us to extract significant differences in gut microbial composition after 24 h of fermentation for all investigated substrates and fecal donors. Furthermore, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were quantified for all treatments and donors. Fermentations with inulin and lactulose showed that inulin leads to a microbiota dominated by obligate anaerobes, with high relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, while the more easily fermented lactulose leads to higher relative abundance of

  6. CoMiniGut—a small volume in vitro colon model for the screening of gut microbial fermentation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wiese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput. This allows e.g., the investigation of interpersonal variations in gut microbial dynamics and the acquisition of larger data sets with enhanced statistical inference. The functionality of the in vitro colon model, Copenhagen MiniGut (CoMiniGut was first demonstrated in experiments with two common prebiotics using the oligosaccharide inulin and the disaccharide lactulose at 1% (w/v. We then investigated fermentation of the scarce and expensive human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs 3-Fucosyllactose, 3-Sialyllactose, 6-Sialyllactose and the more common Fructooligosaccharide in fermentations with infant gut microbial communities. Investigations of microbial community composition dynamics in the CoMiniGut reactors by MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon high throughput sequencing showed excellent experimental reproducibility and allowed us to extract significant differences in gut microbial composition after 24 h of fermentation for all investigated substrates and fecal donors. Furthermore, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs were quantified for all treatments and donors. Fermentations with inulin and lactulose showed that inulin leads to a microbiota dominated by obligate anaerobes, with high relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, while the more easily fermented lactulose leads to higher relative

  7. Sensitivity to acetic acid, ability to colonize abiotic surfaces and virulence potential of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e after incubation on parsley leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, A; Guzzo, J; Piveteau, P

    2010-02-01

    To investigate how the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on parsley leaves may affect its ability to sustain process-related harsh conditions and its virulence. Parsley seedlings were spot inoculated with stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes EGD-e and incubated for 15 days. Each day, bacterial cells were harvested and enumerated, and their ability to survive acetic acid challenge (90 min, pH 4.0), to colonize abiotic surfaces and to grow as biofilms was assessed. After a 3-log decrease over the first 48 h, the population stabilized to about 10(6) CFU g(-1) until the sixth day. After the sixth day, L. monocytogenes was no longer detected, even after specific enrichment. Incubation on parsley leaves affected the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive acetic acid challenge (90 min, pH 4.0) and to adhere to stainless steel although the ability to grow as biofilm was preserved. To further investigate these physiological alterations, the mRNA levels of six target genes (bsh, clpC, groEL, inlA, opuC, prfA) was quantified using reverse transcription qPCR after 5 h of incubation on parsley leaves. A decrease was observed in all but one (bsh) target, including groEL and clpC which are involved in resistance to salt and acid. Moreover, the decrease in the levels of inlA, prfA and opuC transcripts after incubation on parsley suggested a repression of some genes involved in pathogenicity. In vitro assessment of mammalian cell adherence and invasion using Caco-2 cells confirmed the repression of the virulence factor InlA; however, the virulence potential in vivo in the chick embryo model was not affected. Listeria monocytogenes did undergo rapid changes to adapt its physiology to the phyllosphere. This study highlights the physiological changes undergone by L. monocytogenes during/after survival on parsley leaves.

  8. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3) CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of apple trees and identify key species

  9. Involving patients in a multidisciplinary European consensus process and in the development of a 'patient summary of the consensus document for colon and rectal cancer care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Petra G; Taylor, Claire; Henning, Geoffrey; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; Espin, Eloy; Wiggers, Theo; Gore-Booth, Jola; Moss, Barbara; Valentini, Vincenzo; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2014-01-01

    High-quality cancer care should be accessible for patients and healthcare professionals. Involvement of patients as partners in guideline formation and consensus processes is still rarely found. EURECCA, short for European Registration of Cancer Care, is the platform to improve outcomes of cancer care by reducing variation in the diagnostic and treatment process. EURECCA acknowledges the important role of patients in implementation of consensus information in clinical practice. The aim of this article is to describe the process of involving patients in the consensus process and in developing the patient summary of the consensus for colon and rectal cancer care. The Delphi method for achieving consensus was used. Three online voting rounds and one tele-voting round were offered to an expert panel of oncology professionals and patient representatives. At four different stages, patients and/or patient representatives were involved in the process: (1) during the consensus process, (2) lecturing about the role of the patient, (3) development of the patient summary, and (4) testing the patient summary. Representatives were invited to the voting and commenting rounds of this process and given an equal vote. Although patients were not consulted during the planning stages of this process, patient involvement increased following the panel's discussion of the implementation of the consensus among the patient population. After the consensus meeting, the patient summary was written by patient representatives, oncologists and nurses. A selection of proactive patients reviewed the draft patient summary; responses were positive and several patient-reported outcomes were added. Questionnaires to evaluate the use and implementation of the patient summary in daily practice are currently being developed and tested. Patient consultation will be needed in future planning for selection of topics. The present study may function as a model for future consensus processes to involve patients

  10. Reduction in hospitalwide incidence of infection or colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with use of antimicrobial hand-hygiene gel and statistical process control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Glenys; Watson, Kerrie; Bailey, Michael; Land, Gillian; Borrell, Susan; Houston, Leanne; Kehoe, Rosaleen; Bass, Pauline; Cockroft, Emma; Marshall, Caroline; Mijch, Anne; Spelman, Denis

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of serial interventions on the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Longitudinal observational study before and after interventions. The Alfred Hospital is a 350-bed tertiary referral hospital with a 35-bed intensive care unit (ICU). A series of interventions including the introduction of an antimicrobial hand-hygiene gel to the intensive care unit and a hospitalwide MRSA surveillance feedback program that used statistical process control charts but not active surveillance cultures. Serial interventions were introduced between January 2003 and May 2006. The incidence and rates of new patients colonized or infected with MRSA and episodes of MRSA bacteremia in the intensive care unit and hospitalwide were compared between the preintervention and intervention periods. Segmented regression analysis was used to calculate the percentage reduction in new patients with MRSA and in episodes of MRSA bacteremia hospitalwide in the intervention period. The rate of new patients with MRSA in the ICU was 6.7 cases per 100 patient admissions in the intervention period, compared with 9.3 cases per 100 patient admissions in the preintervention period (P=.047). The hospitalwide rate of new patients with MRSA was 1.7 cases per 100 patient admissions in the intervention period, compared with 3.0 cases per 100 patient admissions in the preintervention period (P<.001). By use of segmented regression analysis, the maximum and conservative estimates for percentage reduction in the rate of new patients with MRSA were 79.5% and 42.0%, respectively, and the maximum and conservative estimates for percentage reduction in the rate of episodes of MRSA bacteremia were 87.4% and 39.0%, respectively. A sustained reduction in the number of new patients with MRSA colonization or infection has been demonstrated using minimal resources and a limited number of interventions.

  11. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  12. Introduction of Aureobasidium pullulans to the Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries with Focus on Its Establishment and Interactions with the Resident Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Reineke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is little knowledge of the establishment of repeatedly applied biological control agents (BCAs in the phyllosphere of plants and, in particular, their interactions with the resident microbiome. Under field conditions, the BCA Aureobasidium pullulans was applied as a model organism to organically grown strawberries during two subsequent years (2011, 2012, either as single strain treatment or with the co-application of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Fungal and bacterial communities of strawberry leaves were investigated by means of plate counts and 454 pyrosequencing. The establishment of the introduced A. pullulans strains considerably differed between the two years, presumably due to distinct environmental conditions. Short-term and long-term effects of BCA applications on the composition and diversity of fungal communities could be observed as a result of successful establishment of A. pullulans, in 2011, showing, for instance, reduced diversity of fungal communities by competitive displacement shortly after BCA introduction. Due to considerable dynamics in untreated resident microbial communities in the phyllosphere in general, however, we suggest that even the effects caused by the applied BCA preparations in 2011 are negligible under practical conditions.

  13. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  14. Pulsed electric field processing preserves the antiproliferative activity of the milk fat globule membrane on colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Griffiths, M W; Corredig, M

    2015-05-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of processing on the antiproliferative activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) extracts. The antiproliferative activity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells of untreated MFGM extracts were compared with those extracted from pasteurized cream, thermally treated cream, or cream subjected to pulsed electrical field (PEF) processing. The PEF with a 37 kV/cm field strength applied for 1,705μs at 50 and 65°C was applied to untreated cream collected from a local dairy. Heating at 50 or 65°C for 3min (the passage time in the PEF chamber) was also tested to evaluate the heating effect during PEF treatments. The MFGM extracted from pasteurized cream did not show an antiproliferative activity. On the other hand, isolates from PEF-treated cream showed activity similar to that of untreated samples. It was also shown that PEF induced interactions between β-lactoglobulin and MFGM proteins at 65°C, whereas the phospholipid composition remained unaltered. This work demonstrates the potential of PEF not only a means to produce a microbiologically safe product, but also as a process preserving the biofunctionality of the MFGM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  17. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  18. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  19. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hong He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. METHODS AND FINDINGS: First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in

  20. SUSTRATOS FOLIARES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE BACTERIAS QUITINOLÍTICAS Y GLUCANOLÍTICAS EN LA FILOSFERA DE BANANO FOLIAR SUBSTRATES FOR INCREASING CHITINOLYTIC AND GLUCANOLYTIC BACTERIA ON PHYLLOSPHERE OF BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Salazar Peláez

    2006-12-01

    important disease of banana and plantain crops. Its control has been based on the use of synthetic fungicides, whose mode of action becomes overcome by the fungus populations. This research explored the possibility of developing a biological regulation strategy based on the study and manipulation of certain biotic and abiotic factors that interact in the phyllosphere of the banana, with the objective of increase the natural populations of chitinolytic and glucanolytic bacteria, which could negatively affect the germination process of M. fijiensis. On the basis of a previous phase of this study in which a partial chemical and microbiological characterization in the phyllosphere of banana and plantain crops under conditions of Uraba-Antioquia (Colombia, was conducted here 14 foliar substrates were evaluated that consisted of colloidal chitin (CC [4%], barley flour (BF [2,5%] and urea (U [1%], individually or in a combination, always with a mineral base and attachment-dispersant solutions. Those substrates that had a combination of BF and U yielded higher increases in the epiphytic lytic bacterial populations, with counts exceeding 10.000 fold with respect to their their initial populations on banana leaves of the ‘Grande naine’ variety and 8,6 y 15 fold higher in populations of chitinolytic and glucanolytic bacteria, respectively, with respect to the population without foliar substrate treatments. The effect of rainfall on bacteria populations and the necessity of adjusting a formulation that improves the possibilities of foliar substrates for black sigatoka control are discussed.

  1. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  2. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Venema, K.; Priebe, M. G.; Welling, G. W.; Brummer, R. -J. M.; Vonk, R. J.

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the

  3. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Venema, K.; Priebe, M.G.; Welling, G.W.; Brummer, R.J.M.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the

  4. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  5. CT in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  6. Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants Diversidade metabólica e genética de microrganismos metilotróficos facultativos pigmentados na filosfera de plantas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balachandar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.A diversidade de microrganismos metilotróficos facultativos pigmentados (PPFMs na filosfera de algodão, milho e girassol foi determinada baseada no perfil diferencial de utilização de substratos de carbono e em dados de RAPD. Os resultados indicaram a existência de seis grupos diferentes de PPFMs nessas plantas. As filosferas de girassol e milho apresentaram quatro grupos diferentes de metilobactérias enquanto a de algodão apresentou apenas dois grupos.

  7. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...

  8. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  9. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  10. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  11. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  12. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  13. Plant-mediated restriction of Salmonella enterica on tomato and spinach leaves colonized with Pseudomonas plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiun-Kang; Micallef, Shirley A

    2017-10-16

    Reducing Salmonella enterica association with plants during crop production could reduce risks of fresh produce-borne salmonellosis. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizing plant roots are capable of promoting plant growth and boosting resistance to disease, but the effects of PGPR on human pathogen-plant associations are not known. Two root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains S2 and S4 were investigated in spinach, lettuce and tomato for their plant growth-promoting properties and their influence on leaf populations of S. enterica serovar Newport. Plant roots were inoculated with Pseudomonas in the seedling stage. At four (tomato) and six (spinach and lettuce) weeks post-germination, plant growth promotion was assessed by shoot dry weight (SDW) and leaf chlorophyll content measurements. Leaf populations of S. Newport were measured after 24h of leaf inoculation with this pathogen by direct plate counts on Tryptic Soy Agar. Root inoculation of spinach cv. 'Tyee', with Pseudomonas strain S2 or S4 resulted in a 69% and 63% increase in SDW compared to non-inoculated controls (pgrowth by over 40% compared to controls (pgrowth promotion was detected in tomato cv. 'BHN602', but S2-inoculated plants had elevated leaf chlorophyll content (13%, pgrowth, but also reduce the fitness of epiphytic S. enterica in the phyllosphere. Plant-mediated effects induced by PGPR may be an effective strategy to minimize contamination of crops with S. enterica during cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seong-Min; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid c...

  15. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea del Pilar Sánchez-Camargo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116. The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1 pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent at lab-scale; (2 Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE at pilot scale; (3 Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4 Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight, this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA and carnosol (CS at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide, suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts.

  16. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    It stands out the man's paper in the deterioration of the soil and in the phenomenon of the desertization, the conflicts of the use of the soil in the country and the underestimate that it is made of this resource in the environmental analysis. The man's relationships are discussed with the earth and the problem of the soils of the Colombian Orinoquia is examined in terms of the excess of toxic elements as To the, Fe and Mn and the other elements like P, S, Ca, Mg, K, B, and Zn. It is examined the degradation and poverty of the organic complex of the soil, the physical degradation and chemistry and their susceptibility to the erosion, as well as the excess conditions and deficit of humidity. It is recognized that it lacks calibration of the analytic methods for the soils oxisoils of the Orinoquia and the Amazonia. The importance of the soils of the humid tropic is stood out as seat of colonization that have failed when not having an appropriate technology for its handling that it forces to undertake systems of migratory agriculture and to the transformation of the forest in prairie, phenomenon that comes accompanied by the degradation of the soils, illicit cultivations, social conflicts and alteration of the essential ecological processes for the survival

  17. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  18. CT staging of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dighe, S. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton SM5 2TT (United Kingdom); Swift, I. [Department of Surgery, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon CR7 7YE (United Kingdom); Brown, G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton SM5 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gina.brown@rmh.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Computer tomography (CT) has been the principal investigation in the staging of colon cancers. The information obtained with routine CT has been limited to identifying the site of the tumour, size of the tumour, infiltration into surrounding structures and metastatic spread. The Foxtrot trial National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) has been specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment in colon cancers by using preoperative chemotherapy with or without an anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody to improve outcome in high-risk operable colon cancer. Patients are selected based on their staging CT examination. The criteria for poor prognosis are T4 and T3 tumours with more than 5 mm extramural depth. Thus the success of the trial would depend upon the confidence of the radiologist to identify the patients that would receive the neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this review is to explain the process of identifying high-risk features seen on the staging CT images. This will help to identify a cohort of patients that could truly benefit from neoadjuvant strategies.

  19. CT staging of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, S.; Swift, I.; Brown, G.

    2008-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) has been the principal investigation in the staging of colon cancers. The information obtained with routine CT has been limited to identifying the site of the tumour, size of the tumour, infiltration into surrounding structures and metastatic spread. The Foxtrot trial National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) has been specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment in colon cancers by using preoperative chemotherapy with or without an anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody to improve outcome in high-risk operable colon cancer. Patients are selected based on their staging CT examination. The criteria for poor prognosis are T4 and T3 tumours with more than 5 mm extramural depth. Thus the success of the trial would depend upon the confidence of the radiologist to identify the patients that would receive the neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this review is to explain the process of identifying high-risk features seen on the staging CT images. This will help to identify a cohort of patients that could truly benefit from neoadjuvant strategies

  20. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  1. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental results of the colonization, process and their consequences are analyzed in the local, national and international order, the activities through which the acts on the means and the nature of these. It is examined the meaning of the sustainable development, the phenomenon of the exhaustion of the ecosystems and their responsible ones. It discusses the importance of the Orinoquia in the mark of the environmental problems in the international order, the region has been intensely exploded by means of intensive production systems, what has led to the exhaustion of these areas in the world environment. The colonist's paper is exposed in the environmental deterioration, in front of the function of the tropical humid forest and it confirms a focus that it approaches the environmental problem from a perspective that makes emphasis in the social component of that problem, in opposition to the conservators where the ecosystem is the only valid reason and the social groups that intervene him, they should simply disappear. It is necessary the necessity to focus of integral way, the colonist's nature like element of a social group, the list that completes in the mark of the nation and their development model, the political economic system and the nationality inside which makes their economic decisions and of production. It is recognized that they are not enough solutions of technical order to impact on the use and sustainable handling of the Orinoquia, but rather it should be contemplated the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of the problem simultaneously, as well as the growing and resolved participation of the social group in their group

  2. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  3. Complicated colonic intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript deals with the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed large bowel obstruction. Per-rectal examination revealed a pedunculated lesion in the rectum; rigid sigmoidoscopy revealed a prolapsing pedunculated mass with a necrotic surface. The patient recovered well following anterior resection. Histology confirmed a pedunculated sub mucosal lipoma as the lead point for intussusception. Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of adult large bowel obstruction, and the preoperative clinical diagnosis of this condition can be difficult. Resection of the involved segment of the colon is the most appropriate choice of treatment in most such cases.

  4. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    , intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes...

  5. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) hosts robust phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities when grown in soil amended with various organic and synthetic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sarah M; Walsh, Christopher S; Wallis, Anna E; Ottesen, Andrea R; Brown, Eric W; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-12-15

    Due to the intimate association between plants and their microbial symbionts, an examination of the influence of agricultural practices on phytobiome structure and diversity could foster a more comprehensive understanding of plant health and produce safety. Indeed, the impact of upstream crop producti006Fn practices cannot be overstated in their role in assuring an abundant and safe food supply. To assess whether fertilizer type impacted rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial communities associating with tomato plants, the bacterial microbiome of tomato cv. 'BHN602' grown in soils amended with fresh poultry litter, commercially available sterilized poultry litter pellets, vermicompost or synthetic fertilizer was described. Culture independent DNA was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soils, and washes of tomato blossoms and ripe fruit. PCR amplicons of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced and profiled using the QIIME pipeline. Bulk and rhizosphere soil, and blossom and fruit surfaces all supported distinct bacterial communities according to principal coordinate analysis and ANOSIM (R=0.87, p=0.001 in year 1; R=0.93, p=0.001 in year 2). Use of microbiologically diverse organic fertilizers generally did not influence bacterial diversity, community structure or relative abundance of specific taxa on any plant organ surface. However, statistically significant differences in sand and silt contents of soil (pfertilized plants. Plant anatomy, and other factors related to field location, possibly associated with edaphic and air characteristics, were more influential drivers of different tomato organ microbiomes than were diverse soil amendment applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  7. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  8. DNA polymorphisms and biocontrol of Bacillus antagonistic to citrus bacterial canker with indication of the interference of phyllosphere biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pi Huang

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease.

  9. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  10. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, T; Venema, K; Priebe, M G; Welling, G W; Brummer, R-J M; Vonk, R J

    2008-08-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic-active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance.

  11. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary ...

  12. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  14. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  15. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  16. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and co...

  17. Diffuse hemangioma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.; Caseiro-Alves, F.; Cruz, L.; Moreira, A.; Rebelo, O.

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of diffuse hemangioma of the colon in adolescent patients. One patient had multiple phleboliths at the lower pelvis identified with plain radiographs of the abdomen. Several aspects were seen on double-contrast enema: luminal narrowing, colonic-wall thickening and submucosal colonic masses that changed in appearance with the degree of colonic distension. Angiography was inconclusive in one case. Use of CT and MR provided relevant information regarding the true extent of the disease, but MR was superior in demonstrating unequivocally the vascular nature of the lesions. (orig.)

  18. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RESULT. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old male with mucosa - associated lymphoid tissue. [MALT] lymphoma of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. He presented with severe abdominal pains and a centrally located huge abdominal mass for which a surgical resection was done. Histologically.

  19. Traumatic colon injuries -- factors that influence surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinescu, G; Lica, I; Beuran, M

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate current trends in surgical management of colon injuries in a level I urban trauma centre, in the light of our increasing confidence in primary repair. Our retrospective study evaluates the results of 116 patients with colon injuries operated at Bucharest Clinical Emergency Hospital, in the light of some of the most commonly cited factors which could influence the surgeon decision-making process towards primary repair or colostomy. Blunt injuries were more common than penetrating injuries (65% vs. 31%). Significant other injuries occurred in 85 (73%) patients. Primary repair was performed in 95 patients (82%). Fecal diversion was used in 21 patients(18%). Multiple factors influence the decision-making process: shock, fecal contamination, associated injuries and higher scores on the Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) and Colon Injury Scale (CIS). Colon related intra-abdominal complications occurred in 7% of patients in whom the colon injury was closed primarily and in 14% of patients in whom a stoma was created, ATI having a predictive role in their occurrence. The overall mortality rate was 19%. Primary repair of colon injuries, either by primary suture or resection and anastomosis, is a safe method in the management of the majority of colonic injuries. Colostomy is preferred for patients with ATI ≥ 30 and CIS ≥ 4. Surgical judgment remains the final arbiter in decision making. Celsius.

  20. Potassium secretion in mammalian distal colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial organs adjust the „inner milieu“ of the body and are crucial for all homeostatic processes. Epithelial transport of different solutes and water is regulated phenomena. The regulation processes include both long term hormonal regulation and short term local agonist mediated regulation....... This research project is the summary of 3 original papers addressing the functional role of different regulating factors on ion transport in mouse distal colon. The first paper addresses the effect of luminal nucleotides on electrogenic Na+ absorption. The distal colon, like the distal nephron is an aldosterone......-sensitive tissue and participates in the regulation of Na+ excretion. In the distal nephron it was found that luminal nucleotides inhibit ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption. Here it was addressed whether luminal nucleotides regulate Na+ absorption and if so, which of the known luminal P2 receptors are involved. Using...

  1. Colonic duplication in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, P.; Dario Casas, J.; Sanchez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A case of colonic duplication that was diagnosed radiologically in an adult is reported. A long duplicated segment below the normal transverse colon, with a wide anastomosis at the hepatic flexure level, was observed on barium enema. The rarity of this anomaly unassociated with other malformations is emphasized. (orig.)

  2. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2. Earliest human colonization of south Asia. The early human colonization of south Asia is represented largely by an abundance of stone tool assemblages. The oldest known tools ..... component among finished tools is conspicuous in the hinterland riverine ...... sativum), green gram (Vigna radiata), gram/chicken pea.

  3. Colonic Diverticulitis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kuo Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the colon is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and presents in 50–70% of those aged 80 years or older. The most common complication is colonic diverticulitis. Eighty percent of patients who present with colonic diverticulitis are aged 50 years and older. Diagnosis and treatment of colonic diverticulitis in the elderly is more difficult and complicated owing to more comorbid conditions. Computed tomography is recommended for diagnosis when colonic diverticulitis is suspected. Most patients admitted with acute colonic diverticulitis respond to conservative treatment, but 15–30% of patients require surgery. Because surgery for acute colonic diverticulitis carries significant rates of morbidity and mortality, conservative treatment is recommended in the elderly. Conservative treatment of colonic diverticulitis with antibiotics, bowel rest, possibly including parenteral alimentation, is usually applied for 1–2 weeks. In the absence of a response to conservative treatment, frequent recurrence or complications (abscesses, fistulas, bowel obstructions, and free perforations, surgery is indicated.

  4. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She developed severe upper abdominal pain after the ... non-surgical management of pancreatitis and associated complications, colonic perforation should be considered in patients who deteriorate ... To our knowledge this is the first case of a secure pre-operative diagnosis of colonic perforation due to to pancreatitis.

  5. Gene expression changes in the colon epithelium are similar to those of intact colon during late inflammation in interleukin-10 gene deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Russ

    Full Text Available In addition to their role in absorption and secretion, epithelial cells play an important role in the protection of the colon mucosa from the resident microbiota and are important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples is widely used to gain an overview of the cellular pathways and processes that are active in the colon during inflammation. Laser microdissection of colon epithelial cells allows a more targeted analysis of molecular pathways in the mucosa, preceding and during inflammation, with potentially increased sensitivity to changes in specific cell populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur in early and late inflammation stages in colon epithelium of a mouse model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples and microdissected colon epithelial cell samples from interleukin-10 gene deficient and control mice at 6 and 12 weeks of age was undertaken. Results of gene set enrichment analysis showed that more immune-related pathways were identified between interleukin-10 gene deficient and control mice at 6 weeks of age in epithelial cells than intact colon. This suggests that targeting epithelial cells could increase sensitivity for detecting immune changes that occur early in the inflammatory process. However, in the later stages of inflammation, microarray analyses of intact colon and epithelium both provide a similar overview of gene expression changes in the colon mucosa at the pathway level.

  6. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  7. Alterations of the Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are not General Characteristics of the Colonization Process by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alteraciones de las Actividades de Enzimas Antioxidantes no son Características Generales del Proceso de Colonización por Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakelin Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant system is involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but its role during the colonization process is still poorly understood. To gain new insights into the role of antioxidant system during root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. roots inoculated with six strains of different genera and species: two Glomus mosseae, Glomus cubense, Glomus intraradices, Glomus sp. and Acaulospora scrobiculata. Glomus cubense and A. scrobiculata strains reached the highest infectivity levels with maximum values of colonization frequency and intensity of 29-10.88% and 18-9.20%, respectively; G. mosseae strains showed an intermediate infectivity, both with 15% of colonization frequency and maximum intensities of 7.647.06%, respectively; while the infectivity levels of Glomus sp. and G. intraradices strains were the lowest with colonization frequency- 13% and intensities- 5.07 and 5.41, respectively. Some activity patterns of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were not specific for early or late colonization stages neither for the colonization level and type of strain. However, a unique superoxide dismutase-band presents at early colonization and the low level of guaiacol-peroxidase activity at later stages presents in all inoculated roots indicate that these antioxidant responses are independent of colonization degree and strain. Taking together, our data suggest that alterations of the antioxidant enzyme activities are not general characteristics of the colonization process by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, probably having the key role on those responses the specific feature of each strain rather than colonization per se.El sistema antioxidante está involucrado en la simbiosis micorrízico-arbuscular, pero su rol durante el proceso de colonización es aún escasamente comprendido. Para esclarecer el papel del sistema

  8. Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Cinotti, A.; Cavallari, L.; Orzincolo, C.; Dovigo, L.; Trotta, F.; Menegale, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

  9. Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.

  10. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Yul

    1972-01-01

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom

  11. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. PMID:25797264

  12. Colonic motility in proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R F

    1979-10-06

    Intraluminal pressure recordings were obtained from the rectum and sigmoid colon in two patients experiencing attacks of proctalgia fugax. In each patient the pain appeared to result from contractions of the sigmoid colon, and not from spasm of the levator ani, rectal wall muscle, or anal sphincters, all of which have previously been suggested as the source of such pain. Proctalgia fugax therefore appears, at least in some patients, to be an unusual variant of the irritable bowel syndrome, in which pain is referred from the sigmoid colon to the rectum.

  13. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-04-10

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor.However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo.

  14. Multidetector CT of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.

    2003-01-01

    Multidetector technology, enabling faster imaging, higher spatial resolution and reduction in radiation dose, increases the role of CT in colonic diagnostic. The higher spatial resolution in the z-direction also changes the way to analyze the images. Instead of reading axial sections, now the colon can be systematically assessed in 3D by scrolling through multiplanar reconstructions or in CT colonography by virtual endoscopy. With ongoing improvements in computer-aided diagnosis CT colonography becomes an alternative to fiberoptic colonocopy for screening (http://www.multiorganscreening.org). In this article we propose a CT examination protocol for the colon, describe the typical imaging findings of different colonic diseases, and summarize the current status of CT colonography. (orig.)

  15. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for women and 2 drinks per day for men DO NOT smoke You can also have genetic testing done to assess your risk for colon cancer. If you have a strong family history of the disease, talk with your ...

  16. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cramps Dizziness Dehydration Bowel perforation Infection Depletion of probiotics, sodium and potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing ... goodbye to bacon, sausage, deli meats and hot dogs. Cancer-causing substances form when meats are preserved. ...

  17. Age-related loss of EGF-receptor related protein (ERRP) in the aging colon is a potential risk factor for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eva M; Levi, Edi; Du, Jianhua; Xu, Hu; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2004-12-01

    Although in Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGF-receptor (EGFR) in mucosa of much of the gastrointestinal tract, including the colon, regulation of this process is poorly understood. We hypothesize that loss of suppressor of EGFR may partly be responsible for this process. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of EGFR related protein (ERRP), a recently identified negative regulator of EGFR, in the colonic mucosa during aging and following administration of the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH) that resulted in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which are considered to be precursor of adenoma and carcinoma. In Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGFR in the colonic mucosa, as evidenced by 30-35% increase in the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR in the proximal and distal colon of aged (20-22 months old) than in young (4-6 months old) rats. In contrast, the levels of ERRP in both regions of the colon of aged rats were decreased by 50-60%, compared to their younger counterparts. Administration of DMH, which induced a greater number of ACF in the colon of aged rats than in young animals, resulted in a corresponding reduction in ERRP in the colon. These results suggest that loss of ERRP expression is a common event during aging and early stages of chemically induced colon cancer. We also suggest that loss of ERRP could be a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer in the older population.

  18. Primary closure in colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Aragón, Luis Enrique; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Vaca-Pérez, Enrique; Belmares-Taboada, Jaime Arístides; Ortiz-Castillo, Fátima de Guadalupe; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Primary repair of colon injuries is an accepted therapeutic option; however, controversy persists regarding its safety. Our objective was to report the evolution and presence of complications in patients with colon injury who underwent primary closure and to determine if the time interval (>6 h), degree of injury, contamination, anatomic site injured, PATI (Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index) >25, and the presence of other injuries in colon trauma are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal and descriptive study conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto," San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. We included patients with abdominal trauma with colon injury subjected to surgical treatment. chi(2) was used for basic statistical analysis. There were 481 patients with abdominal trauma who underwent surgery; 77(16.1%) had colon injury. Ninety percent (n = 69) were treated in the first 6 h; 91% (n = 70) were due to penetrating injuries, and gunshot wound accounted for 48% (n = 37). Transverse colon was the most frequently injured (38%) (n = 29). Grade I and II injuries accounted for 75.3% (n = 58). Procedures included primary repair (76.66 %) (n = 46); resection with anastomosis (8.3%) (n = 5); and colostomy (15%) (n = 9). Associated injuries were present in 76.6% (n = 59). There was some degree of contamination in 85.7% (n = 66); 82.8% (58) had PATI colon injury. Primary repair is a safe procedure for treatment of colon injuries. Patients with primary repair had lower morbidity (p <0.009). Surgery during the first 6 h (p <0.006) and in hemodynamically stable patients (p <0.014) had a lower risk of complications.

  19. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  20. Colonic diverticulosis is not a risk factor for colonic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Dong, Lemei; Zippi, Maddalena; Stock, Simon; Geng, Wujun; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2018-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis may represent a risk factor for colonic adenomas by virtue of the fact that evolving data suggest that these 2 conditions may share common risk factors such as Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity. This study aims to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and colonic adenomas in mainland China. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients who underwent colonoscopic examination between October 2013 and December 2014 in a university hospital in mainland China. Age, gender, colonic adenomas, advanced adenomas, and distribution of diverticulosis were recorded during the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations between the prevalence of diverticulosis and age, sex, and presence of colonic adenomas and advanced adenomas. A total of 17,456 subjects were enrolled. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and adenoma was 2.4% and 13.2%, respectively. With regard to distribution of diverticula, most (365/424, 86.1%) were right-sided. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that age and male gender were independent risk factors for adenoma and advanced adenoma. There was no relationship between diverticulosis or location of diverticulosis and presence of adenoma and advanced adenoma adjusting by age and gender. In a stratified analysis according to age and gender, similar results were also noted. There was no statistical relationship between diverticulosis and the risk of adenoma and advanced adenoma. Our results may not be generalized to the Western population due to the fact that left-sided diverticular cases were very small in our study.

  1. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Hui-yuan; Sui, Ming-hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-chen; Sun, Hai-qing; Zheng, Hai-tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. Material/Methods qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression...

  2. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  3. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer.

  4. An integrative analysis of the dynamics of landscape- and local-scale colonization of Mediterranean woodlands by Pinus halepensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Sheffer

    Full Text Available Afforestation efforts have resulted in extensive plantations of either native or non-native conifers, which in many regions has led to the spread of those conifers into surrounding natural vegetation. This process of species colonization can trigger profound changes in both community dynamics and ecosystem processes. Our study disentangled the complexity of a process of colonization in a heterogeneous landscape into a simple set of rules. We analyzed the factors that control the colonization of natural woodland ecosystems by Pinus halepensis dispersing from plantations in the Mediterranean region of Israel. We developed maximum-likelihood models to explain the densities of P. halepensis colonizing natural woodlands. Our models unravel how P. halepensis colonization is controlled by factors that determine colonization pressure by dispersing seeds and by factors that control resistance to colonization of the natural ecosystems. Our models show that the combination of different seed arrival processes from local, landscape, and regional scales determine pine establishment potential, but the relative importance of each component varied according to seed source distribution. Habitat resistance, determined by abiotic and biotic conditions, was as important as propagule input in determining the density of pine colonization. Thus, despite the fact that pine propagules disperse throughout the landscape, habitat heterogeneity within the natural ecosystems generates significant variation in the actual densities of colonized pine. Our approach provides quantitative measures of how processes at different spatial scales affect the distribution and densities of colonizing species, and a basis for projection of expected distributions. Variation in colonization rates, due to landscape-scale heterogeneity in both colonization pressure and resistance to colonization, can be expected to produce a diversity of new ecosystems. This work provides a template for

  5. Enfermedad Diverticular del Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo López Escobar

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los divertículos del colon han sido reconocidos por varios observadores desde hace más de un siglo, pero en su mayor parte se trataba de casos aislados, hoy se la considera como la enfermedad del siglo XX, la de la era moderna y de los países industrializados y de avanzada tecnología (5,18,33.

    Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (11, divertículo, del latín, diverticulum, quiere decir desviación de un camino; y desde el punto de vista anatómico, apéndice hueco y terminado en fondo de saco. (Gráfica No. 1.

    Goligher (17 lo define como la “posada al borde del camino, probablemente un lugar, a menudo, de mala reputación”.

    Historia

    Según Hackford (18, el proceso fué descrito brevemente por Littre a comienzos del siglo XVIII; pero se le atribuye a Cruveilhier la primera descripción como proceso patológico en 1849, quien, además, mencionó: “encontramos, no rara vez, en el sigmoide, entre las bandas de fibras musculares longitudinales, una serie de pequeños tumores piriformes oscuros, que están formados por hernias de la mucosa a través de brechas en la capa muscular” (17.

    Fleischman en 1815 hizo la primera observación de la enfermedad y empleó el término divertículo (45.

    Rokitansky en 1.849, habló de una enfermedad adquirida y consideró que su causa consistía en la constipación (45.

    Virchowen 1853 describió la perisigmoiditis (45.

    En 1859 Sidney Jones informó de una fístula colo-vesical debida a diverticulitis (5,45.

    Loomis en 1870 describe una peritonitis como resultante de una diverticulitis (45.

    En 1877 Ball describió la anatomía patológica de la enfermedad y presentó dos casos de fístula colovesical debidas a diverticulitis (9. Cripps en 1.888 popularizó la colostomía de desviación como tratamiento para la fístula colovesical(18...

  6. Clinical investigation of TROP-2 as an independent biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  7. Percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess: is colon resection necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Willis, David J; Madoff, Robert D; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary R; Belzer, George E; Melton, Genevieve B

    2013-05-01

    Recurrent diverticulitis has been reported in up to 30% to 40% of patients who recover from an episode of colonic diverticular abscess, so elective interval resection is traditionally recommended. The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of patients who underwent percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess without subsequent operative intervention. This was an observational study. This investigation was conducted at a tertiary care academic medical center and a single-hospital health system. Patients treated for symptomatic colonic diverticular abscess from 2002 through 2007 were included. The primary outcomes measured were complications, recurrence, and colectomy-free survival. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscesses. Thirty-two patients (15%) did not undergo subsequent colonic resection. Abscess location was pelvic (n = 9) and paracolic (n = 23), the mean abscess size was 4.2 cm, and the median duration of percutaneous drainage was 20 days. The comorbidities of this group of patients included severe cardiac disease (n = 16), immunodeficiency (n = 7), and severe pulmonary disease (n = 6). Freedom from recurrence at 7.4 years was 0.58 (95% CI 0.42-0.73). All recurrences were managed nonoperatively. Recurrence was significantly associated with an abscess size larger than 5 cm. Colectomy-free survival at 7.4 years was 0.17 (95% CI 0.13-0.21). This study was limited by its retrospective, nonexperimental design and short follow-up. In selected patients, observation after percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess appears to be a safe and low-risk management option.

  8. Complete colonic duplication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 -day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies.

  9. The Economics of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orangio, Guy R

    2018-04-01

    The economic burden of cancer on the national health expenditure is billions of dollars. The economic cost is measured on direct and indirect medical costs, which vary depending on stage at diagnosis, patient age, type of medical services, and site of service. Costs vary by region, physician behavior, and patient preferences. When analyzing the economic burden of survivors of colon cancer, we cannot forget the societal burden. Post-acute care and readmissions are major economic burdens. People with colon cancer have to be followed for their lifetime. Economic models are being studied to give cost-effective solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  11. NoxO1 Controls Proliferation of Colon Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Moll

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AimReactive oxygen species (ROS produced by enzymes of the NADPH oxidase family serve as second messengers for cellular signaling. Processes such as differentiation and proliferation are regulated by NADPH oxidases. In the intestine, due to the exceedingly fast and constant renewal of the epithelium both processes have to be highly controlled and balanced. Nox1 is the major NADPH oxidase expressed in the gut, and its function is regulated by cytosolic subunits such as NoxO1. We hypothesize that the NoxO1-controlled activity of Nox1 contributes to a proper epithelial homeostasis and renewal in the gut.ResultsNoxO1 is highly expressed in the colon. Knockout of NoxO1 reduces the production of superoxide in colon crypts and is not subsidized by an elevated expression of its homolog p47phox. Knockout of NoxO1 increases the proliferative capacity and prevents apoptosis of colon epithelial cells. In mouse models of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis and azoxymethane/DSS induced colon cancer, NoxO1 has a protective role and may influence the population of natural killer cells.ConclusionNoxO1 affects colon epithelium homeostasis and prevents inflammation.

  12. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The stomach is the most common site formucosa - associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphoma (MALToma). MALToma of the colon is a rare occurrence. It is on this background that we report this case. Methods The case records a patient with a MALT lymphoma and a review of the literature on the subject ...

  13. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  14. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy.

  15. Colon Trauma: Evidence-Based Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Logue, Alicia J; Muir, Mark T

    2018-01-01

    Colon injury is not uncommon and occurs in about a half of patients with penetrating hollow viscus injuries. Despite major advances in the operative management of penetrating colon wounds, there remains discussion regarding the appropriate treatment of destructive colon injuries, with a significant amount of scientific evidence supporting segmental resection with primary anastomosis in most patients without comorbidities or large transfusion requirement. Although literature is sparse concerning the management of blunt colon injuries, some studies have shown operative decision based on an algorithm originally defined for penetrating wounds should be considered in blunt colon injuries. The optimal management of colonic injuries in patients requiring damage control surgery (DCS) also remains controversial. Studies have recently reported that there is no increased risk compared with patients treated without DCS if fascial closure is completed on the first reoperation, or that a management algorithm for penetrating colon wounds is probably efficacious for colon injuries in the setting of DCS as well.

  16. Conservative management of colonic injury during percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Elghoneimy

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... Patients' records were searched for the occurrence of colonic injury. Records were ... tion to opacify the system and the percutaneous renal access was .... identify the presence of a retrorenal colon, yet the rarity of such a.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm

  18. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. | November 2001. V N Misra. 492 ... humans differ from the other apes in their upright posture, ... characterized by Levallois flakes and blades and by the ... and the coastal region running parallel to them, northeast ..... November 2001. Prehistoric human colonization of India. 497. Figure 1.

  19. Acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beese, M.; Heller, M.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological correlate to the pseudo-obstruction of the colon is not specific, but it does supply a pointer to the disease of it shows dilation of the caecum, colon ascendens and colon transversum with air-pockets and reflected imaging as well as a usually not dilated colon descendens with remarkably little air. To make the diagnosis quite sure we must exclude intestinal obstruction by using X-ray contrast media or by coloscopy. (orig./GDG) [de

  20. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D

    2010-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse

  1. EURECCA colorectal: multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Boelens, Petra G; Borras, Josep M; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Cervantes, Andres; Blomqvist, Lennart; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; van den Broek, Colette B M; Brown, Gina; Van Cutsem, Eric; Espin, Eloy; Haustermans, Karin; Glimelius, Bengt; Iversen, Lene H; van Krieken, J Han; Marijnen, Corrie A M; Henning, Geoffrey; Gore-Booth, Jola; Meldolesi, Elisa; Mroczkowski, Pawel; Nagtegaal, Iris; Naredi, Peter; Ortiz, Hector; Påhlman, Lars; Quirke, Philip; Rödel, Claus; Roth, Arnaud; Rutten, Harm; Schmoll, Hans J; Smith, Jason J; Tanis, Pieter J; Taylor, Claire; Wibe, Arne; Wiggers, Theo; Gambacorta, Maria A; Aristei, Cynthia; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20years; however considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of Cancer Care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012, the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about cancer of the colon and rectum was held. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organisations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries. The expert panel had delegates of the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), European Society of Pathology (ESP), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Radiology (ESR), European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP), European CanCer Organisation (ECCO), European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) and the European Colorectal Cancer Patient Organisation (EuropaColon), as well as delegates from national registries or audits. Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method. For the Delphi process, multidisciplinary experts were invited to comment and vote three web-based online voting rounds and to lecture on the subjects during the meeting (13th-15th December 2012). The sentences in the consensus document were available during the meeting and a televoting round during the conference by all participants was performed. This manuscript covers all sentences of the consensus document with the result of the voting. The consensus document represents sections on diagnostics, pathology, surgery, medical oncology, radiotherapy, and follow-up where

  2. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  3. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  4. Ischaemic colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeders, J.W.A.; Rosenbusch, B.; Tytgat, G.N.J.

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective study of one hundred and seventy patients with ischaemic colitis, we found eight patients with partially obstructive carcinoma of the colon located distally, seven located in the sigmoid and one in the splenic flexure. The frequency of this association (1-4.7% in the literature and 5.3% in our series) requires careful examination by radiologist and surgeon. The radiologist should be alert to the association of ischaemic damage proximal to an obstructive colorectal cancer. The surgeon must examine any colonic segment removed for carcinoma in order to exclude an ischaemic process in the area of the anastomosis and prevent leakage at the anastomosis or stricture formation. (orig.)

  5. The evolution of immunity in relation to colonization and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Emily A; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Hasselquist, Dennis; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Westerdahl, Helena

    2018-05-01

    Colonization and migration have a crucial effect on patterns of biodiversity, with disease predicted to play an important role in these processes. However, evidence of the effect of pathogens on broad patterns of colonization and migration is limited. Here, using phylogenetic analyses of 1,311 species of Afro-Palaearctic songbirds, we show that colonization events from regions of high (sub-Saharan Africa) to low (the Palaearctic) pathogen diversity were up to 20 times more frequent than the reverse, and that migration has evolved 3 times more frequently from African- as opposed to Palaearctic-resident species. We also found that resident species that colonized the Palaearctic from Africa, as well as African species that evolved long-distance migration to breed in the Palaearctic, have reduced diversity of key immune genes associated with pathogen recognition (major histocompatibility complex class I). These results suggest that changes in the pathogen community that occur during colonization and migration shape the evolution of the immune system, potentially by adjusting the trade-off between the benefits of extensive pathogen recognition and the costs of immunopathology that result from high major histocompatibility complex class I diversity.

  6. Determinants and Duration of Impact of Early Gut Bacterial Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine Ann

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet. It has been suggested that weaning onto solid diet containing non-digestible carbohydrates and cessation of breastfeeding are key stages in the colonization process. In addition, the microbiome of the placenta, amniotic fluid, and breast milk, alongside vaginal and fecal bacteria, may aid the transfer of maternal bacteria to the infant. However, methodological issues such as contamination during collection and/or analysis should be considered. Key Messages: The factors determining early colonization are becoming more evident. However, longitudinal studies of microbiome maturation into late childhood and adulthood are required. The nutrition and health status of the mother before, during, and after birth may be major factors in the early colonization of the infant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Intraoperative colonic lavage and primary anastomosis in peritonitis and obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, S; Jaurrieta, E; Jorba, R; Moreno, P; Farran, L; Borobia, F; Bettonica, C; Poves, I; Ramos, E; Alcobendas, F

    1997-02-01

    The surgical management of left colonic emergencies has evolved in the past few decades. Recently, there has been increasing interest in resection with primary anastomosis in selected cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in outcome in patients with peritonitis or obstruction treated by resection, on-table lavage and primary anastomosis of the left colon. Between January 1992 and August 1995, 212 patients underwent emergency operation for a distal colonic lesion: 97 presented with peritonitis, 113 with obstruction and two with other indications. Intraoperative colonic lavage was performed in 37 patients with obstruction and in 24 with an acute intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The postoperative mortality rate was 5 per cent. The incidence of clinical anastomotic leakage was 5 per cent. Wound infection was observed in ten patients (16 per cent), more often in those with peritonitis (P = 0.03). The overall mean(s.d.) hospital stay was 15(9) days. Resection, on-table lavage and primary anastomosis constitute the operation of choice for selected patients with left colonic emergency.

  8. Juvenile nursery colonization patterns for the European flounder (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinho, F.; van der Veer, H.W.; Cabral, H.N.; Pardal, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the latitudinal trends in the nursery habitat colonization processes of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). This was accomplished by estimating the duration of the pelagic and metamorphic stages, as well as the duration of the spawning period, in several nursery

  9. Control of Colon Cancer Progression by the Colon Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Award  Number:    W81XWH-­14-­1-­0235   TITLE:      Control of Colon Cancer Progression by the Colon Microbiome PRINCIPAL  INVESTIGATOR:    Frank  J... Microbiome Table  of  Contents   Page   1. Introduction………………………………………………………….4 2. Keywords…………………………………………………………….5 3. Accomplishments………..…………………………………………5

  10. Transverse loop colostomy and colonic motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F; Ringressi, M N; Maltinti, G; Bechi, P

    2014-11-01

    The motility of the defunctionalized colon, distal to transverse loop colostomy, has never been studied "in vivo." The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of transverse loop colostomy on colonic motility. Thirteen patients were examined before stoma closure by means of clinical evaluation and colonic manometry; we studied both the right and distal colon in both fasting and fed patients in order to detect motor activity. Quantitative and qualitative manometric analyses showed that the diverted colon had motor activity even if no regular colonic motor pattern was observed. The spreading of aboral propagated contractions (PCs) was sometimes recorded from the right colon to the distal colon. The response of the proximal and distal colon to a standard meal, when compared to fasting values, increased more than 40 and 35 %, respectively. Stool and gas ejections from the colostomy were never related to a particular type of colonic motility: Motor quiescence such as PCs was chaotically related to stool escape. In conclusion, motility of the defunctionalized colon is preserved in patients with transverse loop colostomy.

  11. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lum...

  12. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Rute; Sim?es-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, M?rio-Jorge; Azevedo, ?lvaro; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with n...

  13. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  14. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui-Yuan; Sui, Ming-Hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-Chen; Sun, Hai-Qing; Zheng, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2016-09-16

    BACKGROUND Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of TUG1 and p63 in 75 colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. In vitro, cultured colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo were used as cell models. TUG1 and p63 were silenced via transferring siRNA into HCT-116 or LoVo. The effects of TUG1 were investigated by examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. RESULTS Among the 75 colon cancer cases, the expression of TUG1 was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue, while p63 expression was lower in the tumor tissue. In HCT-116 and LoVo, the expression of TUG1 was significantly increased by p63 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly blocked the cell migration ability of colon cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS LncRNA TUG1 may serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer. Overexpressed TUG1 may contribute to promoting cell proliferation and migration in colon cancer cells.

  15. Antiproliferative effects of prenylflavonoids from hops on human colon cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudcová, T.; Bryndová, Jana; Fialová, K.; Fiala, J.; Karabín, M.; Jelínek, L.; Dostalek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2014), s. 225-230 ISSN 0046-9750 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hop * prenylflavonoids * xanthohumol * isoxanthohumol * antiproliferative * colon cancer Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2014

  16. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drugs for chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is in the third most frequent cancer among malignant tumors of both sexes in developed countries. It is predominantly a disease of older persons and occurs mostly after the age of 60. Although the etiology of colon cancer is unknown, it is assumed to arise as a result of unclear and complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The main element in the etiology of colorectal cancer is the process of genetic changes in epithelial cells of colon mucosa. It is believed that specific epidemiological factors such as stress, hypoxia, reduced intake of glucose and other nutrients, a hereditary predisposition to mutagenic effects, the meat in the diet, bile acids, reduced intake of minerals and vitamins as well as changes in pH of feces lead to initiation of the process of carcinogenesis in mucosa of the colon. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of chemical agents in order to block, prevent or delay the reversal development or progress of cancer. It is believed that chemoprevention is a key component of cancer control, and numerous studies indicate potential role of NSAIDs in chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  17. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  18. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  19. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to the colon based on the most current research. However, management of traumatic colon injuries remains a challenge and continues to be associated with significant morbidity. Familiarity with the different methods to the approach and management of colonic injuries will allow surgeons to minimize unnecessary complications and mortality. PMID:24294119

  20. Complications of acromegaly: thyroid and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    In acromegaly the long-term exposure to high growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels may result in specific complications in different human organs, including the thyroid gland and the colon. We will review here the evidence available regarding the characteristic thyroid and colon complications in acromegaly. This review summarizes the published data observing noncancerous structural abnormalities (thyroid nodules, colonic polyps) and thyroid and colon cancer in patients diagnosed with acromegaly. Thyroid micro-carcinomas are probably over-diagnosed among acromegalic patients. In regard to colon cancer, there is no sufficient data to suggest that colon cancer risk is higher in acromegaly compared to the general population.

  1. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to th...

  2. Perforated Solitary Diverticulitis of the Ascending Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    postoperative day 6. DISCUSSION Diverticuli of the right colon exist in approximately 1% to 5% of patients with diverticular disease .1-3 They are...ORIGINAL REPORTS Perforated Solitary Diverticulitis of the Ascending Colon CPT David S. Kauvar, MC, USA, MAJ, Jayson Aydelotte, MC, USA, and MAJ...Michael Harnisch, MC, USA Department of Surgery, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas KEY WORDS: solitary colon diverticulum

  3. Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Muneera R.

    2017-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestines may involve either the small bowel or colon. In the pediatric population, small bowel volvulus is more common, while in the adult population, colonic volvulus is more often seen. The two most common types of colonic volvulus include sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative, otherwise bowel ischemia may ensue. Treatment often involves emergent surgical exploration and bowel resection. PMID:28144211

  4. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, S; Karnak, I; Ciftci, A O; Senocak, M E; Tanyel, F C; Büyükpamukçu, N

    2006-06-01

    Vaginal construction is necessary for the patients with aplasia of Mullerian ducts, testicular feminisation and androgen insensitivity syndromes. Many methods of vaginal construction have been described. We report here the outcomes of six adolescent patients who underwent sigmoid colon vaginoplasty with special emphasis on the surgical technique and outcomes. Between 1990 and 2003, six patients underwent sigmoid vaginoplasty after a diagnosis of 5alpha-reductase deficiency (n = 3), testicular feminisation (n = 2) or vaginal atresia (n = 1). The mean age was 16 years (13 to 18). Wide spectrum antibiotics and whole-gut preparation were used in all cases. A 15-20 cm segment of sigmoid colon was pulled through the retrovesical tunnel. The proximal end was closed in two layers in patients with 5alpha-reductase deficiency and with testicular feminisation. A distal anastomosis was carried out to the opening made on the vaginal plate (5alpha-reductase deficiency) or on the tip of the shallow rudimentary vagina (testicular feminisation). The sigmoid segment was interposed between the blind end of the atretic vagina and the perineum in the patient with vaginal atresia. Patients were instructed to perform daily vaginal irrigation. The neovagina was examined and calibrated under anaesthesia. No routine vaginal dilatation was recommended. All but one patient had an uneventful postoperative period and were discharged within 7-8 days. All patients had an excellent cosmetic result with an appropriate vaginal length. One of the patients experienced late stenosis of the introitus which responded to dilatations. Mucus discharge was not a significant problem. The patient with vaginal atresia (Bardet-Biedl syndrome) experienced deep vein thrombosis, renal failure and sepsis, resulting in death. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty is a special procedure which appears appropriate for the construction of a new vagina in children. A sigmoid colon neovagina meets all necessary criteria after a

  5. Colonic diseases: The value of US examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerweger, Alois

    2007-01-01

    The colon is affected by a number of diseases, mainly inflammatory, ischemic, and neoplastic conditions. Depending upon clinical indications endoscopy, US, CT, or other radiological methods are used for evaluation. The fact that US is frequently used as the initial imaging method in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms allows for greater influence in further diagnostic evaluation and with treatment, provided the investigator is familiar with the features of different intestinal diseases. This article will describe the anatomical characteristics of the colon, the US technique for examination of the colon, and the typical US features of the more common diagnoses of the colon

  6. Inflammatory chronic disease of the colon: How to image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Roberta; Barchiesi, Annalisa; Di Mizio, Veronica; Di Terlizzi, Marco; Leo, Luca; Filippone, Antonella; Canalis, Luigi; Fossaceca, Rita; Carriero, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and UC, is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The inflammatory process in UC is confined to the mucosa and submucosa and it involves only the colon. In contrast, in Crohn's disease the inflammation process extends through the bowel wall layers and it can involve any part of gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, inflammatory bowel disease of the colon may be associated with complications, such as toxic megacolon, fulminant colitis, acute bleeding, fistulas and abscesses. Radiographic imaging studies are useful for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, and may be used to assess the extent and severity of disease, rule out complications, and monitor the response to therapy. The double-contrast barium study is a valuable technique for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease colonic alterations, even in patients with early mucosal abnormalities. The earliest finding of UC is characterized by a fine granular appeareance of the colonic mucosa, usually involving the rectosigmoid junction. In chronic UC double-contrast enema may reveal marked colonic shortening with tubular narrowing of the bowel and loss of haustration. The earliest radiographics findings of Crohn's disease are represented by aphthous ulcers. As disease progresses, aphthous ulcers may enlarge and coalesce to form stellate or linear areas of ulceration. In advanced Crohn's disease, transmural ulceration may lead to the development of fissures, sinus tracts, fistulas, and abscesses. Cross sectional studies such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sometimes ultrasound, are useful alternative tools not only in the assessment of bowel wall abnormalities, but also for the assessment of extraluminal alterations in patients with advanced disease

  7. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliadou Kalliopi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for α-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the α-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.

  8. Procaine Induces Epigenetic Changes in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, and it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed at treating colon cancer cell line (HCT116 with different chemotherapeutic drug/drug combinations (procaine, vorinostat “SAHA,” sodium phenylbutyrate, erlotinib, and carboplatin. Two different final concentrations were applied: 3 μM and 5 μM. Trypan blue test was performed to assess the viability of the cell before and after being treated with the drugs. The data obtained showed that there was a significant decrease in the viability of cells after applying the chemotherapeutic drugs/drug combinations. Also, DNA fragmentation assay was carried out to study the effect of these drugs on the activation of apoptosis-mediated DNA degradation process. The results indicated that all the drugs/drug combinations had a severe effect on inducing DNA fragmentation. Global DNA methylation quantification was performed to identify the role of these drugs individually or in combination in hypo- or hypermethylating the CpG dinucleotide all over the genome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Data obtained indicated that different combinations had different effects in reducing or increasing the level of methylation, which might indicate the effectiveness of combining drugs in treating colon cancer cells.

  9. Analysis on misdiagnosed cases of right colon cancer as appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to investigate the causes of misdiagnosing right colon cancer as appendicitis, in order to reduce the misdiagnosis rate. The process of diagnosing and treating 44 misdiagnosed right colon cancer cases was analyzed. It was found that the right colonic lumen in these patients was thick, and their cancer consisted mostly of the ulcerative type or of a cauliflower-like tumor that protruded into the intestinal cavity. Moreover, ring-shaped and structured cancer was rarely observed, which suggested a decreased likelihood of obstruction. The patients showed limited peritoneal irritation signs in their right lower abdomen, which was also a potential cause for misdiagnosis. Right colon cancer associated with appendicitis is easily misdiagnosed as simple appendicitis, chronic appendicitis, or appendiceal abscess. Therefore, it is necessary to raise general awareness on the manifestations of the disease in order to exclude other common complications during diagnosis and to reduce the misdiagnosis rate. An accurate early diagnosis and treatment will improve patient prognosis.

  10. Zebrafish Axenic Larvae Colonization with Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Jayo, Nerea; Alonso-Saez, Laura; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pardo, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we have successfully colonized 5 days postfertilization germ-free zebrafish larvae with the human intestinal microbiota previously extracted from a donor and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the composition of the transferred microbial communities that established inside the zebrafish gut. Thus, we describe for first time which human bacteria phylotypes are able to colonize the zebrafish digestive tract. Species with relevant interest because of their linkage to dysbiosis in different human diseases, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella spp., or Roseburia spp. have been successfully transferred inside the zebrafish digestive tract.

  11. Murman Coast of the Barents Sea at the Second Half of the 19th and the Begining 20th Century. Russian or European Colonization?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to analysing the historical background of the process of colonization Murman coast of the Barents Sea at the second half of the 19th and the begining 20th century. It consider two different interpretations of the history of colonization. One of them is the process of checking the Murman coast as a result of Russia imposed Western European initiatives. Another interpretation associates colonization with traditional process of the Russian presence on Murman.

  12. Electromanometry of the rectosigmoid in colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebig, R G; Pontes, J F; Michelsohn, N H

    1994-01-01

    In order to better understand the rectosigmoid motor activity in diverticular disease of the colon, we studied 186 patients, grouped according to their intestinal habit, the presence of diverticular disease and previous crisis of sigmoid diverticulitis. The intestinal habit was classified as: normal habit, irritable colon syndrome, diarrhea and constipation. The group of diverticulosis was classified by their intestinal habit and by diverticula localization (localized or generalized). The presence of systemic diseases or drug ingestion that could modify intestinal motility, were considered criteria for exclusion. The manometric study was preceded by food stimulus, with 650 kcal meal, by mechanic intestinal cleansing, with 500 ml of saline solution enema and by one hour resting period. A manometric catheter, was introduced by rectosigmoidoscopy, with open ended orifices situated at the sigmoid and upper rectum, respectively. The catheter was perfused by a capillary infusion system and the bowel pressures were registered for 30 minutes, in a thermal paper physiograph. We analyzed the % of activity, mean amplitude and motility index, by non parametric tests. No significant difference was observed between sexes. Difference or close to it were found for the groups with constipation, with or without diverticulosis, and for the latter in its subdivisions (localized, generalized and sigmoid diverticulitis). The rectal motor activity was similar in all groups. There was no difference for diverticulosis and its subdivision, when we take into account the several kinds of intestinal habits and the diverticula localization. The motility index averages showed low values for the sigmoid diverticulitis fact that suggests some dysfunction of this segment (hypocontractility). The key factor differentiating the groups was the presence of constipation and no influence was noted regarding the localization of diverticula or previous inflammatory process on intraluminal pressures. The

  13. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; Van Den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; Van Es, Johan H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  14. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-Acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan). 7. Improving Effects on Colonic Health of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-ya; Nie, Shao-ping; Huang, Xiao-jun; Hu, Jie-lun; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-yong; Phillips, Glyn O

    2016-03-30

    This research was aimed to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (Dendronan) on colonic health. Mice were fed Dendronan at doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that Dendronan, which has a special structure formed by mannose and glucose, rich in O-acetyl groups, exhibited improving effects on colonic and fecal parameters of Balb/c mice. After Dendronan feeding, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), colon length and index, and fecal moisture were increased, whereas colonic pH was decreased and defecation time was shortened. All of these changes were significantly different between polysaccharide-treated groups and the control group (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that an adequate intake of Dendronan is beneficial to the process of fermentation and regulation of colonic microenvironment, thus playing a role in the maintenance of colonic health.

  15. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  17. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  18. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  19. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  20. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.-García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. © FASEB.

  1. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  2. The colon shuffle : A modified urinary diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P.; Mertens, L. S.; Meinhardt, W.; Verwaal, V. J.; Dik, P.; Horenblas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This

  3. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.S.; Satchidanand, S.; Wesp, E.H.; State Univ. of New York, Buffalo

    1981-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding. (orig.)

  4. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, S S; Satchidanand, S; Wesp, E H

    1981-07-15

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding.

  5. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Martins, Lisandra Vanessa; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Herrero, Fábio Augusto; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Turatti, Aline; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk. The carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) induces an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and in the expression of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in the colon of rats. Our aim was to verify whether these events could be attenuated by exercise. Four groups of eight Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The groups G1 and G3 were sedentary (controls), and the groups G2 and G4 were submitted to 8 wk of swimming training, 5 d.wk. The groups G3 and G4 were given subcutaneous injections of DMH immediately after the exercise protocols. Fifteen days after the neoplasic induction, the rats were sacrificed and the colon was processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and COX-2. We found a significant increase in the PCNA-labeling index in both DMH-treated groups of rats. However, this increase was significantly attenuated in the training group G4 (P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in relation to the COX-2 expression. From our findings, we conclude that exercise training exerts remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.

  6. The Relevance of the Colon to Zinc Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lavaniya Gopalsamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, zinc deficiency is widespread, despite decades of research highlighting its negative effects on health, and in particular upon child health in low-income countries. Apart from inadequate dietary intake of bioavailable zinc, other significant contributors to zinc deficiency include the excessive intestinal loss of endogenously secreted zinc and impairment in small intestinal absorptive function. Such changes are likely to occur in children suffering from environmental (or tropical enteropathy (EE—an almost universal condition among inhabitants of developing countries characterized by morphologic and functional changes in the small intestine. Changes to the proximal gut in environmental enteropathy will likely influence the nature and amount of zinc delivered into the large intestine. Consequently, we reviewed the current literature to determine if colonic absorption of endogenous or exogenous (dietary zinc could contribute to overall zinc nutriture. Whilst we found evidence that significant zinc absorption occurs in the rodent colon, and is favoured when microbially-fermentable carbohydrates (specifically resistant starch are consumed, it is unclear whether this process occur in humans and/or to what degree. Constraints in study design in the few available studies may well have masked a possible colonic contribution to zinc nutrition. Furthermore these few available human studies have failed to include the actual target population that would benefit, namely infants affected by EE where zinc delivery to the colon may be increased and who are also at risk of zinc deficiency. In conducting this review we have not been able to confirm a colonic contribution to zinc absorption in humans. However, given the observations in rodents and that feeding resistant starch to children is feasible, definitive studies utilising the dual stable isotope method in children with EE should be undertaken.

  7. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  8. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuo Hirata; Yuko Kawakami; Nagisa Kinjo; Susumu Arakald; Tetsu Arakaki; Akira Hokama; Fukunori Kinjo; Jim Fujita

    2008-01-01

    AIM: TO evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with ahistory of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7).CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without.

  9. Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Domajnko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9×8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.

  10. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Yuko; Kinjo, Nagisa; Arakaki, Susumu; Arakaki, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without. PMID:18416471

  11. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  12. Bioreceptivity of dolostones to fungal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascaso, C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In many historic monuments in which signs of biodeterioration have been frequently reported, dolostones were used as dimension stone for their construction. In an effort to assess the influence of the texture of dolostones on their potential bioreceptivity, we characterized microbial colonization strategies in dolostone samples of predictably different textural features by scanning electron microscopy in back scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE, low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM, transmission light microscopy (TLM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP. Fungi were the predominant microorganisms in the dolostones examined and their colonization showed three well defined stages with the final consequence of complete rock disaggregation. The results of this study indicate that porosity differences (mainly the extent and type were particularly relevant for determining the presence and extent of each colonization stage. As a determinant of bioreceptivity, the porosity of dolostones will also condition the decay processes associated with this colonization. These findings highlight the fact that the intrinsic properties of dolostones, such as texture, need to be considered when selecting this type of stone for future construction projects.La dolomía ha sido empleada como piedra de fábrica en la construcción de muchos monumentos históricos en los que se han detectado fenómenos de biodeterioro en numerosas ocasiones. En este trabajo se evalúa cómo influye la textura de las dolomías en las estrategias adoptadas por los microorganismos para colonizar estos materiales pétreos. Para ello se han caracterizado muestras de dolomías con diferentes texturas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido en modo de electrones retrodispersados (SEM-BSE, microscopía electrónica de barrido a bajas temperaturas (LTSEM, microscopía de luz transmitida (TLM y porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio (MIP. De estas observaciones se deduce que

  13. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  14. Magnetomotive colon elastography: preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, A. Colello; Grillo, F.W.; Sampaio, D.R.T.; Carneiro, A.A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide and early diagnosis reduces morbidity. The standard preventive exams methods are uncomfortable for the patient, invasive, and /or are ionizing. Here, we evaluate the potential of magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) as a new, minimally invasive CRC screening technique. We developed a hybrid transducer (comprised of an ultrasound probe and a magnetic coil system) to construct relative elastography maps in a paraffin phantom with isoechoic inclusions. The electromagnetic component of our system manipulated ferromagnetic fluid located inside of our synthetic colon, and the captured ultrasound images were used to produce relative elastography maps. The MMUS images reveal by otherwise invisible structures based on differences in stiffness. Ultrasound elastography (relative) images by MMUs technique complements usual preventive CRC exams, is minimally invasive, has relative low cost when compared with others image methods. Also is fast diagnose and more comfortable for patient which prevents withdrawal of the screening. (author)

  15. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  16. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubben, F J; Peeters-Haesevoets, A; Engels, L G; Baeten, C G; Schutte, B; Arends, J W; Stockbrügger, R W; Blijham, G H

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of the S phase related proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was studied as an alternative to ex-vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry for assessment of human colonic cell proliferation. From 16 subjects without colonic disease biopsy specimens were collected from five different sites along the colorectum and processed for BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The mean proliferation index of PCNA was significantly higher at 133% of the value obtained with B...

  17. Smart nanocomposite hydrogels based on azo crosslinked graphene oxide for oral colon-specific drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Shi, Yuyang; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Han, Huili; Feng, Qianhua; Ren, Junxiao; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-08-01

    A safe and efficient nanocomposite hydrogel for colon cancer drug delivery was synthesized using pH-sensitive and biocompatible graphene oxide (GO) containing azoaromatic crosslinks as well as poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels). Curcumin (CUR), an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated successfully into the hydrogel through a freezing and thawing process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the formation and morphological properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel. The hydrogels exhibited good swelling properties in a pH-sensitive manner. Drug release studies under conditions mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released completely into the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. In vivo imaging analysis, pharmacokinetics and a distribution of the gastrointestinal tract experiment were systematically studied and evaluated as colon-specific drug delivery systems. All the results demonstrated that GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels could protect CUR well while passing through the stomach and small intestine to the proximal colon, and enhance the colon-targeting ability and residence time in the colon site. Therefore, CUR loaded GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels might potentially provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of colon cancer with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  18. Colon stem cell and crypt dynamics exposed by cell lineage reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. This method was applied here to explore different aspects of stem cell dynamics in the mouse colon without the use of stem cell markers. We first demonstrated the reliability of our method for the study of stem cells by confirming previously established facts, and then we addressed open questions. Our findings confirmed that colon crypts are monoclonal and that, throughout adulthood, the process of monoclonal conversion plays a major role in the maintenance of crypts. The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. In addition, we confirmed the positive correlation between physical and lineage proximity of crypts, by showing that the colon is separated into small domains that share a common ancestor. We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems.

  19. A20 restricts wnt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses colon carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shao

    Full Text Available Colon carcinogenesis consists of a multistep process during which a series of genetic and epigenetic adaptations occur that lead to malignant transformation. Here, we have studied the role of A20 (also known as TNFAIP3, a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that restricts NFκB and cell death signaling, in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis. We have found that A20 expression is consistently reduced in human colonic adenomas than in normal colonic tissues. To further investigate A20's potential roles in regulating colon carcinogenesis, we have generated mice lacking A20 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells and interbred these with mice harboring a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC(min. While A20(FL/FL villin-Cre mice exhibit uninflamed intestines without polyps, A20(FL/FL villin-Cre APC(min/+ mice contain far greater numbers and larger colonic polyps than control APC(min mice. We find that A20 binds to the β-catenin destruction complex and restricts canonical wnt signaling by supporting ubiquitination and degradation of β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, acute deletion of A20 from intestinal epithelial cells in vivo leads to enhanced expression of the β-catenin dependent genes cyclinD1 and c-myc, known promoters of colon cancer. Taken together, these findings demonstrate new roles for A20 in restricting β-catenin signaling and preventing colon tumorigenesis.

  20. Annona crassiflora Mart. fruit pulp effects on biochemical parameters and rat colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Paula Venâncio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A. crassiflora Mart. a Brazilian savannah fruit, is a source of phytochemical compounds that possess a wide array of biological activities, including free radical scavenging. This native fruit proved to potentialize the mutagenic process in previous in vivo investigations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake on colonic cell proliferation and on the development of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF in male Wistar rats. The animals were fed with either a commercial diet or a diet supplemented with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp mixed in 1%, 10% or 20% (w/w for 4 weeks or 20 weeks. The carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (4 doses, 40 mg kg-1 each was used to induce colonic ACF. After euthanasia, the blood, liver and colon samples were collected for biochemical determinations, oxidative stress or ACF development analysis, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of the colonic mucosa were performed using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in normal-appearing colonic crypt and β-catenin in ACF. There was no ACF development in the colon from groups treated with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp. Also, the biochemical and oxidative stress analysis, PCNA labeling and ACF development (number, multiplicity or cellular localization of β-catenin were unchanged as a result of marolo pulp intake. Thus, the present results suggest that A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake did not exert any protective effect in the colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats.

  1. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85-99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar.

  2. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soto-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85-99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar.

  3. Mast Cell Targeted Chimeric Toxin Can Be Developed as an Adjunctive Therapy in Colon Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of colitis with colorectal cancer has become increasingly clear with mast cells being identified as important inflammatory cells in the process. In view of the relationship between mast cells and cancer, we studied the effect and mechanisms of mast cells in the development of colon cancer. Functional and mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo and in vivo studies of cell interactions between mast cells and CT26 cells. Further evidence was reversely obtained in studies of mast cell targeted Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin. Experiments revealed mast cells could induce colon tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer progression was found to be related to the density of mast cells in colonic submucosa. The activation of MAPK, Rho-GTPase, and STAT pathways in colon cancer cells was triggered by mast cells during cell-to-cell interaction. Lastly, using an Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin we constructed, we confirmed the promoting effect of mast cells in development of colon cancer. Mast cells are a promoting factor of colon cancer and thus also a potential therapeutic target. The Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin targeting mast cells could effectively prevent colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, these data may demonstrate a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of tumors.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Fasted State Colonic Liquid Pockets in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca

    2017-08-07

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of

  5. Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Yong; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1982-01-01

    Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon, known also as obstructive colitis, is a disorder characterized by anulceration and inflammation of the colon proximal to an obstructive lesion, especially carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, and in rare instance, leads to acute gangrene of the colon. The authors analyzed radiologic findings in four cases of necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon. Barium enema disclosed mucosal edema, nodular filling defects, irregularity of the colonic contour and typical thumbprinting appearance of involved colon proximal to an obstructing carcinoma of the colon. The mechanism of necrotizing colitis was briefly reviewed

  6. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  7. Emergency management of acute colonic cancer obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainant, A

    2012-02-01

    Emergency management of obstructing colonic cancer depends on both tumor location and stage, general condition of the patient and surgeon's experience. Right sided or transverse colon obstructing cancers are usually treated by right hemicolectomy-extended if necessary to the transverse colon-with primary anastomosis. For left-sided obstructing cancer, in patients with low surgical risk, primary resection and anastomosis associated with on-table irrigation or manual decompression can be performed. It prevents the confection of a loop colostomy but presents the risk of anastomotic leakage. Subtotal or total colectomy allows the surgeon to encompass distended and fecal-loaded colon, and to perform one-stage resection and anastomosis. Its disadvantage is an increased daily frequency of stools. It must be performed only in cases of diastatic colon perforation or synchronous right colonic cancer. In patients with high surgical risk, Hartmann procedure must be preferred. It allows the treatment of both obstruction and cancer, and prevents anastomotic leakage but needs a second operation to reverse the colostomy. Colonic stenting is clinically successful in up to 90% in specialized groups. It is used as palliation in patients with disseminated disease or bridge to surgery in the others. If stent insertion is not possible, loop colostomy is still indicated in patients at high surgical risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Massive Submucosal Ganglia in Colonic Inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naemi, Kaveh; Stamos, Michael J; Wu, Mark Li-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    - Colonic inertia is a debilitating form of primary chronic constipation with unknown etiology and diagnostic criteria, often requiring pancolectomy. We have occasionally observed massively enlarged submucosal ganglia containing at least 20 perikarya, in addition to previously described giant ganglia with greater than 8 perikarya, in cases of colonic inertia. These massively enlarged ganglia have yet to be formally recognized. - To determine whether such "massive submucosal ganglia," defined as ganglia harboring at least 20 perikarya, characterize colonic inertia. - We retrospectively reviewed specimens from colectomies of patients with colonic inertia and compared the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in this setting to the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in a set of control specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - Seven of 8 specimens affected by colonic inertia harbored 1 to 4 massive ganglia, for a total of 11 massive ganglia. One specimen lacked massive ganglia but had limited sampling and nearly massive ganglia. Massive ganglia occupied both superficial and deep submucosal plexus. The patient with 4 massive ganglia also had 1 mitotically active giant ganglion. Only 1 massive ganglion occupied the entire set of 10 specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - We performed the first, albeit distinctly small, study of massive submucosal ganglia and showed that massive ganglia may be linked to colonic inertia. Further, larger studies are necessary to determine whether massive ganglia are pathogenetic or secondary phenomena, and whether massive ganglia or mitotically active ganglia distinguish colonic inertia from other types of chronic constipation.

  9. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. PGE2-induced colon cancer growth is mediated by mTORC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, Marc; Faes, Seraina; Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PGE 2 activates mTORC1 in colon cancer cells. • Inhibition of mTORC1 blocks PGE 2 induced colon cancer cell growth. • mTORC1 is a signaling intermediary in PGE 2 induced colon cancer cell responses. - Abstract: The inflammatory prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) cytokine plays a key role in the development of colon cancer. Several studies have shown that PGE 2 directly induces the growth of colon cancer cells and furthermore promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing the production of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The signaling intermediaries implicated in these processes have however not been fully characterized. In this report, we show that the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in PGE 2 -induced colon cancer cell responses. Indeed, stimulation of LS174T cells with PGE 2 increased mTORC1 activity as observed by the augmentation of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, a downstream effector of mTORC1. The PGE 2 EP 4 receptor was responsible for transducing the signal to mTORC1. Moreover, PGE 2 increased colon cancer cell proliferation as well as the growth of colon cancer cell colonies grown in matrigel and blocking mTORC1 by rapamycin or ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR abrogated these effects. Similarly, the inhibition of mTORC1 by downregulation of its component raptor using RNA interference blocked PGE 2 -induced LS174T cell growth. Finally, stimulation of LS174T cells with PGE 2 increased VEGF production which was also prevented by mTORC1 inhibition. Taken together, these results show that mTORC1 is an important signaling intermediary in PGE 2 mediated colon cancer cell growth and VEGF production. They further support a role for mTORC1 in inflammation induced tumor growth

  11. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Mery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71 and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84, respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29 for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10 for distal colon cancer (DCC. An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  12. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  13. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  14. CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Whang, Kang Ik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the CT findings of acute right colonic diverticulitis, and to determine the difference between these and published reports describing left colonic, especially sigmoid, diverticulitis. Inflamed diverticula were visible in all cases, and were solitary. Nine cases occurred in the ascending colon and four in the cecum; in particular, eleven occurred around the ileocecal valve. In three cases, the inflamed diverticulum was less than 1 cm in diameter; in five cases, 1-2 cm; in three, 2-3 cm, and in two, 3-4 cm. These were able to be classified into two major forms. In three cases it was nodular with hyperattenuation and some inhomogeneity, and ten shows the target form with thick walls and a central cavity. In five of these target lesions, the wall pattern was partially or completely inhomogeneous, or multilayered. The material filling the central cavity were gas in five cases, fecalith in two, and fluid in three. Abnormal pericoloic fat infiltrations were seen in twelve cases (92%), segmental colonic wall thickening in eleven (85%), other not-inflamed diverticula in five (38%), mesenteric lymph node enlargement in three (23%), free pericecal fluid collection in three (23%), and perirenal fascial thickening in two (15%). The complications such as remote abscess cavity, colonic obstruction, fistula or perforation were not found. On barium colon study, diverticulitis was in all cases confirmed by the presence of barium in the deformed diversiculum. Among CT findings for acute right colonic diverticulitis, the most important and pathognomonic is inflamed diverticula; the forms of these vary, and include gangrenous diverticulitis. The CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis in Koreans might not, however, reveal the complications which sigmoid diverticulitis frequently involves; in patients with right lower quadrant pain imaging studies are performed promptly, and for the mesentery, the anatomical base between right and

  15. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  16. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...... 32% (p = 0.005) translating into a three-year DFS of 94% versus 63% (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer is feasible and the results suggest that a major part of the patients can be spared adjuvant chemotherapy. Validation in a randomized trial is warranted....

  18. Identifying colon cancer risk modules with better classification performance based on human signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoli; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Lina; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Huang, Hao; Jia, Xu; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Du, Youwen; Li, Weiguo; Shi, Yuchen; He, Weiming

    2014-10-01

    Identifying differences between normal and tumor samples from a modular perspective may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for colon cancer. Many cancer studies have shown that signaling transduction and biological pathways are disturbed in disease states, and expression profiles can distinguish variations in diseases. In this study, we integrated a weighted human signaling network and gene expression profiles to select risk modules associated with tumor conditions. Risk modules as classification features by our method had a better classification performance than other methods, and one risk module for colon cancer had a good classification performance for distinguishing between normal/tumor samples and between tumor stages. All genes in the module were annotated to the biological process of positive regulation of cell proliferation, and were highly associated with colon cancer. These results suggested that these genes might be the potential risk genes for colon cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Ecological opportunity and incumbency in the diversification of repeated continental colonizations by muroid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, John J; Rowe, Kevin C; Steppan, Scott J

    2013-11-01

    incumbency that is consistent with ecological opportunity, but they did not inhibit initial diversification rates of secondary colonizers. These results indicate that ecological opportunity may be a general but weak process in muroids and one that requires specific circumstances to lead to an adaptive radiation. The total land area, length of time between colonizations, and rank of colonizations did not influence the diversification rates of primary colonizers. Models currently employed to test ecological opportunity do a poor job of explaining muroid diversity. In addition, the various rate-shift metrics identified different clades, suggesting that caution should be used when only one is applied, and we discuss which methods are most appropriate to address different questions of diversification.

  20. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee

    1979-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast

  1. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee [St. Mary' s Hospital., Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast

  2. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  3. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Menu Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade ... Accepted Insurance Make a Donation Refer a Patient Phone Directory Blog, News & Mobile Apps Consult QD Health Essentials Newsroom Mobile Apps ...

  4. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  5. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  6. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  7. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Almagro-Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms.

  8. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  9. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are 'whale-fall specialists.'

  10. [Role of oral cavity colonization resistance in dental caries development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, T A; Chereda, V V; Loban', G A

    2013-01-01

    Colonization resistance is one of local immunity mechanisms determined by a combination of factors that inhibit the adhesion and growth of mucous membrane bacteria. We examined patients with different levels of caries intensity assessing oral mucosa colonization resistance by our own method. Caries development resulted in changes of colonization resistance with the increased rate of inhibition of the oral mucosa colonization resistance barrier.

  11. Pancreatoduodenectomy with colon resection for cancer: A nationwide retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, E. Madelief; de Rooij, Thijs; van Eijck, Casper H.; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; van Dam, Ronald M.; van Dieren, Susan; Erdmann, Joris I.; Gerhards, Michael F.; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Scheepers, Joris J.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopically radical (R0) resection of pancreatic, periampullary, or colon cancer may occasionally require a pancreatoduodenectomy with colon resection (PD-colon), but the benefits of this procedure have been disputed, and multicenter studies on morbidity and oncologic outcomes after PD-colon are

  12. Improving Outcomes Following Penetrating Colon Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Elizabeth Pritchard, F.; Minard, Gayle; Stewart, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction During World War II, failure to treat penetrating colon injuries with diversion could result in court martial. Based on this wartime experience, colostomy for civilian colon wounds became the standard of care for the next 4 decades. Previous work from our institution demonstrated that primary repair was the optimal management for nondestructive colon wounds. Optimal management of destructive wounds requiring resection remains controversial. To address this issue, we performed a study that demonstrated risk factors (pre or intraoperative transfusion requirement of more than 6 units of packed red blood cells, significant comorbid diseases) that were associated with a suture line failure rate of 14%, and of whom 33% died. Based on these outcomes, a clinical pathway for management of destructive colon wounds was developed. The results of the implementation of this pathway are the focus of this report. Methods Patients with penetrating colon injury were identified from the registry of a level I trauma center over a 5-year period. Records were reviewed for demographics, injury characteristics, and outcome. Patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Patients with destructive wounds but no comorbidities or large transfusion requirement underwent resection and anastomosis, while patients with destructive wounds and significant medical illness or transfusion requirements of more than 6 units/blood received end colostomy. The current patients (CP) were compared to the previous study (PS) to determine the impact of the clinical pathway. Outcomes examined included colon related mortality and morbidity (suture line leak and abscess). Results Over a 5.5-year period, 231 patients had penetrating colon wounds. 209 survived more 24 hours and comprise the study population. Primary repair was performed on 153 (73%) patients, and 56 patients had destructive injuries (27%). Of these, 40 (71%) had resection and anastomosis and 16 (29%) had diversion

  13. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  14. Colon Cancer After Acute Diverticulitis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Kwang Hoon; Han, Koon Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Je Hoon; Choi, Kyu Un; Han, Myung Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulitis is the most common clinical complication of diverticular disease, affecting 10-25% of the patients with diverticula. The prevalences of diverticulitis and colon cancer tend to increase with age and are higher in industrialized countries. Consequently, diverticulitis and colon cancer have been reported to have similar epidemiological characteristics. However, the relationship between these diseases remains controversial, as is the performance of routine colonoscopy after an epis...

  15. Echoendoscopic characterization of the human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Castro-Poças

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize colon and rectum walls, pericolic and perirectal spaces, using endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes. Methods: Sixty individuals (50% males, aged 18-80, were included. Using 12 and 20 MHz endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes, all different colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid and rectum were evaluated according to the number and thickness of the different layers in intestinal wall, to the presence and (largest diameter of vessels in the submucosa and of peri-intestinal nodes. Results: The 20 MHz miniprobe identified a higher number of layers than the 12 MHz miniprobe, with medians of 7 and 5 respectively (p < 0.001. The rectal wall (p = 0.001, its muscularis propria (p < 0.001 and mucosa (p = 0.01 were significantly thicker than the different segments of the colon, which had no significant differences between them. Patients aged 41-60 presented thicker colonic wall and muscularis propria in descending (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 and rectum (p=0.01 and p=0.01. Submucosal vessels were identified in 30% of individuals in descending and rectum, and in 12% in ascending. Adenopathies were observed in 9% of the colon segments and 5% in rectum. Conclusions: A higher frequency enabled the identification of a higher number of layers. Rectal wall is thicker than the one from all the segments of the colon and there are no differences between these, namely in the ascending colon. Moreover, peri-intestinal adenopathies were rarely identified but present in asymptomatic individuals. All together, these results describe for the first time features which are relevant during staging and therapeutic management of colonic lesions.

  16. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred

  17. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  18. Context-dependent colonization dynamics: Regional reward contagion drives local compression in aquatic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Matthew R; Resetarits, William J

    2017-09-01

    Habitat selection by colonizing organisms is an important factor in determining species abundance and community dynamics at multiple spatial scales. Many organisms select habitat patches based on intrinsic patch quality, but patches exist in complex landscapes linked by dispersal and colonization, forming metapopulations and metacommunities. Perceived patch quality can be influenced by neighbouring patches through spatial contagion, wherein perceived quality of one patch can extend beyond its borders and either increase or decrease the colonization of neighbouring patches and localities. These spatially explicit colonization dynamics can result in habitat compression, wherein more colonists occupy a patch or locality than in the absence of spatial context dependence. Previous work on contagion/compression focused primarily on the role of predators in driving colonization patterns. Our goal was to determine whether resource abundance can drive multi-scale colonization dynamics of aquatic beetles through the processes of contagion and compression in naturally colonized experimental pools. We established two levels (high/low quality) of within-patch resource abundances (leaf litter) using an experimental landscape of mesocosms, and assayed colonization by 35 species of aquatic beetles. Patches were arranged in localities (sets of two patches), which consisted of a combination of two patch-level resource levels in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to assay colonization at both locality and patch levels. We demonstrate that patterns of species abundance and richness of colonizing aquatic beetles are determined by patch quality and context-dependent processes at multiple spatial scales. Localities that consisted of at least one high-quality patch were colonized at equivalent rates that were higher than localities containing only low-quality patches, displaying regional reward contagion. In localities that consisted of one high- and one low-quality patch, reward

  19. Synchronous colon and gastric advanced carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, A.; Demoro, M.; Corona, M.; Di Bari, M.; Ricciardulli, T.; Galati, G.; Ciardi, A.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of advanced synchronous colon and gastric carcinoma is described. A 36 year old female was admitted to our Department with a stenosing right colon cancer diagnosed at endoscopy which was performed for lower crampy abdominal pain and gross blood in the stool. Multiple colon polyps, distal to the tumor, were also detected. On preoperative abdominal computed tomography, a stenosing right colon cancer, without evidence of abdominal diffusion, was confirmed. At laparotomy, in addition to colon cancer, an antral gastric cancer was incidentally found. En bloc hemi gastrectomy and subtotal colectomy were performed. Digestive continuity was restored by gastrojejunal and ileosigmoid anastomoses. At histology, a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring-cell component (pT2, pN0; stage IB) and a moderately differentiated colon adenocarcinoma with a tubulovillous component (pT3, pN1; stage III, Stage Dukes C) were revealed. Both tumors showed a low expression of p53 and c-erb2 oncoproteins. No genetic defect was identified in the APC and MMR genes. The patient is alive, without recurrence, two years after the operation

  20. Colonization and infection by Helicobacter pylori in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Leif Percival

    2007-11-01

    When Helicobacter pylori arrives in the human stomach, it may penetrate the mucin layer and adhere to the gastric epithelial cells or it may pass through the stomach without colonizing the mucosa. In this paper, the colonization process and the ensuing immunological response will be briefly described. Urease production is necessary for H. pylori to establish a pH-neutral microenvironment around the bacteria. The flagella enable the bacteria to move and the shape of H. pylori makes it possible to penetrate the mucin layer where it comes into contact with the gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori contains several adhesins that enable it to adhere to the epithelial cells. This adherence activates IL-8 which, together with bacterial antigens, attracts polymorphs and monocytes and causes acute gastritis. Antigen-presenting cells activate lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that are attracted to the inflamed mucosa, causing chronic superficial gastritis and initiating a cytotoxic or an antigen-producing Th response. The infection is established within a few weeks after the primary exposure to H. pylori. After this initial colonization, many chemical, biochemical, and immunologic reactions take place that are of importance in the progress of the infection and the development of disease.

  1. Spruce colonization at treeline: where do those seeds come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Piovani, P; Scalfi, M; Menozzi, P

    2009-08-01

    At treeline, selection by harsh environmental conditions sets an upward limit to arboreal vegetation. Increasing temperatures and the decline of traditional animal raising have favoured an upward shift of treeline in the last decades. These circumstances create a unique opportunity to study the balance of the main forces (selection and gene flow) that drive tree migration. We conducted a parentage analysis sampling and genotyping with five microsatellite markers in all Norway spruce individuals (342 juveniles and 23 adults) found in a recently colonized treeline area (Paneveggio forest, Eastern Alps, Italy). Our goal was to evaluate local reproductive success versus gene flow from the outside. We were able to identify both parents among local adults for only 11.1% of the juveniles. In the gamete pool we sampled, two-thirds were not produced locally. Effective seed dispersal distance distribution was characterized by a peak far from the seed source (mean 344.66 m+/-191.02 s.d.). Reproductive success was skewed, with six local adults that generated almost two-thirds (62.4%) of juveniles with local parents. Our findings indicate that, although a few local adults seem to play an important role in the colonization process at treeline, large levels of gene flow from outside were maintained, suggesting that the potential advantages of local adults (such as local adaptation, proximity to the colonization area, phenological synchrony) did not prevent a large gamete immigration.

  2. [Dietary prevention and treatment of diverticular disease of the colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Sińska, Beata; Kluciński, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Diverticular disease is more often categorized as a civilization disease that affects both women and men, especially at an old age. The pathophysiology remains complex and arises from the interaction between dietary fiber intake, bowel motility and mucosal changes in the colon. Obesity, smoking, low physical activity, low-fiber diet (poor in vegetables, fruit, whole grain products, seeds and nuts) are among factors that increase the risk for developing diverticular disease. Additionally, the colonic outpouchings may be influenced by involutional changes of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the fiber rich diet (25-40 g/day) plays an important role in prevention, as well as nonpharmacological treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease. The successful goal of the therapy can be achieved by well-balanced diet or fiber supplements intake. Research indicate the effectiveness of probiotics in dietary management during the remission process. Moreover, drinking of appropriate water amount and excluding from the diet products decreasing colonic transit time - should be also applied. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  3. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  4. Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer: A Clinical Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannarkatt, Joseph; Joseph, Joe; Kurniali, Peter C; Al-Janadi, Anas; Hrinczenko, Borys

    2017-04-01

    The decision to treat a patient with stage II colon cancer with adjuvant chemotherapy can be challenging. Although the benefit of treatment is clear in most patients with stage III disease, the decision to provide chemotherapy after surgical resection in stage II disease must be made on an individual basis. Several trials have demonstrated the small but absolute benefits of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer for disease-free survival and overall survival. In an attempt to better understand the role of chemotherapy, several studies were performed that identified high-risk characteristics that can be used prognostically and predictively to aid in the clinical decision making process. ASCO, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have published guidelines describing these high-risk characteristics. Since then, several other molecular markers have emerged that may offer more information on a given patient's risk for recurrence. The decision to treat a patient with stage II colon cancer must be made on an individual basis, considering the risks and benefits of treatment. In this short review, we will present the available evidence and offer possible directions for future study.

  5. Pectin-based colon-specific drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra Shukla; Deepak Jain; Kavita Verma; Shiddarth Verma

    2011-01-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery have a great importance in the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local colonic, as well as systemic diseases like Crohn′s disease, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, amoebiasis, asthma, arthritis and inflammation which can be achieved by targeted delivery of drug to colon. Specific systemic absorption in the colon gave interesting possibilities for the delivery of protein and peptides. It contains relatively less proteolytic enzyme activities in the colon...

  6. Curative resection of transverse colon cancer via minilaparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Tohru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Minilaparotomy has been reported to be a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopically assisted surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of minilaparotomy for the resection of transverse colon cancer, which has generally been considered difficult to resect laparoscopically. Patients for whom curative resection was attempted for transverse colon cancer (n = 21) or sigmoid colon cancer (n = 81) via minilaparotomy (skin incision, transverse colon cancer as well as those with sigmoid colon cancer.

  7. Perivascular Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Human ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC closely associate with nerves and smooth muscles to modulate gut motility. In the ICC microenvironment, although the circulating hormones/factors have been shown to influence ICC activities, the association between ICC and microvessels in the gut wall has not been described. We applied three-dimensional (3D vascular histology with c-kit staining to identify the perivascular ICC and characterize their morphologic and population features in the human colon wall. Methods: Full-thickness colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal cancer. We targeted the colon wall away from the tumor site. Confocal microscopy with optical clearing (use of immersion solution to reduce scattering in optical imaging was performed to simultaneously reveal the ICC and vascular networks in space. 3D image rendering and projection were digitally conducted to illustrate the ICC–vessel contact patterns. Results: Perivascular ICC were identified in the submucosal border, myenteric plexus, and circular and longitudinal muscles via high-definition 3D microscopy. Through in-depth image projection, we specified two contact patterns—the intimate cell body-to-vessel contact (type I, 18% of ICC in circular muscle and the long-distance process-to-vessel contact (type II, 16%—to classify perivascular ICC. Particularly, type I perivascular ICC were detected with elevated c-kit staining levels and were routinely found in clusters, making them readily distinguishable from other ICC in the network. Conclusions: We propose a new subclass of ICC that closely associates with microvessels in the human colon. Our finding suggests a functional relationship between these mural ICC and microvessels based on the morphologic proximity. Keywords: 3D Histology, c-kit, ICC, Mural Cells

  8. A study of the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Sun Buzhou; Song Changyi; Lu Jinyan; Wang Shejiao; Zheng Xianghong; Huang Lin; Lei Yamei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new, simple and noninvasive method which can quantitatively analyze the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy. Methods: 24 patients with constipation and 32 normal controls were studied. Na 131 I was sealed into capsule made by polyvinylchloride which can not be digested and absorbed in gastrointestinal tract. Patients and normal volunteers swallow 131 I capsules and drink 99 Tc m labelled sulfur colloid solution at the same time. The static image was acquired at the regular time, then calculate the Geometric Center values (GC). Results: 1) The capsules can be clearly located through the colonic contour shown by 99 Tc m labeled sulfur colloid when it reached the large bowel. 2) The transiting time from mouth to cecum, through colon and through whole gastrointestinal in normal people were (6.61 +- 1.94), (36.61 +- 10.51) and (42.72 +- 10.02) h, respectively, in constipation group were (8.03 +- 3.63), (65.50 +- 28.40) and (74.05 +- 28.17) h, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in two groups compared with each other. But the transiting time through colon and whole gastrointestinal in constipation was slower than that in normal people, with significant difference (P < 0.01). 3) Through examination the colonic transit abnormality can be divided into three patterns: whole colon transit delay, right-colon transit delay and left-colon transit delay. Conclusions: This method is a simple, physiologic and quantitative in evaluating the colonic transit, it can also stage the colonic dyskinesia of the patients

  9. Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Eitaro; Closson, Chet; Matthis, Andrea L.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Engevik, Amy C.; Zavros, Yana; Ottemann, Karen M.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1) significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB) or chemotaxis (ΔcheY). ΔmotB (106) failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (106) colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites, and thereby biases

  10. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Biernacka-Wawrzonek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim : To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods: We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm and distal (8–10 cm zone. Results : Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions : The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain.

  11. The Usefulness of Intraoperative Colonic Irrigation and Primary Anastomosis in Patients Requiring a Left Colon Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youngki; Nam, Soomin; Kang, Jung Gu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the short-term outcome of intraoperative colonic irrigation and primary anastomosis and to suggest the usefulness of the procedure when a preoperative mechanical bowel preparation is inappropriate. This retrospective study included 38 consecutive patients (19 male patients) who underwent intraoperative colonic irrigation and primary anastomosis for left colon disease between January 2010 and December 2016. The medical records of the patients were reviewed to evaluate the patients' characteristics, operative data, and postoperative short-term outcomes. Twenty-nine patients had colorectal cancer, 7 patients had perforated diverticulitis, and the remaining 2 patients included 1 with sigmoid volvulus and 1 with a perforated colon due to focal colonic ischemia. A diverting loop ileostomy was created in 4 patients who underwent a low anterior resection. Complications occurred in 15 patients (39.5%), and the majority was superficial surgical site infections (18.4%). Anastomotic leakage occurred in one patient (2.6%) who underwent an anterior resection due sigmoid colon cancer with obstruction. No significant difference in overall postoperative complications and superficial surgical site infections between patients with obstruction and those with peritonitis were noted. No mortality occurred during the first 30 postoperative days. The median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 8-39 days). Intraoperative colonic irrigation and primary anastomosis seem safe and feasible in selected patients. This procedure may reduce the burden of colostomy in patients requiring a left colon resection with an inappropriate preoperative mechanical bowel preparation.

  12. PHENOTYPIC FEATURES OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER AND MSI IN COLON AND BLOOD SERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kartashov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last century an upward trend regarding hormone-dependent tumours of the reproductive system, including endometrial cancer (EC has been observed, with one of the trend reasons being increased number of mutations, in particular, microsatellite instability (MSI – the consequence of unpaired nucleotides repair system gene inactivation (MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, MLH1,PMS2, EXO1. This molecular genetic phenomenon may also be characteristic of certain colon cancer forms, while being detectable not only in the tumour but also in blood, which may be of clinical interest as regards either determining risk groups in terms of other localization malignant tumours development, especially colon cancer, or early diagnostics of the said diseases. However, relationship between clinical, phenotypic and molecular risk factors for EC and colon cancer needs further studying. The aim of research – to estimate MSI frequency in blood serum and colonic mucosal lining in patients with EC. Materials and methods. 342 patients with I – IV stage EC aged between 30 and 80 underwent MSI determining in tumour tissue, blood serum and colonic mucosa by means of polymerase chain reaction method using primers for microsatellite sequence (ВАТ-25, ВАТ-26. Colonic mucosal lining samples were obtained by colonoscopy prior to surgical intervention. Genomic DNA purification from blood serum was performed using DNA purification kit produced by Silex M Scientific and Production Company (Russia, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. PCR was performed by the standard procedure using Tertsik-2 programmable thermal cycler produced by DNA – Technology LTD, Russia. The studies were carried out at Virola laboratory at Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. Ethics and Bioethics Committee permit (minutes No.4 of 18.04.2013, Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. The obtained digital study results were processed by means of conventional

  13. Stream fish colonization but not persistence varies regionally across a large North American river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kit; Wengerd, Seth J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Martin, Zachary P.; Jelks, Howard L.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2018-01-01

    Many species have distributions that span distinctly different physiographic regions, and effective conservation of such taxa will require a full accounting of all factors that potentially influence populations. Ecologists recognize effects of physiographic differences in topography, geology and climate on local habitat configurations, and thus the relevance of landscape heterogeneity to species distributions and abundances. However, research is lacking that examines how physiography affects the processes underlying metapopulation dynamics. We used data describing occupancy dynamics of stream fishes to evaluate evidence that physiography influences rates at which individual taxa persist in or colonize stream reaches under different flow conditions. Using periodic survey data from a stream fish assemblage in a large river basin that encompasses multiple physiographic regions, we fit multi-species dynamic occupancy models. Our modeling results suggested that stream fish colonization but not persistence was strongly governed by physiography, with estimated colonization rates considerably higher in Coastal Plain streams than in Piedmont and Blue Ridge systems. Like colonization, persistence was positively related to an index of stream flow magnitude, but the relationship between flow and persistence did not depend on physiography. Understanding the relative importance of colonization and persistence, and how one or both processes may change across the landscape, is critical information for the conservation of broadly distributed taxa, and conservation strategies explicitly accounting for spatial variation in these processes are likely to be more successful for such taxa.

  14. Hemangioma colorretal Colon rectal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Pinheiro Barreto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma colorretal (HCR é uma lesão vascular benigna rara, com manifestação clínica geralmente entre 5 e 25 anos de idade. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial das causas de hemorragia digestiva baixa, sendo confundido, na maioria das vezes, com entidades mais comuns, como hemorróidas e doenças inflamatórias intestinais. O retardo do diagnóstico ocorre freqüentemente devido ao desconhecimento da doença, com taxas de mortalidade alcançando 40 a 50% na presença de sangramento importante. O caso relatado é de uma paciente de 17 anos de idade, admitida no Serviço de Colo-proctologia do Hospital Universitário - HUUFMA, em setembro de 2005, com anemia e sangramento retal, desde a infância, de forma intermitente e não dolorosa. Apresentado sua história clínica e propedêutica diagnóstica, realizada por meio de exames laboratoriais, endoscopia digestiva alta, colonoscopia e arteriografia de mesentéricas e ilíacas internas. O tratamento cirúrgico realizado foi retossigmoidectomia convencional com anastomose colorretal baixa, com boa evolução pós-operatória, tendo o exame histopatológico da peça cirúrgica ressecada, confirmado o diagnostico.The colon and rectum hemangioma is a rare benign vascular lesion, with clinical features usually between 5 and 25 years of age. It is included in the differential diagnose of the lower digestive bleeding causes, and has been frequently misdiagnosed with other more common entities, like hemorrhoids and bowel inflammatory disease. The late diagnose occurs usually because of the rarity of the disease, with mortality rates reaching 40 to 50% in presence of severe bleeding. We report a case of a 17 years old girl who was admitted at the Coloproctology Service of the Academic Hospital - HUUFMA, in September 2005, with anemia and intermittent rectal bleeding since childhood. Laboratorial findings included laboratorial exams, GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and arteriography of mesenteric and

  15. Ecology of root colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ofek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae, a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance were positively related, and peaked (up to 85% at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

  16. Imaging analysis of colonic villous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Yung Tae; Yang, Ik

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the CT and US features of the colonic villous tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings of 11 cases with histologically proved colonic villous tumor. CT parameters evaluated were morphological appearances and enhancing pattern (size, shape, margin, presence or absence of fronds, bowel wall thickening). CT features of six cases with malignant change were compared with five tumors without malignant change. US features available in 10 patients were also analyzed. On CT, the tumors showed irregular margin(n=9), presence of fronds(n=6), lobulated shape(n=11), with pericolonic invasion(n=1). Six cases with malignant change were larger(mean, 6.8 cm in diameter) than those without malignant change(mean, 3.3cm). US features in 10 cases were intraluminal mass(n=5), colonic wall thickening(n=5), with variable echogenicity. Colonic villous tumor appeared as a nonspecific mass on CT and US with a difficulty in distinguishing from colon carcinoma

  17. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  18. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  19. Primary repair vs. colostomy in colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Castillo, Javier; Murillo-Zolezzi, Adrián; Murakami, Pablo Daniel; Silva-Velasco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Colon trauma is frequent and its prevalence is difficult to establish because of the different factors that intervene in its origin. In Mexico, traumatic colon injuries, albeit stab wounds or gunshot wounds, are on the rise. Our objective was to evaluate the most appropriate management for traumatic colon injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of 178 case files of patients with abdominal trauma and colon lesions during a 5-year period from January 2003 to June 2008 from the General Hospital of Balbuena, Mexico City. The study compared the use of primary closure vs. colostomy, analyzing variables such as sex, age, type of wound, severity of lesion and mortality. There were a total of 178 patients; 156 were male (87.6%) and 22 were female (12.4%). The most affected age group was between 21 and 30 years; 74 patients (41.6%) had stab wounds and 104 patients (58.4%) had gunshot wounds. Management consisted mainly of primary closure in 92 cases (51.7%) vs. colostomy in 86 patients (48.3%). However, 64% of gunshot wounds were treated with colostomy. Reported mortality was 9.55% and this was due to different factors such as multiple organ injury. Treatment of traumatic colon injury should be case specific, taking into account the mechanism of the lesion, its severity and associated injuries.

  20. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  1. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orlaith B; Mroz, Magdalena S; Ward, Joseph B J; Colliva, Carolina; Scharl, Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gilmer, John F; Fallon, Padraic G; Hofmann, Alan F; Roda, Aldo; Murray, Frank E; Keely, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated the role of UDCA in the regulation of colonic epithelial secretion. Cl− secretion was measured across voltage-clamped monolayers of T84 cells and muscle-stripped sections of mouse or human colon. Cell surface biotinylation was used to assess abundance/surface expression of transport proteins. Acute (15 min) treatment of T84 cells with bilateral UDCA attenuated Cl− secretory responses to the Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent secretagogues carbachol (CCh) and forskolin (FSK) to 14.0 ± 3.8 and 40.2 ± 7.4% of controls, respectively (n= 18, P acid (LCA). Accordingly, LCA (50–200 μm) enhanced agonist-induced secretory responses in vitro and a metabolically stable UDCA analogue, 6α-methyl-UDCA, exerted anti-secretory actions in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, UDCA exerts direct anti-secretory actions on colonic epithelial cells and metabolically stable derivatives of the bile acid may offer a new approach for treating intestinal diseases associated with diarrhoea. PMID:23507881

  2. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  3. Ecology of root colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

  4. Is diverticular disease associated with colonic malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbom, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease have common characteristics; there are increases in the incidences in both disease entities and these diseases are more common in the westernized world. There is also an increase in the age-specific incidence with advancing age. Similar dietary features have been implicated for both diseases and already during the 1960s it was postulated by Burkitt that there is an association. Observational studies initially were able to demonstrate that patients with a history of diverticular disease of the colon had an increased risk of colon cancer, especially in the left side. However, the results from these studies have not been consistent, and problems like selection bias and confounding by indication have been major drawbacks in order to interpret the results and infer causality. Recent studies, which have had a better assessment of diverticular disease by new diagnostic methods, do not support such an association to the same extent as previously. Moreover, surveillance bias has become an increasing problem as patients with diverticular disease of the colon are subjected to a higher diagnostic intensity than other individuals in a population-based setting. A critical evaluation of the studies published so far therefore clearly indicates that the proposed association between diverticular disease and colonic malignancy is not evidence based, which should have an impact on clinical practice as well as on how to deal with these patient groups within the realms of a screening program. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  6. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  7. Clostridium difficile – From Colonization to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffler, Holger; Breitrück, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has been rising worldwide with subsequent increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile is common and a high prevalence has been found in specific cohorts, e.g., hospitalized patients, adults in nursing homes and in infants. However, the risk of infection with C. difficile differs significantly between these cohorts. While CDI is a clear indication for therapy, colonization with C. difficile is not believed to be a direct precursor for CDI and therefore does not require treatment. Antibiotic therapy causes alterations of the intestinal microbial composition, enabling C. difficile colonization and consecutive toxin production leading to disruption of the colonic epithelial cells. Clinical symptoms of CDI range from mild diarrhea to potentially life-threatening conditions like pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. While antibiotics are still the treatment of choice for CDI, new therapies have emerged in recent years such as antibodies against C. difficile toxin B and fecal microbial transfer (FMT). This specific therapy for CDI underscores the role of the indigenous bacterial composition in the prevention of the disease in healthy individuals and its role in the pathogenesis after alteration by antibiotic treatment. In addition to the pathogenesis of CDI, this review focuses on the colonization of C. difficile in the human gut and factors promoting CDI. PMID:29692762

  8. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  9. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  10. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  11. Colonic leishmaniasis in a patient with HIV: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Soria-López

    Full Text Available Background: To describe an unusual clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis affecting the colon. Case report: We report the case of an HIV-positive patient with visceral leishmaniasis. We describe the clinical case, the procedures performed, the treatment provided and the patient's evolution. A comparative table of previously reported similar cases is shown. Discussion: Visceral leishmaniasis with intestinal involvement is an uncommon process. Nevertheless, this possibility should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of immunosuppressed patients with symptoms of diarrhea, as a favorable prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  12. MicroRNA-215 suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer by repressing Yin-Yang 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Huang, Wensheng; Wu, Jialin; Liu, Yuyi; Cai, Shirong; He, Yulong; Wu, Suijing; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide with rising incidence. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that implicate in multiple physiological or pathological processes. The aberrant expression of miRNA-215 (miR-215) has been illustrated in various types of cancers. However, the expression of miR-215 in human colon cancer and the biological roles of it remain largely unknown. We conducted this study to explore the expression and the function of miR-215 in human colon cancer. The results showed that miR-215 was remarkably downregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-215 by miR-215 mimic significantly inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion while knockdown of miR-215 by miR-215 inhibitor exerted reverse effects. Furthermore, we newly identified Yin-Yang 1(YY1) as a direct target of miR-215 which could rescue the effects of miR-215 on colon cancer cells. In summary, our investigation revealed that miR-215 was downregulated in colon cancer and it suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting YY1. - Highlights: • MiR-215 expression was decreased in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. • Mir-215 inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • MiR-215 targeted YY1 directly. • The effects of miR-215 on colon cancer cells were mediated by YY1.

  13. The colon. Clinical radiology and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbusch, G.; Reeders, J.W.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    This comprehensive reference work presents in-depth information on the diagnostic radiology and endoscopy of the colon. After a brief review of the history of colon examinations, two chapters explain the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine as well as the methods and techniques applied for radiological examination of the colon. The pathology and characteristical findings and the diagnostic evaluation of the various types of disease are the main subject, with the chapters discussing inflammations and tumors consuming by far most of the space, but there is also valuable information on vascular lesions, traumata, latrogenous or post-surgery lesions, among others, and on the characteristical findings in children. Numerous tables, radiographs and endoscopic images together with drawings illustrate and accompany the textbook information. (orig.). 492 figs., 95 tabs [de

  14. A Higher-Order Colon Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2001-01-01

    A lambda-encoding such as the CPS transformation gives rise to administrative redexes. In his seminal article ``Call-by-name, call-by-value and the lambda-calculus'', 25 years ago, Plotkin tackled administrative reductions using a so-called ``colon translation.'' 10 years ago, Danvy and Filinski...... integrated administrative reductions in the CPS transformation, making it operate in one pass. The technique applies to other lambda-encodings (e.g., variants of CPS), but we do not see it used in practice--instead, Plotkin's colon translation appears to be favored. Therefore, in an attempt to link both...... techniques, we recast Plotkin's proof of Indifference and Simulation to the higher-order specification of the one-pass CPS transformation. To this end, we extend his colon translation from first order to higher order...

  15. Combinatorial nanomedicines for colon cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, A; Maya, S; Sivaram, Amal J; Mony, U; Jayakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Even after surgical resection and aggressive chemotherapy, 50% of colorectal carcinoma patients develop recurrent disease. Thus, the rationale of developing new therapeutic approaches to improve the current chemotherapeutic regimen would be highly recommended. There are reports on the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy in colon cancer and it has been practiced in clinics for long time. These approaches are associated with toxic side effects. Later, the drug delivery research had shown the potential of nanoencapsulation techniques and active targeting as an effective method to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy with less toxicity. This current focus article provides a brief analysis of the ongoing research in the colon cancer area using the combinatorial nanomedicines and its outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in chronic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez S.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis jirovecii causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed individuals. However, it has been reported the detection of low levels of Pneumocystis DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. Several studies performed in animals models and in humans have demonstrated that Pneumocystis induces a local and a systemic response in the host. Since P. jirovecii colonization has been found in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases it has been suggested that P. jirovecii may play a role in the physiopathology and progression of those diseases. In this report we revise P. jirovecii colonization in different chronic pulmonary diseases such us, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung diseases, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer.

  17. Coca-colonization and hybridization of diets among the Tz'utujil Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Barg, Frances K; Valeggia, Claudia R; Bream, Kent D W

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical health professionals express increasing concern that rising consumption of soft drinks and processed foods in Mayan and Latin American eating patterns may lead to detrimental nutritional and health consequences. Scholars debate whether the pervading presence of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in developing countries represents "Coca-Colonization," synonymous with cultural imperialism, or cultural hybridization. Using mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods, including participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study explores the development of Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization among the Tz'utujil Maya of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. By specifically examining biomedical perspectives, cycles of conquest, the political economy, religion, celebrations, and the physical environment through the lens of soft drinks, this study finds that Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization are complementary rather than mutually exclusive processes that contribute to dietary transitions, economic development, and differential health beliefs related to soft drink consumption.

  18. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  19. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  20. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  1. Delirium in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurbegovic, Sorel; Andersen, Jens; Krenk, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously...... demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Total median length of hospital stay...... postoperative recovery program may decrease the risk and duration of PD after colonic surgery....

  2. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, O; Lew, S; Witz, M; Reiss, R; Griffel, B

    1979-01-01

    A case of inflammatory fibroid polyp of the sigmoid colon is presented. This is the eight case of this type of polyp in the colon and, to the best of our knowledge, the first one involving the sigmoid and producing intussusception. Symptomatology of the inflamed fibroid polyp in this part of the gut closely simulates gastrointestinal malignancy. The treatment is surgical excision of the polyp, or colonoscopic resection when it is possible. Intraoperative colonoscopy helps the surgeon to localize the lesion and to role out the existence of other lesions.

  3. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delivery by means of cesarean section has been associated with increased risk of childhood immune-mediated diseases, suggesting a role of early bacterial colonization patterns for immune maturation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the influence of delivery method on gut and airway......-driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. CONCLUSION: Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate...

  4. SPECIAL FEATURES OF CARCINOGENESIS OF COLON ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Raskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related death. There are 4 basic colon carcinogenic steps: malignant transformation of adenoma into carcinoma; HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer; cancer «de novo»; chronic colitis malignant transformation. All of them, except for Lynch syndrome, are increasingly focused on stem tissue-committed cells as mutation targets and the source of malignancies. Subsequently, cancer stem cells are considered as the cause of chemoresistance of tumors, metastases and relapses. Thus, the study of the cell population can dramatically change approaches to the treatment of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  5. The double contrast examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welin, S.; Welin, G.

    1980-01-01

    The double contrast method has been modified in order to get a more detailed picture of the mucous membrane of the colon. The method has been employed at Malmoe hospital since 1953. The method and its diagnostic application in cases of adenoids, villiferous tumours, diverticula, Crohn's disease, ulcerating colitis, and deformation of the rectum/sigma junction due to external endometriosis and peritoneal carcinosis are described. The diagnostic values of the double contrast method and colposcopy/biopsy of the colon are compared. The two methods are found to be complementary. (MG) [de

  6. Differential expression of colon cancer associated transcript1 (CCAT1) along the colonic adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaiyan, Bilal; Trink, Barry; Gure, Ali O; Nissan, Aviram; Ilyayev, Nadia; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Izadjoo, Mina; Roistacher, Marina; Pavlov, Vera; Tzivin, Victoria; Halle, David; Pan, Honguang

    2013-01-01

    The transition from normal epithelium to adenoma and, to invasive carcinoma in the human colon is associated with acquired molecular events taking 5-10 years for malignant transformation. We discovered CCAT1, a non-coding RNA over-expressed in colon cancer (CC), but not in normal tissues, thereby making it a potential disease-specific biomarker. We aimed to define and validate CCAT1 as a CC-specific biomarker, and to study CCAT1 expression across the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of CC tumorigenesis. Tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing resection for colonic adenoma(s) or carcinoma. Normal colonic tissue (n = 10), adenomatous polyps (n = 18), primary tumor tissue (n = 22), normal mucosa adjacent to primary tumor (n = 16), and lymph node(s) (n = 20), liver (n = 8), and peritoneal metastases (n = 19) were studied. RNA was extracted from all tissue samples, and CCAT1 expression was analyzed using quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) with confirmatory in-situ hybridization (ISH). Borderline expression of CCAT1 was identified in normal tissue obtained from patients with benign conditions [mean Relative Quantity (RQ) = 5.9]. Significant relative CCAT1 up-regulation was observed in adenomatous polyps (RQ = 178.6 ± 157.0; p = 0.0012); primary tumor tissue (RQ = 64.9 ± 56.9; p = 0.0048); normal mucosa adjacent to primary tumor (RQ = 17.7 ± 21.5; p = 0.09); lymph node, liver and peritoneal metastases (RQ = 11,414.5 ± 12,672.9; 119.2 ± 138.9; 816.3 ± 2,736.1; p = 0.0001, respectively). qRT-PCR results were confirmed by ISH, demonstrating significant correlation between CCAT1 up-regulation measured using these two methods. CCAT1 is up-regulated across the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This up-regulation is evident in pre-malignant conditions and through all disease stages, including advanced metastatic disease suggesting a role in both tumorigenesis and the metastatic process

  7. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Olm, Matthew R.; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context. PMID:29636439

  8. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context.

  9. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, dietary promotion of insulin resistance, and colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Sweeney, Carol; Ma, Khe-Ni; Potter, John D; Caan, Bette J; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2006-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors in colorectal cancer etiology and their interactions with genetic susceptibility are of particular interest. Functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms may influence carcinogenesis through modification of cell growth, protection from oxidative stress, cell-cell matrix effects, or insulin and insulin-like growth factor pathways. We investigated interactions between foods (dairy products, red and processed meat, and whole and refined grains) and dietary patterns (sucrose-to-fiber ratio and glycemic index) associated with insulin resistance with the FokI polymorphism of the VDR gene and colon and rectal cancer risk. Data (diet, anthropometrics, and lifestyle) and DNA came from case-control studies of colon (1,698 cases and 1,861 controls) and rectal cancer (752 cases and 960 controls) in northern California, Utah, and the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota (colon cancer study only). Unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for smoking, race, sex, age, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake, dietary fiber, and calcium. The lowest colon cancer risk was observed with the Ff/ff FokI genotypes and a low sucrose-to-fiber ratio. Rectal cancer risk decreased with greater consumption of dairy products and increased with red or processed meat consumption and the FF genotype. Modifiable dietary risk factors may be differentially important among individuals by VDR genotype and may act through the insulin pathway to affect colon cancer risk and through fat, calcium, or other means to influence rectal cancer risk.

  10. Multiple independent colonization of the Canary Islands by the winged grasshopper genus Sphingonotus Fieber, 1852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, Martin; Deppermann, Jana; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic archipelagos represent ideal systems to study processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation. The Canary Islands are one of the best studied archipelagos, being composed of seven main islands with a well-known geological history. Most taxa have colonized these islands stepwise from the African or Iberian mainland from east to west, following their geological origin as well as the predominating wind direction and ocean currents. Furthermore, within-island radiations have been reported for several taxa. The grasshopper genus Sphingonotus is species-rich and occurs with nine fully winged species on the Canary Islands, seven of which are endemic to single or few islands. We inferred a phylogeny of these species and their North African and Iberian relatives based upon sequences of three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene of 136 specimens. Surprisingly, our results suggest that almost all Sphingonotus species colonized the archipelago independently from the mainland and nearly no inter-island colonization occurred. Despite their strong flight capabilities, only one pair of endemic species are closely related (S. sublaevis from Gran Canary and S. pachecoi from Lanzarote). Moreover, no within-island speciation events were detected. We hypothesize that passive wind dispersal from the African mainland was the main driver of the colonization process and that most Sphingonotus species are not able to cover inter-island distances by active flight. This, together with strong intrageneric niche overlap might explain the lack of within-island speciation in this taxon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Continued colonization of the human genome by mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miria Ricchetti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of mitochondrial DNA fragments into nuclear chromosomes (giving rise to nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, or NUMTs is an ongoing process that shapes nuclear genomes. In yeast this process depends on double-strand-break repair. Since NUMTs lack amplification and specific integration mechanisms, they represent the prototype of exogenous insertions in the nucleus. From sequence analysis of the genome of Homo sapiens, followed by sampling humans from different ethnic backgrounds, and chimpanzees, we have identified 27 NUMTs that are specific to humans and must have colonized human chromosomes in the last 4-6 million years. Thus, we measured the fixation rate of NUMTs in the human genome. Six such NUMTs show insertion polymorphism and provide a useful set of DNA markers for human population genetics. We also found that during recent human evolution, Chromosomes 18 and Y have been more susceptible to colonization by NUMTs. Surprisingly, 23 out of 27 human-specific NUMTs are inserted in known or predicted genes, mainly in introns. Some individuals carry a NUMT insertion in a tumor-suppressor gene and in a putative angiogenesis inhibitor. Therefore in humans, but not in yeast, NUMT integrations preferentially target coding or regulatory sequences. This is indeed the case for novel insertions associated with human diseases and those driven by environmental insults. We thus propose a mutagenic phenomenon that may be responsible for a variety of genetic diseases in humans and suggest that genetic or environmental factors that increase the frequency of chromosome breaks provide the impetus for the continued colonization of the human genome by mitochondrial DNA.

  12. Radiation-induced dysfunction of colonic transport: role of enteric nervous system and of serotonine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Agnes

    1998-01-01

    properties but also on the other hand by the establishment of substitute neural pathways: an histaminergic pathway and a serotoninergic pathway, with probably a combined action of both 5-HT 3 and 5-HT 4 receptors. Whereas colonic transport dysfunction seems to be mostly related to the epithelium, the ENS may play a role in the reestablishment processes of colonic functions after radiation exposure. (author) [fr

  13. Intrinsic denervation of the colon is associated with a decrease of some colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.O. Vespúcio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of the colon is protective against the colon cancer; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the denervated colonic mucosa could be less responsive to the action of the chemical carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Three groups of 32 male Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1 (G1 had the colon denervated with 0.3 mL 1.5 mM benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (benzalkonium chloride, BAC; G2 received a single ip injection of 125 mg/kg DMH; G3 was treated with BAC + the same dose and route of DMH. A control group (Sham, N = 32 did not receive any treatment. Each group was subdivided into four groups according to the sacrifice time (1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after DMH. Crypt fission index, ß-catenin accumulated crypts, aberrant crypt foci, and cell proliferation were evaluated and analyzed by ANOVA and the Student t-test. G3 animals presented a small number of aberrant crypt foci and low crypt fission index compared to G2 animals after 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. From the second week on, the index of ß-catenin crypt in G3 animals increased slower than in G2 animals. From the 12th week on, G2 animals presented a significant increase in cell proliferation when compared to the other groups. Colonic denervation plays an anticarcinogenic role from early stages of colon cancer development. This finding can be of importance for the study of the role of the enteric nervous system in the carcinogenic process.

  14. The retrorenal colon in the supine and prone patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Sherman, J.L.; Luethke, J.M.; Ghaed, N.

    1986-01-01

    Ninety patients underwent CT in both supine and prone positions so that the orientation of the retroperitoneal colon about the kidneys could be determined. Particular attention was given to bowel found posterior to the kidneys, the so-called retrorenal colon. The frequency of retrorenal colon increased from 1.9% on supine studies to 10.7% on prone studies. Since most invasive renal procedures performed with the patient prone would miss retrorenal colon located behind the lateral one third of the kidney, the data were reevaluated, excluding these patients. The resulting frequency of significant retrorenal colon found on prone studies was 4.7%. Significant retrorenal colon was found exclusively at the level of the lower renal poles, and the involved colon in these patients was extensively distended with gas. Particular attention should be given, under fluoroscopic guidance, to detecting this unusual posteriorly positioned, air-filled colon before one undertakes any invasive renal procedure

  15. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  16. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon with scaphoid megalourethra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report a rare association of megalourethra with pouch colon with prune belly syndrome. We also provide a newer embryological and prognostic perspective to this association. Keywords: megalourethra, prune belly syndrome pouch colon, scaphoid ...

  17. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes and convalescence in laparoscopic colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Lyng, K M; Bugge, K

    1999-01-01

    Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery.......Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery....

  18. Dysphagia after Colon Interposition Graft for Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spitali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon interposition is an established technique for esophageal reconstruction. We describe the case of primary adenocarcinoma arising in a colonic interposition graft that was performed after total esophagectomy for recurrence adenocarcinoma derived from the Barrett esophagus.

  19. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  20. Colonic polyp detection method from 3D abdominal CT images based on local intensity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Nakada, Y.; Kitasaka, T.; Mori, K.; Suenaga, Y.; Takayama, T.; Takabatake, H.; Mori, M.; Natori, H.; Nawano, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detection method of colonic polyps from 3D abdominal CT images based on local intensity analysis. Recently, virtual colonoscopy (VC) has widely received attention as a new colon diagnostic method. VC is considered as a less-invasive inspection method which reduces patient load. However, since the colon has many haustra and its shape is long and convoluted, a physician has to change the viewpoint and the viewing direction of the virtual camera of VC many times while diagnosis. Additionally, there is a risk to overlook lesions existing in blinded areas caused by haustra. This paper proposes an automated colonic polyp detection method from 3D abdominal CT images. Colonic polyps are located on the colonic wall. Their CT values are higher than those of colonic lumen regions and lower than those of fecal materials tagged by an X-ray opaque contrast agent. CT values inside polyps which exist outside the tagged fecal materials tend to gradually increase from outward to inward (blob-like structure). CT values inside polyps that exist inside the tagged fecal materials tend to gradually decrease from outward to inward (inv-blob-like structure). We employ the blob and the inv-blob structure enhancement filters based on the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix to detect polyps using intensity characteristic of polyps. Connected components with low output values of the enhancement filter are eliminated in false positive reduction process. Small connected components are also eliminated. We applied the proposed method to 44 cases of abdominal CT images. Sensitivity for polyps of 6 mm or larger was 80% with 4.7 false positives per case. (orig.)

  1. New insights into neurogenic cyclic motor activity in the isolated guinea-pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Wiklendt, L; Keightley, L; Brookes, S J H; Dinning, P G; Spencer, N J

    2017-10-01

    The contents of the guinea pig distal colon consist of multiple pellets that move anally in a coordinated manner. This row of pellets results in continued distention of the colon. In this study, we have investigated quantitatively the features of the neurally dependent colonic motor patterns that are evoked by constant distension of the full length of guinea-pig colon. Constant distension was applied to the excised guinea-pig by high-resolution manometry catheters or by a series of hooks. Constant distension elicited regular Cyclic Motor Complexes (CMCs) that originated at multiple different sites along the colon and propagated in an oral or anal direction extending distances of 18.3±10.3 cm. CMCs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 μ mol L -1 ), hexamethonium (100 μ mol L -1 ) or hyoscine (1 μ mol L -1 ). Application of TTX in a localized compartment or cutting the gut circumferentially disrupted the spatial continuity of CMCs. Localized smooth muscle contraction was not required for CMC propagation. Shortening the length of the preparations or disruption of circumferential pathways reduced the integrity and continuity of CMCs. CMCs are a distinctive neurally dependent cyclic motor pattern, that emerge with distension over long lengths of the distal colon. They do not require changes in muscle tension or contractility to entrain the neural activity underlying CMC propagation. CMCs are likely to play an important role interacting with the neuromechanical processes that time the propulsion of multiple natural pellets and may be particularly relevant in conditions of impaction or obstruction, where long segments of colon are simultaneously distended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.

  3. Accuracy of colonoscopy in localizing colonic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, C; Trifan, Anca; Khder, Saad Alla

    2007-01-01

    It is important to establish the precise localization of colonic cancer preoperatively; while colonoscopy is regarded as the diagnostic gold standard for colorectal cancer, its ability to localize the tumor is less reliable. To define the accuracy of colonoscopy in identifying the location of colonic cancer. All of the patients who had a colorectal cancer diagnosed by colonoscopy at the Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Iaşi and subsequently received a surgical intervention at three teaching hospitals in Iaşi, between January 2001 and December 2005, were included in this study. Endoscopic records and operative notes were carefully reviewed, and tumor localization was recorded. There were 161 patients (89 men, 72 women, aged 61.3 +/- 12.8 years) who underwent conventional surgery for colon cancer detected by colonoscopy during the study period. Twenty-two patients (13.66%) had erroneous colonoscopic localization of the tumors. The overall accuracy of preoperative colonoscopic localization was 87.58%. Colonoscopy is an accurate, reliable method for locating colon cancer, although additional techniques (i.e., endoscopic tattooing) should be performed at least for small lesions.

  4. Bacterial Endophyte Colonization and Distribution within Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam L. Kandel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant endosphere contains a diverse group of microbial communities. There is general consensus that these microbial communities make significant contributions to plant health. Both recently adopted genomic approaches and classical microbiology techniques continue to develop the science of plant-microbe interactions. Endophytes are microbial symbionts residing within the plant for the majority of their life cycle without any detrimental impact to the host plant. The use of these natural symbionts offers an opportunity to maximize crop productivity while reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. Endophytes promote plant growth through nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, nutrient acquisition, and by conferring tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Colonization by endophytes is crucial for providing these benefits to the host plant. Endophytic colonization refers to the entry, growth and multiplication of endophyte populations within the host plant. Lately, plant microbiome research has gained considerable attention but the mechanism allowing plants to recruit endophytes is largely unknown. This review summarizes currently available knowledge about endophytic colonization by bacteria in various plant species, and specifically discusses the colonization of maize plants by Populus endophytes.

  5. TRANSVERSE COLON POUCH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Urinary diversion after pelvic irradiation is challenging. The use of irradiated bowel is mostly complicated and unsuccessful. Therefore, the use of an exclusively non-irradiated bowel segment, such as the transverse colon, is a good alternative in such situation. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine female patients ...

  6. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    barium enema studies have indicated increasing world prevalence ... Other diagnostic modalities include barium enema, computerised ... This is in contrast to the findings in our patient when colonoscopy was carried out, in which the diverticula were more at the descending colon-left sided, and were found to be bleeding.

  7. Pharmacological interventions for improved colonic anastomotic healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oines, Mari Nanna; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    with the primary purpose of promoting healing of anastomoses made in the colon or rectum under uncomplicated conditions. We excluded studies on adverse events from interventions, nutritional interventions or in situ physical supporting biomaterials. The primary outcome was biomechanical strength or AL. We...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome X and Colon Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoulek, M.; Svobodová, S.; Svačina, Š.; Plavcová, Marie; Zvárová, Jana; Visokai, V.; Lipská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, suppl. 1 (2003), s. 86 ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity /12./. 29.05.2003-01.06.2003, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MZd NB6635; GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : metabolic syndrome X * colon cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  9. Diverticular Disease of the Colon in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Seung Sei; Oh, Dong Joo; Chung, Eul Soon; Lee, Sang Jong

    1987-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the relative prevalence and characteristics of diverticular disease of the colon in Korea. We did a retrospective evaluation of 16,964 consecutive barium enemas performed at Koryo General Hospital between January 1971 and October 1986, and found 100 patients with diverticular disease of the colon. The results are as follows: 1) Colonic diverticula were found in 100 patients, and incidence of 0.59% in 16,964 consecutive barium enemas. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1.2) Incidence rose with advancing age from 0.45% in the second decade to 2.5% in the seventh decade.3) Patient age ranged from 19 to 77 years with more than 70% of the patients in the 5th, 6th and 7th decades.4) The greater majority (81%) of the diverticular disease the right colon.5) Fifty percent of the cases were classified as multiple diverticula.6) The mean age of patients with right sided diverticula was 47.5 years and that of patients with left sided diverticula was 57.7 years. The mean age of single diverticular patients was 50.4 years and that of multiple diverticular patients was 48.4 year.7) Associated diseases were hemorrhoids (18%), gall stones (12%) and previous appendectomy (11%). Among the 29 patients who had hemorrhoids and or a previous appendectomy, 28 of those had right sided diverticula. PMID:3154819

  10. Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... inhibitory effect against A. niger. Growth, protein and biopolymers production of bacteria were ... bacterium colonized plant roots and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Scanning electron ...... siderophores producing Pseudomonas fluorescence on crown rot. Haggag 1577 disease ...

  11. Management of the colonic volvulus in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, L; Fohlen, A; Alves, A; Lubrano, J

    2016-06-01

    Colonic volvulus is the third leading cause of colonic obstruction worldwide, occurring at two principal locations: the sigmoid colon and cecum. In Western countries, sigmoid volvulus preferentially affects elderly men whereas cecal volvulus affects younger women. Some risk factors, such as chronic constipation, high-fiber diet, frequent use of laxatives, personal past history of laparotomy and anatomic predispositions, are common to both locations. Clinical symptomatology is non-specific, including a combination of abdominal pain, gaseous distention, and bowel obstruction. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography is currently the gold standard examination, allowing positive diagnosis as well as detection of complications. Specific management depends on the location, patient comorbidities and colonic wall viability, but treatment is an emergency in every case. If clinical or radiological signs of gravity are present, emergency surgery is mandatory, but is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. For sigmoid volvulus without criteria of gravity, the ideal strategy is an endoscopic detorsion procedure followed, within 2 to 5 days, by surgery that includes a sigmoid colectomy with primary anastomosis. Exclusively endoscopic therapy must be reserved for patients who are at excessive risk for surgical intervention. In cecal volvulus, endoscopy has no role and surgery is the rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Colonic spirochetosis in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L

    2005-07-01

    Colonic spirochetosis is a disease caused by the gram-negative bacteria Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli. B. pilosicoli induces disease in both humans and animals, whereas B. aalborgi affects only humans and higher primates. Symptoms in humans include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and abdominal cramps. Colonic spirochetosis is common in third world countries; however, in developed countries, the disease is observed mainly in homosexual males. Terminally ill patients infected with Brachyspira are particularly at risk for developing spirochetemia. Diarrhea, poor growth performance, and decreased feed-to-gain efficiency is seen in pigs with colonic spirochetosis. The disease in chickens is characterized by delayed and/or reduced egg production, diarrhea, poor feed conversion, and retarded growth. Thus, colonic spirochetosis can represent a serious economic loss in the swine and poultry industries. The organisms are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and several studies have demonstrated that human, primate, pig, dog, or bird strains of B. pilosicoli can be transmitted to pigs, chickens, and mice. B. pilosicoli may be a zoonotic pathogen, and although it has not been demonstrated, there is a possibility that both B. pilosicoli and B. aalborgi can be transferred to humans via contact with the feces of infected animals, meat from infected animals, or food contaminated by food handlers. Neither B. pilosicoli nor B. aalborgi has been well characterized in terms of basic cellular functions, pathogenicity, or genetics. Studies are needed to more thoroughly understand these Brachyspira species and their disease mechanisms.

  13. A Higher-Order Colon Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    2000-01-01

    A lambda-encoding such as the CPS transformation gives rise to administrative redexes. In his seminal article ``Call-by-name, call-by-value and the lambda-calculus'', 25 years ago, Plotkin tackled administrative reductions using a so-called ``colon translation.'' 10 years ago, Danvy and Filinski...

  14. [Postoperative intraperitoneal complications in colon cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhina, E A; Topuzov, É G; Topuzov, É É

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied the clinical characteristics and terms of the development of postoperative intraperitoneal complications in patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. It was stated, that the diversity of clinical data depended on complication characteristics. Results of investigation allowed defining of the most dangerous terms of intraperitoneal complications and risk factors.

  15. Therapeutic considerations in Dukes C colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Willem Aldert

    2001-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the main health issues in the western world. In the Netherlands more than 7000 patients are diagnosed yearly with this disease and half of them will die from it. Prognosis largely depends on tumor stage, which is estimated by radiological, clinical and histological

  16. Colon cancer: it's CIN or CIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2008-10-01

    Combined genetic and epigenetic analysis of sporadic colon cancer suggest that it can no longer be viewed as a single disease. There are at least three different subsets with distinct clinico-pathologic features, with important implications for preventions, screening, and therapy.

  17. Types of planned agrarian colonization in Brazilian forests: Historical examples

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Kohlhepp

    2015-01-01

    About 200 years ago state or privately controlled agrarian colonization in South Brazil began with immigrants from Central and Southern Europe. As the Brazilian campos had been occupied by extensive cattle ranching of large landholders, forests were systematically cleared by peasants, the new rural social middle class. Three examples of the most different types of agrarian colonization are presented, colonization of European small farmers in South Brazil in the 19th century; colonization of a...

  18. Laparoscopic colonic surgery in Denmark 2004-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S.; Iversen, M.G.; Bendixen, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic colonic surgery was introduced about 15 years ago and has together with the evidence-based 'fast-track' methodology improved early postoperative outcome. The purpose of this study was to asses the organization and early outcome after laparoscopic colonic surgery in Denmark...... of laparoscopic colonic surgery but probably performed in too many low volume departments. Laparoscopic colonic surgery should be monitored and further advances secured by adjustment of perioperative care to fast-track care Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  19. Diverticular disease of the right colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutross-Tadross Odette

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon and reported to occur in 1-2% of surgical specimens in European and American series. In contrast the disease is more prevalent and reported in 43-50% of specimens in Asian series. Various lines of evidence suggest this variation may represent hereditary differences. The aim of the study is to report all cases of right sided diverticular disease underwent surgical resection or identified during pathological examination of right hemicoloectomy specimens Methods A retrospective review of all surgical specimens with right sided colonic diverticular disease selected from a larger database of all colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis surgical specimen reported between January 1993 and December 2010 at the Pathology Department McMaster University Medical Centre Canada. The clinical and pathological features of these cases were reviewed Results The review identified 15 cases of right colon diverticulosis. The clinical diagnoses of these cases were appendicitis, diverticulitis or adenocarcinoma. Eight cases of single congenital perforated diverticuli were identified and seven cases were incidental multiple acquired diverticuli found in specimen resected for right side colonic carcinomas/large adenomas. Laparotomy or laparoscopic assisted haemicolectomies were done for all cases. Pathological examination showed caecal wall thickening with inflammation associated with perforated diverticuli. Histology confirmed true solitary diverticuli that exhibited in two cases thick walled vessels in the submucosa and muscular layer indicating vascular malformation/angiodysplasia. Acquired diverticuli tend to be multiple and are mostly seen in specimens resected for neoplastic right colon diseases. Conclusion Single true diverticular

  20. Diverticular disease of the right colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhi, Jasim M; Ramsay, Jennifer A; Boutross-Tadross, Odette

    2011-10-06

    The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon and reported to occur in 1-2% of surgical specimens in European and American series. In contrast the disease is more prevalent and reported in 43-50% of specimens in Asian series. Various lines of evidence suggest this variation may represent hereditary differences. The aim of the study is to report all cases of right sided diverticular disease underwent surgical resection or identified during pathological examination of right hemicoloectomy specimens A retrospective review of all surgical specimens with right sided colonic diverticular disease selected from a larger database of all colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis surgical specimen reported between January 1993 and December 2010 at the Pathology Department McMaster University Medical Centre Canada. The clinical and pathological features of these cases were reviewed The review identified 15 cases of right colon diverticulosis. The clinical diagnoses of these cases were appendicitis, diverticulitis or adenocarcinoma. Eight cases of single congenital perforated diverticuli were identified and seven cases were incidental multiple acquired diverticuli found in specimen resected for right side colonic carcinomas/large adenomas. Laparotomy or laparoscopic assisted haemicolectomies were done for all cases. Pathological examination showed caecal wall thickening with inflammation associated with perforated diverticuli. Histology confirmed true solitary diverticuli that exhibited in two cases thick walled vessels in the submucosa and muscular layer indicating vascular malformation/angiodysplasia. Acquired diverticuli tend to be multiple and are mostly seen in specimens resected for neoplastic right colon diseases. Single true diverticular disease of the right colon is usually of congenital type and affects

  1. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

  3. Formulation, development and evaluation of colon-specific ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major intention to formulate and develop colon targeted tablets is to improve the therapeutic efficacy by increasing therapeutic drug concentrations in colon. The present study was aimed to develop guar gum compression coated tablets ketorolac tromethamine to achieve the colon-specific drug release. In this study ...

  4. Red meat and colon cancer : a possible role for heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however,

  5. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Colon-Specific Microspheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate colon specific drug delivery system of diclofenac sodium for highly localized delivery to the colon. Methods: The colon specific drug delivery system was prepared as matrix-type microspheres using Ethyl Cellulose (EC), Cellulose Acetate Phthalate (CAP), and Eudragit L 100-55 by the ...

  7. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic

  8. Celecoxib prevents colitis associated colon carcinogenesis: an upregulation of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Shruti; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, Sankar N

    2014-12-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis are the critical events transforming a normal cell to a cancerous one wherein the inflammatory microenvironment supports this oncogenic transformation. The process of colon carcinogenesis may be aggravated in chronic inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis where non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may effectively prevent the cellular and molecular events. Western blots and immunofluorescent analysis of DNA mismatch repair enzymes, cell cycle regulators and pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins were performed in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and 1,2-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Also, apoptotic studies were done in isolated colonocytes using fluorescent staining and in paraffin sections using TUNEL assay. An upregulation of cell cycle regulators: cyclin D1/cdk4 and cyclin E/cdk2 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, along with the suppression of DNA repair enzymes: MLH1 and MSH2; tumour suppressors: p53, p21and Rb and pro-apoptotic proteins: Bax and Bad were observed in the DSS, DMH and DSS+DMH groups. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was also overexpressed in these groups. The ultimate executioner of the apoptotic pathway; caspase-3, was suppressed in these groups. Apoptotic studies in colonocytes and paraffin sections revealed suppressed apoptosis in these groups. These effects were corrected with the administration of a second generation NSAID, celecoxib along with the treatment of DSS and DMH. The chemopreventive action of celecoxib in colitis mediated colon carcinogenesis may include the regulation of DNA mismatch repair enzymes, cell cycle check points, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  10. Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ri Na; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2017-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

  11. New trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Medina-Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Colonic diverticular disease is a chronic disorder presenting with a variety of abdominal symptoms and recurrent episodes of acute diverticulitis. It is close linked to age so its prevalence has risen notably during the last decades in western countries, increasing costs related to medical attention. Recently, several works have provided evidence to a series of measures that could improve the outcomes as well as reduce expenses associated to this process. The aim of the present review is to expose a view of the new trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease, based on the highest clinical evidence available.

  12. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  13. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Grapov, Dmitry; Jackson, Matthew I; Fahrmann, Johannes; Fiehn, Oliver; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-09-11

    The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF). Of that number, 251 (93%) were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  14. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF. Of that number, 251 (93% were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  15. Apoptotic block in colon cancer cells may be rectified by lentivirus mediated overexpression of caspase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Wang, C; Shen, X; Yu, Y; Rui, Y; Zhang, D; Zhou, Z

    2013-12-01

    At present, the inhibition of apoptosis during pathogenesis of colorectal cancer is widely recognized while the role of caspase-9 in this process remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the differential expression of caspase-9 and evaluate the therapeutic potential of expression intervention in this study. We first examined the different expression of caspase-9 in normal colon mucosa, adenoma and cancer, investigating the relationship between its expression and clinico-pathological characteristics. Secondly, overexpression of caspase-9 was established in colon cancer cell lines by lentivirus infection to study the changes in growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Compared with normal colon mucosa, the expression of caspase-9 was higher in adenoma while lower in cancer both at mRNA and protein level (P expression is more common in poorly differentiated cancers (P expression of caspase-9, poorer colony formation and slower cell proliferation. In terms of apoptosis related indicators, caspase-9 overexpression leads to higher apoptosis rate and GO/G1 arrest, while up-regulating the expression of caspase-3 (P expression from colon mucosa, adenoma to cancer suggested it may be involved in the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. The overexpression of caspase-9 exhibits an inhibitory role in cancer growth and proliferation while promoting apoptosis. However, a non-apoptotic role of caspase-9 facilitating differentiation was also implied.

  16. Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine. Demands for legal reform have come from both inside and outside Palestine. Inside Palestine, legal reform is seen as a prerequisite for democracy and good governance. Outside, legal reform is perceived as integral to the continued peace process with Israel.

  17. Soil type links microbial colonization of rice roots to methane emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrad, R.; Klose, M.; Noll, M.; Kemnitz, D.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the methane (CH4) emission from rice fields is derived from plant photosynthates, which are converted to CH4. Rice cluster I (RC-1) archaea colonizing the rhizosphere were found to be the methanogens responsible for this process. Hence, RC-1 methanogens seem to play a crucial role in

  18. Associations between red meat and risks for colon and rectal cancer depend on the type of red meat consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of specific red meat subtypes on colon cancer or rectal cancer risk. The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer. During follow-up (13.4 y), 644 cases of colon cancer and 345 cases of rectal cancer occurred among 53,988 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and 95% CIs. No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed.

  19. An integrated analysis of the effects of past land use on forest herb colonization at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, K.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Biesbrouck, B.; Hermy, M.

    2003-01-01

    A framework that summarizes the direct and indirect effects of past land use on forest herb recolonization is proposed, and used to analyse the colonization patterns of forest understorey herbaceous species in a 360-ha mixed forest, grassland and arable landscape in the Dijle river valley (central Belgium).Fine-scale distribution maps were constructed for 14 species. The species were mapped in 15 946 forest plots and outside forests (along parcel margins) in 5188 plots. Forest stands varied in age between 1 and more than 224 years. Detailed land-use history data were combined with the species distribution maps to identify species-specific colonization sources and to calculate colonization distances.The six most frequent species were selected for more detailed statistical analysis.Logistic regression models indicated that species frequency in forest parcels was a function of secondary forest age, distance from the nearest colonization source and their interaction. Similar age and distance effects were found within hedgerows.In 199 forest stands, data about soils, canopy structure and the cover of competitive species were collected. The relative importance of habitat quality and spatio-temporal isolation for the colonization of the forest herb species was quantified using structural equation modelling (SEM), within the framework proposed for the effects of past land use.The results of the SEM indicate that, except for the better colonizing species, the measured habitat quality variables are of minor importance in explaining colonization patterns, compared with the combination of secondary forest age and distance from colonization sources.Our results suggest the existence of a two-stage colonization process in which diaspore availability determines the initial pattern, which is affected by environmental sorting at later stages.

  20. Influence of the surgical manipulation of the colon in colonic induced carcinogenesis in rats Influencia de la manipulación quirúrgica del colon en la carcinogénesis cólica inducida en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the influence of different experimental manipulations in a model of colonic experimental carcinogenesis with pharmacological induction in the rat. Experimental design: a total of 90 Sprague-Dawley male rats, divided into three groups, were used: non-surgical (n = 30; surgical with colonic trauma (n = 20, and surgical with colo-colonic anastomosis (n = 40. Carcinogenic induction was carried out with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Colonic adenocarcinomas were identified and the number of tumors, as well as tumoral surface and percentage of tumoral surface was established. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square were employed for the statistical analysis. Results: the number of tumors was greater in the surgical group than in the control group, and tumors preferentially develop-ed around the manipulated colon. Surface and tumoral percentage were greater in the surgical group than in the control group, being also greater in the anastomosis group than in the group with colonic trauma. Within anastomosis groups, a greater tumor surface and percentage was found in the group with titanium than in the group with reabsorbable material. Conclusions: the experimental manipulation of the colon in rats enhances drug-induced colon carcingenesis. The creation of an anastomosis further increases the carcinogenic process compared with simulated anastomosis. This process is also enhanced by the quantity of suture material included in the anastomosis, and by the non-reabsorbable nature of the materials used in the anastomotic line.Objetivo: valorar la influencia de las distintas manipulaciones experimentales en un modelo de carcinogénesis cólica experimental con inducción farmacológica en la rata. Diseño experimental: se emplearon 90 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, divididas en tres grupos: no quirúrgico (n=30; quirúrgico con traumatismo cólico (n=20, y quirúrgico con anastomosis colocólica (n=40. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con

  1. Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Boucher, K M; Caan, B J; Potter, J D; Ma, K N

    1998-07-01

    Colon cancer has been associated with several nutrients and foods. The authors used data from a population-based study conducted in Northern California, Utah, and Minnesota to examine associations between dietary eating patterns and risk of developing colon cancer. Through factor analysis, detailed dietary intake data obtained from 1,993 cases (diagnosed in 1991-1994) and 2,410 controls were grouped into factors that were evaluated for relations with lifestyle characteristics and colon cancer risk. Several dietary patterns emerged. The dietary patterns with the most variation were labeled "Western," "prudent," "high fat/sugar dairy," "substituters," and "drinkers." The "Western" dietary pattern was associated with a higher body mass index and a greater intake of total energy and dietary cholesterol. The "prudent" pattern was associated with higher levels of vigorous leisure time physical activity, smaller body size, and higher intakes of dietary fiber and folate. Persons who had high scores on the "drinker" pattern were also more likely to smoke cigarettes. The "Western" dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in both men and women. The association was strongest among people diagnosed prior to age 67 years (for men, odds ratio (OR)=1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-3.15; for women, OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.21-3.36) and among men with distal tumors (OR=2.25, 95% CI 1.47-3.46). The "prudent" diet was protective, with the strongest associations being observed among people diagnosed prior to age 67 years (men: OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92; women: OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.87); associations with this dietary pattern were also strong among persons with proximal tumors (men: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.80; women: OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.92). Although "substituters" (people who substituted low fat dairy products for high fat dairy products, margarine for butter, poultry for red meat, and whole grains for refined grains) were at reduced risk of colon cancer

  2. PGE{sub 2}-induced colon cancer growth is mediated by mTORC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, Marc, E-mail: Marc.dufour@chuv.ch; Faes, Seraina, E-mail: Seraina.faes@chuv.ch; Dormond-Meuwly, Anne, E-mail: Anne.meuwly-Dormond@chuv.ch; Demartines, Nicolas, E-mail: Demartines@chuv.ch; Dormond, Olivier, E-mail: Olivier.dormond@chuv.ch

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • PGE{sub 2} activates mTORC1 in colon cancer cells. • Inhibition of mTORC1 blocks PGE{sub 2} induced colon cancer cell growth. • mTORC1 is a signaling intermediary in PGE{sub 2} induced colon cancer cell responses. - Abstract: The inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) cytokine plays a key role in the development of colon cancer. Several studies have shown that PGE{sub 2} directly induces the growth of colon cancer cells and furthermore promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing the production of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The signaling intermediaries implicated in these processes have however not been fully characterized. In this report, we show that the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in PGE{sub 2}-induced colon cancer cell responses. Indeed, stimulation of LS174T cells with PGE{sub 2} increased mTORC1 activity as observed by the augmentation of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, a downstream effector of mTORC1. The PGE{sub 2} EP{sub 4} receptor was responsible for transducing the signal to mTORC1. Moreover, PGE{sub 2} increased colon cancer cell proliferation as well as the growth of colon cancer cell colonies grown in matrigel and blocking mTORC1 by rapamycin or ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR abrogated these effects. Similarly, the inhibition of mTORC1 by downregulation of its component raptor using RNA interference blocked PGE{sub 2}-induced LS174T cell growth. Finally, stimulation of LS174T cells with PGE{sub 2} increased VEGF production which was also prevented by mTORC1 inhibition. Taken together, these results show that mTORC1 is an important signaling intermediary in PGE{sub 2} mediated colon cancer cell growth and VEGF production. They further support a role for mTORC1 in inflammation induced tumor growth.

  3. Does hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduce the effects of ischemia on colonic anastomosis in laparoscopic colon resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Seyfi; Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan; Sozen, Selim; Bali, Ilhan; Yesildag, Ebru; Celik, Atilla; Guzel, Savas; Sahin, Onder; Ay, Hakan; Topcu, Birol

    2016-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal pressure causes a decrease in the splanchnic blood flow and the intramucosal pH of the bowel, as well as increasing the risk of ischemia in the colon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the ischemia caused by laparoscopy in colonic anastomosis in an experimental model of laparoscopic colonic surgery. We divided 30 male Wistar albino rats into three groups: Group A was the control (open colon anastomosis); Group B received LCA (laparoscopic colon anastomosis); while Group C received both LCA and HBOT. Each group contained ten animals. We placed Group C (LCA and HBOT) in an experimental hyperbaric chamber into which we administered pure oxygen at 2.1 atmospheres absolute 100% oxygen for 60 min for ten consecutive days. The anastomotic bursting pressure value was found to be higher in the open surgery group (226 ± 8.8) (Group A). The result for Group C (213 ± 27), which received HBOT, was better than that for Group B (197 ± 27). However, there was no statistically significant difference between Group B and Group C. Group A showed better healing than the other groups, while significant differences in the fibroblast proliferation scores were found between Groups A and B. In terms of tissue hydroxyproline levels, a significant difference was found between Groups A and B and between Groups A and C, but not between Groups B and C. HBOT increases the oxygen level in the injured tissue. Although HBOT might offer several advantages, it had only a limited effect on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats with increased intra-abdominal pressure in our study. Anastomosis, Colon, Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment, Oxidative Stress.

  4. Polymers in the gut compress the colonic mucus hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Preska Steinberg, Asher; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-06-28

    Colonic mucus is a key biological hydrogel that protects the gut from infection and physical damage and mediates host-microbe interactions and drug delivery. However, little is known about how its structure is influenced by materials it comes into contact with regularly. For example, the gut abounds in polymers such as dietary fibers or administered therapeutics, yet whether such polymers interact with the mucus hydrogel, and if so, how, remains unclear. Although several biological processes have been identified as potential regulators of mucus structure, the polymeric composition of the gut environment has been ignored. Here, we demonstrate that gut polymers do in fact regulate mucus hydrogel structure, and that polymer-mucus interactions can be described using a thermodynamic model based on Flory-Huggins solution theory. We found that both dietary and therapeutic polymers dramatically compressed murine colonic mucus ex vivo and in vivo. This behavior depended strongly on both polymer concentration and molecular weight, in agreement with the predictions of our thermodynamic model. Moreover, exposure to polymer-rich luminal fluid from germ-free mice strongly compressed the mucus hydrogel, whereas exposure to luminal fluid from specific-pathogen-free mice-whose microbiota degrade gut polymers-did not; this suggests that gut microbes modulate mucus structure by degrading polymers. These findings highlight the role of mucus as a responsive biomaterial, and reveal a mechanism of mucus restructuring that must be integrated into the design and interpretation of studies involving therapeutic polymers, dietary fibers, and fiber-degrading gut microbes.

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-01-01

    Punctal plugs are used in patients with dry eye syndrome to preserve the tears. In this report, I present two cases of Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs. Observational series of two cases. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board. Two men aged 29 and 31 years developed black spots inside the hole of punctal plug, which looked like eyeliner deposits. The deposits inside the hole of the plug in each patient were removed and cultured. Cultures of the two punctal plugs black deposits grew A fumigatus. Bacterial cultures were negative. Colonization of the punctal plug hole with A fumigatus was observed in two cases. It is recommended that punctal plugs be removed in patients undergoing refractive or intraocular procedures or in patients who are receiving topical corticosteroids. Current punctal plugs should be redesigned to avoid the presence of an inserter hole.

  6. Colonization of bone matrices by cellular components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkunova, E. I.; Voropaeva, A. A.; Korel, A. V.; Mayer, D. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Practical surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, and oncology require bioengineered constructs suitable for replacement of large-area bone defects. Only rigid/elastic matrix containing recipient's bone cells capable of mitosis, differentiation, and synthesizing extracellular matrix that supports cell viability can comply with these requirements. Therefore, the development of the techniques to produce structural and functional substitutes, whose three-dimensional structure corresponds to the recipient's damaged tissues, is the main objective of tissue engineering. This is achieved by developing tissue-engineering constructs represented by cells placed on the matrices. Low effectiveness of carrier matrix colonization with cells and their uneven distribution is one of the major problems in cell culture on various matrixes. In vitro studies of the interactions between cells and material, as well as the development of new techniques for scaffold colonization by cellular components are required to solve this problem.

  7. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-05

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but essential to cure the malignant foci completely. Herein, we review the recent evidence for intestinal stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, methods to detect the tumor-initiating cells, and clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers. We also describe the emerging problems of cancer stem cell theory, including bidirectional conversion and intertumoral heterogeneity of stem cell phenotype.

  8. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  9. The radiographic examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, T.R.; Saba, G.P. II.

    1980-01-01

    To provide medical and scientific background on certain selected technologies generally considered to be of particular significance, the National Center for Health Care Technology commissioned a series of overview papers, one of which is entitled 'The Radiographic Examination of the Colon.' These overviews are likely to be of most immediate interest to clinicians and biomedical scientists; they also may provide valuable background for assessments undertaken by the Center and for exploring the broad societal implications of health care technologies. Barium enema is the most available and widely used technique for examining the colon. It is often a routine part of the gastrointestinal work-up regardless of the suspected basis, anatomical or functional, of the patient's symptoms. Indeed, common practice is not to entertain a diagnosis of functional disorder before excluding all reasonable possibility of an anatomical abnormality. Barium enema is one of the most frequently ordered radiographic examinations

  10. Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    . The pathogenesis by which melanocyte migration takes place is not known, but a breached basement membrane is considered essential. Conclusion. Histological examination and additional staining of skin are essential to differentiate breast cancer melanosis from malignant melanoma.......Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion...

  11. Peri-colonic haematoma following routine colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Felicity Page; Olfunso Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We present a case of an extra-luminal haematoma following routine colonoscopy. This case highlights an uncommon but potentially life threatening complication in which there is little published literature to date. Presentation of case: A 73 year old male presented with abdominal pain and a reduction in haemoglobin following an uneventful colonoscopy. The imaging had been required as part of colorectal cancer follow up. Initial differential diagnosis included colonic perforatio...

  12. Synchronous colonic tumours of dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Selvachandran, S N; Cade, D

    2001-05-01

    Synchronous colonic tumours of dual pathology are extremely rare. A review of the literature revealed that few cases have been reported to date. Because of their rarity and lack of specific symptoms, preoperative diagnosis is not easy and there is no protocol as yet for the ideal management of these cases. We present such a case which was treated by a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

  13. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  14. Urgent surgery for complicated colonic diverticula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funariu, Gheorghe; Binţinţan, Vasile; Seicean, Radu

    2006-03-01

    The AIM of this retrospective study was to evaluate the emergency surgical treatment of life-threatening complications of colonic diverticula. In the last 11 years, 22 of 101 patients with colonic diverticula (22.1%) underwent urgent surgery for acute complications: perforated gangrenous diverticulitis with generalized peritonitis (n=8) or pericolic abscess (n=8), acute bowel obstruction (n=4) and severe diverticular bleeding (n=2). In all patients with diffuse peritonitis or acute obstruction the indication for surgery was decided on clinical basis and the complicated diverticula were recognized only intra-operatively. Emergency surgical strategy differed according to the type of complication and the biologic condition of the patient: segmental colectomy and primary anastomosis for diverticular perforation (n=4), colonic stenosis (n=3) or diverticular bleeding (n=2); Hartmann resection with late reconnecting anastomosis in patients with diverticular perforation (n=5) or colonic obstruction (n=1); diverticulectomy with peritoneal drainage (n=2) and colostomy and drainage followed by secondary colectomy (n=5) for diverticular perforations in patients with poor general condition. Only one patient (4.5%) died post-operatively of multiple organ failure from generalized peritonitis. There was no anastomotic leakage in patients with primary anastomosis. Six patients (27.2%) developed wound infection. Hospital stay ranged between 11 and 60 days, significantly longer in cases with two-stage operations. Primary colectomy with immediate or delayed anastomosis is the best surgical procedure for acute divericular complications in patients with good biologic status. Two-stage operations such as colostomy and drainage coupled with late colectomy remain the viable alternative in patients with advanced disease and critical biologic condition.

  15. Managing Potentially Resectable Metastatic Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, John L.

    2008-01-01

    For patients with metastatic colon cancer, management has evolved from resecting a single liver metastasis and having only one chemotherapy medicine, to resecting multiple metastases including those outside the liver as well as using combination chemotherapy (based on recent supportive trials) to improve outcomes. This success has also raised many questions, including the role of adjuvant chemotherapy to downstage borderline resectable tumors, whether patients who receive preoperative chemoth...

  16. A surprise case of colonic interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Blind nasogastric intubation failure as a result of changes to the normal anatomical pathway is not uncommon. This case report is of fluoroscopically guided intubation in a patient in whom blind intubation failed as a result of what was subsequently found to be a colonic interposition with associated late complications. Fluroscopically guided nasogastric intubation is a safe and effective procedure that should always be considered when blind intubation has failed

  17. Laparoscopic right colon resection with intracorporeal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Karen; Fakhoury, Mathew; Barnajian, Moshe; Tarta, Cristi; Bergamaschi, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis following resection of the right colon. This was a retrospective study of selected patients who underwent laparoscopic intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis following resection of the right colon for tumors or Crohn's disease by a single surgeon from July 2002 through June 2012. Data were retrieved from an Institutional Review Board-approved database. Study end point was postoperative adverse events, including mortality, complications, reoperations, and readmissions at 30 days. Antiperistaltic side-to-side anastomoses were fashioned laparoscopically with a 60-mm-long stapler cartridge and enterocolotomy was hand-sewn intracorporeally in two layers. Values were expressed as medians (ranges) for continuous variables. There were 243 patients (143 females) aged 61 (range = 19-96) years, with body mass index of 29 (18-43) kg/m(2) and ASA 1:2:3:4 of 52:110:77:4; 30 % had previous abdominal surgery and 38 % had a preexisting comorbidity. There were 84 ileocolic resections with ileo ascending anastomosis and 159 right colectomies with ileotransverse anastomosis. Operating time was 135 (60-220) min. Estimated blood loss was 50 (10-600) ml. Specimen extraction site incision length was 4.1 (3-4.4) cm. Conversion rate was 3 % and there was no mortality at 30 days, 15 complications (6.2 %), and 8 reoperations (3.3 %). Readmission rate was 8.7 %. Length of stay was 4 (2-32) days. Pathology confirmed Crohn's disease in 84 patients, adenocarcinoma in 152, and other tumors in 7 patients. Laparoscopic intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis following resection of the right colon resulted in a favorable outcome in selected patients with Crohn's disease or tumors of the right colon.

  18. Distributed power sources for Mars colonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Shaban, Yasser

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental needs for Mars colonization is an abundant source of energy. The total energy system will probably use a mixture of sources based on solar energy, fuel cells, and nuclear energy. Here we concentrate on the possibility of developing a distributed system employing several unique new types of nuclear energy sources, specifically small fusion devices using inertial electrostatic confinement and portable 'battery type' proton reaction cells

  19. Sustainability: A Tedious Path to Galactic Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Dutil, Y.; Dumas, S.

    2007-01-01

    Civilization cannot sustain an exponential growth for long time even when neglecting numerous laws of physics! In this paper, we examine what are fundamental obstacles to long term survival of a civilization and its possibility to colonize the Galaxy. Using the solar system as a reference, resources available for sustained growth are analyzed. Using this information, we will explore the probability of discovering a civilization at its different stage of energy evolution as estimating some pos...

  20. [Penetrant injuries of colon--our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, R; Krivokapić, Z; Dobricanin, V

    2010-01-01

    In attemption to determine the place of primary repair in management of colon injuries, an open, non randomized clinical study was performed. Retrospective (RS) group of 62 patients according to exclusion criteria by Stone (S/F) and Flint (F1) was managed by one or two stage surgical procedure. Prospective (PR) group of 34 patients was managed using one stage repair non-selectively: two stage procedures were performed in 3 cases of advanced peritonitis and multi-segmental lacerations with impaired circulation of colon. In RS group 36 patients were managed by primary repair and in PR group, 31 were managed by primary repair. Both groups were of similar age/sex. Indexes of trauma severity were similar (TS, ISS, PATI). The latent time was shorter in PR group. Associated injuries to other body regions and abdominal organs were similar in both groups. S/F criteria and Flint grading in both (RS vs. PR) groups were similar. Comparison of attempted and successful primary repairs justifies the more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries.

  1. Transcatheter emboilization therapy of massive colonic bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G. H.; Oh, J. H.; Yoon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    To evaulate the efficacy and safety of emergent superselective transcatheter embolization for controlling massive colonic bleeding. Six of the seven patients who had symptom of massive gastrointestinal bleeding underwent emergent transcatheter embolization for control of the bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients was originated from various colonic diseases: rectal cancer(n=1), proctitis(n=1), benign ulcer(n=1), mucosal injury by ventriculoperitoneal shunt(n=1), and unknown(n=2). All patients except one with rectal cancer were critically ill. Superselective embolization were done by using Gelfoam particles and/or coils. The vessels embolized were ileocolic artery(n=1). superior rectal artery(n=2), inferior rectal artery (n=1), and middle and inferior rectal arteries(n=1). Hemostasis was successful immediately in all patients. Two underwnet surgery due to recurrent bleeding developed 3 days after the procedure(n=1) or in associalion with underlying rectal cancer(n=1). On surgical specimen of two cases, there was no mucosal ischemic change. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and effective treatment of method for the control of massive colonic bleeding

  2. Social Media, Delinguistification and Colonization of Lifeworld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Heyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article critically investigates, from an interdisciplinary perspective, how the current evolution of social media—like social network sites—interferes with the balance between private, commercial, and public space. We build on the concepts of lifeworld and systems, developed in Habermas’ theory of communicative action. The discussion is supported and enriched by the work of Feenberg and van Dijck, integrating insights from Science and Technology Studies and media studies. Technology philosopher and critical Science and Technology Studies scholar Feenberg introduces technology as a steering “medium” that delinguistifies and possibly colonizes the lifeworld by reinterpreting media sociological perspectives of Habermas, Marcuse, Latour, and Callon. In a similar way, media scholar van Dijck analyses the transition from human connectedness to automated connectivity in the context of social media. We then illustrate the delinguistification and the colonization of lifeworld with a systematic analysis of the contingent evolution of Facebook as one particular case in social media. We focus on three specific artifacts in Facebook, framed as obligatory passage points: EdgeRank, Sponsored Stories, and Gatekeeper. Each of them gives an idea how the private space is subsumed under the commercial space and how the colonization reconfigures the public space in social media like Facebook. In this sense, we complement the political economy analysis of prosumer commodity with the action-theoretical autonomist approach of immaterial labor, highlighting new potential threats of the current social media development.

  3. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Colon cancer information as a source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Erin L; Prapavessis, Harry

    2010-12-01

    Using a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) framework, this study examined whether factual colon cancer information is a meaningful source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer. One hundred sixty-six inactive relatives were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PMT group (intervention); and non-PMT group (attention control). At baseline (T1) participants completed demographic information, a questionnaire designed to assess their beliefs toward exercise and colon cancer as well as their exercise intentions. At T2 (one week following T1) participants watched one of two DVD videos that were created for the study. The intervention DVD contained exercise and colon cancer information that was yoked within the four major components of PMT: perceived vulnerability (PV); perceived severity (PS); response efficacy (RE); and self-efficacy (SE), while the attention control DVD contained general diet and cancer information. Immediately following watching the DVD, participants completed the same measures as in T1. Participants assigned to the PMT intervention group showed significant improvement in PV, RE, SE and exercise intentions, whereas participants assigned to the attention control group showed significant improvement only in RE. RE, SE, and PS made significant and unique contributions to prediction of exercise intention. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate that a single exposure media intervention grounded in a PMT framework can change individuals' exercise and colon cancer beliefs, as well as change their exercise intentions. Implications of these findings and direction for future research are discussed.

  6. Malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells by a colon-derived long noncoding RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Rankin, Carl R.; Levy, Shawn; Snoddy, Jay R.; Zhang, Bing; Washington, Mary Kay; Thomson, J. Michael; Whitehead, Robert H.; Coffey, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Non-coding RNAs are found in the colonic crypt progenitor compartment. •Colonocytes transformed by ncNRFR are highly invasive and metastatic. •ncNRFR has a region similar to the miRNA, let-7 family. •ncNRFR expression alters let-7 activity as measured by reporter construct. •ncNRFR expression upregulates let-7b targets. -- Abstract: Recent progress has been made in the identification of protein-coding genes and miRNAs that are expressed in and alter the behavior of colonic epithelia. However, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colonic homeostasis is just beginning to be explored. By gene expression profiling of post-mitotic, differentiated tops and proliferative, progenitor-compartment bottoms of microdissected adult mouse colonic crypts, we identified several lncRNAs more highly expressed in crypt bottoms. One identified lncRNA, designated non-coding Nras functional RNA (ncNRFR), resides within the Nras locus but appears to be independent of the Nras coding transcript. Stable overexpression of ncNRFR in non-transformed, conditionally immortalized mouse colonocytes results in malignant transformation, as determined by growth in soft agar and formation of highly invasive tumors in nude mice. Moreover, ncNRFR appears to inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor let-7. These results suggest precise regulation of ncNRFR is necessary for proper cell growth in the colonic crypt, and its misregulation results in neoplastic transformation

  7. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  8. Natural products to improve quality of life targeting for colon drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjo

    2012-03-01

    The colon is largely being investigated as a site for administration of protein and peptides, which are degraded by digestive enzymes in the upper GIT. Also for local diseases of the colon such as inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and ameobiasis, drug administration to the site of action can not only reduce the dose to be administered, but also decrease the side effects. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) such as Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Intestinal bacteria initiate the activation of intestinal inflammatory processes, which are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. Increased chemokine expression has also been observed in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Future trials of specific agents capable of inhibiting chemokine synthesis and secretion or blocking chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction will be important to study in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Many important bioactive compounds have been discovered from natural sources using bioactivity directed fractionation and isolation (BDFl) Continuing discovery has also been facilitated by the recent development of new bioassay methods. These bioactive compounds are mostly plant secondary metabolites, and many naturally occurring pure compounds have become medicines, dietary supplements, and other useful commercial products. The present review includes various approaches investigated for colon drug delivery and their site specificity. To achieve successful colonic delivery, a drug needs to be protected from absorption and the environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract and then be abruptly released into the proximal colon, which is considered the optimum site for colon targeted delivery of drugs.

  9. Feedbacks between community assembly and habitat selection shape variation in local colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J.M.; Vonesh, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Non-consumptive effects of predators are increasingly recognized as important drivers of community assembly and structure. Specifically, habitat selection responses to top predators during colonization and oviposition can lead to large differences in aquatic community structure, composition and diversity. 2. These differences among communities due to predators may develop as communities assemble, potentially altering the relative quality of predator vs. predator-free habitats through time. If so, community assembly would be expected to modify the subsequent behavioural responses of colonists to habitats containing top predators. Here, we test this hypothesis by manipulating community assembly and the presence of fish in experimental ponds and measuring their independent and combined effects on patterns of colonization by insects and amphibians. 3. Assembly modified habitat selection of dytscid beetles and hylid frogs by decreasing or even reversing avoidance of pools containing blue-spotted sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus). However, not all habitat selection responses to fish depended on assembly history. Hydrophilid beetles and mosquitoes avoided fish while chironomids were attracted to fish pools, regardless of assembly history. 4. Our results show that community assembly causes taxa-dependent feedbacks that can modify avoidance of habitats containing a top predator. Thus, non-consumptive effects of a top predator on community structure change as communities assemble and effects of competitors and other predators combine with the direct effects of top predators to shape colonization. 5. This work reinforces the importance of habitat selection for community assembly in aquatic systems, while illustrating the range of factors that may influence colonization rates and resulting community structure. Directly manipulating communities both during colonization and post-colonization is critical for elucidating how sequential processes interact to shape communities.

  10. Complement 5a stimulates macrophage polarization and contributes to tumor metastases of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunmei; Zhang, Wen-Mei; Li, Tao-Tao; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Qiu, Shulan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Sa; Jin, Ming; Jia, Li-Xin; Song, Wen-Chao; Du, Jie

    2018-05-15

    Inflammatory cells such as macrophages can play a pro-tumorigenic role in the tumor stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) generally display an M2 phenotype with tumor-promoting activity; however, the mechanisms regulating the TAM phenotype remain unclear. Complement 5a (C5a) is a cytokine-like polypeptide that is generated during complement system activation and is known to promote tumor growth. Herein, we investigated the role of C5a on macrophage polarization in colon cancer metastasis in mice. We found that deficiency of the C5a receptor (C5aR) severely impairs the metastatic ability of implanted colon cancer cells. C5aR was expressed on TAMs, which exhibited an M2-like functional profile in colon cancer liver metastatic lesions. Furthermore, C5a mediated macrophage polarization and this process relied substantially on activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Finally, analysis of human colon carcinoma indicated that C5aR expression is negatively associated with tumor differentiation grade. Our results demonstrate that C5aR has a central role in regulating the M2 phenotype of TAMs, which in turn, contributes to hepatic metastasis of colon cancer through NF-κB signaling. C5a is a potential novel marker for cancer prognosis and drugs targeting complement system activation, specifically the C5aR pathway, may offer new therapeutic opportunities for colon cancer management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracellular vesicle-mediated phenotype switching in malignant and non-malignant colon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, Hillary E.; Chang, Audrey; Adler, Jason; Del Tatto, Michael; Perez, Kimberly; Quesenberry, Peter J.; Chatterjee, Devasis

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted from many cells, carrying cargoes including proteins and nucleic acids. Research has shown that EVs play a role in a variety of biological processes including immunity, bone formation and recently they have been implicated in promotion of a metastatic phenotype. EVs were isolated from HCT116 colon cancer cells, 1459 non-malignant colon fibroblast cells, and tumor and normal colon tissue from a patient sample. Co-cultures were performed with 1459 cells and malignant vesicles, as well as HCT116 cells and non-malignant vesicles. Malignant phenotype was measured using soft agar colony formation assay. Co-cultures were also analyzed for protein levels using mass spectrometry. The importance of 14-3-3 zeta/delta in transfer of malignant phenotype was explored using siRNA. Additionally, luciferase reporter assay was used to measure the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. This study demonstrates the ability of EVs derived from malignant colon cancer cell line and malignant patient tissue to induce the malignant phenotype in non-malignant colon cells. Similarly, EVs derived from non-malignant colon cell lines and normal patient tissue reversed the malignant phenotype of HCT116 cells. Cells expressing an EV-induced malignant phenotype showed increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB which was inhibited by the NF--κB inhibitor, BAY117082. We also demonstrate that knock down of 14-3-3 zeta/delta reduced anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells and 1459 cells co-cultured with HCT derived EVs. Evidence of EV-mediated induction of malignant phenotype, and reversal of malignant phenotype, provides rational basis for further study of the role of EVs in tumorigenesis. Identification of 14-3-3 zeta/delta as up-regulated in malignancy suggests its potential as a putative drug target for the treatment of colorectal cancer

  12. Independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in blunt colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, R; Paterson, C A; Islam, S; Sweeney, W B; Baker, S P; Counihan, T C

    2004-01-01

    We sought to determine the impact of (1) grade of the colon injury, (2) the formation of an ostomy, and (3) associated injuries on outcomes such as morbidity and mortality after blunt colon injuries. We retrospectively reviewed 16,814 cases of blunt abdominal trauma. Patients with colonic injuries were selected and charts reviewed for demographic, clinical, and outcomes data. Injuries were grouped by the Colon Injury Scale (grades I-V). Independent risk factors of morbidity included spine and lung injuries, as well as increased age. A higher grade of colon injury trended toward a significant association with intra-abdominal complications. Independent risk factors of mortality included liver, heart, and lung injuries, as well as intracerebral blood and female gender. The grade of colon injury, the formation of an ostomy, and management of the colon trauma did not independently predict increased intra-abdominal complications, morbidity, or mortality. These results indicate that patients afflicted with blunt colon trauma experience a high rate of morbidity and mortality from associated injuries and or increased age. Treatment regimens directed at these factors will be most helpful in reducing the high morbidity and mortality after blunt colon trauma. Factors such as ostomy formation and management strategy are not associated with increased morbidity or mortality after blunt colon trauma.

  13. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliângela de Castro Côbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon. The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega, the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+, scarce macrophages (CD68+, and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+.

  14. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côbo, Eliângela de Castro; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Micheletti, Adilha Misson; Crema, Eduardo; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus) and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon). The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega), the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+), scarce macrophages (CD68+), and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+). PMID:22131997

  15. Role of colonic short-chain fatty acid transport in diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Henry J

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the major anion in stool and are synthesized from nonabsorbed carbohydrate by the colonic microbiota. Nonabsorbed carbohydrate are not absorbed in the colon and induce an osmotically mediated diarrhea; in contrast, SCFA are absorbed by colonic epithelial cells and stimulate Na-dependent fluid absorption via a cyclic AMP-independent process involving apical membrane Na-H, SCFA-HCO(3), and Cl-SCFA exchanges. SCFA production represents an adaptive process to conserve calories, fluid, and electrolytes. Inhibition of SCFA synthesis by antibiotics and administration of PEG, a substance that is not metabolized by colonic microbiota, both result in diarrhea. In contrast, increased production of SCFA as a result of providing starch that is relatively resistant to amylase digestion [so-called resistant starch (RS)] to oral rehydration solution (RS-ORS) improves the efficacy of ORS and represents an important approach to improve the effectiveness of ORS in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children under five years of age.

  16. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  17. Endoscopic Localization of Colon Cancer Is Frequently Inaccurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayor, Jennifer; Rotman, Stephen R; Chan, Walter W; Goldberg, Joel E; Saltzman, John R

    2017-08-01

    Colonoscopic location of a tumor can influence both the surgical procedure choice and overall treatment strategy. To determine the accuracy of colonoscopy in determining the location of colon cancer compared to surgical localization and to elucidate factors that predict discordant colon cancer localization. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of colon cancers diagnosed on colonoscopy at two academic tertiary-care hospitals and two affiliated community hospitals from 2012 to 2014. Colon cancer location was obtained from the endoscopic and surgical pathology reports and characterized by colon segment. We collected data on patient demographics, tumor characteristics, endoscopic procedure characteristics, surgery planned, and surgery performed. Univariate analyses using Chi-squared test and multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression were performed to determine factors that predict discordant colon cancer localization. There were 110 colon cancer cases identified during the study period. Inaccurate endoscopic colon cancer localization was found in 29% (32/110) of cases. These included 14 cases (12.7%) that were discordant by more than one colonic segment and three cases where the presurgical planned procedure was significantly changed at the time of surgery. On univariate analyses, right-sided colon lesions were associated with increased inaccuracy (43.8 vs 24.4%, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, right-sided colon lesions remained independently associated with inaccuracy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.93, p = 0.04). Colon cancer location as determined by colonoscopy is often inaccurate, which can result in intraoperative changes to surgical management, particularly in the right colon.

  18. Cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess as the herald of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Gun; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Seung Hoon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Jin-Oh; Kim, Boo Sung; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong

    2012-02-01

    Colonic mucosal defects might be a route for bacterial invasion into the portal system, with subsequent hematogenous spread to the liver. We retrospectively investigated the results of colonoscopy and the clinical characteristics of patients with pyogenic liver abscess of colonic origin. A total of 230 consecutive patients with pyogenic liver abscess were reviewed between 2003 and 2010. The 230 patients were categorized into three groups (pancreatobiliary [n = 135], cryptogenic [n = 81], and others [n = 14]). Of the 81 cryptogenic patients, 37 (45.7%) underwent colonoscopy. Colonic lesions with mucosal defects were considered colonic causes of abscess. In the 37 colonoscopic investigations, colon cancer was found in six patients (16.2%), laterally-spreading tumor (LST) in two patients (5.4%), multiple colon ulcers in one patient (2.7%), colon polyps in 17 patients (45.9%), and diverticula in four patients (10.8%). Nine (11%) of 81 cryptogenic abscesses were therefore reclassified as being of colonic origin (colon cancer = 6, LST = 2, ulcer = 1). Three cases were stage III colon cancer, and the others were stage I. Two LST were high-grade dysplasia. The percentage of patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and diabetes mellitus (DM) of colonic origin was 66.7%, which was significantly higher than the 8.6% for other causes (P colonic cause. Colonoscopy should be considered for the detection of hidden colonic malignant lesions in patients with cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess, especially for patients with K. pneumoniae and DM. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  20. Raising Introspective Awareness in Resisting Colonizing Ideologies: Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Al-Shraah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deconstructing colonization and the colonizing discourse is a long and continuing process. Many intellectuals participated, and still participate, in this noble mission. However, "Waiting for the Barbarians" is a literary work that resists the colonial ideology through raising the colonizer's, and consequently the reader's, awareness of the pervasive ideology of dehumanization; it is this ideology that makes possible the severe torture of the prisoners without the torturers' feeling or awareness of their criminal deeds. This ideology of dehumanization and the struggle against its domination is manifested by the character of the protagonist who, as a representative of the colonizer, experiences a gradual process of confusion, introspection, and remorse that enables the reader to experience closely, rather than merely witness from a distance, an exemplary process of self-questioning. This theme of self-questioning is one of the main themes of Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians. The novel creates in us an ability to question the different ideologies that enslaved us unconsciously, especially at our modern time when It seems that we became so obsessed with materialism and our existential needs that risking one's physical safety or financial security to stand up for one's principles will never be an issue for most people, especially those living in what was known as colonizing countries or, in modern terminology, the developed or first world. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the novel creates in its reader a revival of a moral and ultimately political sensibility that is usually inhibited by the ideology of dehumanization.

  1. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losnegaard, Are; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2010-01-01

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (±0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  2. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  3. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  4. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  5. A model for bacterial colonization of sinking aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearon, R N

    2007-01-01

    Sinking aggregates provide important nutrient-rich environments for marine bacteria. Quantifying the rate at which motile bacteria colonize such aggregations is important in understanding the microbial loop in the pelagic food web. In this paper, a simple analytical model is presented to predict the rate at which bacteria undergoing a random walk encounter a sinking aggregate. The model incorporates the flow field generated by the sinking aggregate, the swimming behavior of the bacteria, and the interaction of the flow with the swimming behavior. An expression for the encounter rate is computed in the limit of large Péclet number when the random walk can be approximated by a diffusion process. Comparison with an individual-based numerical simulation is also given.

  6. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  7. Motility and chemotaxis mediate the preferential colonization of gastric injury sites by Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Aihara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1 significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB or chemotaxis (ΔcheY. ΔmotB (10(6 failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (10(6 colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites

  8. Role of a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor and Luteolin in the Regression of Colon Tumors in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis is a devastating problem leading to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Colon cancer is a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence strongly varies globally and is closely linked to elements of a so-called western lifestyle. In Egypt reports showed that colon cancer was detected in 11–15% of patients who underwent colonoscopy and diagnosed in 29–31% of patients aged 40 years or younger. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (aspirin) and a natural product (luteolin) and on colon cancer induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), beside studying the effects of luteolin and aspirin either alone or combined with fractionated low doses of γ- irradiation as a route of cancer therapy. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups 10 animals each and treated as follows: 1. Control group (G1): rats of this group received distilled water via gavages for 15 weeks. 2. Colon tumor induction group (G2): rats of this group were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks. 3. Colon tumor + irradiation group (G3): these rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks then at the beginning of the 8th week they were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose level of 0.5 Gy/week x 8 and continued during DMH treatment. 4. Colon tumor + aspirin treatment group (G4): rats of this group gavaged aspirin (50 mg/kg/ week) and injected subcutaneously with DMH for 15 weeks. 5. Colon tumor + luteolin treatment group (G5): these rats were treated orally with LUT (0.2 mg/kg body weight/ day) and injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/ week) for 15 weeks. 6. Colon tumor + aspirin

  9. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  11. Occlusive stenosis – atypical presentation of right colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Banu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancers are one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Significant differences are described in relation to the location of tumors within the colon. Thus, between right and left colon cancer there are epidemiological, clinical, genetic, evolutionary and prognostic differences. Considering these premises, right and left colon cancers can be seen as distinct pathological entities. In right colon cancer the initial phases are often asymptomatic and the presence of symptoms is in relation to advanced phases and complications. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with no significant medical history who was admitted and operated as an emergency for stenotic and perforated tumor of the right colon. Operative exploration revealed distended small bowel loops and caecum up to the ascending colon where a stenosing tumor is found. The tumor extends to a small bowel loop and also exhibit a perforation. Right hemicolectomy was performed, with favorable postoperative evolution and discharge on 7th day.

  12. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment o...

  13. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  14. Transverse colon cancer with Krukenberg tumor : A case report

    OpenAIRE

    東門, 敦子; 松原, 洋孝; 下地, 英明; 伊佐, 勉; 濱安, 俊吾; 仲地, 厚; 宮里, 浩; 白石, 祐之; 武藤, 良弘; Tomon, Atsuko; Matsubara, Hirotaka; Shimoji, Hideaki; Isa, Tsutomu; Nakachi, Atsushi; Miyazato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    A case of Krukenberg tumor in a 30-year-old woman with transverse colon cancer is reported herein. The patient was found to have bilateral ovarian tumors and abnormal elevation of serum CEA at a community hospital. Subsequently, she was referred to the University Hospital for further work. Diagnostic examinations including US, CT and colonoscopy demonstrated transverse colon cancer and bilateral ovarian tumors. Exploratory laparotomy showed the growth of transverse colon cancer over the perit...

  15. [Laparoscopic resection of the sigmoid colon for the diverticular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbenský, L; Simša, J

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic resection of the sigmoid colon for diverticular disease is nowadays a fully accepted alternative to traditional open procedures. The aim of this work is to summarize the indications, advantages and risks of laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diverticular disease. Review of the literature and recent findings concerning the significance of laparoscopic resection for diverticulosis of the sigmoid colon. The article presents the indications, risks, techniques and perioperative care in patients after laparoscopic resection of the sigmoid colon for diverticular disease.

  16. An Unusual Case of Colon Perforation Complicating Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Aghenta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonic complications of severe acute pancreatitis occur rarely. Although there have been several theories on how pancreatic pseudocysts rupture into the colon, the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. We report an unusual case of pseudocysts complicating severe acute pancreatitis presenting with colonic perforation in a 71-year-old man with a history of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Pressure effects from a giant pseudocyst and intravascular volume depletion with acute insult on chronic mesenteric ischemia are highlighted as possible etiologic factors.

  17. Directory of Colon and Rectal Cancer Specialist Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health; Social Services and Public Safety

    2004-01-01

    The Directory of Colon and Rectal Cancer Specialist Teams has been produced under the auspices of the Northern Ireland Regional Advisory Committee on Cancer. It contains details of the full membership of the clinical teams providing care for colon and rectal cancer in each of Health and Social Services Board Area. Lead Clinicians For Colon and Rectal Cancer Services (PDF 74 KB) EHSSB (PDF 198 KB) NHSSB (PDF 107 KB) SHSSB (PDF 130 KB) WHSSB (PDF 131 KB)

  18. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  19. The Psi colonization of educational discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé Blanch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of psychological discourse in education. On the one hand, the authors criticize the abuse of the mental health diagnosis in the field of education. On the other hand, analyze the effects of the expansion of the neurosciences in the conditions of production of pedagogical knowledge. Finally, examine the role of the neuroeducation and the development of emotional psychology in the construction of enterprising subjectivities. Against these colonizing tendencies of educational discourse, the authors advocate the establishment of a new pedagogical contract that allows rethink the exercise of the educational function of teachers and educators.

  20. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis

  1. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  2. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, D; Farthmann, E H

    1983-12-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment.

  3. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, D.; Farthmann, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment. (orig.)

  4. Evolution of the operative management of colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2017-01-01

    For any trauma surgeon, colon wounds remain a relatively common, yet sometimes challenging, clinical problem. Evolution in operative technique and improvements in antimicrobial therapy during the past two centuries have brought remarkable improvements in both morbidity and mortality after injury to the colon. Much of the early progress in management and patient survival after colon trauma evolved from wartime experience. Multiple evidence-based studies during the last several decades have allowed for more aggressive management, with most wounds undergoing primary repair or resection and anastomosis with an acceptably low suture line failure rate. Despite the abundance of quality evidence regarding management of colon trauma obtained from both military and civilian experience, there remains some debate among institutions regarding management of specific injuries. This is especially true with respect to destructive wounds, injuries to the left colon, blunt colon trauma and those wounds requiring colonic discontinuity during an abbreviated laparotomy. Some programs have developed data-driven protocols that have simplified management of destructive colon wounds, clearly identifying those high-risk patients who should undergo diversion, regardless of mechanism or anatomic location. This update will describe the progression in the approach to colon injuries through history while providing a current review of the literature regarding management of the more controversial wounds.

  5. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  6. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Buchvald, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx in asymp......Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx...... in asymptomatic neonates and later development of recurrent wheeze, asthma, and allergy during the first 5 years of life....

  7. Sigmoid Colonic Perforation with Faecal Peritonitis due to Faecaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon perforation is an uncommon event usually caused by malignancy, diverticular disease, amoebic colitis, steroid therapy, trauma and ulcerative colitis, but stercoral perforation is very rare. Severe chronic constipation is considered to be the main causative factor in development of stercoral perforation of colon. Sometimes it can also produce catastrophic complications like colonic obstruction, faecal peritonitis and septicaemia. We report a rare case of sigmoid colonic perforation with faecal peritonitis and pneumoperitonium due to faecaloma which was diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy.

  8. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them to the at......We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  9. Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. A comparison of CT, colonic enema and laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, T.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Nyman, R.; Nilsson, S.; Ekbom, A.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Paahlman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy, CT, colonic enema (CE), and laboratory tests (white blood cell count (WBC), sedimentation rate (SR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Material and Methods: The diagnostic methods were prospectively evaluated in 88 patients, 30 of whom were referred for laparoscopy. Results: Fity-two patients were found to have sigmoid diverticulitis: 20 patients by lanparoscopy, 21 by CT, and 11 by CE combined with one positive laboratory test. Laparoscopy proved to be superior to the other diagnostic methods in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT had a high specificity (1.0; 95% CI: 0.92-1.0) but low sensitivity (0.69; 95% CI: 0.56-0.79) in detecting diverticulitis. CE had a higher sensitivity (0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.90) but a lower specificity (0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.91) than CT. Conclusion: CT was the best method for diagnosing abdominal pathology outside the colon. CT can be recommended as the first examination in seriously ill patients where abscesses and other causes of the symptoms than diverticulitis must first be rule out. Laparoscopy is probably the most accurate method in diagnosing diverticulitis. (orig.)

  10. Ultraflex precision colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery in patients with malignant colon obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fregonese, D.; Naspetti, R.; Ferrer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Emergency surgery for malignant colon obstruction entails relatively high morbidity and mortality rates and typically necessitates a 2-step resection. These problems might be potentially mitigated by placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) as a bridge to surgery. A nitinol co...

  11. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2015-01-01

    . Data on patients with stage III colonic cancer operated between January 1, 2005 and August 31, 2012 were retrieved. Perioperative variables, surgical modality, and time to adjuvant therapy (8 weeks) were evaluated and Cox regression was performed to identify factors influencing survival...

  12. Biosynthesis of human colonic mucin: Muc2 is the prominent secretory mucin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, K. M.; Büller, H. A.; Opdam, F. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Einerhand, A. W.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium produces large amounts of mucin. The aim of this study was to examine mucin biosynthesis in the human colon. Human colonic mucin was isolated using CsCl density gradients, and polyclonal antiserum was raised. Biosynthesis of colonic mucins was studied by labeling colonic

  13. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, Anne Marieke; Nauta, Arjen; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Differential protective effects of red wine polyphenol extracts (RWEs) on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazué, Frédéric; Delmas, Dominique; Murillo, Genoveva; Saleiro, Diana; Limagne, Emeric; Latruffe, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Various epidemiological studies have shown that a regular and moderate consumption of red wine is correlated with a decreased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and cancer. These health benefits are commonly attributed to high contents of polyphenols, particularly resveratrol, representing important sources of antioxidants. However, resveratrol does not seem to be the only bioactive compound present in the wine which contains numerous other polyphenols. The present study investigates the efficiency of red wine extracts (RWEs), containing different polyphenols, on colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo. Proliferation, cell cycle analysis and incidence of ACF were monitored to examine the effects of RWEs. RWEs derived from a long vinification process exhibit superior anti-proliferative activity in colon cancer cells and prevent the appearance of ACF in mice. Interestingly, quercetin and resveratrol, representing two major bio-active polyphenols, exhibit synergistic anti-proliferative effects. These data suggest that the efficacy of RWEs on colon carcinogenesis may depend on the polyphenolic content, synergistic interaction of bio-active polyphenols and modulation of cellular uptake of polyphenols.

  15. Free radical scavenging and COX-2 inhibition by simple colon metabolites of polyphenols: A theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić; Jeremić, Svetlana; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Free radical scavenging and inhibitory potency against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by two abundant colon metabolites of polyphenols, i.e., 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (4-HPPA) were theoretically studied. Different free radical scavenging mechanisms are investigated in water and pentyl ethanoate as a solvent. By considering electronic properties of scavenged free radicals, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are found to be thermodynamically probable and competitive processes in both media. The Gibbs free energy change for reaction of inactivation of free radicals indicates 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA as potent scavengers. Their reactivity toward free radicals was predicted to decrease as follows: hydroxyl>alkoxyls>phenoxyl≈peroxyls>superoxide. Shown free radical scavenging potency of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA along with their high μM concentration produced by microbial colon degradation of polyphenols could enable at least in situ inactivation of free radicals. Docking analysis with structural forms of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicates dianionic ligands as potent inhibitors of COX-2, an inducible enzyme involved in colon carcinogenesis. Obtained results suggest that suppressing levels of free radicals and COX-2 could be achieved by 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicating that these compounds may contribute to reduced risk of colon cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular and cellular pathways associated with chromosome 1p deletions during colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne CM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Claire M Payne, Cheray Crowley-Skillicorn, Carol Bernstein, Hana Holubec, Harris BernsteinDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Chromosomal instability is a major pathway of sporadic colon carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p appears to be one of the “hot spots” in the non-neoplastic mucosa that, when deleted, is associated with the initiation of carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p contains genes associated with DNA repair, spindle checkpoint function, apoptosis, multiple microRNAs, the Wnt signaling pathway, tumor suppression, antioxidant activities, and defense against environmental toxins. Loss of 1p is dangerous since it would likely contribute to genomic instability leading to tumorigenesis. The 1p deletion-associated colon carcinogenesis pathways are reviewed at the molecular and cellular levels. Sporadic colon cancer is strongly linked to a high-fat/low-vegetable/low-micronutrient, Western-style diet. We also consider how selected dietary-related compounds (eg, excess hydrophobic bile acids, and low levels of folic acid, niacin, plant-derived antioxidants, and other modulatory compounds might affect processes leading to chromosomal deletions, and to the molecular and cellular pathways specifically altered by chromosome 1p loss.Keywords: chromosome 1p, colon carcinogenesis, molecular pathways, cellular pathways

  17. MicroRNAs as Regulator of Signaling Networks in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, William C.; Yang, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression translationally and/or transcriptionally. A large number of evidence have demonstrated that miRNAs have a functional role in both physiological and pathological processes by regulating the expression of their target genes. Recently, the functionalities of miRNAs in the initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumors have gained increasing attentions. Particularly, the alteration of miRNA profiles has been correlated with the transformation and metastasis of various cancers, including colon cancer. This paper reports the latest findings on miRNAs involved in different signaling networks leading to colon cancer metastasis, mainly focusing on miRNA profiling and their roles in PTEN/PI3K, EGFR, TGFβ, and p53 signaling pathways of metastatic colon cancer. The potential of miRNAs used as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets in colon cancer is also discussed. PMID:26064956

  18. MicroRNAs as Regulator of Signaling Networks in Metastatic Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, William C; Yang, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression translationally and/or transcriptionally. A large number of evidence have demonstrated that miRNAs have a functional role in both physiological and pathological processes by regulating the expression of their target genes. Recently, the functionalities of miRNAs in the initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumors have gained increasing attentions. Particularly, the alteration of miRNA profiles has been correlated with the transformation and metastasis of various cancers, including colon cancer. This paper reports the latest findings on miRNAs involved in different signaling networks leading to colon cancer metastasis, mainly focusing on miRNA profiling and their roles in PTEN/PI3K, EGFR, TGFβ, and p53 signaling pathways of metastatic colon cancer. The potential of miRNAs used as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets in colon cancer is also discussed.

  19. MicroRNAs as Regulator of Signaling Networks in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression translationally and/or transcriptionally. A large number of evidence have demonstrated that miRNAs have a functional role in both physiological and pathological processes by regulating the expression of their target genes. Recently, the functionalities of miRNAs in the initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumors have gained increasing attentions. Particularly, the alteration of miRNA profiles has been correlated with the transformation and metastasis of various cancers, including colon cancer. This paper reports the latest findings on miRNAs involved in different signaling networks leading to colon cancer metastasis, mainly focusing on miRNA profiling and their roles in PTEN/PI3K, EGFR, TGFβ, and p53 signaling pathways of metastatic colon cancer. The potential of miRNAs used as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets in colon cancer is also discussed.

  20. Epithelial response to a high-protein diet in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Armand, Lucie; Grauso, Marta; Jaffrézic, Florence; Laloë, Denis; Moroldo, Marco; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-01-31

    High-protein diets (HPD) alter the large intestine microbiota composition in association with a metabolic shift towards protein degradation. Some amino acid-derived metabolites produced by the colon bacteria are beneficial for the mucosa while others are deleterious at high concentrations. The aim of the present work was to define the colonic epithelial response to an HPD. Transcriptome profiling was performed on colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an isocaloric normal-protein diet (NPD) for 2 weeks. The HPD downregulated the expression of genes notably implicated in pathways related to cellular metabolism, NF-κB signaling, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and cellular adhesion in colonocytes. In contrast, the HPD upregulated the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and chemical barrier function. These changes at the mRNA level in colonocytes were not associated with detrimental effects of the HPD on DNA integrity (comet assay), epithelium renewal (quantification of proliferation and apoptosis markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot) and colonic barrier integrity (Ussing chamber experiments). The modifications of the luminal environment after an HPD were associated with maintenance of the colonic homeostasis that might be the result of adaptive processes in the epithelium related to the observed transcriptional regulations.

  1. Dietary Patterns and Colon Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Satia, Jessie A.; Tseng, Marilyn; Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of dietary patterns with colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites from a case-control study in North Carolina. Incident colon cancer cases, 40 to 80 yr (n = 636), and matched controls (n = 1,042) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential colon cancer risk factors. A validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods captured diet over the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or interview date (controls). Three meaningful i...

  2. [Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on colonic lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities from patients with colonic neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, G; Franchi, A; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Farina, M; Fernández de Gimeno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with good gastrointestinal tolerance. Treatment with LC at levels equivalent to those found in plasma following therapeutic doses resulted in significant inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of 5 hydroxy-eicosatetraeonic acid (5-HETE) and slightly affected levels of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) in in vitro studies carried out on human tissues. This study deals with the in vivo effect of the drug on human colon segments. Experiment 1: Five patients about to undergo hemicholectomy due to colon neoplasia were treated preoperatively with a continuous infusion of LC, to achieve a steady-state concentration between 4 and 6 mg/ml. Human colon segments from the five patients and from another five control patients receiving no treatment with [14C]-arachidonic acid were incubated. Human colon segments treated with LC showed significant inhibition of PGE2, the only prostaglandin (PG) synthesised by the tissue, as well as of 5-HETE. Experiment 2: Fifteen patients received an i.v. bolus of LC 100 mg (n1 = 5); LC 200 mg (n2 = 5) or indomethacin (INDO) 50 mg (n3 = 5). Both doses of LC showed greater inhibition of PGE2 synthesis than the INDO bolus. Both NSAIDs studied proved to have different effects on the production of 5-HETE; while treatment with LC elicited significant inhibition, levels with INDO remained unchanged. Western blotting analysis showed expression of both COX isoforms in colon segments, COX-2 levels being 20% higher. Both types of in vivo studies conducted continuous infusion and i.v. bolus, revealed that LC exerted significant inhibition of basal synthesis of PGE2 and 5-HETE.

  3. Synchronous colon and renal cancer - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczynska, E.; Pawlik, T.; Aniol, J.; Chwalibog, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary cancer may occur synchronously in two different organs. We present an example of pathologically proven, coexistent renal and colony double malignant tumors. A 59 year old man, was admitted to the Institute of Oncology due to left renal lesion, discovered during a routine abdominal ultrasound examination. The CT exam was performed before surgery. The CT scans reveled a second abnormality, presenting irregular shaped and thickened to 20 mm intestinal wall within a patient's large bowel. As a next diagnostic step a CT-colonoscopy was undertaken, which confirmed the presence of an exophytic sigmoid lesion, eccentrically affecting the colonic wall and protruding into the lumen moderately narrowing it, placed about 50 cm from the external rectal sphincter. Patient underwent simultaneous radical left nephrectomy and sigmoidectomy. Both tumors were confirmed in pathologic evaluation, reveling renal clear cell carcinoma (Fuhrman G II) and colonic adenocarcinoma (Astler-Coller B2). Preoperative careful imaging studies reveled neoplastic tumors in two different organs, allowing for radical resection at the same surgical procedure. (author)

  4. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.

    1978-01-01

    The descending colon of 4 month and 2 year old mice was exposed to 1250 rad X-rays. This killed most of the epithelial cells. The surviving cells formed new crypts and surface epithelium in animals of both ages. Not all of the crypts were replaced. The irradiated area contained not more than 80% of the control number of crypts per section for at least 6 weeks after irradiation. In the young mice new crypts were much larger and the labelling index (LI) was much higher than in unirradiated animals during the first week after irradiation. In the old mice the overshoot in LI and crypt size began later and continued longer than in young animals. This may be because the control of cell proliferation was much less precise in old than in young mice. The irradiation was repeated, in attempt to age prematurely the epithelial cells by increasing the number of divisions they underwent. The overshoot in LI and cells per crypt was smaller after a second dose than after the first in both young and old mice. There was almost no overshoot after a third dose was given to young mice. Increasing the number of divisions undergone by the surviving epithelial cells did not change the timing of repopulation in young mice compared to that found in old mice. Little evidence was found for the presence of a limited proliferative lifespan in colon epithelial cells. (author)

  5. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torices, María Soledad; Corrales-Millan, Rocío; Hijona-Elosegui, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common human sexually transmitted disease. It is clinically relevant because this condition is necessary for the development of epithelial cervical cancer, and it is also a factor closely associated with the occurrence of diverse tumours and various benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck area. The infective mechanism in most of these cases is associated with sexual intercourse, but there is recent scientific evidence suggesting that HPV infection may also be acquired by other routes of infection not necessarily linked to sexual contact. One of them is vertical transmission from mother to child, either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. The aim of our research was to study maternal-foetal HPV transmission during childbirth in detail, establishing the rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV in vaginal deliveries. The presence and type of HPV viral DNA at the time of delivery in samples of maternal cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, venous cord blood samples and neonatal oropharynx in pregnant women (and their babies) were determined. The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%. The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical radiology and endoscopy of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeders, J.W.A.J.; Rosenbusch, G.

    1994-01-01

    Translated from the original 1993 German edition, this comprehensive volume brings together, in a logically integrated, understandable teaching text, expert imaging by radiology, up-to-date ultrasound and MRI; endoscopy, and histology. This text does justice to the importance of the colon. Such integration of disciplines represents the way medicine should be practiced and taught, and this book will be a model for other subjects in gastroenterology and other organ systems in which different complementary diagnostic techniques are used. The illustrations are of high quality, and both the black and white radiographs and the color endoscopy and histology pictures are faithfully reproduced and supported with informative legends. The condensed text, in outline form, is complemented by an abundance of well-conceived, informative, and clear diagrams, tables, and line drawings. Taken together, this format provides rapid access to all the essential facts and appearances of normal and diseased colon for the casual as well as the serious reader. For the teachers and practitioners of gastroenterology or radiology, this book provides a gold mine of facts and ideas. References have been well selected and presented in an appendix. (orig./UHE)

  7. Differential effects of oestrogenic hormones on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic carcinomata of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    A number of hormones, including some steroids, have previously been shown to influence the rate of cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. In this report the effect of oophorectomy and of treatment with ovarian hormones on cell proliferation in these tissues is compared. Colonic tumours cell proliferation was retarded following oophorectomy and this retardation was reversed by the administration of oestradiol, but not by the administration of progesterone. Oophorectomy did not retard cell proliferation in the colonic crypts. The possible significance of these findings in relation to age-dependent variations in the sex ratio for human bowel cancer is discussed.

  8. Colon transit scintigraphy by 67 Ga citrate for idiopathic constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshandar Asll, I.; Ehsani, M.J.; Javadi, H.

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: segmental colonic transit studies are important in patients with severe constipation. This study is the first Iranian preliminary survey of colonic transit scintigraphy using 67 Ga -citrate as a new method in constipated patients with normal radiographic and colonoscopic evaluations. Patients and methods: thirteen patients with idiopathic constipation underwent colon transit scintigraphy. After oral administration of 6-7 MBq Ga-citrates, serial abdominal images were taken up to 72 hours. Pattern classification wa s performed visually according to the distribution of radioactivity, Scintigraphic parameters such as geometric mean center of seq mental retention of tracer, as well as mean ac activity profiles and colonic tracer half-clearance time were calculated Results: Three patterns of colonic transit scintigraphy were recognized. Nine patients had the normal pattern, i.e. excellent propagation of ac activity. Three patients had the colonic inertia pattern with marked retention of activity in the transverse colon and splenic flexure at 48 hours, One patient had significant retention of activity in the recto sigmoid at 72 hours, defined as functional recto sigmoid obstruction . No significant difference was seen in GMC24h between the normal pattern and colonic inertia (P4.053), but GMC48h and GMC72h markedly differed between the two groups (P50.0 16 and 0.025 respectively). 'The mean half clearance time of the two groups was di different (P4.017). Our results are well compatible with scintigraphic diagnostic criteria in different patterns of colonic transit defined by other studies with different radiotracer. Conclusion: oral 67 Ga -citrate colon transit scintigraphy is a feasible method to evaluate idiopathic constipation and seems to be a suitable surrogate for radio-opaque markers. Keywords: oral 67 Ga -citrate, colonic transit study, idiopathic constipation, scintigraphy

  9. Gene Signature in Sessile Serrated Polyps Identifies Colon Cancer Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Priyanka; Bronner, Mary P.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Burt, Randall W.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Delker, Don A.

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated colon adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are found during routine screening colonoscopy and may account for 20–30% of colon cancers. However, differentiating SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps (HP) with little risk of cancer is challenging and complementary molecular markers are needed. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer development from SSA/Ps are poorly understood. RNA sequencing was performed on 21 SSA/Ps, 10 HPs, 10 adenomas, 21 uninvolved colon and 20 control colon specimens. Differential expression and leave-one-out cross validation methods were used to define a unique gene signature of SSA/Ps. Our SSA/P gene signature was evaluated in colon cancer RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify a subtype of colon cancers that may develop from SSA/Ps. A total of 1422 differentially expressed genes were found in SSA/Ps relative to controls. Serrated polyposis syndrome (n=12) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n=9) exhibited almost complete (96%) gene overlap. A 51-gene panel in SSA/P showed similar expression in a subset of TCGA colon cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). A smaller seven-gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity in identifying BRAF mutant, CpG island methylator phenotype high (CIMP-H) and MLH1 silenced colon cancers. We describe a unique gene signature in SSA/Ps that identifies a subset of colon cancers likely to develop through the serrated pathway. These gene panels may be utilized for improved differentiation of SSA/Ps from HPs and provide insights into novel molecular pathways altered in colon cancer arising from the serrated pathway. PMID:27026680

  10. To Model for the Georeferenciation of the Colonization of the Forest to Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel Sanint, Enrique; Castano Posada, Carlos Mario

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model for the future geographical projection of the forest colonization process is proposed. The model allows the estimation of future forest areas and their geographical location, in such a way that it is possible to create a probable image of the forest coverage at a given future date. The model is based on the preservation of historical statistical parameters through the use of multi-temporal analysis of satellite images. The developed projection method is applied to San Vicente del Chucuri Santander, Colombia) using four Land sat satellite images from 1977, 1985, 1991 and 1998. The statistical behavior of the colonization process is established, to produce a future forest image for the year 2005 in the study area

  11. Efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico de Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas: estudo experimental em ratos Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and it's influence in the healing process of colonic anastomosis: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itágores Hoffman I. Lopes Sousa Coutinho

    2006-01-01

    microscopic analysis. No significant differences were found in the bursting pressure. CONCLUSION: It was observed a favorable effect of Aroeira, at microscopic level, in the healing process of colonic anastomosis.

  12. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts. In this study, a label-free LC-MS was performed to analyze the secretomes of two paired primary fibroblasts, which were isolated from fresh surgical specimen of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal colonic tissues and exhibited negative modulatory activity for colon cancer cell growth in in vitro cocultures and in vivo xenograph mouse models. Follistatin-related protein 1 was further revealed to be one of the stroma-derived factors of potential suppression role for colon cancer cell proliferation. Our results provide novel

  13. Colonization Habitat Controls Biomass, Composition, and Metabolic Activity of Attached Microbial Communities in the Columbia River Hyporheic Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Noah; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Stegen, James C.; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Larget, Bret R.; Roden, Eric E.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2017-06-09

    -groundwater mixing on hyporheic zone microbial community structure and function is an important but poorly understood component of riverine biogeochemistry. This study employed an experimental approach to gain insight into how such mixing might be expected to influence the biomass, respiration, and composition of hyporheic zone microbial communities. Colonized sands from three different habitats (groundwater, river water, and hyporheic) were “cross-fed” with either groundwater, river water, or DOC-free artificial fluids. We expected that the colonization history would dictate the response to cross-feeding, with communities displaying maximal biomass and respiration when supplied with their native fluid source. By contrast, the major observation was that the riverbed communities had much higher biomass and respiration, as well as a distinct community structure compared with those of the hyporheic and groundwater colonized sands. These results highlight the importance of riverbed microbial metabolism in organic carbon processing in hyporheic corridors.

  14. The clinical significances of the abnormal expressions of Piwil1 and Piwil2 in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang HL

    2015-05-01

    the process of colon cancer development. Keywords: colon cancer, colonic adenoma, Piwil1, Piwil2, immunohistochemical

  15. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  16. The Influence of Hindu Epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Bradley Gerald

    This study attempted to determine the influence of Hindu epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification. Only the epistemological schools of Hindu philosophy and the Idea Plane element of Colon Classification were included. A literature search revealed that, although there is significant literature on each side of the problem, no bridges exist…

  17. Detection of secondary involvement of the colon from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study with CT and barium enema (BE) was performed on 60 patients (121 lesions) with secondary involvement to the colon from gastric carcinoma. The lesions were visualized as abnormally thick colonic walls (more than 5 mm in thickness) on CT as well as stenotic or striped appearance on BE. The colonic lesions were equally detected by CT and BE in 49 patients (103 lesions). Although CT was superior to BE in only one patient (one lesion), BE was more accurated in 10 patients (17 lesions). CT failed to demonstrate early changes of secondary involvement to the colon. The presence of ascites or mesenteric abnormalities was not detected by CT in 15 patients, even though spread of gastric carcinoma to the colon mainly occurred by the direct invasion along mesenteric reflections or intraperitoneal seeding. As a conclusion, it was found that BE was more accurate for the detection of secondary involvement to the colon from gastric carcinoma comparing to CT. Normal findings on CT did not eliminate the possibility of colonic metastasis, therefore, BE study was desirable if clinical findings suggest the involvement of colonic metastasis. (author)

  18. Benign colonic neoplasm at the site of ureterosigmoidostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Kronborg, O; Hage, E

    1986-01-01

    A benign colonic polyp with epithelial dysplasia developed in a young male at the site of ureteral implantation in the sigmoid colon following ureterosigmoidostomy for urinary incontinence. Patients with ureterosigmoidostomy represent a high-risk cancer group, and a review of the literature...

  19. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques. Is it relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Marcus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization was investigated retrospectively in patients with plaque psoriasis (n=98 inpatient treatments, n=73 patients. At least one pathogen was found in 46% of all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterium. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques could be relevant in individual cases.

  20. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article...

  1. Intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and benefits of antegrade intraoperative colonic irrigation (lavage) and primary anastomosis, after colonic resection, in the treatment of left sided large bowel emergencies. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Participants: Thirty ...

  2. Constipation and Colonic Transit Times in Children With Morbid Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H.; Liem, Olivia; Bekkali, Noor; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Rijcken, Tammo H. Pels; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria in children with morbid obesity and to evaluate by measuring colonic transit times (CTTs) whether decreased colonic motility is present in these children. Patients and

  3. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  4. Clinical issues in the surgical treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amri, R.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of colon cancer patients will eventually die of their disease. Early detection is crucial to maximize chances of cure, as five-year survival can range from 97% to as low as 8% depending on disease stage at diagnosis. Since colon cancer is associated with both old age and obesity,

  5. Reproductive and hormonal factors in male and female colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Bijl, A.J.; Kok, C.; Veer, P. van 't

    1994-01-01

    We analysed data from a case-control study in the Netherlands in order to investigate whether reproductive events and hormonal factors are similarly related to colon cancer risk in men and women after adjustment for dietary factors. In total, 232 colon cancer cases (102 women, 130 men) and 259

  6. Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10-20% of the sporadic colon carcinomas and appears to be primarily due to alterations in hMLH1 and hMSH2. Little is known about the role of diet in MSI-related colon carcinogenesis. We used data from a Dutch population-based case-control study on sporadic

  7. Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10-20% of the sporadic colon carcinomas and appears to be primarily due to alterations in hMLH1 and hMSH2. Little is known about the role of diet in MSI-related colon carcinogenesis. We used data from a Dutch population-based case-control study on sporadic

  8. Prophylactic effects of triptolide on colon cancer development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate effects of triptolide on colon cancer cell growth and its capacity to prevent tumor development in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colon cancer. Methods: HCT116 cell viability and migration potential were assessed. Control and AOM/DSS-treated mice (with and ...

  9. Combination of capecitabine and ludartin inhibits colon cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of capecitabine and ludartin in the treatment of colon cancer in mice. Methods: Mice model of colon cancer was used in this study. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Qrt-PCR) was used to quantify the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA.

  10. Ulcerative Colitis in Colonic Interposition for Esophageal Atresia

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Tetangco, Eula; Elkhatib, Imad

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old male with a history of colonic interposition for esophageal atresia as an infant presented with dysphagia and abdominal pain. On the basis of endoscopy findings, pathology, and response to therapy, he was found to have ulcerative colitis of the colonic conduit.

  11. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  12. Prevalence and immediate outcome of candida colonized preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preterm neonates aged >72 hours and less than one week were screened for Candida colonization of the groin, oral pharynx and rectum using CHROMagar. Colonized neonates were followed up for 14 days. Blood cultures were done for those with signs of septicaemia. The Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were ...

  13. Thermal injury of the colon due to colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, F.R.; Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1981-07-15

    A case of thermal burn and stricture of the colon following colostomy irrigation with hot water is described. The initial radiographic features on barium enema simulated nonspecific segmental colitis. Colonic stricture and enterolith formation developed subsequently. This case emphasizes that care should be taken in preparing irrigating and barium enema solutions.

  14. Thermal injury of the colon due to colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, F.R.; Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    A case of thermal burn and stricture of the colon following colostomy irrigation with hot water is described. The initial radiographic features on barium enema simulated nonspecific segmental colitis. Colonic stricture and enterolith formation developed subsequently. This case emphasizes that care should be taken in preparing irrigating and barium enema solutions. (orig.)

  15. Challenge in diagnosis and treatment of colonic carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alaa Hussein Abdel-Razek

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Golda T, De Oca J, Osorio A, Frdera R, Salazar R, Rodriquez-. Moranta F, Saniuan X. Long-term results of emergency surgery for colon cancer compared with elective surgery. Cir Esp. 2007;82(2):89–98. 9. Buchwald P, Olofsson F, Lorinc E, Syk I. Standard protocol for assessment of cancer colon improves ...

  16. Congenital pouch colon: Increasing association with low anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of type IV congenital pouch colon associated with low anorectal anomaly are reported here. Pouch colon may be a cause of intractable constipation in children operated for low anorectal anomaly. Excellent results can be obtained by exicision of the pouch. The radiological and pathological features of this condition are discussed.

  17. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  18. Ischemic Colitis of the Left Colon in a Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus may affect the gastrointestinal tract possibly as a result of autonomic neuropathy. Here we present a 68-year-old male with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who presented with prolonged watery diarrhea and in whom imaging studies demonstrated ischemic colitis of the left colon. Resection of the affected colon resulted in sustained disappearance of symptoms.

  19. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, R.; Orlic, D.; New York Medical Coll., N.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na 2 35 SO 4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.) [de

  20. Combination of capecitabine and ludartin inhibits colon cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Mice model of colon cancer was used in this study. Quantitative ... mRNA. Micro-vessel density was assessed using immunohistochemical analysis. ... increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, and increased median survival time of colon cancer mice from ..... tumor cells is associated with the development of.