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Sample records for phthalate dibp di-n-butyl

  1. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  2. Impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on reproductive system development in European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarmołowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid, di-n-butyl ester known as di-n-butyl phthalate, is an organic chemical compound that belongs to the group of endocrine disruptor compounds that have a documented negative impact on mammalian endocrine systems. Di-n-butyl phthalate is used widely as a plasticizer in the manufacture of artificial materials, which is why it is found in all types of environmental samples including those from water basins. The aim of the study was to describe the impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on the development of the reproductive system of European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca during the sex differentiation period (age 61–96 days post hatch. A total of 240 fish were divided into 6 groups (40 fish per tank. Treatments consisted of a control group (0 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed and five trial groups with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed, respectively. Histological changes of the fish gonads, sex ratio, survival and growth of fish were evaluated. Di-n-butyl phthalate seriously disturbed sex differentiation process of pikeperch. Histopathological analyses revealed that the administration of 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 significantly affected the sex ratio. The feminization process (intersex gonads at concentrations of 1 g and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 were observed. All analyzed concentrations delayed testicular development. Phthalate did not have a significant impact on the survival or growth rates of the pikeperch. This is the first report of disruption sex differentiation processes in fish by di-n-butyl phthalate.

  3. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet. Raw data file from our published studies on DIBP specifically requested (6/14/2016) by NCEA scientists for analysis and inclusion in their assessment of this chemical.

  4. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...

  5. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    of phthalate esters. Objectives: This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods: In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air...

  6. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...... of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.......Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age....... For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  7. Oxidative DNA damage in male wistar rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, A.; Dalgaard, Majken; Loft, S.

    2002-01-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters are used in the plastic industry and widely distributed in the environment, Previously, it has been shown that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) produces testicular atrophy and liver enlargement in rodents, and the mechanisms behind this could involve reactive oxygen species (ROS...

  8. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while...... DEP. DnBP, DiBP and BBzP were detected in more than 75% of the bedrooms and more than 90% of the daycare centers. The dust mass-fractions of both phthalates and PAHs were log-normally distributed. With the exception of DEP, the mass-fractions of phthalates in dust were higher in daycare centers than...... homes: PAH mass-fractions in dust were similar in the two locations. There was no correlation among the different phthalates in either homes or daycare centers. In contrast, the PAH were correlated with one another more strongly so in homes (R-2 = 0.80-0.90) than in daycare centers (R-2 = 0...

  9. Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and correlations with phthalates in dust samples from their homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects. The aim of the present study has been to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di......(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(iso-butyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine samples from 441 Danish children (3–6 years old). These children were subjects in the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study. As part of each child's medical...... examination, a sample from his or her first morning urination was collected. These samples were subsequently analyzed for metabolites of the targeted phthalates. The measured concentrations of each metabolite were approximately log-normally distributed, and the metabolite concentrations significantly...

  10. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  11. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-12-01

    Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  14. Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

  15. DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  16. Linking a dermal permeation and an inhalation model to a simple pharmacokinetic model to study airborne exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorber, Matthew; Weschler, Charles J.; Morrison, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Six males clad only in shorts were exposed to high levels of airborne di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) in chamber experiments conducted in 2014. In two 6 h sessions, the subjects were exposed only dermally while breathing clean air from a hood, and both dermally and via...

  17. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by bacterial consortium LV-1 enriched from river sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    Full Text Available A stable bacterial consortium (LV-1 capable of degrading di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP was enriched from river sludge. Community analysis revealed that the main families of LV-1 are Brucellaceae (62.78% and Sinobacteraceae (14.83%, and the main genera of LV-1 are Brucella spp. (62.78% and Sinobacter spp. (14.83%. The optimal pH and temperature for LV-1 to degrade DBP were pH 6.0 and 30°C, respectively. Inoculum size influenced the degradation ratio when the incubation time was < 24 h. The initial concentration of DBP also influenced the degradation rates of DBP by LV-1, and the degradation rates ranged from 69.0-775.0 mg/l/d in the first 24 h. Degradation of DBP was best fitted by first-order kinetics when the initial concentration was < 300 mg/l. In addition, Cd2+, Cr6+, and Zn2+ inhibited DBP degradation by LV-1 at all considered concentrations, but low concentrations of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ enhanced DBP degradation. The main intermediates (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-butyl phthalate [MBP], and phthalic acid [PA] were identified in the DBP degradation process, thus a new biochemical pathway of DBP degradation is proposed. Furthermore, LV-1 also degraded other phthalates with shorter ester chains (DMP, DEP, and PA.

  18. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater

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    Decai Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for DBP degradation were pH 7.0, 35 °C, and an agitation rate of 175 rpm. Under these conditions, 500 mg/L of DBP was completely degraded within 30 h. The effects of heavy metals (50 mg/L Cu2+ and 500 mg/L Pb2+ and surfactants (100 mg/L SDS and 500 mg/L Tween 20 on DBP degradation were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu2+ and SDS severely inhibited DBP degradation and Pb2+ weakly inhibited DBP degradation, while Tween 20 greatly enhanced DBP degradation. Furthermore, phthalate degradation genes were found to be located on a plasmid present in Achromobacter sp. W-1.

  19. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. L4 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Xin; Luo, Qifang; Wang, Lin

    2009-09-15

    In this study, an aerobic bacterial strain capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as sole carbon source and energy was isolated from activated sludge collected from a dyeing plant. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, the strain was identified as Rhodococcus ruber. The biodegradation batch tests of DMP, DEP and DBP by the Rhodococcus sp. L4 showed the optimal pH value, temperature and substrate concentration: pH 7.0-8.0, 30-37 degrees C and PAEs concentration Kinetics of degradation have also been performed at different initial concentrations. The results show that the degradation can be described with exponential model. The half-life of degradation was about 1.30 days when the concentration of PAEs mixture was lower than 300 mg/L. PAEs contaminated water samples (300 mg/L) with non-emulsification and completed emulsification were prepared to investigate the effect on PAEs degradation rate. Little difference between the above two sample preparations was observed in terms of ultimate degradation rate. Rhodococcus sp. L4 can also grow on phenol, sodium benzoate or naphthalene solution as sole carbon source and energy which suggests its ability in resisting environmental toxicants. This work provides some new evidence for the possibility of applying Rhodococcus for contaminated water remediation in the area of industry.

  20. Linking a dermal permeation and an inhalation model to a simple pharmacokinetic model to study airborne exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, M.; Weschler, C.J.; Morrison, G.; Bekö, G.; Gong, M.; Koch, H.M.; Salthammer, T.; Schripp, T.; Toftum, J.; Clausen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Six males clad only in shorts were exposed to high levels of airborne di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) in chamber experiments conducted in 2014. In two 6 h sessions, the subjects were exposed only dermally while breathing clean air from a hood, and both dermally and via inhalation when exposed without a hood. Full urine samples were taken before, during, and for 48 h after leaving the chamber and measured for key DnBP and DEP metabolites. The data clearly demonstrated ...

  1. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L -1 . DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    TThe National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. DBP is one of 7 phthalate chemicals evaluated by the NTP CERHR Phthalates Expert Panel. These phthalates were selected for evaluation because of high production volume, extent of human exposures, use in children's products, and/or published evidence of reproductive or developmental toxicity. Unlike many phthalates, DBP is not currently used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride plastics. DBP is a component of latex adhesives and is used in cosmetics and other personal care products, as a plasticizer in cellulose plastics, and as a solvent for dyes. The results of this evaluation on DBP are published in a NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to DBP on human development and reproduction. First, although DBP could possibly affect human reproduction and development if exposures are sufficiently high, the NTP concludes that there is negligible concern for reproductive toxicity in exposed adults. Second, the NTP concludes that there is minimal concern for developmental effects when pregnant women are exposed to DBP levels estimated by the panel (2-10 mug/kg body weight/day). There is no direct evidence that exposure of people to DBP adversely affects reproduction or development, but studies reviewed by the expert panel show that oral exposure to high doses of DBP (>/=100 mg/kg body weight/day) may adversely affect the prenatal and early postnatal development in rodents. Finally, based on exposure estimates in women of reproductive age, the NTP

  3. PRESENTED AT THE TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING ON 2/11/06: DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  4. Phthalate esters (PAEs): Emerging organic contaminants in agricultural soils in peri-urban areas around Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Feng; Cui Kunyan; Xie Zhiyong; Wu Lina; Liu Min; Sun Guoquan; Lin Yujun; Luo Danling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the first data on the concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils from the peri-urban areas of Guangzhou city. Σ 16 PAEs concentrations ranged from 0.195 to 33.6 μg g -1 -dry weight (dw). Elevated levels of PAEs were recorded in the vegetable fields located next to the urban districts, and a decreasing trend exists following the distance away from the urban center. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs in the agricultural soils. Significant relationship (correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.85, p < 0.01, n = 40) was present between the accumulation of PAEs and total organic carbons in agricultural soils. In addition, both pH and texture of soils are found to be important factors affecting the level of PAEs. This study shows that the agricultural soils in the peri-urban area of Guangzhou city were moderately polluted by PAEs. - PAEs are determined in agricultural soils at high concentration levels, which imply a potential risk for the food chain

  5. Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters.

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, R L; Schiller, C M

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mono- and dibutyl phthalate and mono- and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on energy-dependent K+ uptake, respiration rates, and succinate cytochrome c reductase activities of isolated rat liver mitochondria were evaluated. The energy-coupling processes, active K+ transport and oxidative phosphorylation, were affected most by di-n-butyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Mono-n-butyl phthalate had a moderate effect on energy coupling and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had no app...

  6. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

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    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  7. Ginger attenuated di (n-butyl phthalate-induced reproductive toxicity in pubertal male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Oda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of di (n-butyl phthalate (DBP on reproductive functions in male rabbits and the probable protective role of ginger. Twenty rabbits were divided equally into 4 groups: control group; DBP group (520 mg/kg body weight [BW] DBP orally, DBP+ginger group (520 mg/kg BW DBP and 400 mg/kg BW ginger and ginger group (400 mg/kg BW ginger orally. Treatments were given three-times/week. After 7 wk of the experiment, DBP induced significant reduction in testis and prostate weights, serum and intratesticular testosterone concentrations, sperm counts both mass and progressive sperm motility and live sperms percentage as well as significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde compared to control group. No significant changes were detected in epididymal weights, serum FSH and serum LH concentrations and testicular total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in all treated groups. DBP induced considerable histopathological alterations in testis and to minimal extent in epididymis and prostates. Ginger treatment attenuated the significant changes to a certain extent induced by DBP intoxication in male rabbits probably due to its potential to scavenge free radicals.

  8. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  9. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Norwegian foods and beverages and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit K; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Voorspoels, Stefan; Carlsen, Monica H; Løken, Elin B; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2014-12-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous in our environment. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disruptors that can cause functional impairment of development and reproduction. Processed and packaged foods are among the major sources of human exposure to these chemicals. No previous report showing the levels of these chemicals in food items purchased in Norway is available. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of ten different phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages purchased on the Norwegian market and estimate the daily dietary exposure in the Norwegian adult population. Commonly consumed foods and beverages in Norway were purchased in a grocery store and analysed using gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Daily dietary exposures to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population were estimated using the latest National dietary survey, Norkost 3 (2010-2011). This study showed that phthalates and BPA are found in all foods and beverages that are common to consume in Norway. The detection frequency of phthalates in the food items varied from 11% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 84% for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), one of the substitutes for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). BPA was found in 54% of the food items analysed. Among the different phthalates, the highest concentrations were found for DEHP and DiNP in the food items. Estimated dietary exposures were also equally high and dominated by DEHP and DiNP (400-500 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day), followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) (30-40 ng/kg bw/day). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and DCHP had the lowest concentrations and the exposures were around 10-20 ng/kg bw/day. Estimated dietary exposure to BPA was 5 ng/kg bw/day. In general, levels of phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages from the Norwegian market

  10. Individual or synchronous biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate and phenol by Rhodococcus ruber strain DP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixing; Niu, Chengzhen; Lu, Zhenmei, E-mail: lzhenmei@zju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A Rhodococcus ruber strain degraded DBP and phenol. • Degradation kinetics of DBP or phenol fit modified first-order models. • Degradation interaction between DBP and phenol was studied by strain DP-2. • The degradation genes transcriptional were quantified by RT-qPCR. - Abstract: The bacterial strain DP-2, identified as Rhodococcus ruber, is able to effectively degrade di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and phenol. Degradation kinetics of DBP and phenol at different initial concentrations revealed DBP and phenol degradation to fit modified first-order models. The half-life of DBP degradation ranged from 15.81 to 27.75 h and phenol degradation from 14.52 to 45.52 h under the initial concentrations of 600–1200 mg/L. When strain DP-2 was cultured with a mixture of DBP (800 mg/L) and phenol (700 mg/L), DBP degradation rate was found to be only slightly influenced; however, phthalic acid (PA) accumulated, and phenol degradation was clearly inhibited during synchronous degradation. Transcriptional levels of degradation genes, phenol hydroxylase (pheu) and phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (pht), decreased significantly more during synchronous degradation than during individual degradation. Quantitative estimation of individual or synchronous degradation kinetics is essential to manage mixed hazardous compounds through biodegradation in industrial waste disposal.

  11. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  12. Development of a Highly Specific Fluorescence Immunoassay for Detection of Diisobutyl Phthalate in Edible Oil Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiping; Wu, Panpan; Lai, Dan; Zheng, Shengwu; Chen, Yingshan; Eremin, Sergei A; Peng, Wei; Zhao, Suqing

    2015-10-28

    The diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) hapten containing an amino group was synthesized successfully, and the polyclonal antibody against 4-amino phthalate-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was developed. On the basis of the polyclonal antibody, a rapid and sensitive indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay (icFIA) has been established to detect DiBP in edible oil samples for the first time. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative working range of the icFIA was from 10.47 to 357.06 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.991), exhibiting a detection limit of 5.82 ng/mL. In this assay, the specific results showed that other similar phthalates did not significantly interfere with the analysis, with the cross-reactivity less than 1.5%, except for that of DiBAP. Thereafter, DiBP contamination in edible oil samples was detected by icFIA, with the recovery being from 79 to 103%. Furthermore, the reliability of icFIA was validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Therefore, the developed icFIA is suitable for monitoring DiBP in some edible oil samples.

  13. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM THE LE GRAY RESEARCH TEAM FOR NCEA June 15 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet.

  14. The association between phthalates in dust and allergic diseases among Bulgarian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Larsson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified associations between the concentration of phthalates in indoor dust and allergic symptoms in the airways, nose, and skin. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalate...... (controls). The dust samples were analyzed for their content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). RESULTS: A higher concentration of DEHP was found in homes...

  15. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, J L

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of several phthalate esters have been evaluated in an 8-azaguanine resistance assay in Salmonella typhimurium. Three phthalate esters were found to be mutagenic: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. A number of other phthalate esters were not found to be mutagenic, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. A metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2-ethylhe...

  16. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...

  17. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    -well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8...... cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added...... to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion...

  18. Exposure to phthalic acid, phthalate diesters and phthalate monoesters from foodstuffs: UK total diet study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Emma L; Burden, Richard A; Bentayeb, Karim; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Mortimer, David N; Speck, Dennis R; Ticha, Jana; Castle, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment and thus exposure to these compounds can occur in various forms. Foods are one source of such exposure. There are only a limited number of studies that describe the levels of phthalates (diesters, monoesters and phthalic acid) in foods and assess the exposure from this source. In this study the levels of selected phthalate diesters, phthalate monoesters and phthalic acid in total diet study (TDS) samples are determined and the resulting exposure estimated. The methodology for the determination of phthalic acid and nine phthalate monoesters (mono-isopropyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, mono-n-pentyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-n-octyl phthalate and mono-isononyl phthalate) in foods is described. In this method phthalate monoesters and phthalic acid are extracted from the foodstuffs with a mixture of acidified acetonitrile and dichloromethane. The method uses isotope-labelled phthalic acid and phthalate monoester internal standards and is appropriate for quantitative determination in the concentration range of 5-100 µg kg⁻¹. The method was validated in-house and its broad applicability demonstrated by the analysis of high-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-protein foodstuffs as well as combinations of all three major food constituents. The methodology used for 15 major phthalate diesters has been reported elsewhere. Phthalic acid was the most prevalent phthalate, being detected in 17 food groups. The highest concentration measured was di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in fish (789 µg kg⁻¹). Low levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were detected in several of the TDS animal-based food groups and the highest concentrations measured corresponded with the most abundant diesters (di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate). The UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products

  19. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μg g −1 , 0.19–1.65 (median 0.86) μg g −1 and 0.24–3.05 (median 0.59) μg g −1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8 μg kg −1 bw d −1 , respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. - Highlights: • Phthalate esters concentration in daily foodstuffs collected from Cambodia. • Investigate the bioaccessbility of phthalate esters via the foodstuffs consumption. • Health risk evaluation of dietary exposure to phthalate esters.

  20. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han [College of Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Wang, Hong-sheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, No.132 Waihuandong Road, University Town, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Xue-Mei [College of Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Sthiannopkao, Suthipong [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan (China); Kim, Kyoung-Woong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham [United Nations University-International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wong, Ming-Hung, E-mail: minghwong@ied.edu.hk [Consortium on Health, Environment, Education and Research (CHEER), and Department of Science and Environmental Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μg g{sup −1}, 0.19–1.65 (median 0.86) μg g{sup −1} and 0.24–3.05 (median 0.59) μg g{sup −1} wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8 μg kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}, respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. - Highlights: • Phthalate esters concentration in daily foodstuffs collected from Cambodia. • Investigate the bioaccessbility of phthalate esters via the foodstuffs consumption. • Health risk evaluation of dietary exposure to phthalate esters.

  1. Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowkonowicz, Paweł; Kijeńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years.

  2. Prohibition of Children’s Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Specified Phthalates. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) issues this final rule prohibiting children's toys and child care articles that contain concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP). Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) established permanent and interim prohibitions on the sale of certain consumer products containing specific phthalates. That provision also directed the CPSC to convene a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates or phthalate alternatives, other than those already permanently prohibited, should be prohibited. The CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate a final rule after receiving the final CHAP report. This rule fulfills that requirement.

  3. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...... phthalates, but our knowledge about metabolic distribution in the body and other biological fluids, including breast milk, is limited. Compared to urine, human breast milk contains relatively more of the hydrophobic phthalates, such as di-n-butyl phthalate and the longer-branched, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate...... (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP); and their monoester metabolites. Urine, however, contains relatively more of the secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP, as well as the monoester phthalates of the more short-branched phthalates. This differential distribution is of special concern as...

  4. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil.

  5. Contamination of wines and spirits by phthalates: types of contaminants present, contamination sources and means of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatonnet, P; Boutou, S; Plana, A

    2014-01-01

    This research determines the concentrations of various phthalates in French wines and grape spirits marketed in Europe or intended for export. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were the most frequently detected compounds in the wines analysed. While only 15% of the samples examined contained quantifiable concentrations (> 0.010 mg kg(-1)) of DEHP and BBP, 59% of the wines contained significant quantities of DBP, with a median value as high as 0.0587 mg kg(-1). Only 17% of the samples did not contain any detectable quantity of at least one of the phthalates and 19% contained only non-quantifiable traces. In the spirits analysed, DBP (median = 0.105 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (median = 0.353 mg kg(-1)) were the substances measured at the highest concentrations, as well as the most frequently detected (90% of samples). BBP was present in 40% of the samples at an average concentration of 0.026 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), which is not permitted in contact with food, was found in 25% of the spirits tested. According to the specific migration limits (SML) for materials in contact with food, slightly more than 11% of the wines analysed were non-compliant, as they exceeded the SML for DBP (0.3 mg kg(-1)); just under 4% were close to the SML for DEHP. Concerning spirits, 19% of the samples analysed were considered non-compliant to the SML for DBP and nearly 7% were close to the SML for DEHP. The aged grape spirits analysed were often excessively contaminated with DiBP, which is not permitted to be used in contact with food (> 0.01 mg kg(-1)). A study of various materials frequently present in wineries revealed that a relatively large number of polymers sometimes contained high concentrations of phthalates. However, the epoxy resin coatings used on vats represented the major source of contamination.

  6. Effect of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on the fruit quality of cucumber and the health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xin; Chang, Qin; Tao, Yue; Wang, Lihua; Dong, Junwei; Lin, Yulong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely used as plastic films' plasticizer, can cause agricultural pollution which is of increasing concern because of the food safety issues. Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus Linn.), commonly cultured in greenhouse, was exposed to DBP stress to gain more information about the ecological risk of DBP in this study. Changes of DBP residues and fruit quality of cucumber at different DBP concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg of dry soil) were investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil under greenhouse condition, respectively. DBP residue in cucumber fruits ranged from 0.5326 to 1.8938 mg/kg, and the quality of cucumber fruits (organic acids, vitamin C, soluble protein, and soluble sugar) were influenced by DBP stress. Moreover, the health risk assessment was evaluated by estimate daily intakes (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) was analyzed. Under 40 mg/kg DBP condition, the highest value of EDI was 2.49 μg/kg bw/day and the THQ ranged from 0.000700 to 0.0249. Although the risk of DBP in cucumber fruits was lower than the threshold limit value of risk, the potential health risk was not a negligible issue.

  7. Structural characterisation of degradation products formed upon di-n-butyl phthalate radiolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography electro-spray tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintaru, A.; Charles, L. [Univ Aix Marseille 1, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence Spectrometries Appl Chim Struct, UMR 6264, F-13397 Marseille (France); Univ Aix Marseille 2, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence Spectrometries Appl Chim Struct, UMR 6264, F-13397 Marseille (France); Labed, V. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE L2ED, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Structural characterisation of 15 degradation products, formed upon di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) radiolysis, has been achieved using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) coupling. The dissociation behaviour of protonated DBP was first established to be further used to characterise structural deviation in the degradation products. Based on accurate mass measurements, compounds shown by HPLC-MS analysis were all found to be DBP oxidation products, amongst which various sets of isomers could be distinguished. Collision-induced dissociation experiments performed on each electro-sprayed molecule first allowed unambiguous definition of the location of the additional oxygen atoms; that is, in the alkyl branch or on the aromatic ring. Although location of the oxygen atom in the alkyl branches could not always be precisely determined, relative abundances of some product ions allowed oxygenated functions to be identified

  8. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores.

  9. Toxicity of phthalate esters in fish and shellfish from virginia beach using matrix solid phase dispersion (mspd) and gc-ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Shaukat, S.; Hashmi, D.; Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the outcome of an investigation on the occurrence of phthalates, in eight edible marine fish species from lower James River, Chesapeake Bay along the Virginia Coast of Atlantic ocean. These include shell fish like Crab(Callinectes sapidus), Clam( Merccnaria), Oyster(C.ariakensis), and white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) from aquaculture center of Virginia Tech. These were analyzed for their content of Dimethyl Phthalate, Diethyl Phthalate, Di-n-butyl Phthalate , butyl benzyl Phthalate , bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate ,and di-n-octyl Phthalate Mean concentrations (range) of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in fish samples were 1.1 (<0.01-1.5), 0.22 (<0.01-1.1) and 0.14 (<0.01-1.3) mu g g-1; those in shell fishery were 1.2 (<0.02-1.3), 0.13 (<0.01-0.27) and 0.09 (<0.02-0.22) mu g g-1, respectively. The highest concentration of bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in fish samples were found in Atlantic mackerel (Centropristis striate) (1.98+-0.92) mu g/g (wet weight) and Oyster (C.ariakensis) (2.30 mu g/g (wet weight), were higher than those in other fish species. (author)

  10. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine; Wortziger, Rasmus; Axelstad, Marta; Brokken, Leon; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Dalgaard, Majken; Nellemann, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can induce malformations and impairment of reproductive function in experimental animals and may have similar effects in humans. Recently, the environmental obesogen hypothesis was proposed, suggesting that environmental chemicals contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects could be related to chemical interaction with nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). As several testosterone-reducing drugs are PPAR activators, we aimed to examine whether four PPAR agonists were able to affect fetal testosterone production and masculinization of rats. Additionally, we wished to examine whether these chemicals affected fetal plasma levels of insulin and leptin, which play important roles in the developmental programming of the metabolic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day (GD) 7-21 to diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), butylparaben, perfluorooctanoate, or rosiglitazone (600, 100, 20, or 1 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Endocrine endpoints were studied in offspring at GD 19 or 21. DiBP, butylparaben and rosiglitazone reduced plasma leptin levels in male and female offspring. DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In males, DiBP reduced anogenital distance, testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. PPARα mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females, DiBP increased anogenital distance and increased ovarian aromatase mRNA levels. This study reveals new targets for phthalates and parabens in fetal male and female rats and contributes to the increasing concern about adverse effects of human exposure to these compounds

  11. Iron-based magnetic molecular imprinted polymers and their application in removal and determination of di-n-pentyl phthalate in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Qingxiang; Yuan, Yongyong; Wu, Yalin

    2017-08-01

    Iron-based magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (Fe@SiO 2 @MIP) were synthesized for highly selective removal and recognition of di- n -pentyl phthalate (DnPP) from water. Well-defined core-shell Fe@SiO 2 nanoparticles (less than 70 nm) were decorated on MIPs reticular layers to endow DnPP-MIPs with magnetic property for the first time. Five other phthalic acid esters including dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, di- n -butyl phthalate and di-iso-octyl phthalate were used to investigate the adsorptive selectivity to DnPP. The designed experiments were carried out to explore the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics and the results demonstrated that the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermal and physical adsorption process. The materials were proved to be excellent adsorbents in removal of DnPP with an adsorption capacity as high as 194.15 mg g -1 in optimal condition. Furthermore, a magnetic solid phase extraction with Fe@SiO 2 @MIP coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography method was successfully developed for the determination of DnPP, and the proposed method achieved a good linear range of 0.5-250 µg l -1 with a correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0.999 and low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.31 µg l -1 . These materials exhibited excellent capacity in removal and highly sensitive identification of DnPP from aqueous environment samples, and opened a valuable direction for developing new adsorbents for the removal and enrichment of important pollutants.

  12. [Toxicity effects of phthalate substitute plasticizers used in toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Mika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawamura, Tomoko; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. Because of human health concerns, regulatory authorities in Japan, US, Europe and other countries control the use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate for the toys that can be put directly in infants' mouths. While these regulatory actions will likely reduce the usage of phthalate esters, there is concern that other plasticizers that have not been sufficiently evaluated for safety will be used more frequently. We therefore collected and evaluated the toxicological information on di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH), diisononyl adipate (DINA), 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) and acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC) which were detected at a relatively high frequency in toys. The collected data have shown that chronic exposure to DEHT affects the eye and nasal turbinate, and DINCH exerts effects on the thyroid and kidney in rats. DINA and TXIB have been reported to have hepatic and renal effects in dogs or rats, and ATBC slightly affected the liver in rats. The NOAELs for repeated dose toxicity are relatively low for DINCH (40 mg/kg bw/day) and TXIB (30 mg/kg bw/day) compared with DEHT, DINA and ATBC. DEHT, TXIB and ATBC have been reported to have reproductive/developmental effects at relatively high doses in rats. For DINA and TBC, available data are insufficient for assessing the hazards, and therefore, adequate toxicity studies should be conducted. In the present review, the toxicity information on 6 alternatives to phthalate plasticizers is summarized, focusing on the effects after oral exposure, which is the route of most concern.

  13. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev

    2008-01-01

    . Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family...... spectra, and wood flooring. However, in a sub-group of homes with no use of polish, the concentration of DEHP was higher in homes with inspector-observed balatum compared with wood flooring but the difference was not significant may be due to a too small sample size....

  14. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few...... in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP......)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from...

  15. The influence of resource strategy on childhood phthalate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled....... This corresponds to the recycling of 6.3% of DEHP, 20.3% of DBP, and 5.1% of BBP in the percentage of total manufactured amount of these phthalates. To examine the potential influence of the phthalate exposure through recycling, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed.......767 µg/kg bw/day for Denmark and Korea, respectively. Still, of the total childhood phthalate exposure, 58.5% of DBP and 77.5% of BBP exposure in Denmark and 31.6% of DBP and 65.2% of BBP in Korea remains to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework is proposed for a circular economy based...

  16. Influence of Phthalates on in vitro Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin......-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion......-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did...

  17. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  18. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies on the microbial degradation of individual phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have demonstrated that the compounds with short ester hydrocarbon chains are easily biodegraded and mineralized, but PAEs with long ester chains are less susceptible to degradation and some of them...... Bureau of Sanitation's Hyperion Treatment Plant. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most common persistent PAE found in wastewater, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a common PAE with short ester chains, were sorbed into the sludge fed to a bench-scale digester for a period of 12 weeks. DEHP...... degradation was always poor, and accumulation of DEHP was correlated with inhibition of the microbial degradation of DBP and with process instability of the test digester. Inhibition of the DBP removal was completely reversed after DEHP addition was discontinued, but biogas production never recovered...

  19. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD, reactive oxygen species (ROS content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed.

  20. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction and persistence of abnormal testicular germ cells following gestational exposure to di-(n-butyl) phthalate in p53-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarini, Camelia M; Heger, Nicholas E; Yamasaki, Hideki; Liu, Tao; Hall, Susan J; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are commonly used plasticizers found in many household items, personal care products, and medical devices. Animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to di-(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) within a critical window during gestation causes male reproductive tract abnormalities resembling testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Our studies utilized p53-deficient mice for their ability to display greater resistance to apoptosis during development. This model was chosen to determine whether multinucleated germ cells (MNG) induced by gestational DBP exposure could survive postnatally and evolve into testicular germ cell cancer. Pregnant dams were exposed to DBP (500 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage from gestational day 12 until birth. Perinatal effects were assessed on gestational day 19 and postnatal days 1, 4, 7, and 10 for the number of MNGs present in control and DBP-treated p53-heterozygous and null animals. As expected, DBP exposure induced MNGs, with greater numbers found in p53-null mice. Additionally, there was a time-dependent decrease in the incidence of MNGs during the early postnatal period. Histologic examination of adult mice exposed in utero to DBP revealed persistence of abnormal germ cells only in DBP-treated p53-null mice, not in p53-heterozygous or wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining of perinatal MNGs and adult abnormal germ cells was negative for both octamer-binding protein 3/4 and placental alkaline phosphatase. This unique model identified a role for p53 in the perinatal apoptosis of DBP-induced MNGs and provided insight into the long-term effects of gestational DBP exposure within a p53-null environment.

  2. DETERMINATION OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP, BENZYL BUTYL PHTHALATE (BBP AND BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP IN SOFT PLASTIC TOYS AND THE FIRST SURVEY OF THE BULGARIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina CHRISTOVA-BAGDASSARIAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a large group of compounds with similar chemical structure widely used as plasticizers for plastics. They can easily be released from the polymer during usage and in this way enter the human body. Their adverse effect on health is known as "phthalate syndrome" and can impact children and adults alike. For children in particular, there is an additional potential risk of exposure to phthalates via toys intended for oral use. The Regulation (EC No 1907/2006 (REACH prohibits the use of bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, di butyl phthalate (DBP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP as a substance or constituent of preparations at concentrations higher than 0.1 % in the plasticized material meant to toys and childcare items. The aim of this article is to quantify the content of DEHP, DBP and BBP in soft toys intended for children up to 3 years of age, including toys designed to be placed in the mouth. A method consisting of an extraction procedure of phthalates from polymers, purification of the extract, followed by GC/MS identification and quantification was validated. Three different techniques for phthalates’ extraction (Soxhlet, ultrasonic and vibrator were compared and the most effective one was chosen.This method was applied to the analysis of DEHP, DBP and BBP in soft toys from the Bulgarian market to establish their compliance with REACH requirements. All the tested toys contained at least one phthalate. Exceedence of the permitted content for DEHP, DBP and BBP (as sume, mainly due to the high levels of DEHP, was observed in several toys from retail.

  3. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  4. Effects of phthalates on the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Cao, Yi; Kjærgaard, Søren K.

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals used in many cosmetics. We evaluated an in vitro model for eye irritancy testing using the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12. Cell proliferation and toxicity were assessed after exposing to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2...... toxicity was observed for DBP and BBP. Upon DBP exposure at nontoxic concentrations, a significant increased gene expression and cytokine cell secretion were observed for interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-8, and also an increased IL-6 secretion was observed. In conclusion, the human corneal endothelial cell...

  5. Toxicity and Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Activity of Phthalates and Their Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, diisononyl phthalate (DINP, di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  6. Effect of di(n-butyl) phthalate on testicular oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena; Ahn, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, In Young; Han, Soon Young; Kang, Tae Seok; Hong, Jin Hwan; Park, Kui Lea; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2007-06-01

    This study compared the effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on the oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes activity in testes of hyperthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced in pubertal male rats by intraperitoneal injection of triiodothyronine (T3, 10 microg/kg body weight) for 30 days. An oral dose of DBP (750 mg/kg) was administered simultaneously to normal or hyperthyroid (T3) rats over a 30-day period. No changes in body weight were observed in the hyperthyroid groups (T3, T3 + DBP) compared with controls. There were significantly higher serum T3 levels observed in the hyperthyroid rats than in the control, but the serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels were markedly lower in the hyperthyroid rats. DBP significantly decreased the weight of the testes in the normal (DBP) and hyperthyroid (T3 + DBP) groups. The serum testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in only DBP group. DBP significantly increased the 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level in the testes, whereas the DBP-induced 8-OHdG levels were slightly higher in T3 + DBP group. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly higher in the testes of the DBP or T3 + DBP groups. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly higher in the DBP treatment group, but the T3 + DBP group showed slightly lower DBP-induced CAT activity. The testicular expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha-1 (TRalpha-1) was significantly higher in the DBP groups, and androgen receptor (AR) expression was not detected in the DBP treatment group. In addition, DBP significantly increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-r (PPAR-r) levels in the testis. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism can cause a change in the expression level of PPAR-r in testes, and may increase the levels of oxidative damage induced by the metabolic activation of DBP.

  7. Evaluation of DNA damage and antioxidant system induced by di-n-butyl phthalates exposure in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xinyi

    2015-05-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. The effect of DBP on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage were used as biomarkers to analyze the relationship between DNA damage and oxidative stress and to evaluate the genotoxic effect of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100mg per kg of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. The results showed that SOD and CAT levels were significantly inhibited in the 100mgkg(-1) treatment group on day 28. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to oxidative stress in cells. A dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil DBP levels. The comet assay showed that increasing concentrations of DBP resulted in a gradual increase in the OTM, Comet Tail Length and Tail DNA %. The degree of DNA damage was increased with increasing concentration of DBP. These results suggested that DBP induced serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. The excessive generation of ROS caused damage to vital macromolecules including lipids and DNA. DBP in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Unraveling the Relative Importance of Oral and Dermal Contaminant Exposure in Reptiles: Insights from Studies Using the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M.; Talent, Larry G.; Anderson, Todd A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals. PMID

  10. Unraveling the relative importance of oral and dermal contaminant exposure in reptiles: insights from studies using the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals.

  11. Migration of phthalates on culture plates - an important challenge to consider for in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne; Frederiksen, Hanne; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Krogh Rasmussen, Åse; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors of the reproductive system and suspected to influence many other organ and hormone systems. They are also semi-volatile organic compounds present in the gas phase in the environment. Their mode of action has been investigated in numerous in vitro studies. Multi-well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8 cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion, the migration of phthalates which is probably caused by their volatile properties might lead to false interpretation of study results.

  12. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  14. Screening lactic acid bacteria strains with ability to bind di-n-butyl phthalate via Turbiscan technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lili, Zhao; Hongfei, Zhao; Shoukat, Sana; Xiaochen, Zhang; Bolin, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that poses a risk to humans. Previous work indicates that the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to bind phthalic acid esters is strain-specific. As cell suspensions of LAB strains in aqueous solution are likely to be colloidal dispersions, this study provided a technique to efficiently screen LAB strains that bind DBP via Turbiscan, which has been widely used to measure the stability of emulsions or colloidal dispersions. Eleven LAB strains belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. pentosus, Lb. paralimentarius, Lb. helveticus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum species were used in this study, and seven of them were selected to test in an earlier stage of exploring the process for finding a screening method; others were used for a validation test. It was observed that the various values of the 10 h Turbiscan Stability Index (TSI) of the cell suspension from each strain, at the equilibrium time of dispersed particles according to the peak thickness of cell-suspensions as measured by Turbiscan, had significant negative correlations with the DBP-binding percentage of LAB strains. Higher TSI values are correlated with lower binding of bacteria strains to DBP with a correlation coefficient of 0.8292. Cell surface hydrocarbons of LAB strains and their adherence were observed to correlate with DBP-binding percentages and may lead to the different states of aggregation or equilibrium of bacterial cell-suspensions, and the aggregation of bacterial cells resulted in fewer binding sites in the cell wall for DBP. Finally, four LAB strains were randomly selected to verify the feasibility of the method. In all, the findings demonstrate that TSI might be used as a tool to quickly screen strains that bind DBP. The present work could be extended to the removal of other toxic compounds, when screening of high-efficiency strains is required.

  15. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers in indoor dust from childcare facilities, salons, and homes across the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bikram; Sullivan, Kenneth D; Dhungana, Birendra

    2017-11-01

    The quality of indoor environment has received considerable attention owing to the declining outdoor human activities and the associated public health issues. The prolonged exposure of children in childcare facilities or the occupational exposure of adults to indoor environmental triggers can be a culprit of the pathophysiology of several commonly observed idiopathic syndromes. In this study, concentrations of potentially toxic plasticizers (phthalates as well as non-phthalates) were investigated in 28 dust samples collected from three different indoor environments across the USA. The mean concentrations of non-phthalate plasticizers [acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), and di-isobutyl adipate (DIBA)] were found at 0.51-880 μg/g for the first time in indoor dust samples from childcare facilities, homes, and salons across the USA. The observed concentrations of these replacement non-phthalate plasticizer were as high as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, the most frequently detected phthalate plasticizer at highest concentration worldwide, in most of indoor dust samples. The estimated daily intakes of total phthalates (n = 7) by children and toddlers through indoor dust in childcare facilities were 1.6 times higher than the non-phthalate plasticizers (n = 3), whereas estimated daily intake of total non-phthalates for all age groups at homes were 1.9 times higher than the phthalate plasticizers. This study reveals, for the first time, a more elevated (∼3 folds) occupational intake of phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers through the indoor dust at salons (214 and 285 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively) than at homes in the USA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by zero-valent zinc in aqueous solution: Performance and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Gang [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang, Sheng-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute, Beijing 100082 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Huang, Ting-Lin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710050 (China); Liu, Zheng-Qian, E-mail: liuzhengqian@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhao, Lei [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Su, Jun-Feng [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • ZVZ showed an obvious enhanced effect on DBP degradation in ozonation. • The recycling use of ZVZ resulted in the enhancement of DBP degradation. • The formed ZnO and reactive intermediates were responsible for the enhanced effect. • The enhanced effect on DBP degradation by ZVZ was also effective in actual waters. -- Abstract: Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by zero-valent zinc (ZVZ) has been investigated using a semi-continuous reactor in aqueous solution. The results indicated that the combination of ozone (O{sub 3}) and ZVZ showed an obvious synergetic effect, i.e. an improvement of 54.8% on DBP degradation was obtained by the O{sub 3}/ZVZ process after 10 min reaction compared to the cumulative effect of O{sub 3} alone and O{sub 2}/ZVZ. The degradation efficiency of DBP increased gradually with the increase of ZVZ dosage, enhanced as solution pH increasing from 2.0 to 10.0, and more amount of DBP was degraded with the initial concentration of DBP arising from 0.5 to 2.0 mg L{sup −1}. Recycling use of ZVZ resulted in the enhancement of DBP degradation, because the newly formed zinc oxide took part in the reaction. The mechanism investigation demonstrated that the enhancement effect was attributed to the introduction of ZVZ, which could promote the utilization of O{sub 3}, enhance the formation of superoxide radical by reducing O{sub 2} via one-electron transfer, accelerate the production of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of hydroxyl radical. Additionally, the newly formed zinc oxide on ZVZ surface also contributed to the enhancement of DBP degradation in the recycling use of ZVZ. Most importantly, the O{sub 3}/ZVZ process was also effective in enhanced ozonation degradation of DBP under the background of actual waters.

  18. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  19. Validation of an automated counting procedure for phthalate-induced testicular multinucleated germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spade, Daniel J; Bai, Cathy Yue; Lambright, Christy; Conley, Justin M; Boekelheide, Kim; Gray, L Earl

    2018-06-15

    In utero exposure to certain phthalate esters results in testicular toxicity, characterized at the tissue level by induction of multinucleated germ cells (MNGs) in rat, mouse, and human fetal testis. Phthalate exposures also result in a decrease in testicular testosterone in rats. The anti-androgenic effects of phthalates have been more thoroughly quantified than testicular pathology due to the significant time requirement associated with manual counting of MNGs on histological sections. An automated counting method was developed in ImageJ to quantify MNGs in digital images of hematoxylin-stained rat fetal testis tissue sections. Timed pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed by daily oral gavage from gestation day 17 to 21 with one of eight phthalate test compounds or corn oil vehicle. Both the manual counting method and the automated image analysis method identified di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate as positive for induction of MNGs. Dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, the brominated phthalate di-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, and dioctyl terephthalate were negative. The correlation between automated and manual scoring metrics was high (r = 0.923). Results of MNG analysis were consistent with these compounds' anti-androgenic activities, which were confirmed in an ex vivo testosterone production assay. In conclusion, we have developed a reliable image analysis method that can be used to facilitate dose-response studies for the reproducible induction of MNGs by in utero phthalate exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    microchamber as is shown for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate(DEHA), tri(octyl) trimellitate (TOTM) and DEHP. - Highlights: {yields} Since the decreasing market-share of DEHP the applied classes of plasticizers have extended. {yields} Alternative plasticizers mostly feature lower vapor pressures than the commonly used compounds which increases the analytical effort. {yields} DINCH and DINP from PVC needed about 50 days to reach steady-state concentrations during emission cell measurements. {yields} In comparison between estimation algorithms of the vapor pressure by EPI Suite and SPARC the predictions by EPI Suite show better correlation to measured data.

  1. Phthalates in PM2.5 airborne particles in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Růžičková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial area of the Moravian-Silesian Region (the Czech Republic is highly polluted by air contaminants, especially emissions of particulate matter. Samples of PM2.5 particles were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of phthalates were determined for the winter season, transitional period and the summer season. The relative concentrations of phthalates in PM2.5 particles have the same proportion in both heating and non-heating season: di(2ethylexyl phthalate > di-n-butyl phthalate > diisononyl phthalate > diethyl phthalate. The most common increase in concentration in the winter season is from 5 to 10 times higher; the maximum of average concentration was 44 times higher than in the non-heating season.

  2. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  3. Ion chromatographic determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in degraded organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velavendan, P.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a method for the determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in organic streams using Ion Chromatography technique is developed and described here. The method involves the separation of Di-n-butyl phosphate (DBP) from 30% TBP-NPH (Tri-n-butylphosphate diluted in Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon) and uranium/nitric acid matrix by an extraction of DBP in alkaline medium and subsequent ion-exchange separation in ion chromatography column followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Direct determination of DBP in lean/loaded organic solvent will lead to in accurate determination of DBP due to organic interference. DBP is quantified to lower limit of 1 ppm with 3% RSD. The results obtained with ion chromatographic technique are compared with those obtained by standard gas chromatographic technique. The developed method is much faster and total analysis can be completed within two hours. (author)

  4. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in radioactive lean organic solvent of FBTR carbide fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velavendan, P.; Ganesh, S.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work Di-n- butyl phosphate (DBP) a degraded product of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) formed by acid hydrolysis and radiolysis in the PUREX process was analyzed. Lean organic streams of different fuel burn-up FBTR carbide fuel reprocessing solution was determined by standard Gas Chromatographic technique. The method involves the conversion of non-volatile Di-n-butyl phosphate into volatile and stable derivatives by the action of diazomethane and then determined by Gas Chromatograph (GC). A calibration graph was made for DBP concentration range of 200-2000 ppm with correlation coefficient of 0.99587 and RSD 1.2 %. (author)

  6. Extraction of phthalate esters from water and beverages using a graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.; Liu, M.; Ma, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, C.; Zang, X.; Wang, Z.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive microextraction method for the preconcentration of some phthalate esters such as diethyl phthalate, di-n-propylphthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, dicyclohexyl-phthalate, and diethyl-hexyl phthalate prior to their determination by HPLC. It is based on a magnetic graphene nanocomposite as an effective adsorbent. The effects of the amount of the extractant composite employed, extraction time, pH values, salt concentration and desorption conditions were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors range from 1574 to 2880. Response is linear in the concentration range from 0. 1 to 50 ng mL -1 . The limits of detection (at S/N = 3) were between 0. 01 and 0. 04 ng mL -1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of five phthalate esters in water and beverage samples. (author)

  7. Evaluation of method for phthalate extraction from milk related to milk dilution ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković Danica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction techniques were compared coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, for the extraction and the determination of four phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in six different kinds of milk-based samples. Extraction factors: sample preparation, organic solvent type and volume, salt effect, agitation and the extraction time were optimized. The ion of base peaks (m/z 149 for DBP, BBP and DEHP and m/z 163 for DMP for investigated phthalates were selected for the screening studies. The acquisition was performed at the selected ion monitoring mode. The MSD response for GC-MS phthalate calibration standards was linear between 0.25 and 2.50 μg mL-1 with calculated LODs between 0.01 μg mL-1 to 0.04 μg mL-1 and LOQs of 0.05 μg mL-1 to 0.12 μg mL-1, while repeatability was between 1.7 % to 4.9 % RSD. The study demonstrated an increase of the recovery of less polar phthalates in matrix milk standards by matrix dilution. Recovery for hydrophilic phthalates, like DMP, was not changed by matrix dilution and it was continuously low for the investigated method. Two spiking levels were tested for influence of matrix dilution on phthalate recovery, showed the same trend. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31060

  8. Phthalates and heavy metals as endocrine disruptors in food: A study on pre-packed coffee products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni, Luca; Tisato, Francesco; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Padrini, Roberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate plasticizers and heavy metals are widely recognized to be pollutants that interfere with key developmental processes such as masculinization. We investigated the release of phthalates and heavy metals in coffee brewed from coffee packed in single-serve coffee containers made from different types of materials: metal, biodegradable and plastics. We detected with GC-MS small amounts phthalates, below the tolerated daily risks levels, in all the coffees prepared from the different types of capsules. Specifically, Di (2-ethyl-hexyl)-phthalate and DiBP: Diisobuthyl-pthalate were ubiquitously present despite the high variability among the samples (respective range 0.16-1.87 μg/mL and 0.01-0.36 μg/mL). Whereas, diethyl-phthalate (range 0.20-0.26 μg/mL) and di- n -buthyl-phthalate (range 0.02-0.14 μg/mL) were detected respectively in one and three out of the four types of capsule tested. In contrast, we detected by atomic mass spectrometry on mineralized samples heavy metals lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni), in all coffee tested. PB levels (respective range 0.32-211.57 μg/dose) accounted for 42-79%, whereas Ni levels (respective range 166.25-1950.26 μg/dose) accounted for >100% of the tolerable daily intake. These results add to the already present concerns related to the multiple pathways of human exposure and the ubiquitous presence of these pollutants in consumer products and their long-term effect on human health.

  9. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  10. Possible phthalates transport into plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils can be contaminated by high concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAE resulting from industrial and intensive agricultural activities. A plant receives water and substances (including pollutants from soil by means of rootage. Water solution received by the roots is distributed in particular by means of xylem. Reception by means of floem is not very considerable. Pollutants (including phthalates can be absorbed by roots either by diffusion by means of soil gas phase or soil liquid phase. Another possible way of pollutant entering into the plant is diffusion from atmosphere. Way of substance entering into the plant is decided by so called Henry constant as well as octanol-water partition coefficient. In case of phthalates, big differences between di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP reception and dioctyl phthalate reception were detected. For example, DBP can enter into the plant by means of gas as well as liquid phase while dioctyl phthalate only by gas phase.This publication summarizes fundamental knowledge on possible phthalates transport into plants.

  11. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...

  12. Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  13. Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.

    2003-01-01

    of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was investigated and their relative rates of anaerobic degradation were calculated. Also, the biological removal of PAE during the anaerobic digestion of sludge in bench-scale digesters was investigated using DBP...... and DEHP as model compounds of one biodegradable and one recalcitrant PAE respectively. The degradation of all the PAE tested in this study (DEP, DBP and DEHP) is adequately described by first-order kinetics. Batch and continuous experiments showed that DEP and DBP present in sludge are rapidly degraded...... under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (a first-order kinetic constant of 8.04 x 10(-2) and 13.69 x 10(-2) -4.35 day(-1) respectively) while DEHP is degraded at a rate between one to two orders of magnitude lower (0.35 x 10(-2) -3.59 x 10(-2) day(-1)). It is of high significance that experiments...

  14. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  15. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choonghee; Choi, Wookhee; Hwang, Moonyoung; Lee, Youngmee; Kim, Suejin; Yu, Seungdo; Lee, Inae; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-15

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer products, resulting in widespread exposure in the general population. Studies have suggested associations between exposure to phthalates and BPA, and serum thyroid hormone levels, but confirmation on larger human populations is warranted. Data obtained from nationally representative Korean adults (n=6003) recruited for the second round of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS), 2012-2014, were employed. Three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, along with benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and BPA were measured in subjects' urine. Thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in serum. The associations between urinary phthalates or BPA and thyroid hormone levels were determined. Urinary phthalate metabolites were generally associated with lowered total T4 or T3, or increased TSH levels in serum. Interquartile range (IQR) increases of mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) were associated with a 3.7% increase of TSH, and a 1.7% decrease of total T4 levels, respectively. When grouped by sex, urinary MEHHP levels were inversely associated with T4 only among males. Among females, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) levels were inversely associated with TSH and T3, respectively. In addition, negative association between BPA and TSH was observed. Several phthalates and BPA exposures were associated with altered circulatory thyroid hormone levels among general Korean adult population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones, public health implications of such alteration warrant further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in urban soil in the typical semi-arid city of Xi'an, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Mengmei; Tao, Wendong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Li; Shi, Xingmin; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    A total of 62 urban soil samples were collected in the city of Xi'an in Northwest China, and analyzed for six U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority phthalate esters (PAEs). Unlike earlier studies on PAEs in agricultural soil as well as urban soil in humid climates, this paper for the first time comprehensively assessed pollution characteristics and health risks of human exposure to PAEs in urban soil in a typical semi-arid climate. The total concentrations of the six PAEs (Σ6PAEs) in the urban soil varied between 193.0 and 19146.4 μg kg -1 with a mean of 1369.3 μg kg -1 . The PAEs were dominated by di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Magnetic susceptibility and soil texture were controlling factors influencing the concentrations of PAEs in the urban soil. The concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and Σ6PAEs increased from the first to third ring roads, while the concentrations of di-n-octyl phthalate decreased. Relatively higher levels of PAEs were observed in industrial, traffic, and residential areas. The PAEs in the urban soil originated mainly from the application of plasticizers or additives, use of cosmetics and personal care products, emissions of construction materials and home furnishings, industrial processes, and atmospheric deposition. The concentrations of some PAEs in the urban soil exceeded soil allowable concentrations and environmental risk levels. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of human exposure to the PAEs were relatively low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity of high-pressure formed, high-density di-n-butyl phthalate glass and pressure induced departures from equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, G P; Andersson, Ove

    2017-06-21

    We report a study of structural relaxation of high-density glasses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by measuring thermal conductivity, κ, under conditions of pressure and temperature (p,T) designed to modify both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass. Various high-density glassy states of DBP were formed by (i) cooling the liquid under a fixed high p and partially depressurizing the glass, (ii) isothermal annealing of the depressurized glass, and (iii) pressurizing the glass formed by cooling the liquid under low p. At a given low p, κ of the glass formed by cooling under high p is higher than that of the glass formed by cooling under low p, and the difference increases as glass formation p is increased. κ of the glass formed under 1 GPa is ∼20% higher at ambient p than κ of the glass formed at ambient p. On heating at low p, κ decreases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. This is the opposite of the increase in κ observed when a glass formed under a certain p is heated under the same p. At a given high p, κ of the low-density glass formed by cooling at low p is lower than that of the high-density glass formed by cooling at that high p. On heating at high p, κ increases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. The effects observed are due to a thermally assisted approach toward equilibrium at p different from the glass formation p. In all cases, the density, enthalpy, and entropy would change until the glasses become metastable liquids at a fixed p, thus qualitatively relating κ to variation in these properties.

  18. Mono- and di-n-butyl phosphates of some metals in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovkin, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Results of investigations which have been carried out in the Soviet Union for the last 10 years on the determination of the composition, structure, conditions of the formation and solubility of mono- and di-n-butyl phosphates of metals (U/sup 6 +/, Pu/sup 4 +/, Pu/sup 3 +/, Th, Zr, Fe/sup 3 +/, Am, Al, rare-earth elements), which are important for the processes of irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing, are presented. A conclusion is made that zirconium mono- and di-n-butyl phosphates are the least soluble in aqueous and organic solvents of all investigated compounds. FeA/sub 3/ and AmA/sub 3/ are weakly soluble in aqueous solutions. The other compounds are sufficiently soluble in moderately acidic aqueous solutions or in DBP and TBP with dilutents. The obtained results indicate at the similarity of zirconium and plutonium (4) chemical properties; thorium, in this respect, is not an analogue of plutonium (4). Possible structural formulas of the investigated compounds are considered.

  19. Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, Taofeek; Okoh, Omobola; Agunbiade, Foluso; Okoh, Anthony

    2018-07-01

    The concentration and fates of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which adopted the activated sludge technology in the Amathole Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa were investigated. The six PAEs were detected in all the influents and in almost all the WWTP effluent of which DBP was the most abundant in the influent followed by DEHP. Influent concentration of DBP in the three WWTPs ranged between 2.7 and 2488 μgL -1 and the average effluent concentration was 4.90-8.88 μgL -1 . On average, the concentration of PAEs in WWTP effluents were higher than PAEs in the upstream and downstream of the discharging point suggesting PAE impact on the receiving water. The concentrations detected in the sludge of which DEHP and DBP were more pervasive ranged between 130 and 1094 μg/g dry weight. The average removal capacity; 27.3-99.5% suggested more adsorption on settling particles and sludge than biodegradation as high significant correlation was found between PAEs removal, total suspended solid and turbidity. Removal of high molecular weight and high octanol-water partition coefficient (logK ow ) PAEs through adsorption was found to be significantly high. It could be concluded that the release of PAEs into the sludge, and the amount in the final effluent which were found to exceed the acceptable levels allowed internationally, raises safety concern for both aquatic and human's health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP in Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Chan-Kook

    Since early 20th century, phthalates have been used as plasticizers and among these, Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) have been widely used. However, as adverse health effects such as endocrine disrupting effects were reported, these c...

  1. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  2. SPME-Based Ca-History Method for Measuring SVOC Diffusion Coefficients in Clothing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianping; Liu, Ningrui; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-08-15

    Clothes play an important role in dermal exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The diffusion coefficient of SVOCs in clothing material (D m ) is essential for estimating SVOC sorption by clothing material and subsequent dermal exposure to SVOCs. However, few studies have reported the measured D m for clothing materials. In this paper, we present the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) based C a -history method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first try to measure D m with known relative standard deviation (RSD). A thin sealed chamber is formed by a circular ring and two pieces of flat SVOC source materials that are tightly covered by the targeted clothing materials. D m is obtained by applying an SVOC mass transfer model in the chamber to the history of gas-phase SVOC concentrations (C a ) in the chamber measured by SPME. D m 's of three SVOCs, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), in a cotton T-shirt can be obtained within 16 days, with RSD less than 3%. This study should prove useful for measuring SVOC D m in various sink materials. Further studies are expected to facilitate application of this method and investigate the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and clothing material on D m .

  3. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  4. The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia-Woei; Lin, Ching-Ling; Tsai, Yen-An; Chang, Chia-Huang; Liao, Kai-Wei; Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Winnie; Lee, Ming-Jun; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Yin-Han; Lin, Fang-Ru; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Lee, Meng-Chih; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wang, Shu-Li; Lee, Ching-Chang; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2015-10-01

    Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 μg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 μg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection

  5. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes...... of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake...

  6. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for phthalates (dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthlate), with emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Posthumus R; Vlaardingen P van; Crommentuijn T; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    This report presents maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Phthalates are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. Data with endpoints related to the endocrine or

  7. Organophosphate esters and phthalate esters in human hair from rural and urban areas, Chongqing, China: Concentrations, composition profiles and sources in comparison to street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Lu, Jun-Feng; Ma, Jing-Ye; Wang, Huan; Du, Xiao-Fan

    2018-06-01

    Human hair and street dust from rural and urban areas in Chongqing were collected to analyze Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Concentrations of OPEs in urban hair were significantly higher than those in rural hair, whereas PAEs concentrations in rural hair were significantly higher than those in urban hair. Different composition patterns of OPEs were observed in rural and urban hair, where tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris (butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the dominating analogues in rural hair, accounting for 62.1% of the OPEs burden, and tris (methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) exhibited a high contribution in urban hair, responsible for 51.3% of total OPEs, which differed from the composition profiles in corresponding street dust. Analogous composition patterns of PAEs were found in hair of both areas. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the most abundant analogues in hair samples, while DEHP was the predominant analogue in dust samples. No clear tendency was obtained between the increasing ages and the concentrations of both compounds. Most OPEs and PAEs congeners showed significantly positive correlation with one another in rural hair. On the contrary, different correlation patterns were observed in urban hair for OPEs and PAEs, indicating multiple or additional sources existed in urban areas. Significant correlations of OPEs and PAEs were found between hair and corresponding street dust samples, but poor correlations of OPEs and PAEs were observed between rural hair and rural indoor dust, suggesting that street dust may be a predominant exogenous source for human exposure to OPEs and PAEs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  9. Determination of six phthalates in polypropylene consumer products by sonication-assisted extraction/ GC-MS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chong Kian; Fung, Loke Chui; Pang, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Studies on determination of six kinds of phthalates, for example dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), in three kinds of plastic containers for food use, including food container, instant noodle cup and snack container, by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in electronic ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method (GC-MS(EI-SIM)) have been carried out. Extraction, clean-up and analysis methods have been developed and optimized. Determination of samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with 1:9 toluene and dichloromethane, clean-up with Bio-Beads S-X8 gel-permeation column and analyzed by GC-MS methods. The characteristic ions, 163, 194 for DMP; 149, 177, 222 for DEP; 149, 233, 251 for DBP; 91, 149, 206 for BBP; 149, 176, 193 for DEHP; 149, 167, 279 for DNOP were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are possible to detect phthalates at the level of 1-70 mg/ kg. The overall recoveries were 79.2-91.1 % with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values at 3.1-11.3 %. Only DEHP was detected in the studied samples. (author)

  10. Exposure to phthalates in house dust and associated allergies in children aged 6-12years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Saito, Ikue; Yoshioka, Eiji; Cong, Shi; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-11-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in household products. Several studies have reported an association between phthalate exposure and an increased risk of allergies. The present study estimated phthalate exposure in children aged 6-12years and assessed potential correlations with allergies. House dust samples were collected from floors and multi-surface objects >35cm above the floor. Urine samples were collected from the first morning void of the day. Daily phthalate intake (DI dust and DI) was estimated using both house dust and urinary metabolite concentrations. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in floor dust was associated with parental-reported rhino-conjunctivitis. After stratification by gender, this trend was found to only occur in boys. Furthermore, urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate was inversely associated with parental-reported wheeze in boys. DI dust of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) and DEHP were significantly correlated with DI_BBzP and DI_DEHP, respectively. These correlations were stronger with floor than with multi-surface dust. Our results suggest that, among Japanese children, house dust from low surfaces, such as living room floors, might play a meaningful role in the indoor environmental exposure pathway for BBzP and DEHP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic covalent triazine framework for rapid extraction of phthalate esters in plastic packaging materials followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zijun; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Gui, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-24

    Covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs), featuring with high surface area, good thermal, chemical and mechanical stability, are good adsorbents in sample pretreatment. Herein, magnetic CTFs/Ni composite was prepared by in situ reduction of nickel ions on CTFs matrix with a solvothermal method. The prepared CTFs/Ni composite exhibited good preparation reproducibility, high chemical stability, and high extraction efficiency for targeted phthalate esters (PAEs) due to π-π interaction and hydrophobic effect. The porous structure of CTFs/Ni composite benefited the fast transfer of target PAEs from aqueous solution to the adsorbents, and the integrated magnetism contributed to the rapid separation of adsorbents from sample and elution solution. Based on it, a novel method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of PAEs including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) in plastic packaging materials. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for six PAEs were found to be in the range of 0.024-0.085mg/kg. The linear range was 0.32-16mg/kg for DMP, DEP, 0.08-80mg/kg for DBP, 0.16-32mg/kg for BBP, DEHP, and 0.32-32mg/kg for DNOP, respectively. The enrichment factors ranged from 59 to 88-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 133-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAEs in various plastic packaging materials with recoveries in the range of 70.6-119% for the spiked samples. This method is characterized with short operation time, high sensitivity, low consumption of harmful organic solvents and can be extended to the analysis of other trace aromatic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  13. Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of thermal pretreatment of sludge at 70degreesC on the anaerobic degradation of three commonly found phthalic acid esters (PAE): di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Also, the enzymatic treatment...... at 28degreesC with a commercial lipase was studied as a way to enhance PAE removal. Pretreatment at 70degreesC of the sludge containing PAE negatively influenced the anaerobic biodegradability of phthalate esters at 37degreesC. The observed reduction of PAE biodegradation rates after the thermal...... pretreatment was found to be proportional to the PAE solubility in water: the higher the solubility, the higher the percentage of the reduction (DEP > DBP > DEHP). PAE were slowly degraded during the pretreatment at 70degreesC, yet this was probably due to physicochemical reactions than to microbial...

  14. OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS AND WATER SOLUBILITIES OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of the octanol/water partition coefficients (K-ow) and water solubilities of di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) by the slow-stirring method are reported. The water solubility was also measured for di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP). The log K-ow val...

  15. Considerations on ultra-trace analysis of phthalates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, P; Nogueira, J M F

    2006-07-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS), had been applied for the determination of ultra-traces of seven-phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bis(1-octyl) phthalate) in drinking water samples, which are included in the priority lists set by several international regulatory organizations. Instrumental calibration under the selected-ion monitoring mode acquisition (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)), experimental parameters that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency, as well as, the control of the contamination profile are fully discussed. Throughout systematic assays on 30 mL water samples spiked at the 0.40 microg/L level, it had been established that stir bars coated with 47 microL of polydimethylsiloxane, an equilibrium time of 60 min (1,000 rpm) and methanol as back extraction solvent, allowed the best analytical performance to monitor phthalates in water matrices. From the data obtained, good accuracy and a remarkable reproducibility (water partition coefficients (K(PDMS/W) approximately K(O/W)), with the exception of bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bis(1-octyl) phthalate, for which lower yields were measured. Additionally, a remarkable linear dynamic range between 25 and 2,000 ng/L (r(2)>0.99) and low detection limits (3-40 ng/L) were also achieved for the seven-phthalates studied. The application of the present method to monitor phthalates in tap and bottled mineral water samples, allowed convenient selectivity and high sensitivity up to 1.0 microg/L level, using the standard addition methodology. The proposed method showed to be feasible and sensitive with a low sample volume requirement to monitor phthalates in drinking water matrices at the ultra-trace level, in compliance with international regulatory

  16. Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Matuszewski, Jeanine M.; Herring, Amy H.; Baird, Donna D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    Human phthalate exposure is ubiquitous, but little is known regarding predictors of urinary phthalate levels. To explore this, 50 pregnant women aged 18–38 years completed two questionnaires on potential phthalate exposures and provided a first morning void. Urine samples were analyzed for 12 phthalate metabolites. Associations with questionnaire items were evaluated via Wilcoxon tests and t-tests, and r-squared values were calculated in multiple linear regression models. Few measured factors were statistically significantly associated with phthalate levels. Individuals who used nail polish had higher levels of mono-butyl phthalate (p=0.048) than non-users. Mono-benzyl phthalate levels were higher among women who used eye makeup (p=0.034) or used makeup on a regular basis (p=0.004). Women who used cologne or perfume had higher levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. Household products, home flooring or paneling, and other personal care products were also associated with urinary phthalates. The proportion of variance in metabolite concentrations explained by questionnaire items ranged between 0.31 for mono-ethyl phthalate and 0.42 for mono-n-methyl phthalate. Although personal care product use may be an important predictor of urinary phthalate levels, most of the variability in phthalate exposure was not captured by our relatively comprehensive set of questionnaire items. PMID:22760436

  17. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  18. Variability of Urinary Phthalate Metabolite and Bisphenol A Concentrations before and during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joe M.; Smith, Kristen W.; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Berry, Katharine; Ehrlich, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gestational phthalate and bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may increase the risk of adverse maternal/child health outcomes, but there are few data on the variability of urinary biomarkers before and during pregnancy. Objective: We characterized the variability of urinary phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations before and during pregnancy and the ability of a single spot urine sample to classify average gestational exposure. Methods: We collected 1,001 urine samples before and during pregnancy from 137 women who were partners in couples attending a Boston fertility clinic and who had a live birth. Women provided spot urine samples before (n ≥ 2) and during (n ≥ 2) pregnancy. We measured urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and BPA. After adjusting for specific gravity, we characterized biomarker variability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and conducted several surrogate category analyses to determine whether a single spot urine sample could adequately classify average gestational exposure. Results: Absolute concentrations of phthalate metabolites and BPA were similar before and during pregnancy. Variability was higher during pregnancy than before pregnancy for BPA and MBzP, but similar during and before pregnancy for MBP, MEP, and ΣDEHP. During pregnancy, MEP (ICC = 0.50) and MBP (ICC = 0.45) were less variable than BPA (ICC = 0.12), MBzP (ICC = 0.25), and ΣDEHP metabolites (ICC = 0.08). Surrogate analyses suggested that a single spot urine sample may reasonably classify MEP and MBP concentrations during pregnancy, but more than one sample may be necessary for MBzP, DEHP, and BPA. Conclusions: Urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA concentrations were variable before and during pregnancy, but the magnitude of variability was biomarker specific. A single spot urine sample

  19. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  20. Prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in toddlers from the Odense Child Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Trine Staak; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Helle Raun; Grandjean, Philippe; Frederiksen, Hanne; Trecca, Fabio; Bilenberg, Niels; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Dalsager, Louise; Jensen, Inge Kjær; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, different ages and varying timing of exposure. To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20-36months. In the Odense Child Cohort, we analyzed 3rd trimester urine samples of 518 pregnant women for content of metabolites of diethyl, di-n-butyl, diisobutyl, butylbenzyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), and diisononyl phthalate, adjusted for osmolality. Language development was addressed using the Danish version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories "Words and Sentences". Associations were assessed using logistic regression models comparing children below and above the 15th percentile while stratifying by sex and adjusting for maternal age and educational level. Phthalate metabolites were detectable in all samples although in lower levels than previous studies. Among boys, increased prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with lower scores in language development; odds ratios for vocabulary score below the 15th percentile with doubling in monoethyl phthalate, and summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites were respectively 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.05,1.46), and 1.33 (1.01,1.75). Similar associations were found for language complexity. No associations were found for girls. Our findings are notable, as adverse associations were suggested even in this low-level exposed population, with only one spot urine sample for exposure assessment and control for confounders. Lower scores in early language development are of relevance to health as this test predicts later educational success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1β secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanjun; Tian Huaijun; Cao Jia; Gao Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1β secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2 + testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1β secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1β secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1β, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1β as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

  4. Effects of Di-butyl Phthalate (DBP) on Developing Medaka Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers are chemical additives that enhance plastic flexibility. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and are commonly found in river and lake waters (Fromme et al 2002). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a water-soluble plasticizer, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on developing Medaka ("Oryzias latipes") embryos. Three…

  5. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  6. Removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this work graphene was used for evaluation of its adsorption behavior and performance in removing phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cephalexin (CLX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were emerging contaminants (ECs) with detection frequencies over 92% in a one-year monitoring of the occurrence of ECs in influent samples of a sewage treatment plant in Taiwan. Thus, these ECs were selected as the target contaminants for removal by graphene adsorption process. Experimental results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir model equation. It was also found that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. A graphene dosage of 0.1 g/L and adsorption time of 12 h were found to be the optimal operating conditions for the ECs of concern in model solutions in a preliminary study. By using the determined optimal operating conditions for removal of such ECs in actual municipal wastewater, removal efficiencies for various ECs were obtained and given as follows: (1) DnBP, 89%, (2) DEHP, 86%, (3) ACE, 43%, (4) CAF, 84%, (5) CLX, 81%, and (6) SMX, 34%.

  7. Comparative Time Course Profiles of Phthalate Stereoisomers in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT More efficient models are needed to assess potential carcinogenicity hazard of environmental chemicals. Here we evaluated time course profiles for two reference phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its stereoisomer di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), to identify...

  8. Growth of colonies and hyphal ultrastructure of filamentous fungi grown on dibutyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Segundo, J.L.; Vázquez-López, D.; Torres-García, J.L.; Ahuactzin-Perez, M.; Montiel-Martínez, N.; Tlecuitl-Beristain, S.; Sánchez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Phthalates are compounds that give fl exnbíüty to the plastics and are considered mutagens and teratogens. Mycelial growth rate, biomass production and hyphal diameter of the young and mature zones of colonies of Fusarium oxysporum, Mortierella alpina, Pleurotuspulmonarius, two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Po 37 and Po 83) and one strain of Pleurotus florida grown on glucose, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate were studied. F oxysporum had the highest mycelial growth r...

  9. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg −1 with a median value of 1.70 mg kg −1 , and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. -- Highlights: •Phthalate esters in soils from suburban intensive vegetable production systems were investigated. •Phthalate levels and risks of the vegetable soils with different plastic film use modes were examined. •Sources of phthalate esters in vegetable production soils were analyzed. -- PAE contamination of intensively managed vegetable soils varied widely depending on the mode of use of plastic film in different production systems

  10. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the cumulative risks of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) to 2-year-old children in two countries: one European (Denmark) and one Asian (South Korea) were compared. Denmark does not produce phthalates as a raw material, w...

  11. The influence of resource strategies on childhood phthalate exposure--the role of REACH in a zero waste society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how resource strategies, which intend to reduce waste and increase recycling, influence on human exposure to hazardous chemicals from material recycling. In order to examine the flows of hazardous chemicals in recycled material, a mass flow analysis of plastics and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled. This corresponds to the finding that approximately 4% of DEHP and BBP and 18% of DBP annual demands in Europe as raw material re-enter the product cycle with recycled plastics and paper. To examine the potential contribution of the phthalate exposure through recycled plastics and paper, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed in recycled paper and plastics has been performed for 2-year-old children in Denmark. The result verifies that an increase in recycled paperboard and PET bottles in food packaging material causes a significant increase in childhood exposure to DBP corresponding to an additional exposure of 0.116-0.355 μg/kg bw/day; up to 18% of the total DBP exposure in Danish 2-year-olds. While most of the DEHP exposure can be explained, more than 50% of DBP and 70% of BBP exposure sources still remain to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework for a circular economy based on sustainable and clean resource flows is proposed in order to increase material recycling without increasing adverse health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phthalate exposure and childrens neurodevelopment: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejaredar, Maede, E-mail: mejareda@ucalgary.ca [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nyanza, Elias C. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ten Eycke, Kayla [Behavioral Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dewey, Deborah [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Behavioral Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Alberta Children' s Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    exposure were noted between low (e.g., mono-n-butyl phthalate, MnBP) and high (e.g., DEHP) molecular weight phthalate metabolites, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

  14. Phthalate exposure and childrens neurodevelopment: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaredar, Maede; Nyanza, Elias C.; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Dewey, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    exposure were noted between low (e.g., mono-n-butyl phthalate, MnBP) and high (e.g., DEHP) molecular weight phthalate metabolites, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

  15. [The effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the somatic cells of laboratory mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M; Tyrkiel, Ewa J; Hernik, Agnieszka; Derezińska, Edyta; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2010-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as a plasticizers in manufacture of synthetic materials and as solvents in sanitary products, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is used as a plasticizers and as a textile lubricating agent and as solvent in printing ink. The study aimed the evaluation of the magnitude of DNA damage in liver and bone marrow cells and estimation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in peripheral blood following prolonged exposure to DBP. Experiments were conducted an the Pzh:Sfis male mice. Animals were exposed 8 weeks, 3 days per week per os to DBP suspension in oil in doses of 500 mg/kg bw (1/16 LD50) and 2000 mg/kg bw (1/4 LD50). Following groups of mice were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after the start of exposure and 4 weeks after the end of exposure. Decreased body weight of mice and statistically significant decreased liver and relative liver weights were observed following 8-weeks exposure to 2000 mg/kg bw DBP. In the same time higher however not statistically significant level of DNA damage measured by Comet assay in liver cells were noted. DBP did not induce enhanced frequency of DNA damage in bone marrow cells. Following 8-weeks exposure to the dose of 2000 mg/kg bw DBP the increased level of DBP in peripheral blood was observed. Enhanced levels of DBP were still noted 4 weeks after the termination of exposure. Results confirmed that DBP acts as a weak mutagen for DNA of somatic cells. However, following prolonged exposure this compound seems to undergo slower metabolism and was reaching temporarily higher levels in peripheral blood.

  16. Novel Functionalized Polythiophene-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nor Atika Baharin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(phenyl-(4-(6-thiophen-3-yl-hexyloxy-benzylidene-amine (P3TArH was successfully synthesized and coated on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs. The nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis, analyzer transmission electron microscopy (TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. P3TArH-coated MNPs (MNP@P3TArH showed higher capabilities for the extraction of commonly-used phthalates and were optimized for the magnetic-solid phase extraction (MSPE of environmental samples. Separation and determination of the extracted phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP, dipropyl phthalate (DPP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP, di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP, were conducted by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The best working conditions were as follows; sample at pH 7, 30 min extraction time, ethyl acetate as the elution solvent, 500-µL elution solvent volumes, 10 min desorption time, 10-mg adsorbent dosage, 20-mL sample loading volume and 15 g·L−1 concentration of NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, the analytical performances were determined with a linear range of 0.1–50 µg·L−1 and a limit of detection at 0.08–0.468 µg·L−1 for all of the analytes studied. The intra-day (n = 7 and inter-day (n = 3 relative standard deviations (RSD% of three replicates were each demonstrated in the range of 3.7–4.9 and 3.0–5.0, respectively. The steadiness and reusability studies suggested that the MNP@P3TArH could be used up to five cycles. The proposed method was executed for the analysis of real water samples, namely commercial bottled mineral water and bottled fresh milk, whereby recoveries in the range of 68%–101% and RSD% lower than 7.7 were attained.

  17. Investigation of the source of residual phthalate in sundried salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Jin Hwan; Kim, So-Young

    2014-03-01

    Phthalate contamination in sundried salt has recently garnered interest in Korea. Phthalate concentrations were investigated in Korean sundried salts, source waters, and aqueous extracts from polyvinyl chloride materials used in salt ponds. Preliminary screening results for phthalates in Korean sundried salts revealed that only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was over the limit of detection, with an 8.6% detection rate, and the concentration ranged from below the limit of detection to 0.189 mg/kg. The tolerable daily intake contribution ratio of the salt was calculated to be only 0.001%. Residual phthalates were below 0.026 mg/liter in source water, and the aqueous extracted di-n-butylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate, and DEHP, which are considered endocrine disruptors, were below 0.029 mg/kg as derived from the polyvinyl chloride materials in salt ponds. The transfer ratios of the six phthalates from seawater to sundried salts were investigated; transfer ratio was correlated with vapor pressure (r(2) = 0.9875). Thus, di-n-butylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate, DEHP, and di-n-octylphthalate can be considered highly likely residual pollutants in some consumer salts.

  18. Developmental and testicular toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate in the rat and the impact of study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Dormans JAMA; Elvers LH; Valk V de; Biesebeek JD te; Pieters MN; Slob W; LEO

    1999-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate was investigated in the rat in an alternative study design using ten treatment groups. The effect of exposure period was studied, and a comparison of reaction to treatment in pregnant versus non-pregnant females was made. The classical data

  19. Phthalate exposure and high blood pressure in adults: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Shen, Ya-Xin; Li, Lin; Fan, Tong-Tong; Wang, Yan; Wei, Ning

    2018-03-27

    Widespread phthalate exposure has been recently documented and is hypothesized to increase blood pressure (BP) in humans. However, current studies have provided inconclusive evidence for an association between phthalate exposure and BP. Human epidemiologic studies on the topic remain lacking. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between serum phthalate concentrations and BP in a Chinese population. We measured several parameters of BP (systolic BP, diastolic BP, total cholesterol, and triglyceride) and the concentrations of 16 phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis (2-methoxyethyl) phthalate, bis (4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate, bis (2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate, diamyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis (2-nbutoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), dicyclohexyl phthalate, bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate, diphenyl phthalate, and di-n-octyl phthalate) in the serum of 474 adults recruited from a primary health care clinic. The relationship between serum phthalate concentrations and BP parameters was assessed with multivariate linear regressions. DBP was the most ubiquitous and dominant contaminant in the study population. The systolic BP of subjects in the median-exposure DEHP group significantly increased by 2.96 mmHg (p < 0.05) relative to that of subjects in the low-exposure group. Significant positive dose-related associations of DMP and DBEP with the levels of total cholesterol in serum (p for trend < 0.05) were also found. These associations persisted even when considering exposure to multiple phthalates. Our results suggested that phthalate exposure might increase BP in adults. However, our findings warrant further studies in a larger and more general population.

  20. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  1. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) exposure through diet in hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Montuori, Paolo; Amodio Cocchieri, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat packed meals intended to hospital patients were studied over a two-weeks period to measure the contents of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and to evaluate their daily intake by total diet. The packaging consisted of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dishes sealed with polypropylene (PP) foil. The DEHP mean concentrations in total meals varied from 0.061±0.028 to 0.307±0.138μg/gwetweight (wet wt.); the DBP mean levels varied from 0.025±0.018 to 0.174±0.091μg/gwetwt. Highest levels of concentration for DEHP and DBP were found in bread with mean values of 0.307±0.138μg/gwetwt. and 0.174±0.091μg/gwetwt. for DEHP and DBP, respectively. The daily intake for DEHP was 3.1±0.9μg/kgbw and 1.5±0.5μg/kgbw for DBP. The mean±sd incidence of DEHP and DBP intake via hospital meals on the respective EFSA TDI was 6±2% (range 4-11%), and 15±5% (range 8-24%), respectively. Even if for hospital patients the major route of exposure may be represented by medical devices, the influence of the diet could have a significant value on TDI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicological investigation of di(cyclohexyl)phthalate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ham WA; Jansen EHJM; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 20, 60, 200, 600 and 2000 mg di(cyclohexyl)phthalate (DCHP)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzym parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzyme-A

  3. Further advances in modeling transdermal uptake of SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    the overall resistance to uptake of SVOCs from air but also allows for more rapid release of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We compare the model results to reported experimental uptake of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), normalized by exposed skin area and the phthalate...

  4. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Johanna; Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena; Becher, Rune; Kuper, Frieke; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA) accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l), a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l) or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4) from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  5. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l, a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  6. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  7. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Cho, Eun-Sang; Choi, Eun-young; Son, Hwa-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Youl

    2014-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue

  8. Effect of di-butyl phosphate on flash point of PUREX solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastav, Ravi Kant; Kumar, Shekhar; Balasubramonian, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2015-01-01

    30% Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in a aliphatic diluent is used as a solvent for PUREX process. This diluent is essentially equivalent to commercial dodecane. The radiolytic and acidic degradation of TBP forms di-butyl phosphate (DBP) which is detrimental to the performance of the solvent during nuclear fuel reprocessing operations. To study the possible effect of DBP on the flashpoint of PUREX solvent, synthetic solutions were made by adding DBP and flashpoints of resultant mixtures were determined with an automatic flashpoint tester as per ASTM procedures. Experimental results indicated virtually no effect of DBP on flash point of PUREX solvent in the concentration ranges of 0-16 g/L DBP. (author)

  9. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend <0.05). These associations remained suggestive or significant after adjustment for multiple testing. There were no significant associations between semen phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. - Highlights: • We quantified 8 phthalate metabolites in the semen samples from 687 adult men. • We assessed associations of the metabolites with semen quality and serum hormones.

  10. Phthalates in toys available in Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sapna; Saikia, Nirmali; Sahu, Ramakant

    2011-06-01

    Twenty four children's toys and child care articles available in the local market of India were analyzed for eight phthalates as children toys are plasticized with phthalates. All toy samples showed the presence of one or more phthalates including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (96% of the samples), di-iso-nonyl phthalate and di-iso-decyl phthalate (42% of the samples) at a concentration ranging from 0.1% to 16.2%. Soft toys contain higher levels of phthalates as compared to hard toys as primary function of phthalates is softening of hard plastic materiel.

  11. Urinary concentrations of phthalates and phenols in a population of Spanish pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Fernández, Mariana F; Llop, Sabrina; Guxens, Mònica; Ballester, Ferran; Olea, Nicolás; Irurzun, Mikel Basterrechea; Rodríguez, Loreto Santa Marina; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Calafat, Antonia M; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    Phthalate and phenol exposure is prevalent among the general population and of potential concern for pregnant women and children because of their suspected susceptibility to endocrine effects. To evaluate the extent of exposure to several phthalates and phenols in a sample of Spanish pregnant women - according to their individual characteristics (age, social class, education, and body mass index) - and children who participated in the INMA - Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project. One spot urine sample was taken during the third trimester of pregnancy from 120 pregnant women and from 30 4-year old children belonging to 5 Spanish birth cohorts, and analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites and 9 phenols. Three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; two metabolites of dibutyl phthalates, mono-isobutyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate; monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the main metabolite of diethyl phthalate; and two phenols, methyl paraben (M-PB) and 2,5-dichlorophenol were detected in the urine samples of all women. The highest urinary concentrations were for MEP and M-PB. Urinary concentrations of all phthalate metabolites and of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and bisphenol A were lower in the pregnant women than in the children. Among women, a positive relationship with social class and education was shown for most of the phthalate metabolites and phenols. Almost all phthalate metabolites varied by region even after adjusting for social class and education. Phthalate and phenol exposures are prevalent in a group of pregnant women and young children, two susceptible populations, and these exposures might be positively related to social class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and the intelligence of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Bhang, Soo-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2010-07-01

    Concern over phthalates has emerged because of their potential toxicity to humans. We investigated the relationship between the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and children's intellectual functioning. This study enrolled 667 children at nine elementary schools in five South Korean cities. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate concentrations was performed, and scores on neuropsychological tests were obtained from both the children and their mothers. We measured mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), both metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), a metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), in urine samples. The geometric mean (ln) concentrations of MEHP, MEOHP, and MBP were 21.3 microg/L [geometric SD (GSD) = 2.2 microg/L; range, 0.5-445.4], 18.0 microg/L (GSD = 2.4; range, 0.07-291.1), and 48.9 microg/L (GSD = 2.2; range, 2.1-1645.5), respectively. After adjusting for demographic and developmental covariates, the Full Scale IQ and Verbal IQ scores were negatively associated with DEHP metabolites but not with DBP metabolites. We also found a significant negative relationship between the urine concentrations of the metabolites of DEHP and DBP and children's vocabulary subscores. After controlling for maternal IQ, a significant inverse relationship between DEHP metabolites and vocabulary subscale score remained. Among boys, we found a negative association between increasing MEHP phthalate concentrations and the sum of DEHP metabolite concentrations and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children vocabulary score; however, among girls, we found no significant association between these variables. Controlling for maternal IQ and other covariates, the results show an inverse relationship between phthalate metabolites and IQ scores; however, given the limitations in cross-sectional epidemiology, prospective studies are needed to fully explore these associations.

  13. Monitoring phthalates in the tissues of broiler chicks with feedstuffs different phthalate contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAE in animal tissues, samples of muscle, mesenteric fat (fat, skin and liver from broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were given commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate contents, or animal fat with a high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K, nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oils or animal fat. The N chicks were given the grower (BR2 and finisher (BR3 diets supplemented with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The V chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The Z chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% animal fat, respectively. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in the tissues of chicks in all the experimental groups. The DBP content in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 0.55 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from < 0.20 to 2.56 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 1.49 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.03 to 0.13 mg . kg−1. The content of DEHP in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 1.15 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from 0.25 to 9.85 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 4.68 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.16 to 0.24 mg . kg−1. The highest concentrations of DBP of 1.28 ± 1.00 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 ± 2.87 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (mean of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. The accumulation of DEHP was 3.2; 2.6 and 2.9 times higher than that of DBP in the muscle, adipose tissue and skin

  14. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  15. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  16. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Wangyang River (WYR basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  17. Urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Meeker, John D; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Urinary concentrations of metabolites of the anti-androgenic xenobiotic di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were previously shown to be weakly associated with serum levels of several hormones in 2 disparate US populations: partners of pregnant women participating in the Study for Future Families...... and partners in infertile couples from Massachusetts General Hospital infertility clinic. The observed associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormones were robust and insensitive to the characteristics of the subpopulation or the laboratory in which the hormones were measured, despite...... the fact that these 2 populations span a range of fertility, urinary phthalate metabolites, and reproductive hormone levels. We therefore examined associations between urinary metabolites of DEHP and reproductive hormones-follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone (T), inhibin B...

  18. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  19. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-07-15

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  20. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Yajing [Hangzhou EPIE Bio-detection Technology Limited, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Zhang, Dai; Ahmed, Shabbir [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Shuqing, E-mail: chenshuqing@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were < 0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0–50 ng mL{sup −1} and good linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.994) was achieved. The observed IC{sub 50} (7.34 ng mL{sup −1}) and LOD (0.06 ng mL{sup −1}) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00 ng mL{sup −1}. Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8–114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93–11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p < 0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p < 0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening

  1. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis induced by benzyl butyl phthalate in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Sumida, Maki; Endoh, Yukiko; Kurita, Ayaka; Yamaguchi, Ayana; Watanabe, Tomoki; Kohda, Tetsuya; Tsukiyama, Yui; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2017-08-15

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals and may have contributed to the recent global obesity health crisis. Increased adipogenesis via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) pathway could be one critical mechanism responsible for phthalate-induced weight gain. On the other hand, curcumin has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis in cells and animal models. The present study was undertaken to evaluate, for the first time, whether curcumin could reduce adipogenesis induced by benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) via downregulation of the PPARγ-C/EBPα pathway. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated by treating them with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in the presence of BBP, with or without curcumin. Cells that were grown in the presence of BBP alone showed a significant increase in triacylglycerol (TG) levels. In addition, the number of Oil Red O-stained cells and the mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were significantly increased. However, treatment with BBP in combination with curcumin resulted in major reductions in TG levels, the numbers of Oil Red O-stained cells, and the mRNA expression levels of the four proteins. These results suggest that curcumin might be an inhibitor of BBP-induced weight gain and inflammation via stimulation of adipocyte differentiation and TNFα generation. Curcumin may, therefore, be a potential medication for preventing the harmful effects of phthalates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  3. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... those described by the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes 325-chemical... paraffins), which include the chemical substance covered by this proposed rule, as ``toxic'' under the... Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP); and Alkanes, C[ihel1][ihel2]-[ihel1...

  4. Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hu Tsai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is used to increase the flexibility of plastics for industrial products. However, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in food and drinks has been reported in Taiwan in 2011. In order to assess the exact extent of the absorption of DEHP via the oral route, the aim of this study is to develop a reliable and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of DEHP in rats. The optimal chromatographic separation of DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; used as internal standard were achieved on a C18 column. The mobile phase was consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (11:89, v/v with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The monitoring ion transitions were m/z 391.4 → 149.0 for DEHP and m/z 313.3 → 149.0 for BBP. The mean matrix effects of DEHP at low, medium and high concentrations were 94.5 ± 5.7% and 100.1 ± 2.3% in plasma and feces homogenate samples, respectively. In conclusion, the validated UPLC-MS/MS method is suitable for analyzing the rat plasma sample of DEHP and the oral bioavailability of DEHP was about 7% in rats.

  5. Dose Reconstruction of Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Using a Simple Pharmacokinetic Model [Manuscript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background In 2005, eight adults provided full volumes and times of urine voids during one normal work week. These samples were analyzed for four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Participants also provided diary information on their diet, driving, and out¬door a...

  6. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in agricultural soils of the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Liang, Hong; Gao, Da-Wen

    2017-08-01

    This study looks at the pollution status of six priority control phthalate esters (PAEs) under different cultivation of agricultural soils in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China. Results show the total concentration of PAEs ranged from 162.9 to 946.9 μg kg -1 with an average value of 369.5 μg kg -1 . PAE concentrations in three types of cultivated soils exhibited decreasing order paddy field (532.1 ± 198.1 μg kg -1 ) > vegetable field (308.2 ± 87.5 μg kg -1 ) > bean field (268.2 ± 48.3 μg kg -1 ). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were the most abundant PAEs congeners. Compared with previous studies, agricultural soils in the Sanjiang Plain showed relatively low contamination levels. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation practices and industrial emissions were associated with the distribution pattern of PAEs. Furthermore, human health risks of PAEs were estimated and the non-cancer risk shown negligible but carcinogenic risk of DEHP exceeded the threshold limits value. PAE contaminants originated from cultivation practices and intense anthropogenic activities result in placing the agricultural soils under a potential risk to human health and also to ecosystems in the Sanjiang Plain. Therefore, the contamination status of PAEs in agricultural soil and potential impacts on human health should attract considerable attention.

  7. Chemical kinetic study of a novel lignocellulosic biofuel: Di-n-butyl ether oxidation in a laminar flow reactor and flames

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming; Sudholt, Alena; Lee, Dongjoon; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Pitsch, Heinz G.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Sarathy, Mani

    2014-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of promising alternative fuels have been studied extensively in the recent years. Nevertheless, the pyrolysis and oxidation kinetics for many oxygenated fuels are not well characterized compared to those of hydrocarbons. In the present investigation, the first chemical kinetic study of a long-chain linear symmetric ether, di-n-butyl ether (DBE), is presented and a detailed reaction model is developed. DBE has been identified recently as a candidate biofuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The model includes both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways with reaction rates generated using appropriate rate rules. In addition, experimental studies on fundamental combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds have been performed. A laminar flow reactor was used to determine the ignition delay times of lean and stoichiometric DBE/air mixtures. The laminar flame speeds of DBE/air mixtures were measured in the stagnation flame configuration for a wide rage of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and an unburned reactant temperature of 373. K. All experimental data were modeled using the present kinetic model. The agreement between measured and computed results is satisfactory, and the model was used to elucidate the oxidation pathways of DBE. The dissociation of keto-hydroperoxides, leading to radical chain branching was found to dominate the ignition of DBE in the low temperature regime. The results of the present numerical and experimental study of the oxidation of di-n-butyl ether provide a good basis for further investigation of long chain linear and branched ethers. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  8. Chemical kinetic study of a novel lignocellulosic biofuel: Di-n-butyl ether oxidation in a laminar flow reactor and flames

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2014-03-01

    The combustion characteristics of promising alternative fuels have been studied extensively in the recent years. Nevertheless, the pyrolysis and oxidation kinetics for many oxygenated fuels are not well characterized compared to those of hydrocarbons. In the present investigation, the first chemical kinetic study of a long-chain linear symmetric ether, di-n-butyl ether (DBE), is presented and a detailed reaction model is developed. DBE has been identified recently as a candidate biofuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The model includes both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways with reaction rates generated using appropriate rate rules. In addition, experimental studies on fundamental combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds have been performed. A laminar flow reactor was used to determine the ignition delay times of lean and stoichiometric DBE/air mixtures. The laminar flame speeds of DBE/air mixtures were measured in the stagnation flame configuration for a wide rage of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and an unburned reactant temperature of 373. K. All experimental data were modeled using the present kinetic model. The agreement between measured and computed results is satisfactory, and the model was used to elucidate the oxidation pathways of DBE. The dissociation of keto-hydroperoxides, leading to radical chain branching was found to dominate the ignition of DBE in the low temperature regime. The results of the present numerical and experimental study of the oxidation of di-n-butyl ether provide a good basis for further investigation of long chain linear and branched ethers. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  10. Investigation of Di-ethylhexyl Phthalate Migration by Applying Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Method Followed by GC-FID Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The addition of plasticizers (mainly phthalates and adipates makes plastic flexible and popular for packaging, storing and preserving food, water, and so on. The most widely used plasticizer in food contact applications is di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP though being suspected to have carcinogenic and estrogenic properties. The aim of this study is application of magnetic solid phase extraction as new absorbent for determination of DEHP in water samples by gas chromatography (GC. Materials and Methods: Important factors in extraction, separation and determination processes were optimized using the one-variable-at-a-time method. For optimization, all tests were performed two times. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated. The amount of DEHP in some water samples was determined using the proposed method. Results: The results showed that the obtained chromatogram of extract was free of significant interference. The preservatives’ recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 102.2%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.3 µg L-1, respectively. Concentration of DEHP in the studied samples was in the range of N.D-2.3 µg L-1. Conclusions: The acceptable performance and reliability of the proposed method were demonstrated. Temperature and time were fount as the most effective parameters in migration of DEHP. Keywords: Di-ethylhexyl phthalate, Magnetic solid phase extraction, Migration, Gas chromatography

  11. MEMS based impedimetric sensing of phthalates

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    Phthalate esters are known ubiquitous teratogenic and carcinogenic environmental and food pollutants. Their detection and quantification is strictly laboratory based, time consuming, expensive and professionally handled procedure. Presented research work describes a real time non-invasive detection technique for phthalates detection in ethanol, water and drinks. The new type of inter-digital sensor design incorporating multiple sensing gold electrodes were fabricated on silicon substrate based on thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) using semiconductor device fabrication technology. A passivation layer of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) was used to functionalize the sensor. Various concentrations (0.1 to 20ppm) of DINP (di-isononyl phthalates) in ethanol and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized MilliQ water were subjected to the testing system by dip testing method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to obtain impedance spectra in order to determine sample conductance for evaluation of its dielectric properties. The impedance spectra so obtained showed that the sensor was able to detect the presence of phthalates in the samples distinctively. Electrochemical Spectrum Analyser was used to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by curve fitting technique to figure out Constant Phase Element (CPE) equivalent circuit. Locally available energy drink and juice was added with phthalates in concentrations of 2, 6 and 10ppm to observe the performance of the sensor in such products. Experimental results showed that the new sensor was able to detect different concentrations of phthalates in energy drinks. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Assay of Aliphatic Phthalates in Polymer Products by Sensitive Polarographic Method: Health and Environmental Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Saeed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A faster, simpler and sensitive method was developed for determination of aliphatic phthalates using differential pulse polarography (DPP as standard technique. The choice and concentration of base electrolyte, solvent, initial potential, effect of water addition and interference by other phthalates were the main parameters to optimize for enhancement of peak current and to obtain well-defined polarogram with lower background current using 1.3 x 10-4 M di-butyl phthalate (DBP solution. Best results were obtained in the presence of tetra methyl ammonium bromide (TMAB as electrolyte in methanol solvent with initial potential, -1.4 V. A linear calibration plot was observed in the range of 3 x 10-7 – 1.6 x 10-4 M DBP solution as aliphatic phthalates with lower detection limit of 5.9 x 10-8 M and linear regression coefficient of 0.9987. The developed polarographic method was successfully applied for analysis of aliphtaic phthalates in various samples of locally available polymer products such as baby toys, nipples, teethers, infusion blood bags and shopping bags. The results of the current method were compared with those obtained by a reported method and good agreement was found between them.

  13. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  14. Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bui, Thuy; Xu, Fuchao; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A; Covaci, Adrian; Haug, Line S; Cousins, Anna Palm; Magnér, Jörgen; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous

  15. Urinary phthalate monoesters and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates may act as an estrogen and are a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as endometriosis. We assessed the association between phthalate exposure and endometriosis in 166 consecutive women who presented at a university hospital for consultation regarding infertility. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine specimen prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis. They were then categorized by the severity of endometriosis as controls (stages 0-I) and cases (stages II-IV). Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate were measured in 57 cases and 80 controls using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios for endometriosis in relation to dichotomized individual phthalate metabolites (standardized for creatinine) were calculated. No significant association between endometriosis and any urinary creatinine-adjusted phthalate monoester was seen. Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for higher dichotomized MEHP by endometriosis was 1.57 (0.74-3.30). No monotonic trend was seen in urinary creatinine-adjusted concentration of phthalate metabolites by endometriosis stage (p = 0.23-0.90). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are associated with the risk of endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

  16. Urinary phthalate monoesters and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Phthalates may act as an estrogen and are a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as endometriosis. We assessed the association between phthalate exposure and endometriosis in 166 consecutive women who presented at a university hospital for consultation regarding infertility. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine specimen prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis. They were then categorized by the severity of endometriosis as controls (stages 0-I) and cases (stages II-IV). Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate were measured in 57 cases and 80 controls using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios for endometriosis in relation to dichotomized individual phthalate metabolites (standardized for creatinine) were calculated. No significant association between endometriosis and any urinary creatinine-adjusted phthalate monoester was seen. Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for higher dichotomized MEHP by endometriosis was 1.57 (0.74-3.30). No monotonic trend was seen in urinary creatinine-adjusted concentration of phthalate metabolites by endometriosis stage (p = 0.23-0.90). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are associated with the risk of endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

  17. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  18. Phthalate esters in marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Tuncay; Güven, Kasim Cemal; Akçin, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract o-Phthalate esters as diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were identified at surface and inner part of algae collected in the Bosphorus, as Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza, Cystoseria barbata, Pterocladia capillaceaeand Ceramium rubrum. The same esters were also detected in seawater samples taken from the same area. Thus parallelism in pollution was noted between the algae and the surrounding seawater,

  19. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonk, E.C.M.; Verhoef, A.; Gremmer, E.R.; van Loveren, H.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the

  20. Standard thermochemical characteristics of combustion and formation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashanova, Kira I.; Abakumov, Gleb A.; Markin, Alexey V.; Piskunov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the results of thermochemical study for benzoquinone derivatives. • Optimal conditions for determination of combustion energy for benzoquinone were done. • The formation enthalpies for crystalline benzoquinone have been detected at T = 298.15 K. • The formation enthalpy of isomeric quinones were compared. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for investigations of thermodynamic properties have been determined experimentally by the method of combustion calorimetry for compounds of the o-benzoquinone series. In the present work, the energies of combustion in oxygen were measured at T = 298.15 K by static bomb combustion calorimetry for 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone. The experimental values have been used to calculate the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of combustion Δ_cH"o_m and formation Δ_fH"o_m for the examined compounds in the crystalline phase.

  1. Regulation of mRNA Translation Is a Novel Mechanism for Phthalate Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ling

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of plasticizers that are widely used in many consumer products and medical devices, thus generating a huge burden to human health. Phthalates have been known to cause a number of developmental and reproductive disorders functioning as endocrine modulators. They are also involved in carcinogenesis with mechanisms less understood. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of phthalate toxicity, in this study we reported a new effect of phthalates on mRNA translation/protein synthesis, a key regulatory step of gene expression. Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP was found to directly inhibit mRNA translation in vitro but showed a complicated pattern of affecting mRNA translation in cells. In human kidney embryonic cell (HEK-293T, BBP increased cap-dependent mRNA translation at lower concentrations but showed inhibitory effect at higher concentrations. Cap-independent translation was not affected. On the other hand, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP as a major metabolite of another important phthalate di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP inhibited both can-dependent and -independent mRNA translation in vivo. In contrast, BBP and MEHP exhibited an overall promoting effect on mRNA translation in cancer cells. Mechanistic studies identified that the level and phosphorylation of eIF4E-BP (eIF4E binding protein and the amount of eIF4GI in eIF4F complex were altered in accordance with the effect of BBP on translation. BBP was also identified to directly bind to eIF4E, providing a further mechanism underlying the regulation of mRNA by phthalate. At the cellular level BBP inhibited normal cell growth but slightly promoted cancer cells (HT29 growth. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that phthalates can directly regulate mRNA translation as a novel mechanism to mediate their biological toxicities.

  2. A thermal lensing study of a photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Ueda, M.; Itoh, M.

    1981-11-01

    A photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide (BOOB) was studied by using a thermal lensing technique. This technique is found to be applicable to the determination Of the rate Constants of the decay of t-butoxy radical (BO ) and the hydrogen abstraction reaction.

  3. Effect of gamma-radiation on migration of additives in laminated flexible plastic pouches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variyar, Prasad S.; Rao, B.Y.K.; Alur, M.D.; Thomas, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Effect of gamma-radiation (7.5 kGy) on migration of chemical constituents from laminated (LDP/Nylon/EAA) plastic pouches into water as simulant was studied. The compounds migrating into water were concentrated, separated on TLC and analyzed using GC/MS. Some of the migrant compounds identified were p-toluene sulfonamide, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, hexadecanoic acid and lyxononitrile. The non-irradiated control sample did not show the presence of any of these compounds. (author)

  4. and triorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    -2-Me-4) have been synthesized by the reactions of di-n-butyl and dimethyltin dichlorides and tri-n-butyltin(IV) chloride with 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran. The reaction of triphenyltin chloride with trimethylsilyl-2-t-butyl-4- methylphenoxide in the same solvent however, gives a complex of ...

  5. Environmental phthalate monoesters activate pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Christopher H.; Waxman, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Phthalate esters, widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride, induce reproductive and developmental toxicities in rodents. The mechanism that underlies these effects of phthalate exposure, including the potential role of members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is not known. The present study investigates the effects of phthalates on the pregnane X receptor (PXR), which mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The ability of phthalate monoesters to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in a HepG2 cell reporter assay following transfection with mouse PXR (mPXR), human PXR (hPXR), or the hPXR allelic variants V140M, D163G, and A370T. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) increased the transcriptional activity of both mPXR and hPXR (5- and 15-fold, respectively) with EC 50 values of 7-8 μM. mPXR and hPXR were also activated by monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, up to 5- to 6-fold) but were unresponsive to monomethyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate (M(n)BP) at the highest concentrations tested (300 μM). hPXR-V140M and hPXR-A370T exhibited patterns of phthalate responses similar to the wild-type receptor. By contrast, hPXR-D163G was unresponsive to all phthalate monoesters tested. Further studies revealed that hPXR-D163G did respond to rifampicin, but required approximately 40-fold higher concentrations than wild-type receptor, suggesting that the ligand-binding domain D163G variant has impaired ligand-binding activity. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by phthalate monoesters demonstrated here suggests that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals

  6. Determination of phthalate esters in physiological saline solution by monolithic silica spin column extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic silica spin column extraction (MonoSpin-SPE was developed as a simple, sensitive, and eco-friendly pretreatment method which combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS to determine the levels of six phthalate esters, dimethyl-(DMP, diethyl-(DEP, dipropyl- [DPrP], butyl-benzyl-(BBP, dicyclohexyl(DcHP, and di- n-octyl-(DOP phthalate in physiological saline samples. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method was linear in the following ranges: 0.2- 50 μ/L for DMP, DEP, DPrP, DcHP and DOP; 5 – 100 μ/L for BBP. The correlation coefficients (R2 were in the range of O. 9951 – O. 9995 for all the analytes and the limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantification (LOQs were in the ranges of 0.02 – 0.9 μ/L and 0.08 – 2.7 μ/L, respectively. The pretreatment process showed good reproducibility with inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs below 8.5% and 11.2%, respectively. This method was used to determine the levels of six phthalate esters in physiological saline samples and the recoveries ranged from 71.2% to 107. 3%. DMP and DEP were found in actual physical saline samples (brand A and brand B. Keywords: Monolithic silica spin column, Phthalate esters, Physiological saline samples, Ultra fast liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (UFLC-MS

  7. {2,6-Bis[(di-tert-butyl-phosphino)-methyl]-phenyl}chloridonickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Brian J; Dickie, Diane A; Goldberg, Karen I; Kemp, Richard A

    2008-09-20

    In the title compound, [Ni(C(24)H(43)P(2))Cl], the Ni atom adopts a distorted square-planar geometry, with the P atoms of the 2,6-bis-[(di-tert-butyl-phosphino)meth-yl]phenyl ligand trans to one another. The P-Ni-P plane is twisted out of the plane of the aromatic ring by 21.97 (6)°.

  8. Endocrine disruption: In silico interactions between phthalate plasticizers and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Beg, Mohd A

    2017-12-01

    Endocrine disruption is a phenomenon when a man-made or natural compound interferes with normal hormone function in human or animal body systems. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have assumed considerable importance as a result of industrial activity, mass production of synthetic chemicals and environmental pollution. Phthalate plasticizers are a group of chemicals used widely and diversely in industry especially in the plastic industry, and many of the phthalate compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties. Increasing evidence indicates that steroid nuclear receptors and steroid binding proteins are the main targets of endocrine disruption. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a steroid binding protein that binds and transports cortisol in the blood circulation and is a potential target for endocrine disruption. An imbalance of cortisol in the body leads to many health problems. Induced fit docking of nine important and environmentally relevant phthalate plasticizers (DMP, BBP, DBP, DIBP, DnHP, DEHP, DINP, DnOP, DIDP) showed interactions with 10-19 amino acid residues of CBG. Comparison of the interacting residues of CBG with phthalate ligands and cortisol showed an overlapping of the majority (53-82%) of residues for each phthalate. Five of nine phthalate compounds and cortisol shared a hydrogen bonding interaction with the Arg-252 residue of CBG. Long-chain phthalates, such as DEHP, DINP, DnOP and DIDP displayed a higher binding affinity and formed a number of interactions with CBG in comparison to short-chain phthalates. The similarity in structural binding characteristics of phthalate compounds and native ligand cortisol suggested potential competitive conflicts in CBG-cortisol binding function and possible disruption of cortisol and progesterone homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns...... because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal...

  10. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, S. [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Benjamin, Sailas, E-mail: sailasben@yahoo.co.in [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 Degree-Sign C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass ({approx}0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD {approx}7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large

  11. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, S.; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. ► Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. ► Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. ► Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. ► Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC–MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil – either singly or in consortium – completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (∼0.15–0.35 g/g BB; OD ∼7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue.

  12. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and sex steroid hormones in 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-year-old children: A pilot study of the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Sie, Lillian; Su, Pen-Hua; Chuang, Chia-Jui; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Sun, Chien-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Julie Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-11-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as environmental endocrine disruptors. However, few studies have examined their effects on sex steroid hormones in children. We followed children over time to examine the association between pre- and post-natal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormone levels at 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We recruited 430 pregnant women from central Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 and assessed their children at birth, 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We studies children with at least one measurement for both phthalate and hormone levels during each any of the follow-up time point (n = 193). Estradiol, free testosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were measured from venous blood. Three monoesters of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-methyl phthalate were measured in maternal urine collected during the 3rd trimester and child urine collected at each follow-up point. The sum of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (∑MEHP) was calculated by summing the concentrations of the three DEHP monoesters. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis with repeated measures was used to estimate associations between phthalate metabolites and hormone levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, maternal ∑MEHP level was associated with decreased levels of progesterone in girls (β = -0.309 p = 0.001). The child ∑MEHP concentration was associated with decreased levels of progesterone for girls (β = -0.194, p = 0.003) and with decreased levels of free testosterone for boys (β = -0.124, p = 0.004). Early-life DEHP exposure may alter sex steroid hormones of children over time, which may pose potential reproductive health risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides and phthalates in baby food samples by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-IT/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, Ivan; Salimei, Elisabetta; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale

    2018-05-01

    Baby foods are either a soft, liquid paste or an easily chewed food since babies lack developed muscles and teeth to chew effectively. Babies typically move to consuming baby food once nursing or formula is not sufficient for the child's appetite. Some commercial baby foods have been criticized for their contents. This article focuses on the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides and phthalates by means of a method based on ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS). The protocol developed allowed the determination of six phthalates [dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, isobutyl cyclohexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] and 19 organophosphorus pesticides. Freeze-dried product samples (0.1-0.2 g) were dissolved in 10 mL of warm distilled water along with 5 μL of an internal standard (anthracene at 10 mg mL -1 in acetone): the choice of extraction solvent was studied, with the most suitable being n-heptane, which is used for phthalate determination in similar matrices. The solution, held for 5 min in a vortex mixer and for 6 min in a 100-W ultrasonic bath to favor solvent dispersion and consequently analyte extraction, was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30 min. Then 1 μL was injected into the GC-IT/MS system (SE-54 capillary column; length 30 m, inner diameter 250 μm, film thickness 0.25 μm). All analytical parameters investigated are discussed in depth. The method was applied to real commercial freeze-dried samples: significant contaminant concentrations were not found. Graphical abstract Simultaneous and sensitive determination of organophosphorus pesticides and phthalates in baby foods by the ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction ֪gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry procedure. 1 methacrifos, 2 pirofos, 3 phorate, 4 seraphos, 5 diazinon, 6 etrimphos, 7 dichlofenthion, 8

  15. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Shaofei; Ji Yaqin; Liu Lingling; Chen Li; Zhao Xueyan; Wang Jiajun; Bai Zhipeng; Sun Zengrong

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in suburban farmland, vegetable, orchard and wasteland soils of Tianjin were obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis in 2009. Results showed that total PAEs varied from 0.05 to 10.4 μg g −1 , with the median value as 0.32 μg g −1 . Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate are most abundant species. PAEs concentrations for the four types of soils exhibited decreasing order as vegetable soil > wasteland soil > farmland soil > orchard soil. PAEs exhibited elevated levels in more developed regions when compared with other studies. The agricultural plastic film could elevate the PAEs contents in soils. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products and plasticizers were important sources for PAEs in suburban soils in Tianjin. The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization. - Highlights: ► PAEs levels in four types of soils in suburban area of Tianjin were studied. ► Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations. ► PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention. - (1) Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations; (2) PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention.

  16. Achromobactor denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 isolated from soil sludge heavily contaminated with plastic waste produced a novel pharmaceutically-active 25C prodigiosin analog during growth in a simple mineral salt medium supplemented with hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended PVC plastics (in situ) ...

  17. Adsorptive removal of phthalate ester (Di-ethyl phthalate) from aqueous phase by activated carbon: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Shailaja, S; Rama Krishna, M; Sarma, P N

    2007-07-19

    Adsorptive studies were carried out on Di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) removal from aqueous phase onto activated carbon. Batch sorption studies were performed and the results revealed that activated carbon demonstrated ability to adsorb DEP. Influence of varying experimental conditions such as DEP concentration, pH of aqueous solution, and dosage of adsorbent were investigated on the adsorption process. Sorption interaction of DEP onto activated carbon obeyed the pseudo second order rate equation. Experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. DEP sorption was found to be dependent on the aqueous phase pH and the uptake was observed to be greater at acidic pH.

  18. The beneficial effects of mixing spiro-OMeTAD with n-butyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine for perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Esmaiel; Wang, Yu-Long; Chen, Qian; Xu, Jia-Ju; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Soluble n-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine. • Mixture with spiro-OMeTAD and employment in perovskite solar cells. • Impressive improvement of perovskite solar cell efficiency. • n-Butyl derivative gives better results than tert-butyl derivative - Abstract: Perovskite solar cells have been constructed under ambient conditions by using 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) mixed with a small quantity of soluble tetra-n-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine as hole transporting material. The introduction of the phthalocyanine derivative resulted in an impressive increase of cell efficiency, which changed from 10.4% in the absence to 15.4% in the presence of phthalocyanine. This effect is related to the creation of deep traps in the hole transporting phase which block back-travelling electrons as well as to the improvement of the structural quality of the spiro-OMeTAD film in the presence of phthalocyanine. Both functionalities decrease shunt paths within the hole transporting phase resulting in increasing the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage of the cell.

  19. Di-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Testa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ASDs (autism spectrum disorders are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11 ± 5 years and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12 ± 5 years were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS, was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98% taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18 and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096 urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (r s=0.668, P<0.0001. The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for

  20. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105 μg/l (median 25 μg/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88 μg/l (10 μg/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248 μg/l (28 μg/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.8 μg/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80 μg/l (2.6 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.9 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219 μg/l (11 μg/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188 μg/l (1.6 μg/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3 cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105 μg/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among

  1. Preparation of high quality spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films using dilute di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate precursor solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premalal, E.V.A., E-mail: vikum777@gmail.com [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Dematage, N. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kaneko, S. [SPD Laboratory Inc, Hi-Cube 3-1-7, Wajiyama, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Konno, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were prepared, at different substrate temperatures, using dilute precursor solutions of di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate (0.1 M DBTDA) by varying the F{sup -} concentration in the solution. It is noticed that conductivity of FTO film is increasing by increasing the fluorine amount in the solution. Morphology of SEM image reveals that grain size and its distribution are totally affected by the substrate temperature in which conductivity is altered. Among these FTO films, the best film obtained gives an electronic conductivity of 31.85 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, sheet resistance of 4.4 {Omega}/{open_square} ({rho} = 3.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm) with over 80% average normal transmittance between the 400 and 800 nm wavelength range. The best FTO film consists of a large distribution of grain sizes from 50 nm to 400 nm range and the optimum conditions used are 0.1 M DBTDA, 0.3 M ammonium fluoride, in a mixture of propan-2-ol and water, at 470 Degree-Sign C substrate temperature. The large distribution of grain sizes can be easily obtained using low DBTDA concentration ({approx} 0.1 M or less) and moderate substrate temperature (470 Degree-Sign C). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer F-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) thin films prepared using di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate (DBTDA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substrate temperature and DBTDA concentration affect grain size and distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large distribution of grain sizes can optimize the conductivity of FTO film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 0.1 M DBTDA, substrate temperature of 470 Degree-Sign C allows a large grain size distribution.

  2. A new efficient synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik; Hansen, Jon S.; Pittelkow, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Alkyl and aryl amines are converted smoothly to the corresponding isothiocyanates via the dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) and 1-3 mol% of DMAP or DABCO as catalyst. As most of the byproducts are volatile, the work-up involves simple evaporation...

  3. Interaction of melamine and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure on markers of early renal damage in children: The 2011 Taiwan food scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Fang; Hsiung, Chao A; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2018-04-01

    Melamine and phthalate, mainly di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are ubiquitously present in the general environment. We investigated whether urine melamine levels can modify the relationship between DEHP exposure and markers of early renal damage in children. A nationwide health survey for Children aged ≤12 years possibly exposed to phthalates were enrolled between August 2012 and January 2013. They were administered questionnaires to collect details regarding past DEHP exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Urine samples were measured melamine levels, phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of renal damage, including urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), and β2-microglobulin. The study included 224 children who had a median urine melamine level (μg/mmol creatinine) of 1.61 ranging 0.18-47.42. Positive correlations were found between urine melamine levels and urine ACR as well as urine NAG levels (both Spearman correlation coefficients r = 0.24, n = 224, p < .001). The higher the past DEHP exposure or urine melamine levels, the higher the prevalence of microalbuminuria. An interaction effect was also found between urine melamine levels and past DEHP exposure on urine ACR. Melamine levels may further modify the effect of past DEHP exposure on urine ACR in children. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. HEPATOCYTE EXPRESION OF TUMOR ASSOCIATED ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (ALDH-3) AND P21 RAS FOLLOWING DIETHYLNITROSAMINE (DEN) INITIATION AND CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE (DHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters such as di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)either promote or inhibit rat liver tumorigenesis depending on the carcinogenesis protocol. In this study, we examined the expression of two histochemical markers, the tumor associated isozyme of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD...

  5. Toxicological investigation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rats. The determination of a no-observed-effect-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; Dormans JAMA; van Apeldoorn ME; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    Two animal experiments are described in which male rats have been exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) for 2 and 4 weeks. Besides morphometric analysis using both light and electron microscopy, a number of enzyme parameters in liver homogenates have been determined which have a relation with

  6. Study on the influence of temperature, storage time and packaging type on di-n-butylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate release into packed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Del Prete, Ernesto; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meals packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and aluminium dishes, supplied to patients in two hospitals in the Campania region (Italy), were studied to evaluate the probable migration of di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from the packaging into the food. The influence of temperature, storage time and type of package on the migration process was considered, analysing the meals according to three time ranges, before the packaging (T(0)) and after 60 min (T(1)) and 120 min (T(2)) from packaging during the storage in thermostatic delivery carts. At T(0) in the meals sampled before packaging in PET dishes, mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.023 ± 0.002 µg/g and 0.069 ± 0.041 µg/g, respectively; the DBP level increased 230% and that of DEHP increased 208% by time T(0) versus T(2). In the meals sampled before packaging (T(0)) in aluminium dishes, the mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.030 ± 0.001 µg/g and 0.057 ± 0.015 µg/g, respectively. The significant increase in contaminant levels over storage times for meals packed in PET dishes demonstrates that from packages made of plastic materials the migration of phthalic acid esters into foods is possible. In meals packed in PET dishes, the highest DBP and DEHP increases were observed in the T(0) to T(1) range, which represented the time interval over which meals were kept hot, and mainly in the first ones, where the highest temperatures have been recorded.

  7. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November. Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%, and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.

  8. Prenatal phthalate exposures and child temperament at 12 and 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alison B; Wolff, Mary S; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational phthalate exposures have been adversely associated with attention, externalizing, and internalizing behaviors in childhood. Early childhood temperament may be a marker of later behavioral patterns. We therefore sought to determine whether gestational phthalate exposures were associated with infant and toddler temperament. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study is a prospective cohort study of children born between May 1998 and July 2001 in New York City (N=404). Phthalate metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected from pregnant women in their third trimester. Child temperament was assessed by parental report at 12-months using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) (N=204) and at 24-months using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ) (N=279). We used multiple linear regression to evaluate associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and eleven temperament domains. Phthalate biomarker concentrations were weakly associated with lower gross motor activity levels as well as higher duration of orienting at the 12-month assessment. Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and the sum of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑DEHP) were associated with lower levels of smiling and laughing at 12 months. At 24-months, social fear and lower pleasure was linked to higher concentrations of MCPP and MBzP, and higher ∑DEHP was weakly associated with increased anger levels at 24-months. Though we observed some weak associations between biomarkers of prenatal exposure to phthalates and temperament at 12- and 24-months, overall phthalates biomarkers were not strongly associated with alterations in temperament. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of GeO{sub 2} thin films on Si(100) using Ge(N,N'-R,R-en)(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} (where R = Isopropyl and t-Butyl) precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Shin, Jin Ho [Soulbrain Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd., Gongju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Sun; Kang, Jun Gill [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we introduced bis(dimethylamino)(N,N'-diisopropyl-ethylenediamine) germanium (1) and bis (dimethyl-amino)(N,N'-di-tert-butyl-ethylenediamine) germanium (2) as novel ALD precursors and analyzed the ALD growth characteristics to obtain the best possible film properties. A 5-L three-neck flask was charged with 2.5 L of toluene, GeCl{sub 4} (60 g, 0.28 mol) was added and then cooled to -15 to -20 .deg. C. the two precursors produced good-quality GeO{sub 2} thin films via the ALD process. The ALD windows of bis(dimethylamino)(N,N'-di-isopropyl-ethylenediamine) germanium and bis(dimethylamino)(N,N'-di-tert -butyl-ethylene-diamine) germanium were established at 200–330 .deg. C with a growth rate of about 0.40 and 0.31 Å/cycle, respectively. ALD-type growth mode was verified by increasing the precursor pulsing time. Growth rate was saturated from 3.0 s. These films have considerable potential for industrial applications.

  10. Urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites for detecting transfusion of autologous blood stored in plasticizer-free bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) efficiently increases sport performance and is the most challenging doping method to detect. Current methods for detecting this practice center on the plasticizer di(2-ethlyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which enters the stored blood from blood bags. Quantification of this plasticizer and its metabolites in urine can detect the transfusion of autologous blood stored in these bags. However, DEHP-free blood bags are available on the market, including n-butyryl-tri-(n-hexyl)-citrate (BTHC) blood bags. Athletes may shift to using such bags to avoid the detection of urinary DEHP metabolites. A clinical randomized double-blinded two-phase study was conducted of healthy male volunteers who underwent ABT using DEHP-containing or BTHC blood bags. All subjects received a saline injection for the control phase and a blood donation followed by ABT 36 days later. Kinetic excretion of five urinary DEHP metabolites was quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, considerable levels of urinary DEHP metabolites were observed up to 1 day after blood transfusion with BTHC blood bags. The long-term metabolites mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate were the most sensitive biomarkers to detect ABT with BTHC blood bags. Levels of DEHP were high in BTHC bags (6.6%), the tubing in the transfusion kit (25.2%), and the white blood cell filter (22.3%). The BTHC bag contained DEHP, despite being labeled DEHP-free. Urinary DEHP metabolite measurement is a cost-effective way to detect ABT in the antidoping field even when BTHC bags are used for blood storage. © 2015 AABB.

  11. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-02

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  12. Dermal uptake directly from air under transient conditions: advances in modeling and comparisons with experimental results for human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, G C; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    transfer of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We test the model by simulating di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) exposures of six bare-skinned (Weschler et al. 2015, Environ. Health Perspect., 123, 928) and one clothed participant (Morrison et al. 2016, J. Expo. Sci. Environ...... coefficients, and diffusion coefficients, could account for overpredictions. Simulations that include transfer of skin oil to clothing improve model predictions. A dynamic model that includes SSL is more sensitive to changes that impact external mass transfer such as putting on and removing clothes and bathing....

  13. Studies on non dispersive solvent extraction for removal of dissolved di-butyl phosphate (DBP) from aqueous medium using hollow fiber membrane contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Suman Kumar; Bindu, M.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    PUREX process is based on the principle of mass transfer by liquid liquid dispersion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is universal extractant for PUREX process which is employed for reprocessing the irradiated nuclear fuels for separation and recovery of fissile and fertile materials. The multi cycle solvent extraction processes encompass continuous extraction and stripping operations that are invariably carried out in pulsed columns. The continuous exposure of organic solvent (TBP) to high acidic and radioactive medium leads to decrease the solvent extraction efficiency as it degraded to different level producing di-butyl phosphate and mono-butyl phosphate in significant quantities. Efficiency of purex process decreases as di-butyl phosphate forms aqueous soluble complexes with uranium. Removal of such dissolved DBP from aqueous medium is of direct interest in reprocessing processes as this would enable to sustain the better efficiency of the process and also control the loss of fissile and fertile materials. The non-dispersive solvent extraction is a configuration of the conventional solvent-extraction process where a microporous membrane separates both the immiscible phases, one of which impregnates the membrane, thus bringing the liquid-liquid interface to one side of the membrane. This study is a preliminary evaluation of microporous hollow fiber membrane modules for the removal of dissolved DBP from acidic medium. The performance of the proposed system can be improved by optimizing controlling parameters of the process for quantitative transport of dissolved DBP from acidic medium in the purex process context

  14. Phthalate treatment does not influence levels of IgE or Th2 cytokines in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butala, John H.; David, Raymond M.; Gans, Gerhard; McKee, Richard H.; Guo, Tai L.; Peachee, Vanessa L.; White, Kimber L.

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is mediated, in part, by the immunoregulatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 13 (IL-4 and IL-13). These cytokines stimulate IgE synthesis that in turn is associated with airway hyper-responsiveness. Compounds that stimulate IgE synthesis and elicit bronchial reactivity are generally considered to be respiratory sensitizers. Recently, it has been hypothesized that exposure to phthalates may contribute to childhood asthma. To address this question, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was tested using a protocol adapted from work by Dearman that involves topical application (and challenge) of test substances to mice followed by measurements of total serum IgE. In addition, auricular lymph nodes were harvested for measurement of IL-4 and IL-13 proteins and their corresponding messenger RNAs. Because skin absorption of high molecular weight phthalates is limited, liver weight increase, a measure of peroxisomal proliferation, was monitored to assure that internal dosing had been achieved. ELISA and RNAse protection assays demonstrated that DEHP treatment did not significantly affect IgE, IL-4, or IL-13 levels. Similarly, IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA levels were not elevated. In contrast, all of these were significantly elevated by trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a respiratory sensitizer used as the positive control in this assay. Liver weights were significantly elevated by DEHP, providing evidence of sufficient percutaneous absorption to induce physiological responses. To extend these observations, three other commercial phthalate ester plasticizers, di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-isohexyl phthalate (DIHP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were assessed using the same protocol. As above, ELISA and RNAse protection assays showed that IgE, IL-4, and IL-13 proteins, and IL-4 and IL-13 mRNAs in the phthalate-treated animals were all at levels similar to that of control values. The positive control, TMA, produced large, statistically significant increases in all

  15. Elevated phthalates' exposure in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changming; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Lianlian; Chen, Jiao; Cai, Depei; Zhang, Yunhui

    2015-05-15

    Phthalates have been proven to be antiandrogenic, which may interfere with the timing of puberty. Children with Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty (CDGP) typically display short stature and pubertal delay. This study investigated whether phthalate's exposure was associated with CDGP, and evaluated the potential mediator role of testosterone. In this case-control study, a total of 167 boys, including 57 boys with CDGP (cases) and 110 controls were enrolled. We measured six major phthalate metabolites in urine samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The serum testosterone level was determined by radioimmunoassay. Children in the CDGP group were determined to have significantly elevated urinary phthalates concentration compared with control subjects (total phthalates median: case, 107.00 ng/ml; control, 62.22 ng/ml, p = 0.001). After adjustment for BMI and other confounding factors: mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and total phthalate concentrations were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone level (MBP: β = -45.7, p = 0.017; MEP: β = -31.6, p = 0.022; total phthalates: β = -24.6, p = 0.011); MBP, MEP, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and total phthalates were significantly associated with CDGP (odds ratio: MBP: 8.30, p = 0.002; MEP: 5.43, p = 0.002; MEHP: 3.83, p = 0.017; total phthalates: 9.09, p = 0.001). Serum testosterone level acted as a mediator of the association between phthalates' exposure and CDGP (p = 0.002) (proportion mediated: 34.4%). In this case-control study, elevated phthalates' level was detected in children with CDGP in Shanghai, China and phthalate level was associated with CDGP, which appeared to be mediated by circulating testosterone level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxic Effects of Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Sandeep Singh Rowdhwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is extensively used as a plasticizer in many products, especially medical devices, furniture materials, cosmetics, and personal care products. DEHP is noncovalently bound to plastics, and therefore, it will leach out of these products after repeated use, heating, and/or cleaning of the products. Due to the overuse of DEHP in many products, it enters and pollutes the environment through release from industrial settings and plastic waste disposal sites. DEHP can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on a daily basis, which has raised some concerns about its safety and its potential effects on human health. The main aim of this review is to give an overview of the endocrine, testicular, ovarian, neural, hepatotoxic, and cardiotoxic effects of DEHP on animal models and humans in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Metabolism of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in rats: in vivo and in vitro dose and time dependency of metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuguenot, J.C.; Mitchell, A.M.; Milner, G.; Lock, E.A.; Elcombe, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the in vivo metabolism of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in rats after multiple dosing, the metabolism of MEHP in primary rat hepatocyte cultures for periods of up to 3 days, and the biotransformation of some major metabolites of MEHP. Rats were orally administered [ 14 C]DEHP or [ 14 C]MEHP at doses of 50 and 500 mg/kg body wt for three consecutive days. Urine was collected at 24-hr intervals, and metabolite profiles were determined. After a single dose of either compound, urinary metabolite profiles were similar to those previously reported. However, after multiple administration of both DEHP and MEHP at 500 mg/kg, increases in omega-/beta-oxidation products [metabolites I and V, mono(3-carboxy-2-ethylpropyl) phthalate and mono(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate, respectively] and decreases in omega - 1-oxidation products [metabolites VI and IX, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, respectively] were seen. At the low dose of 50 mg/kg little or no alteration in urinary metabolite profiles was observed. At 500 mg/kg of MEHP a 4-fold stimulation of CN- -insensitive palmitoyl-CoA oxidation (a peroxisomal beta-oxidation marker) was seen after three consecutive daily doses. At the low dose of 50 mg/kg only a 1.8-fold increase was noted. Similar observations were made with rat hepatocyte cultures. MEHP at concentrations of 50 and 500 microM was extensively metabolized in the rat hepatocyte cultures. Similar metabolic profiles to those seen after in vivo administration of MEHP were observed. At the high (500 microM) concentration of MEHP, changes in the relative proportions of omega- and omega- 1-oxidized metabolites were seen

  18. Bisphenol A Is More Potent than Phthalate Metabolites in Reducing Pancreatic β-Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mickelson Weldingh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates are common environmental contaminants that have been proposed to influence incidence and development of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Thus, effects of BPA and three phthalate metabolites (monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP were studied in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1E, after 2–72 h of exposure to 5–500 μM. Three endpoints relevant to accelerated development of types 1 or 2 diabetes were investigated: β-cell viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and β-cell susceptibility to cytokine-induced cell death. BPA and the phthalate metabolites reduced cellular viability after 72 h of exposure, with BPA as the most potent chemical. Moreover, BPA, MEHP, and MnBP increased insulin secretion after 2 h of simultaneous exposure to chemicals and glucose, with potency BPA > MEHP > MnBP. Longer chemical exposures (24–72 h showed no consistent effects on glucose-induced insulin secretion, and none of the environmental chemicals affected susceptibility to cytokine-induced cell death. Overall, BPA was more potent than the investigated phthalate metabolites in affecting insulin secretion and viability in the INS-1E pancreatic β-cells. In contrast to recent literature, concentrations with relevance to human exposures (1–500 nM did not affect the investigated endpoints, suggesting that this experimental model displayed relatively low sensitivity to environmental chemical exposure.

  19. Identification of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances in plastic packaging materials and their migration into food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ibarra, Verónica; Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Paseiro Losada, Perfecto; Sendón, Raquel

    2018-05-07

    Plastic materials are widely used in food packaging applications; however, there is increased concern because of the possible release of undesirable components into foodstuffs. Migration of plastic constituents not only has the potential to affect product quality but also constitutes a risk to consumer health. In order to check the safety of food contact materials, analytical methodologies to identify potential migrants are required. In the first part of this work, a GC/MS screening method was developed for the identification of components from plastic packaging materials including intentionally and "non-intentionally added substances" (NIAS) as potential migrants. In the second part of this study, the presence of seven compounds (bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC), benzophenone (BP)) previously identified in packaging materials were investigated in food products (corn and potatoes snacks, cookies, and cakes). For this purpose, a suitable extraction method was developed and quantification was performed using GC-MS. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. The spiked recoveries varied between 82.7 and 116.1%, and relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 2.22-15.9%. The plasticizer ATBC was the most detected compound (94% samples), followed by DEP (65%), DEHP (47%), BP (44%), DBP (35%), DIBP (21%), and BHT (12%). Regarding phthalates, DEP and DEHP were the most frequently detected compounds in concentrations up to 1.44 μg g -1 . In some samples, only DBP exceeded the European SML of 0.3 mg kg -1 established in Regulation 10/2011. Graphical abstract Chemical migration from plastic packaging into food.

  20. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Chen

    Full Text Available A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A. In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  1. Phthalate exposure and semen quality in fertile US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, S W; Mendiola, J; Bellamy, A R; Levine, H; Wang, C; Sparks, A; Redmon, J B; Drobnis, E Z; Swan, S H

    2016-07-01

    Several experimental and observational studies have demonstrated the antiandrogenicity of several phthalates. However, there is limited evidence of an association between phthalate exposure in adult life and semen quality. The aim of this study was to examine phthalate exposure during adulthood in relation to semen quality in fertile US men. This multi-center cross-sectional study included 420 partners of pregnant women who attended a prenatal clinic in one of five US cities during 1999-2001. Nine phthalate metabolites [mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)], as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono (three carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)] were measured in urine collected at the same time as the semen sample. We regressed natural log-transformed (ln) sperm concentration, ln(total sperm count), ln(total motile sperm count), percent motile spermatozoa, and percent spermatozoa with normal morphology on each of the nine natural log-transformed metabolite concentrations and on the molar-weighted sum of DEHP metabolites in separate models. We fit unadjusted models and models that adjusted for confounders determined a priori. In unadjusted models, ln(MiBP) was significantly and positively associated with motility and ln(MBzP) significantly negatively associated with ln(total sperm count). In adjusted linear models, urinary metabolite concentrations of DEHP, DBP, DEP, and DOP were not associated with any semen parameter. We found an inverse association between ln(MBzP) concentrations and sperm motility (β = -1.47, 95% CI: -2.61, -0.33), adjusted for ln(creatinine concentration), geographic location, age, race, smoking status, stress, recent fever, time from sample collection and time to complete analysis. Several sensitivity

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of early life exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and obesity related outcomes in rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Pim Nicolaas Hubertus; Legler, Juliette

    Background It has been suggested that the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exerts obesogenic effects after pre- or perinatal exposure. Objective A systematic review with meta-analyses was conducted of early life exposure to DEHP, or its biologically active metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)

  3. Antitumour evaluation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) isolated from Calotropis gigantea L. flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Rowshanul; Karim, Muhammad Rezaul

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study is to explore the anticancer activity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) isolated from Calotropis gigantea flower against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. The activity of DEHP was evaluated at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 body mass applied intraperitoneally. DEHP showed a significant decrease in viable cell count (p SALP and SGOT) to normal level. Results of this study indicate that DEHP show potent dose dependent antitumour activity against EAC in vivo.

  4. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  5. Substituted 2,2'-bipyridines by nickel-catalysis: 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Everson, Daniel A; Weix, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    A simple, ligand-free synthesis of the important bipyridyl ligand 4,4'-di- tert -butyl-2,2'-bipyridine is presented. 5,5'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine is also synthesized by the same protocol. The syntheses efficiently couple the parent 2-chlorpyridies by a nickel-catalyzed dimerization with manganese powder as the terminal reductant.

  6. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  7. Determination of phthalate esters from environmental water samples by micro-solid-phase extraction using TiO2 nanotube arrays before high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Fang, Zhi; Liao, Xiangkun

    2015-07-01

    We describe a highly sensitive micro-solid-phase extraction method for the pre-concentration of six phthalate esters utilizing a TiO2 nanotube array coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength ultraviolet visible detector. The selected phthalate esters included dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dioctyl phthalate. The factors that would affect the enrichment, such as desorption solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, extraction time and desorption time, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of the proposed method was 0.3-200 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.04-0.2 μg/L (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of six phthalate esters in water samples and satisfied spiked recoveries were achieved. These results indicated that the proposed method was appropriate for the determination of trace phthalate esters in environmental water samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rupesh K.; Singh, Jeffery M.; Leslie, Tracie C.; Meachum, Sharon; Flaws, Jodi A.; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2010-01-01

    Any insult that affects survival of ovarian antral follicles can cause abnormal estradiol production and fertility problems. Phthalate esters (PEs) are plasticizers used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to reduced fertility in humans and animal models. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) decrease serum estradiol levels and aromatase (Arom) expression, prolong estrous cycles, and cause anovulation in animal and culture models. These observations suggest PEs directly target antral follicles. We therefore tested the hypothesis that DEHP (1-100 μg/ml) and MEHP (0.1-10 μg/ml) directly inhibit antral follicular growth and estradiol production. Antral follicles from adult mice were cultured with DEHP or MEHP, and/or estradiol for 96 h. During culture, follicle size was measured every 24 h as a measurement of follicle growth. After culture, media were collected for measurement of estradiol levels and follicles were subjected to measurement of cylin-D-2 (Ccnd2), cyclin-dependant-kinase-4 (Cdk4), and Arom. We found that DEHP and MEHP inhibited growth of follicles and decreased estradiol production compared to controls at the highest doses. DEHP and MEHP also decreased mRNA expression of Ccnd2, Cdk4, and Arom at the highest dose. Addition of estradiol to the culture medium prevented the follicles from DEHP- and MEHP-induced inhibition of growth, reduction in estradiol levels, and decreased Ccnd2 and Cdk4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that DEHP and MEHP may directly inhibit antral follicle growth via a mechanism that partially includes reduction in levels of estradiol production and decreased expression of cell cycle regulators.

  9. Phthalate esters and childhood asthma: A systematic review and congener-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the congener-specific effects of PAEs on childhood asthma were unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze observational studies on the associations between specific effects of PAEs and the risk of childhood asthma. Relevant studies were identified by searching three databases up to October 20, 2016. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included observational studies that reported risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between phthalate exposure and the risk of childhood asthma. Fixed-effects models were generally applied to calculate pooled risk estimates. When heterogeneity was present, random-effects models were applied. A total of nine studies featuring 43 data points were included in our final meta-analyses. Results indicated that the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure had a significant association with the risk of childhood asthma. The Odd Ratios (ORs) were from 1.39 to 1.41 for different combination strategies. Subgroup analyses by different exposure period or samples used showed that prenatal exposure to BBzP had a stronger association with the risk of childhood asthma (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09-1.75), compared to those with postnatal exposure. Besides, the association was evident when the phthalate exposure was measured from dust samples. The OR for the associations between di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in dust and childhood asthma was 2.71 (95% CI = 1.39-5.28), and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.10-3.92) for BBzP. Our study suggested a positive association between DEHP and BBzP exposure and childhood asthma. Future studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms of the association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Di-tert-butyl-chlorido(N,N-dibenzyl-dithio-carbamato)tin(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Muthalib, Amirah Faizah; Baba, Ibrahim; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2011-02-26

    The Sn(IV) atom in the title diorganotin dithio-carbamate, [Sn(C(4)H(9))(2)(C(15)H(14)NS(2))Cl], is penta-coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithio-carbamate ligand, a Cl atom and two C atoms of the Sn-bound tert-butyl groups. The resulting C(2)ClS(2) donor set defines a coordination geometry inter-mediate between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the former.

  11. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  12. Voltammetric Determination of Nitro Derivative of Synthetic Antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chýlková, J.; Machalický, O.; Tomášková, M.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2016), s. 92-106 ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol * handing drop mercury electrode * nitration Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2016

  13. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  14. Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarfelt, K.; Dalgaard, M.; Hass, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a well-known testicular toxicant inducing adverse effects in androgen responsive tissues. Therefore, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DERA) is currently being evaluated as a potential substitute for DEHP. Similarities in structure and metabolism of DERP and DEHA have...... in the reproductive system than males receiving DERP alone. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......) and retention of nipples in male offspring were found in all three exposed groups. Dosed males exhibited decreased weights of ventral prostate and m. levator ani/bulbocavernosus. Histopathological investigations revealed alterations in testis morphology in both juvenile and adult animals. The litter size...... was decreased and postnatal mortality was increased in the combination group only, which is likely a combined effect of DEHP and DEHA. However, no combination effect was seen with respect to antiandrogenic effects, as males receiving DEHP in combination with DEHA did not exhibit more pronounced effects...

  15. Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ah; Kho, Younglim; Chun, Kyoung Chul; Koh, Jae Whoan; Park, Jeong Woo; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-12-15

    We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma ( n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP)). The log transformed urinary levels of MEHP; MEHHP; 2cx-MMHP; ∑3-DEHP; ∑4-DEHP; and ∑5-DEHP in the leiomyoma group were significantly higher than those of controls. When we adjusted for age; waist circumference; and parity using multiple logistic regression analyses; we found log ∑3-DEHP (OR = 10.82; 95% CI = 1.25; 93.46) and ∑4-DEHP (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 1.03; 75.29) were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma. Our findings suggest an association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. However; larger studies are needed to investigate potential interactions between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma.

  16. 75 FR 18165 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... investigated potential risks posed to children from phthalate plasticizers, especially di(2-ethylhexyl... be exposed to phthalates from many sources, including consumer products, food, cosmetics, medical... the potential health effects (including endocrine disrupting effects) of the full range of phthalates...

  17. Biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and in silico structural characterization of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) hydrolase on the basis of close structural homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Dalal, Vikram; Mahto, Jai Krishna; Kumar, Pravindra

    2017-09-15

    Three bacterial strains capable of degrading phthalates namely Pseudomonas sp. PKDM2, Pseudomonas sp. PKDE1 and Pseudomonas sp. PKDE2 were isolated and characterized for their degradative potential. These strains efficiently degraded 77.4%-84.4% of DMP, 75.0%-75.7% of DEP and 71.7%-74.7% of DEHP, initial amount of each phthalate is 500mgL -1 of each phthalate, after 44h of incubation. GC-MS results reveal the tentative DEHP degradation pathway, where hydrolases mediate the breakdown of DEHP to phthalic acid (PA) via an intermediate MEHP. MEHP hydrolase is a serine hydrolase which is involved in the reduction of the MEHP to PA. The predicted 3D model of MEHP hydrolase from Pseudomonas mosselii was docked with phthalate monoesters (PMEs) such as MEHP, mono-n-hexyl phthalate (MHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-n-ethyl phthalate (MEP), respectively. Docking results show the distance between the carbonyl carbon of respective phthalate monoester and the hydroxyl group of catalytic serine lies in the range of 2.9 to 3.3Å, which is similar to the ES complex of other serine hydrolases. This structural study highlights the interaction and the role of catalytic residues of MEHP hydrolase involved in the biodegradation of PMEs to phthalate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects immune cells from atopic prone mice in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Eiko; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    Phthalate esters as plasticizers have been widespread in the environment and may be associated with development of allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on immune cells from atopic prone NC/Nga mice in vitro. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) as a professional antigen-presenting cell and splenocytes as mixture of immune cells were used. BMDC were differentiated by culture with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the presence of DEHP (0.1-10 μM) for 6 days. In another experiments, BMDC were differentiated by culture with GM-CSF for 8 days then these BMDC were exposed to DEHP (0.1-100 μM) for 24 h. Splenocytes were exposed to DEHP for 24 h (0.1-100 μM) or 72 h (0.1-1000 nM). After the culture, the phenotypic markers and the function of BMDC and splenocytes were evaluated. BMDC differentiated in the presence of DEHP showed enhancement in the expression of MHC class II, CD86, CD11c and DEC205, and in their antigen-presenting activity. On the other hand, the function of the differentiated BMDC was not activated by DEHP although DEHP partly enhanced their expression of DEC205. DEHP-exposed splenocytes showed increases in their TCR and CD3 expression, interleukin-4 production, and antigen-stimulated proliferation. These results demonstrate that DEHP enhances BMDC differentiation but not activation and also enhances Th2 response in splenocytes from atopic prone mice. The enhancement might contribute to the aggravating effect of DEHP on allergic disorders.

  19. Serum phthalate levels and time to pregnancy in couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds...

  20. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP, of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4, free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG.Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%, MnBP (81% and MECPP (86%. Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = -5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97 in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction.We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations.

  1. Urinary phthalate and phthalate alternative metabolites and isoprostane among couples undergoing fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Olmsted, Alexandra; Cantonwine, David E; Shahsavari, Shahin; Rahil, Tayyab; Sites, Cynthia; Pilsner, J Richard

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological data suggest associations between phthalate exposures to a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced sperm quality and reproductive success. While mechanisms of these associations are not fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mediator. We examined associations of urinary metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternative plasticizers with oxidative stress among couples seeking fertility treatment. Seventeen urinary plasticizer metabolites and 15-F2t isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, were quantified in spot samples from 50 couples seeking fertility treatment who enrolled in the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study during 2014-2015. In multivariable analyses, percent change in isoprostane was positively associated with interquartile range increases for the oxidative metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, [mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP; 20.0%, p=0.02), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP; 24.1%, p=0.01), and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP; 24.1%, p=0.004)], mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP; 17.8%, p=0.02), mono-hydroxyisobutyl phthalate (MHiBP; 27.5%, p=0.003), and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono-hydroxy-isononyl ester (MHINCH; 32.3%, p=0.002). Stratification of participants by sex revealed that isoprostane was positively associated with MHiBP (41.4%, p=0.01) and monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCNP; 26.0%, p=0.02) among females and MEOHP (35.8%, p=0.03), MiBP (29.2%, p=0.01), MHiBP (34.7%, p=0.007) and MHINCH (49.0%, p=0.002) among males. Our results suggest that exposure to phthalates and phthalate replacements are associated with higher levels of oxidative stress in a sex-specific manner. Additional studies are needed to replicate our findings and to examine the potential health implications of the use of phthalates and alternative phthalates in consumer end products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. It also demonstrates that uptake...... is sensitive to both the gap between skin and clothing and the time clothing is allowed to adsorb phthalates. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that exposed clothing increases dermal uptake when compared with uptake observed in bare-skin participants. Extension of this model beyond...... the cotton-phthalate system will be challenging until data on partition coefficients are quantified for other combinations of SVOCs, fabric materials and environmental conditions....

  3. (N-Benzyl-N-ethyl-dithio-carbamato)di-tert-butyl-chloridotin(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Muthalib, Amirah Faizah; Baba, Ibrahim; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2011-02-26

    The Sn(IV) atom in the title diorganotin dithio-carbamate, [Sn(C(4)H(9))(2)Cl(C(10)H(12)NS(2))], is penta-coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithio-carbamate ligand, a Cl and two C atoms of the Sn-bound tert-butyl groups. The resulting C(2)ClS(2) donor set defines a coordination geometry inter-mediate between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the former. In the crystal structure, C-H⋯π contacts link centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules into dimeric aggregates.

  4. Study on the interactions PVC/plasticizers by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Monteiro, Elisabeth E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Harris, Robin [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-12-31

    The nature of the interactions between PVC and plasticizers as di-butyl phthalate and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate can be investigated using proton/carbon-13 NMR techniques. The measurements of T{sub 1} for protons and carbon-13 and T{sub 1} P for protons can provide a good source of information about the complex behaviour for those two systems which were investigated. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, G. C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Beko, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent...

  6. Time course of electrophysiologic effects induced by di-n-butyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DBCV) in the adult hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D G; Mattson, A M; Bestervelt, L L; Richardson, R J; Anderson, R J

    1988-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory indicated that di-n-butyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DBCV) produced electrophysiologic changes in hen peripheral nerve that coincided with the development of histopathologic changes and neurologic signs of peripheral neuropathy. The purpose of the present study was to follow the time course for the development of the electrophysiologic changes and to determine whether pretreatment with the phosphinate analog of DBCV (DBCV-P), a nonageable organophosphorus compound, prevented these effects. Although significant electrophysiologic deficits occurred in the tibial and sciatic nerve 24 h after DBCV treatment, the most marked changes coincided with the onset of clinical signs of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (14-21 d). The sciatic and tibial nerves were equally susceptible to DBCV in producing deficits characterized by changes in the relative refractory period and an increased strength-duration threshold. Pretreatment with DBCV-P prevented the clinical signs and also attenuated the electrophysiologic deficits induced by DBCV treatment. These data suggest that electrophysiologic deficits occur before clinical signs of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) and may be indicative of a link between neurotoxic esterase (NTE) inhibition and onset of overt clinical toxicity.

  7. Gold recovery from acidic leach solutions using as extractants trialkylamines of N,N'-di-alkyl-aliphatic amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroncelli, F.; Carlini, D.; Gasparini, G.M.; Simonetti, E.

    1988-07-01

    TriOctylAmine (TOA) and a di-substituted aliphatic amide, N,N-Di-N-ButylOctanamide (DBOA), were examined in batch and in mini mixer-settler experiments using leachates of Peruvian and Bolivian concentrates. With these minerals, very rich in sulfur (pyrites, stybine), 90-95% gold recovery in 12-24 hours was reached by leaching with 4M aqua regia (HCl 3M nitric acid 1M) at room temperature and with 1/3 solid/liquid ratio. With these leachate solutions (2-3M total acidity, 10-60 ppm ao Au), the two processes with TOA (GAMEX PROCESS) and with DBOA (AUMIDEX PROCESS) were tested and compared. Experimental results strongly support the possibility of using TOA and DBOA on an industrial scale.

  8. Review of Phthalates Exposure and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Taghilou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dialkyl- or alkyl/aryl esters of 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, which are known as Phthalates, are high-production volume synthetic chemicals and considered as environmental pollutants, due to high production and uses in community, plastics industry and common consuming products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment. Human exposure with DEHP could be done via different chemical compounds including food packaging, household furnishings, nutritional supplements, cleaning materials and insecticides. Besides, exposure of human with phthalates occurs through different pathways such as direct contact and using Phthalate-containing products, and indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contaminations. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but in all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices are other source of significant exposure in human. Furthermore, cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposure with this compounds. In the present review article, we tried to discuss about metabolism of phthalates in human, toxicity, monitoring of phthalates in foods, environment, and cosmetic products and then metabolites of phthalates. Finally, evaluation of human exposure through biological control is discussed.

  9. Enhanced dimethyl phthalate biodegradation by accelerating phthalic acid di-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingxia; Zhang, Yongming; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Chao; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-12-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is initiated with two hydrolysis reactions that generate an intermediate, phthalic acid (PA), that is further biodegraded through a two-step di-oxygenation reaction. DMP biodegradation is inhibited when PA accumulates, but DMP's biodegradation can be enhanced by adding an exogenous electron donor. We evaluated the effect of adding succinate, acetate, or formate as an exogenous electron donor. PA removal rates were increased by 15 and 30% for initial PA concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6 mM when 0.15 and 0.30 mM succinate, respectively, were added as exogenous electron donor. The same electron-equivalent additions of acetate and formate had the same acceleration impacts on PA removal. Consequently, the DMP-removal rate, even PA coexisting with DMP simultaneously, was accelerated by 37% by simultaneous addition of 0.3 mM succinate. Thus, lowering the accumulation of PA by addition of an electron increased the rate of DMP biodegradation.

  10. Phthalate exposure, flavonoid consumption and breast cancer risk among Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Ortega, Ángel; Hernández-Alcaraz, César; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; García-Martínez, Angélica; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Svensson, Katherine; Cebrián, Mariano E; Franco-Marina, Francisco; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate if selected phthalate exposure and flavonoid intake interact on breast cancer (BC) risk. Interviews and urine samples were obtained from 233 women with histologically confirmed BC and 221 healthy controls matched by age and place of residence, from various states of northern Mexico. Urinary metabolites concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) were determined by solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope dilution/tandem mass spectrometry. Using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, consumption of five types of flavonoids (anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones and flavonols) was estimated according to three food groups: vegetables, fruits and legumes-oil seeds. A higher intake of anthocyanidins and flavan-3-ols (from vegetables), synergistically increased the negative association between BBzP and BC. No other significant flavonoid-phthalate multiplicative interactions on the risk for BC were found. The consumption of some flavonoids may interact with exposure to phthalates on the risk of BC. Epidemiological and underlying mechanisms information is still insufficient and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum phthalate levels and time to pregnancy in couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Olmer Specht

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that have been associated with altered reproductive function in rodents. Several human studies have reported an inverse association between male testosterone and phthalate levels. Our aim was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP according to serum levels of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP metabolites in both partners. In 2002-2004 we enrolled 938 pregnant women and 401 male spouses from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Six oxidized metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were summarized for each of the two parent compounds to provide proxies of the internal exposure. We used Cox discrete-time models to estimate fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for men and women according to their proxy-DEHP or -DiNP serum levels adjusted for a fixed set of covariates. The FR was slightly elevated among women with high levels of DEHP (FR=1.14, 95% CI 1.00;1.30 suggesting a shorter TTP in these women. The FR was unrelated to DiNP in women, whereas the results for men were inconsistent pointing in opposite directions. First-time pregnant women from Greenland with high serum DiNP levels had a longer TTP. This study spanning large contrast in environmental exposure does not indicate adverse effects of phthalates on couple fecundity. The shorter TTP in women with high levels of DEHP metabolites is unexplained and needs further investigation.

  12. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  13. Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane by the Telechelic α,ω-Di(hydroxypoly(n-butyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A key for the preparation of polyacrylate-based polyurethane is the synthesis of hydroxyl-terminated polyacrylate. To our knowledge, exactly one hydroxyl group of every polyacrylate chain has not been reported. The hydroxyl-terminated poly(butyl acrylate (PBA has been successfully synthesized by degenerative iodine transfer polymerization (DITP of the n-butyl acrylate (n-BA using 4,4′-azobis(4-cyano-1-pentanol (ACPO and diiodoxylene (DIX as initiator and chain transfer agent, respectively, and subsequently substituted reaction of the iodine-terminated PBA with β-mercaptoethanol in alkaline condition. The latter reaction was highly efficient, and the terminal iodine at the end of polymer chains were almost quantitatively transformed to a hydroxyl group. 2,2′-Azobis(isobutyronitrile (AIBN and ACPO were used as initiators in the DITPs of n-BA. The results demonstrated that they had a significant influence on the terminal groups of the formed polymer chains. The structure, molecular weight, and molecular weight distribution of the hydroxyl-terminated PBA have been studied by 1H, 13C NMR, and GPC results. The components of hydroxyl-terminated PBA were determined by MALDI-TOF MS spectra, and their formation is discussed. The broad molecular weight distribution of the PBA and the difference in the polymerization behaviors from typical living radical polymerization are explained based on the results of 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF MS spectra. The hydroxyl-terminated PBA has been successfully used in the preparation of PBA-based polyurethane dispersions (PUDs. The aqueous PUDs were stable, and based on the DSC results it can be said that the miscibility of hard segments with PBA chains was improved.

  14. Phthalates might interfere with testicular function by reducing testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Li, Sih-Syuan; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Pan, Hsien-An; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating the secretion of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)? Our study suggests that exposure to phthalates is related to a reduction in the secretion of testosterone and INSL3 in adult males. There is evidence that exposure to phthalates, an abundant group of industrial plasticizers, negatively affects testosterone biosynthesis, but little is known about the mechanism in men. The hypothesis that exposure to phthalates reduces the levels of testosterone and INSL3, a marker of Leydig cell function, is underexplored. This case-control study of 176 men ran from 2010 to 2012. Infertile men were recruited through infertility clinics in Taiwan, fertile men were recruited from childbirth preparation classes and all were categorized based on the World Health Organization definition of infertility and by the diagnoses of obstetricians. Urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were measured, along with serum levels of FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin and Inhibin B. Androgen status indices including free testosterone (fT) and the free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. The circulating INSL3 level was evaluated using a radioimmunoassay. Non-parametric analyses, trend tests and linear regression models were used. Urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were significantly higher in infertile than in fertile men. Serum Inhibin B, the Inhibin B : FSH ratio, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 were significantly lower in infertile men. In multiple regression models controlled for potential confounders, there is an inverse association between urinary levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum TT (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.042 and 0.012, respectively). The inverse associations were also found between urinary levels of MiBP, monobenzyl

  15. Biodegradation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate by Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1 in Contaminated Water and Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Yang; Lei Ren; Yang Jia; Shuanghu Fan; Junhuan Wang; Jiayi Wang; Ruth Nahurira; Haisheng Wang; Yanchun Yan

    2018-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylehxyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most broadly representative phthalic acid esters (PAEs) used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production, and is considered to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. DEHP and its monoester metabolites are responsible for adverse effects on human health. An efficient DEHP-degrading bacterial strain Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1, with super salt tolerance (0–12% NaCl), is the first DEHP-degrader isolated from marine plastic debris found in c...

  16. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...... according to the declared field of application (exposed for 10 days at 40 degrees C). In 47 of the 49 films the migrate contained a substantial amount of DEHA. In 46 films the migration exceeded the specific migration limit of 3 mg/dm(2) after use of the relevant reduction factor given in legislation......) and these films were deemed to be illegal according to their present declared field of application as given by their labelling. In a few cases, some migration of the plasticizer di-n-butyl phthalate was seen....

  17. Analysis of Phthalate Ester Content in PVC Plastics by means of FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride, PVC or [CH2-CHCl]n , is a common polymer used extensively for a wide range of industrial and household products. To achieve the proper material characteristics (e.g. softness, ductility), plasticizers such as phthalates are usually added to the otherwise hard and brittle PVC......, medical devices and toys may harm the e.g. reproductive organs of exposed infants. PVC is readily distinguished from other common polymers (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene) by the use of Raman spectroscopy. By far the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer in PVC is di(2-ethylhexyl......-phenyl group, and as the relative intensities of the six bands vary only slightly from one phthalate ester to the next one we have obtained an identifiable, characteristic fingerprint of the phthalate ester group as a whole. By use of the set of six bands, which are common to all the measured Raman spectra, we...

  18. Relationship of urinary phthalate metabolites with serum thyroid hormones in pregnant women and their newborns: a prospective birth cohort in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Kuo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of phthalates exposure with thyroid function in pregnant women and their newborns.One hundred and forty-eight Taiwanese maternal and infant pairs were recruited from E-Da hospital in southern Taiwan between 2009 and 2010 for analysis. One-spot urine samples and blood samples in the third trimester of pregnant women and their cord blood samples at delivery were collected. Nine phthalate metabolites in urine were determined by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, whereas serum from pregnant women and their cord blood were used to measure thyroid profiles (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine by radioimmunoassay.Median levels of urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (μg/g creatinine were the three highest phthalate metabolites, which were 37.81, 34.51, and 21.73, respectively. Using Bonferroni correction at a significance of < 0.006, we found that urinary mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP levels were significantly and negatively associated with serum TSH in cord blood (β = -2.644, p = 0.003.Maternal urinary MBzP, of which the parental compound is butylbenzyl phthalate, may affect TSH activity in newborns. The alteration of thyroid homeostasis by certain phthalates in the early life, a critical period for neurodevelopment, is an urgent concern.

  19. UV absorption spectra and kinetics for alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals originating from di-tert-butyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.; Langer, S.

    1995-01-01

    Alkyl, (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2, and alkyl peroxy, (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2O2, radicals from di-tert-butyl ether (DTBE), have been studied in the gas phase at 296 K. A pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique was used to measure the spectra and kinetics. Absorption cross sections were quantified over...

  20. Phthalate esters and childhood asthma: A systematic review and congener-specific meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the congener-specific effects of PAEs on childhood asthma were unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze observational studies on the associations between specific effects of PAEs and the risk of childhood asthma. Material and methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching three databases up to October 20, 2016. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included observational studies that reported risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between phthalate exposure and the risk of childhood asthma. Fixed-effects models were generally applied to calculate pooled risk estimates. When heterogeneity was present, random-effects models were applied. Results: A total of nine studies featuring 43 data points were included in our final meta-analyses. Results indicated that the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure had a significant association with the risk of childhood asthma. The Odd Ratios (ORs) were from 1.39 to 1.41 for different combination strategies. Subgroup analyses by different exposure period or samples used showed that prenatal exposure to BBzP had a stronger association with the risk of childhood asthma (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09–1.75), compared to those with postnatal exposure. Besides, the association was evident when the phthalate exposure was measured from dust samples. The OR for the associations between di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in dust and childhood asthma was 2.71 (95% CI = 1.39–5.28), and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.10–3.92) for BBzP. Conclusions: Our study suggested a positive association between DEHP and BBzP exposure and childhood asthma. Future studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms of the association. - Highlights: • We identified the risk associated with different phthalates and childhood asthma. • Pooled analysis showed that BBz

  1. Synthesis, physicochemical, and tribological characterization of S-Di-n-octoxyboron-O,O'-di-n-octyldithiophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz Ullah; Glavatskih, Sergei; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2009-12-01

    Dialkyldithiophosphates (DTPs) of zinc(II), copper(II), and other metals have been extensively used as multifunctional additives in lubricants to control friction and reduce wear in mechanical systems. Among these DTP compounds, zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZnDTPs) are the most common additives extensively used for more than 60 years. These additives form a protective film on steel surfaces and, thus, control friction and reduce wear. However, ZnDTPs contain zinc and large amounts of phosphorus and sulfur, which impair the environment, both directly and indirectly, by adversely affecting the performance of catalytic converters of various automobiles. For this reason, environmental legislation imposes limitations on concentrations of phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc in the lubricants. In this work, we report on zinc-free S-di-n-octoxyboron-O,O'-di-n-octyldithiophosphate (DOB-DTP) lubricant additive with amount of phosphorus and sulfur reduced by half in a molecule as compared with ZnDTPs. DOB-DTP was synthesized by a reaction in two steps under inert nitrogen atmosphere. The final product, a viscous liquid, was characterized by the elemental analysis, FT-IR, multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, (31)P, and (11)B NMR spectroscopy and thermal analyses. Tribological performance of a mineral oil with this new additive was evaluated in comparison with O,O'-di-n-butyl-dithiophosphato-zinc(II) (ZnDTP) using a four-ball tribometer. The surface morphology and the elemental composition of the tribofilms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results show that DOB-DTP has a considerably better antiwear performance and higher stability of the coefficient of friction with time as compared with ZnDTP. Both phosphorus and sulfur were detected by the EDS on the worn steel surfaces at all concentrations of additives in the base oil.

  2. Thermochemical studies on two alkyl-bulky substituted xanthene derivatives: 9,9-dimethylxanthene and 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-dimethylxanthene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Vera L.S.; Gomes, José R.B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energetic characterization of two alkyl-bulky substituted xanthene derivatives. • Massic energies of combustion of xanthene derivatives. • Enthalpies of sublimation determined by vacuum drop microcalorimetry technique. • Temperature-vapour pressure dependence by mass-loss Knudsen effusion method. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation of alkyl xanthene derivatives. - Abstract: Thermodynamic properties of 9,9-dimethylxanthene and 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-dimethylxanthene for the condensed and gas states were derived from experimental and computational studies. Static-bomb combustion calorimetry, vacuum drop microcalorimetry and the Knudsen effusion techniques were used. Computational calculations of the enthalpies of hypothetical reactions in the gaseous phase, using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite method, were performed for the two xanthene derivatives. Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were also performed to ascertain the structure and reactivity of these compounds. The energetic effects caused by replacing hydrogen atoms in the xanthene moiety by methyl and tert-butyl groups yielding 9,9-dimethylxanthene and 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-dimethylxanthene species were determined from direct comparison of their standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K.

  3. Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted.

  4. Occurrence, fate and effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in wastewater treatment plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, M; Drogui, P; Seyhi, B; Brar, S K; Buelna, G; Dubé, R

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, such as Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) are compounds extensively used as plasticizer for long time around the world. Due to the extensive usage, DEHP is found in many surface waters (0.013-18.5 μg/L), wastewaters (0.716-122 μg/L), landfill leachate (88-460 μg/L), sludge (12-1250 mg/kg), soil (2-10 mg/kg). DEHP is persistent in the environment and the toxicity of the byproducts resulting from the degradation of DEHP sometime exacerbates the parent compound toxicity. Water/Wastewater treatment processes might play a key role in delivering safe, reliable supplies of water to households, industry and in safeguarding the quality of water in rivers, lakes and aquifers. This review addresses state of knowledge concerning the worldwide production, occurrence, fate and effects of DEHP in the environment. Moreover, the fate and behavior of DEHP in various treatment processes, including biological, physicochemical and advanced processes are reviewed and comparison (qualitative and quantitative) has been done between the processes. The trends and perspectives for treatment of wastewaters contaminated by DEHP are also analyzed in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Adverse Cardiac Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnack, Nikki Gillum

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of plastics has raised concerns pertaining to continuous exposure to plastic polymers and human health risks. Of particular concern is the use of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in plastic production, including Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and Bisphenol A (BPA). Widespread and continuous exposure to DEHP and BPA occurs through dietary intake, inhalation, dermal and intravenous exposure via consumer products and medical devices. This article reviews the literature examining the relationship between DEHP and BPA exposure and cardiac toxicity. In vitro and in vivo experimental reports are outlined, as well as epidemiological studies which examine the association between these chemicals and cardiovascular outcomes. Gaps in our current knowledge are also discussed, along with future investigative endeavors that may help resolve whether DEHP and/or BPA exposure has a negative impact on cardiovascular physiology. PMID:24811950

  6. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-06-263, Chemical B; CAS No...

  7. Substituted 2,2′-bipyridines by nickel-catalysis: 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Buonomo, Joseph A.; Everson, Daniel A.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, ligand-free synthesis of the important bipyridyl ligand 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine is presented. 5,5′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine is also synthesized by the same protocol. The syntheses efficiently couple the parent 2-chlorpyridies by a nickel-catalyzed dimerization with manganese powder as the terminal reductant.

  8. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone.

  9. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four...... different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor...

  10. Long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on sperm and testicular parameters in Wistar rats offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Moazedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in both developing and adult animals. Objective: This study was designed to assess long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP on reproductive ability of both neonatal and adult male offspring.Materials and Methods: 60 female rats randomly divided in four equal groups; vehicle control and three treatment groups that received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP via gavage during gestation and lactation. At different ages after birth, the volumes of testes were measured by Cavellieri method, testes weights recorded and epididymal sperm samples were assessed for number and gross morphology of spermatozoa. Following tissue processing, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height evaluated with morphometric techniques.Results: Mean testis weight decreased significantly (p<0.05 in 500 mg/kg/day dose group from 28 to 150 days after birth. Significant decreases were seen in total volumes of testis in 100 (p<0.05 and 500 (p<0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups until 150 days after birth. Seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height decreased significantly in 100 (p<0.05 and 500 (p<0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups during postnatal development. Also, mean sperm density in 100 mg/kg/day (p<0.05 and 500 mg/kg/day (p<0.01 doses groups and percent of morphologically normal sperm in highest dose group (p<0.05 decreased significantly until 150 days after birth. Conclusion: Present study showed that maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate during gestation and lactation caused to permanent and dose-related reductions of sperm and testicular parameters in rats offspring

  11. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J; Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W; Dodge, Laura E; Ehrlich, Shelley; Meeker, John D; Calafat, Antonia M; Williams, Paige L

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004-2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ΣDEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of ΣDEHP were -0.19 (-0.29, -0.08) and -0.19 (-0.28, -0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy, and live birth following ART. Hauser R, Gaskins AJ, Souter I, Smith

  12. Predicting Residential Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring - A Mechanistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-room model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring and the evolving gas-phase and adsorbed surface concentrations in a realistic indoor environment. Adsorption isotherms for phthalates and plasticizers on interior ...

  13. Long-term effects of developmental exposure to di-n-butyl-phthalate (DBP) on rat prostate: Proliferative and inflammatory disorders and a possible role of androgens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, Wellerson Rodrigo; Toledo, Fabiola Choqueta de; Guerra, Marina Trevizan; Campos, Silvana Gisele Pegorin de; Junior, Luis Antonio Justulin; Felisbino, Sergio Luis; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A.; Taboga, Sebastiao Roberto; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the toxic effects on the male adult rat prostate of DBP exposure during fetal and lactational periods, because although many studies have addressed the influence of phthalates on the male reproductive system, only a few have discussed their possible effects on prostate development. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: Control (C) and Treated (T). The females of the T group received DBP (100 mg/kg, by gavage) from gestation day 12 to postnatal day 21, while C rats received the vehicle (corn oil). In adulthood (90 days old), the animals were euthanized. The serum and testicular testosterone levels were measured. Ventral prostate was removed and weighed. Distal segment fragments of the ventral prostate were fixed and processed for histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Ki67 antigens. Protein extraction from ventral prostate fragments was performed for AR immunoblotting and Gelatin zymography for MMP-2 and MMP-9 (MMP, metalloproteinase). Stereological and histopathological analyses were also performed. Serum and testicular testosterone levels and prostate weight were comparable between groups. In the T group the relative proportions (%) of epithelial (C = 32.86; T = 42.04*) and stromal (C = 21.61; T = 27.88*) compartments were increased, while the luminal compartment was decreased (C = 45.54; T = 30.08*), *p < 0.05. In T, disseminated inflammatory infiltrate in the stroma, associated or not with epithelial dysplasia and PIN (Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia), was observed. Increases in AR expression, proliferation index and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity were noted in T animals. In some T animals, collagen fibrils accumulated adjacent to the epithelium. As far as we are aware, this is the first report in the literature showing that phthalates could play a role in proliferative and inflammatory disorders of the rat prostate.

  14. Substituted 2,2′-bipyridines by nickel-catalysis: 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonomo, Joseph A.; Everson, Daniel A.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, ligand-free synthesis of the important bipyridyl ligand 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine is presented. 5,5′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine is also synthesized by the same protocol. The syntheses efficiently couple the parent 2-chlorpyridies by a nickel-catalyzed dimerization with manganese powder as the terminal reductant. PMID:25221358

  15. Removal of micropollutants from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption and simultaneous electrocoagulation/electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2017-04-01

    In this work the optimal operating conditions for removing selected micropollutants (also known as emerging contaminants, ECs) from actual municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption (GA) and simultaneous electrocoagulation/electrofiltration (EC/EF) process, respectively, were first determined and evaluated. Then, performance and mechanisms for the removal of selected phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater simultaneously by the GA and EC/EF process were further assessed. ECs of concern included di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cefalexin (CLX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). It was found that GA plus EC/EF process yielded the following removal efficiencies: DnBP, 89 ± 2%; DEHP, 85 ± 3%; ACE, 99 ± 2%; CAF, 94 ± 3%; CLX, 100 ± 0%; and SMX, 98 ± 2%. Carbon adsorption, size exclusion, electrostatic repulsion, electrocoagulation, and electrofiltration were considered as the main mechanisms for the removal of target ECs by the integrated process indicated above.

  16. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cummulative effects of a 9 phthalate mixture using DEHP, DiHP, DiBP, DBP, BBP, DCHP, D(hexyl)P,D(heptyl)P and DPeP on Charles River-Sprague Dawley (CR-SD) fetal rat testis testosterone(T) production and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mixtures of 2 to 5 phthalate esters (PE) with similar modes of action have been shown to inhibit male reproductive development in a dose-additive fashion. Further when PE were administered to pregnant dams during the period of sexual differentiation, when rep...

  18. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  19. Using exposure prediction tools to link exposure and dosimetry for risk-based decisions: A case study with phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A few different exposure prediction tools were evaluated for use in the new in vitro-based safety assessment paradigm using di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) as case compounds. Daily intake of each phthalate was estimated using both high-throughput (HT...

  20. Biodegradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in a typical tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo de Moura Carrara, Silvia Marta; Morita, Dione Mari [Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Boscov, Maria Eugenia Gimenez, E-mail: meboscov@usp.br [Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scarce literature on contamination of tropical soils by phthalates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of mobility of DEHP in a tropical soil by infiltration tests showed that DEHP is retained in the upper layer of the soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low air and water permeability indicate that in situ bioremediation is not feasible for this soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Respirometric tests were inadequate to investigate biodegradation because tropical soils are acidic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slurry-phase reactor with cement mixer provided significant biodegradation (99% in 49 days). - Abstract: The aim of this research was to evaluate the possibility of biodegradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), widely used as an industrial plasticizer and considered an endocrine-disrupting chemical included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority list, in a Brazilian tropical soil, which has not been previously reported in the literature, despite the geographic importance of tropical soils. Preliminary laboratory testing comprised respirometric, air and water permeability, and pilot scale infiltration tests. Standard respirometric tests were found inadequate for studying biodegradation in tropical contaminated soils, due to the effect of the addition of significant amounts of calcium carbonate, necessary to adjust soil pH. Pilot scale infiltration tests performed for 5 months indicated that DEHP was retained in the superficial layer of the soil, barely migrating downwards, whereas air and water permeability tests discarded in situ bioremediation. However, ex situ bioremediation was possible, using a slurry-phase reactor with acclimated microorganisms, in pilot scale tests conducted to remediate a total mass of 150 kg of contaminated soil with 100 mg DEHP/kg. The removal of DEHP in the slurry-phase reactor achieved the percentage of 99% in 49 days, with biodegradation following a first

  1. Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Todd, Tamarra M; Meeker, John D; Huang, Tianyi; Hauser, Russ; Seely, Ellen W; Ferguson, Kelly K; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; McElrath, Thomas F

    2017-03-01

    Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (Pethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications for racial/ethnic differences in adverse

  2. Assessment of Carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a short-term assay using Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Bertram, Margareta; Aarup, V.

    2002-01-01

    The potential of Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice for short-term carcinogenicity assays was evaluated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Groups of 15 male and female Xpa(-/-) mice, received diets containing 0, 1,500, 3, 000, or 6,000 ppm DEHP, and wild-type (WT) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice 0...... 7). The negative carcinogenic response to DEHP and the positive response to p-cresidine support the expected sensitivity to genotoxic carcinogens in these transgenic models....

  3. Contribution to the study of uranyl salts in butyl phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, A.

    1965-06-01

    A spectroscopic study in the normal infrared region and involving the following associations: tri-alkyl phosphates (tri-butyl, tri-ethyl, tri-methyl), uranyl salts (nitrate, chloride, acetate) has confirmed the existence of an interaction between the phosphoryl group and the uranium atom, as shown by a movement of absorption band for the valency P = 0 from ∼ 1270 cm -1 to ∼ 1180 cm -1 . A study of the preparation, analysis and spectroscopy of the solids obtained by the precipitation of uranyl salts by acid butyl phosphates has been carried out. By infrared spectrophotometry it has been shown that the tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates are associated in non-polar diluents even before the uranium is introduced. The extraction of uranyl salts from acid aqueous solutions by a diluted mixture of tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates proceeds by different mechanisms according to the nature of the ion (nitrate or chloride). (author) [fr

  4. Correlations between phthalate metabolites in urine, serum, and seminal plasma from young Danish men determined by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Phthalates are suspected of endocrine disrupting effects. We aimed to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of several phthalate metabolites in human urine, serum, and seminal plasma and to study correlations between levels of metabolites in these matrices. Thirteen metaboli......Phthalates are suspected of endocrine disrupting effects. We aimed to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of several phthalate metabolites in human urine, serum, and seminal plasma and to study correlations between levels of metabolites in these matrices. Thirteen...... metabolites were determined in samples from 60 young Danish men. Metabolites of common di-ester phthalates were detected in most urine samples. Summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites were excreted in urine in the highest amount (median = 91.1 ng/mL), followed by monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono...

  5. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in urine show age-related changes and associations with adiposity and parameters of insulin sensitivity in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri

    Full Text Available Phthalates might be implicated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the levels of primary and secondary metabolites of Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in urine in obese and normal-weight subjects both before and during puberty, and investigated their relationships with auxological parameters and indexes of insulin sensitivity.DEHP metabolites (MEHP, 6-OH-MEHP, 5-oxo-MEHP, 5-OH-MEHP, and 5-CX-MEHP, were measured in urine by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Traditional statistical analysis and a data mining analysis using the Auto-CM analysis were able to offer an insight into the complex biological connections between the studied variables.The data showed changes in DEHP metabolites in urine related with obesity, puberty, and presence of insulin resistance. Changes in urine metabolites were related with age, height and weight, waist circumference and waist to height ratio, thus to fat distribution. In addition, clear relationships in both obese and normal-weight subjects were detected among MEHP, its products of oxidation and measurements of insulin sensitivity.It remains to be elucidated whether exposure to phthalates per se is actually the risk factor or if the ability of the body to metabolize phthalates is actually the key point. Further studies that span from conception to elderly subjects besides further understanding of DEHP metabolism are warranted to clarify these aspects.

  6. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  7. Atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl acrylate catalyzed by atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl acrylate catalyzed by

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Linde, van der R.

    2002-01-01

    The homogeneous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate with CuBr/N-(n-hexyl)-2-pyridylmethanimine as a catalyst and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate as an initiator was investigated. The kinetic plots of ln([M]0/[M]) versus the reaction time for the ATRP systems in different

  8. Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporary diplopia upon hyoscine-N-butyl bromide administration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migliorini R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available R Migliorini, R Malagola, M Mafrici, R Spena, L ArricoDepartment of Sense Organs, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, ItalyAbstract: Hyoscine-N-butyl bromide is a widely used antispasmodic belonging to the belladonna alkaloid class of semisynthetic quaternary ammonium compounds. These compounds exert a spasmolytic action on the smooth muscles of the bile-gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, salivary glands (xerostomia, and also on the visual apparatus – in particular, the irido-ciliary complex. As a consequence, they provoke collateral effects such as mydriasis and accommodation disturbances. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who complained of not only "dry mouth" but also "cloudy vision" and a "diplopia", both of temporary type, 2 hours after oral administration of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide.Keywords: hyoscine-N-butyl bromide, accommodation disorders, temporary diplopia, fusion alteration, vertical strabismus

  10. Structure-activity relationship of immunostimulatory effects of phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Gunnar D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, have been shown to have an adjuvant effect in mice. However, an adjuvant effect, defined as an inherent ability to stimulate the humoral immune response, was only observed after exposure to a limited number of the phthalates. An adjuvant effect may be due to the structure or physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. The scope of this study was to investigate which molecular characteristics that determine the observed adjuvant effect of the most widely used phthalate plasticizer, the di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, which is documented as having a strong adjuvant effect. To do so, a series of nine lipophilic compounds with structural and physicochemical relations to DEHP were investigated. Results Adjuvant effect of phthalates and related compounds were restricted to the IgG1 antibody formation. No effect was seen on IgE. It appears that lipophilicity plays a crucial role, but lipophilicity does not per se cause an adjuvant effect. In addition to lipophilicity, a phthalate must also possess specific stereochemical characteristics in order for it to have adjuvant effect. Conclusion The adjuvant effect of phthalates are highly influenced by both stereochemical and physico-chemical properties. This knowledge may be used in the rational development of plasticizers without adjuvant effect as well as in the design of new immunological adjuvants.

  11. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Pranav; Xue, Jingchuan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: Kurunthachalam.kannan@health.ny.gov [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-11-15

    Resin-based dental sealants (also referred to as pit-and-fissure sealants) have been studied for their contribution to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of other potentially toxic chemicals in dental sealants. In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), was examined in 63 dental sealant products purchased from the U.S. market. BHT was found in all dental sealants at median and maximum concentrations of 56.8 and 1020 µg/g, respectively. The metabolites of BHT and BHA were detected in 39–67% of samples, at concentration ranges of di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentration of up to 1020 µg/g was found. • Estimated daily intake of BHT after sealant placement was up to 9.52 µg/kg bw/d. • Daily intake of BHT through dental sealant application was below the acceptable daily intake.

  12. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Pranav; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based dental sealants (also referred to as pit-and-fissure sealants) have been studied for their contribution to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of other potentially toxic chemicals in dental sealants. In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), was examined in 63 dental sealant products purchased from the U.S. market. BHT was found in all dental sealants at median and maximum concentrations of 56.8 and 1020 µg/g, respectively. The metabolites of BHT and BHA were detected in 39–67% of samples, at concentration ranges of di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentration of up to 1020 µg/g was found. • Estimated daily intake of BHT after sealant placement was up to 9.52 µg/kg bw/d. • Daily intake of BHT through dental sealant application was below the acceptable daily intake.

  13. Di-tert-butyl­chlorido(N,N-dibenzyl­dithio­carbamato)tin(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Muthalib, Amirah Faizah; Baba, Ibrahim; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The SnIV atom in the title diorganotin dithio­carbamate, [Sn(C4H9)2(C15H14NS2)Cl], is penta­coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithio­carbamate ligand, a Cl atom and two C atoms of the Sn-bound tert-butyl groups. The resulting C2ClS2 donor set defines a coordination geometry inter­mediate between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the former. PMID:21522304

  14. The risk of missed abortion associated with the levels of tobacco, heavy metals and phthalate in hair of pregnant woman: A case control study in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ranran; Wu, Yuelian; Zhao, Fangfang; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Wei, Jinlian; Ruan, Chong; Huang, Mingli; Deng, Jinghuan; Huang, Dongping; Qiu, Xiaoqiang

    2017-12-01

    To assess the association between exposure to the tobacco, heavy metals and phthalate on early pregnancy and missed abortion.42 women with missed abortion and 57 matched controls (women with normal pregnancies) were recruited between March and May 2012, from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and the People Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The questionnaire survey was carried on to learn about the basic conditions, as well as smoking history of all participants. The levels of tobacco, heavy metal, and phthalate exposure were compared between the 2 groups by measuring nicotine, cocaine, cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), plumbum (Pb) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the hair samples.Out results showed that significant differences in age (P = .042), premarital examination (P = .041), passive smoking (P = .021), and heavy metal exposure (P = .022) were found in the case group compared to the control. In addition, the concentration of nicotine (P = .037), cotinine (P = .018), Cd (P = .01), Pb (P = .038) and DEHP (P = .001) in the hair were significantly higher in the case group. Furthermore, logistic analysis revealed that age [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.172, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.036-1.327], Cd (OR 8.931, 95% CI 2.003-39.811), Cotinine (OR 4.376, 95% CI 1.159-16.531), DEHP (OR 1.863, 95% CI 1.103-3.146) were important factors contributing to the missed abortion (P < .05).It was demonstrated that high gestational age, passive smoking, heavy metals, and the phthalate exposure were the risk factors for missed abortion, while the premarital health examination was a protective factor. Avoiding these harmful substances before getting pregnant and during the early stages of pregnancy, might help prevent missed abortions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  15. Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites and Pregnancy Loss Among Women Conceiving with Medically Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Carmen; Wylie, Blair J; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Souter, Irene C; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2016-11-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that several phthalates are embryofetotoxic and are associated with increased pregnancy loss and malformations. Results from human studies on phthalates and pregnancy loss are inconsistent. We examined pregnancy loss prospectively in relation to urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among women undergoing medically assisted reproduction. We used data from 256 women conceiving 303 pregnancies recruited between 2004 and 2012 from the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. We quantified 11 phthalate metabolite concentrations and calculated the molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (ΣDEHP). We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals for biochemical loss and total pregnancy loss (assisted reproduction.

  16. Silver di-t-butyl phosphate, a useful reagent in the synthesis of phospholipids. Synthesis of mixed-acid phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerolphosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, P.P.M.; Haas, Gerard H. de

    The synthesis of silver di-t-butyl phosphate is described. Using this reagent, mixed-acid phosphatidic acid with one unsaturated fatty acid could be prepared by means of a reaction with a 1,2-diacyl glycerol-3-iodohydrin. The blocking groups could be removed easily with dry hydrogen chloride at low

  17. Exposure Estimation for Risk Assessment of the Phthalate Incident in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chih Chen

    Full Text Available In May 2011, di(2-ethylhexyl phthalates (DEHP and, to a lesser extent, di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP were found to have been illegally used for many years in Taiwan as clouding agents in foods including sports drinks, juice beverages, tea drinks, fruit jam/nectar/jelly, and health or nutrient supplements.To estimate the DEHP exposure for the study participants for the follow-up epidemiological study and health risk assessment.A total of 347 individuals possibly highly exposed to phthalate-tainted foods participated in the study. Exposure assessment was performed based on the participants' responses to a structured questionnaire, self-report of exposure history, urinary metabolite concentrations, and DEHP concentration information in 2449 food records. A Bayesian statistical approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was employed to deal with the uncertainties in the DEHP concentrations of the contaminated foods and the participants' likelihood of being exposed.An estimated 37% and 15% of children younger than 12 years old were exposed to DEHP at medium (20-50 μg / kg_bw / day and high AvDIs (50-100 μg / kg_bw / day, respectively, prior to the episode (9% and 3% in adults, respectively. Moreover, 11% of children and 1% of adults were highly exposed (> 100 μg / kg_bw / day, with a maximum of 414.1 μg / kg_bw / day and 126.4 μg / kg_bw / day, respectively.The phthalate exposure-associated adverse health effects for these participants warrant further investigation. The estimation procedure may be applied to other exposure assessment with various sources of uncertainties.

  18. Predicting Residential Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizer Emitted from Vinyl Flooring: Sensitivity, Uncertainty, and Implications for Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the ubiquitous nature of phthalates in the environment and the potential for adverse human health impacts, there is a need to understand the potential human exposure. A three-compartment model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) f...

  19. The use tri-n-butyl phosphate in plutonium extraction. Radiolysis and recycling of the solvent (1963); Le phosphate de tri-n-butyle dans l'extraction du plutonium. Radiolyse et recyclage du solvant (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The work concerns the radiolysis and recycling of tri-n-butyl phosphate used as extraction solvent for plutonium. The radiolysis is studied on an industrial solvent using a cobalt 60 source. Figures are given for the yield of the mono- and di-butyl-phosphoric acids formed from the dry and water-saturated solvents and the influence of nitric acid on the formation of dibutyl-phosphoric acid is indicated. The recycling treatment of the solvent is reconsidered with a view to lowering the residual contamination due to fission products. The tests carried out on a solvent from the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule show the efficiency of the sodium carbonate treatment. Of all the products studied, only caustic soda led to a better decontamination than sodium carbonate; in all cases however, the elimination of ruthenium is always incomplete. (author) [French] L'etude porte sur la radiolyse et le recyclage du phosphate de tri-n-butyle utilise comme solvant d'extraction du plutonium. La radiolyse est etudiee sur un solvant industriel a l'aide d'une source de cobalt 60. On donne les rendements de formation des acides mono- et dlbutylphosphoriques a partir de solvants secs et satures d'eau, et on montre l'influence de l'acide nitrique sur la formation de l'acide dibutylphosphorique. Le traitement de recyclage du solvant est repris en vue d'abaisser la contamination residuelle en produits de fission. Les essais, effectues sur un solvant provenant de l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, montrent l'efficacite du traitement au carbonate de sodium. De tous les reactifs etudies, seule la soude a donne une decontamination superieure au carbonate de sodium; mais dans tous les cas, l'elimination du ruthenium est toujours incomplete. (auteur)

  20. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Phillips, Cassandra A; Mitro, Susanna D

    2016-10-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food. To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S. We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression. We observed evidence of a positive, dose-response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake. Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies. Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521-1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803.

  1. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  2. Biodegradation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate by Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1 in Contaminated Water and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylehxyl phthalate (DEHP is one of the most broadly representative phthalic acid esters (PAEs used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC production, and is considered to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. DEHP and its monoester metabolites are responsible for adverse effects on human health. An efficient DEHP-degrading bacterial strain Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1, with super salt tolerance (0–12% NaCl, is the first DEHP-degrader isolated from marine plastic debris found in coastal saline seawater. Strain YC-YT1 completely degraded 100 mg/L DEHP within three days (pH 7.0, 30 °C. According to high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, DEHP was transformed by strain YC-YT1 into phthalate (PA via mono (2-ethylehxyl phthalate (MEHP, then PA was used for cell growth. Furthermore, YC-YT1 metabolized initial concentrations of DEHP ranging from 0.5 to 1000 mg/L. Especially, YC-YT1 degraded up to 60% of the 0.5 mg/L initial DEHP concentration. Moreover, compared with previous reports, strain YC-YT1 had the largest substrate spectrum, degrading up to 13 kinds of PAEs as well as diphenyl, p-nitrophenol, PA, benzoic acid, phenol, protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, catechol, and 1,2,3,3-tetrachlorobenzene. The excellent environmental adaptability of strain YC-YT1 contributed to its ability to adjust its cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH so that 79.7–95.9% of DEHP-contaminated agricultural soil, river water, coastal sediment, and coastal seawater were remedied. These results demonstrate that R. ruber YC-YT1 has vast potential to bioremediate various DEHP-contaminated environments, especially in saline environments.

  3. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    2010-01-01

    Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation...... producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four...... of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food...

  4. (N-Benzyl-N-ethyl­dithio­carbamato)di-tert-butyl­chloridotin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Muthalib, Amirah Faizah; Baba, Ibrahim; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The SnIV atom in the title diorganotin dithio­carbamate, [Sn(C4H9)2Cl(C10H12NS2)], is penta­coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithio­carbamate ligand, a Cl and two C atoms of the Sn-bound tert-butyl groups. The resulting C2ClS2 donor set defines a coordination geometry inter­mediate between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the former. In the crystal structure, C—H⋯π contacts link centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules into dimeric aggregates...

  5. Effect of Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process-Anaerobic digestion treatment on concentrations on phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of the recently implemented Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process™-Anaerobic Digestion (TH-AD) solids treatment method on concentrations of 4 phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge samples was explored in this study. Samples were analysed for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthal...

  6. Identification of di(ethylhexyl) phthalate as impurity in the analysis by using chromatography gas tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Hendarsyah, Hendris; Salahuddin, Ariani, Novita

    2017-01-01

    Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer commonly used in plastics. Physically DEHP has a low vapor pressure. DEHP can seep into the liquid in direct contact with the plastic wrapping materials, and typically can occur rapidly if extractable into food or non-polar solvents, such as oil, once the food is packaged in PVC packaging materials. DEHP has been analyzed by using gas chromatography which has a high sensitivity level. If the equipment used for the analysis is made from plastic containing DEHP, then it may be possible that DEHP can be extracted and appear on the outcome of the injection. It can interfere with the process of analysis, especially for the analysis of food samples. This study has identified the present of DEHP in the blank injection performed by Gas Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring mode (SIM). Researchers are required to verify whether the gas chromatographic system used is ready for the analysis process. In addition, the comparison and calculation of the intensity of the ion fragmentation spectra generated by mass spectrometry detector can be used for the qualitative determination to ensure the presence of the target compound. In this study is also discussed the differences between the high-intensity fragmentation of DEHP and dioctyl phthalate (DOP).

  7. Degradation and impact of phthalate plasticizers on soil microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, C.D.; Thompson, I.P.; Burns, R.G.

    2000-05-01

    To assess the impact of phthalates on soil microorganisms and to supplement the environmental risk assessment for these xenobiotics, soil was treated with diethyl phthalate (DEP) or di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) at 0.1 to 100 mg/g. Bioavailability and membrane disruption were proposed as the characteristics responsible for the observed fate and toxicity of both compounds. Diethyl phthalate was biodegraded rapidly in soil with a half-life of 0.75 d at 20 C, and was not expected to persist in the environment. The DEHP, although biodegradable in aqueous solution, was recalcitrant in soil, because of poor bioavailability and was predicted to account for the majority of phthalate contamination in the environment. Addition of DEP or DEHP to soil at a concentration similar to that detected in nonindustrial environments had no impact on the structural diversity or functional diversity (BIOLOG) of the microbial community. At concentrations representative of a phthalate spill, DEP reduced numbers of both total culturable bacteria and pseudomonads within 1 d. This was due to disruption of membrane fluidity by the lipophilic phthalate, a mechanism not previously attributed to phthalates. However, DEHP had no effect on the microbial community or membrane fluidity, even at 100 mg/g, and was predicted to have no impact on microbial communities in the environment.

  8. Model studies of migration from paper and board into fruit and vegetables and into Tenax as a food simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Speck, D R

    2014-01-01

    Four samples of paper and board (P/B) of a type used for packaging dry foods were subjected to migration tests using mushrooms, apples, potatoes and bananas, and using the polymeric powder Tenax as a food simulant. The P/B samples contained only low levels of diisopropylnaphthalene (DiPN) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) and so the experiments were conducted after impregnating the P/B with added model substances. These were o-xylene, acetophenone, dodecane, benzophenone, DiPN and DiBP. Migration levels depended strongly on the nature of the substance and on the nature of the food and much less on the characteristics of the P/B, except insofar as they affected the contact area - flexible papers giving more extensive contact with the food than thick rigid board. Migration into Tenax was at least a factor of 10 higher than migration into the fresh fruit and vegetables. The food samples were placed in contact with the P/B and then overwrapped loosely with aluminium foil and so this correction factor will tend to be conservative compared with a more open storage of the packed foods. Washing, peeling or cooking the fruits and vegetables after contact with the P/B had a surprisingly small effect on contaminant levels in general, and no one processing step was effective in giving a significant reduction of all the types of chemicals studied. This was because either they had penetrated into the food (so resisting peeling), or were not freely water-soluble (so resisting washing) or were not particularly volatile (so resisting loss by evaporation during cooking).

  9. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R.; Phillips, Cassandra A.; Mitro, Susanna D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food. Objective: To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S. population. Methods: We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression. Results: We observed evidence of a positive, dose–response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake. Conclusion: Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies. Citation: Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521–1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803 PMID:27072648

  10. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; Mendez, Michelle A; Richardson, David B; Daniels, Julie L; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S; Herring, Amy H

    2016-04-01

    Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: -5.99, -0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child's sex. Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4-9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM, Wolff MS, Herring AH. 2016. Prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat

  11. Ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME)-a fast new approach to measure phthalate metabolites in nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A new, fast, and environmentally friendly method based on ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) was developed and optimized for assessing the levels of seven phthalate metabolites (including the mono(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP)) in human nails by UPLC-MS/MS. The optimization of the US-DLLME method was performed using a Taguchi combinatorial design (L9 array). Several parameters such as extraction solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, acid, acid concentration, and vortex time were studied. The optimal extraction conditions achieved were 180 μL of trichloroethylene (extraction solvent), 2 mL trifluoroacetic acid in methanol (2 M), 2 h extraction and 3 min vortex time. The optimized method had a good precision (6-17 %). The accuracy ranged from 79 to 108 % and the limit of method quantification (LOQm) was below 14 ng/g for all compounds. The developed US-DLLME method was applied to determine the target metabolites in 10 Belgian individuals. Levels of the analytes measured in nails ranged between <12 and 7982 ng/g. The MEHP, MBP isomers, and MEP were the major metabolites and detected in every sample. Miniaturization (low volumes of organic solvents used), low costs, speed, and simplicity are the main advantages of this US-DLLME based method. Graphical Abstract Extraction and phase separation of the US-DLLME procedure.

  12. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. (N-Benzyl-N-ethyl­dithio­carbamato)di-tert-butyl­chloridotin(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Muthalib, Amirah Faizah; Baba, Ibrahim; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The SnIV atom in the title diorganotin dithio­carbamate, [Sn(C4H9)2Cl(C10H12NS2)], is penta­coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithio­carbamate ligand, a Cl and two C atoms of the Sn-bound tert-butyl groups. The resulting C2ClS2 donor set defines a coordination geometry inter­mediate between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the former. In the crystal structure, C—H⋯π contacts link centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules into dimeric aggregates. PMID:21522295

  14. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  15. t-Butyl group-substituted triphenylamine-containing orange-red fluorescent emitters for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Chi Sik [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Efficient orange-red fluorescent compounds, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-adamantyl-6-(4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl) -N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene)vinyl-4H-pyran (DCATP) and 2,6-bis[4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene] vinyl-4-(dicyanomethylene)-4H-pyran (BDCTP) containing the tert-butylated triphenylamine in donor moieties, were synthesized and characterized. In these red emitters, bulky groups, such as t-butyl group and adamantane were introduced to increase the steric hindrance between the red emitters. In particular, an efficient orange-red device containing the emitter DCATP as a dopant showed a luminous and power efficiency of 6.87 cd/A and 2.70 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} with the CIE coordinates of (0.48, 0.50) at 7.0 V. In addition, an efficient red organic light-emitting diode using BDCTP as a dopant exhibited a luminous and power efficiency of 2.30 cd/A and 1.31 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and CIE coordinates of (0.61, 0.39). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two orange-red emitters with t-butylated triphenylamine derivatives were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in electron D-A and electron D-A-D type in the terminal groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron D-A-D type material shows improved color chromaticity.

  16. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  17. Effect of Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol blended cotton seed methyl ester fuelled automotive diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Senthil; Raj, R. Thundil Karuppa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of di-tertiary butyl peroxide on ethanol blended biodiesel is investigated. • Cetane enhanced ethanol up to 10% can be blended with cotton seed biodiesel. • Nitrogen oxides emissions are lower for cetane enhanced ethanol biodiesels. • Performance characteristics of cetane improved ethanol biodiesels are reasonable. • Cetane enhanced ethanol blended biodiesel is an promising renewable energy source. - Abstract: An experimental study is carried out to examine and analyze the influence of Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide in bioethanol diesel blends on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics in a single cylinder, 4-stroke, naturally aspirated, automotive diesel engine for variable speed at full load conditions. Esterified cotton seed oil of 5% by volume is emulsified with 95% pure diesel to get the base fuel (BE0) for the experiments. Bioethanol diesel blends are produced from base fuel by adding 5% and 10% pure ethanol on a volumetric basis to obtain BE5 and BE10 respectively. The bioethanol fuels are low in Cetane number and hence Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide a Cetane enhancer is added by 0.4% by volume to produce BE5CN0.4% and BE10CN0.4% emulsions respectively. It is found from the experiments carried out, that an inverse trend exists between brake thermal efficiency and percentage of ethanol in base fuel. This is due to the lower calorific value of ethanol and an improvement in brake thermal efficiency is observed with ignition improver added blends. The presence of Cetane improver significantly reduced oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydro carbon emissions for overall engine speed and carbon monoxide emissions for low to medium speed range.

  18. Childhood Exposure to Phthalates: Associations with Thyroid Function, Insulin-like Growth Factor I, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties. Objective We aimed to assess concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and to investigate the associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and growth. Methods In 845 children 4–9 years of age, we determined urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and IGF-I. Results Phthalate metabolites were detected in all urine samples, of which monobutyl phthalate was present in highest concentration. Phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with serum levels of free and total triiodothyronine, although statistically significant primarily in girls. Metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisononyl phthalate were negatively associated with IGF-I in boys. Most phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with height, weight, body surface, and height gain in both sexes. Conclusions Our study showed negative associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and thyroid hormones, IGF-I, and growth in children. Although our study was not designed to reveal the mechanism of action, the overall coherent negative associations between urine phthalate and thyroid and growth parameters may suggest causative negative roles of phthalate exposures for child health. PMID:20621847

  19. [Identification of migrants from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Wakui, Chiseko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are restricted for food contact use. In their place, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used in contact with foodstuffs. Some unknown substances were found to migrate into n-heptane from NBR gloves. By GC/MS, HR-MS and NMR, their chemical structures were confirmed to be 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (used as a plasticizer), 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol), a mixture of styrenated phenols consisting of 2-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 4-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,6-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,4-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol and 2,4,6-tri(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol (used as antioxidants), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which seems to a degradation product of antioxidant. Migration levels of these compounds were 1.68 micrograms/cm2 of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 2.80 micrograms/cm2 of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, 46.08 micrograms/cm2 of styrenated phenols and 4.22 micrograms/cm2 of 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol) into n-heptane, respectively. The content of total styrenated phenols was 6,900 micrograms/g in NBR gloves.

  20. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the possible deleterious effects of phthalate exposure on endogenous sex steroid levels in children. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether urinary phthalate metabolite levels are associated with circulating adrenal androgen levels and age at puberty....... Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate...... diesters were determined. A variation in urinary excretion of phthalates was evident in each child, which made a mean of repetitive samples more representative for long-term excretion than a single determination. Results: We found that girls with excretion of monobutyl phthalate isomers (MBP) and di(2...

  2. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used

  3. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age (±5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR T3vs.T1 =2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR T3vs.T1 =2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: → This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. → Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used to determine

  4. Blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its primary metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Grote, Konstanze; Csanady, Gyoergy A.; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Filser, Johannes G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the dose-dependent blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets is presented. Sprague-Dawley rats and marmosets were treated orally with 30 or 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, nonpregnant animals on 7 (rats) and 29 (marmosets) consecutive days, pregnant animals on gestation days 14-19 (rats) and 96-124 (marmosets). In addition, rats received a single dose of 1000 mg DEHP/kg. Blood was collected up to 48 h after dosing. Concentrations of DEHP and MEHP in blood were determined by GC/MS. In rats, normalized areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of DEHP were two orders of magnitude smaller than the normalized AUCs of the first metabolite MEHP. Metabolism of MEHP was saturable. Repeated DEHP treatment and pregnancy had only little influence on the normalized AUC of MEHP. In marmosets, most of MEHP concentration-time courses oscillated. Normalized AUCs of DEHP were at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of MEHP. In pregnant marmosets, normalized AUCs of MEHP were similar to those in nonpregnant animals with the exception that at 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, the normalized AUCs determined on gestation days 103, 117, and 124 were distinctly smaller. The maximum concentrations of MEHP in blood of marmosets were up to 7.5 times and the normalized AUCs up to 16 times lower than in rats receiving the same daily oral DEHP dose per kilogram of body weight. From this toxicokinetic comparison, DEHP can be expected to be several times less effective in the offspring of marmosets than in that of rats if the blood burden by MEHP in dams can be regarded as a dose surrogate for the MEHP burden in their fetuses

  5. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    n-Butyl Alcohol is a primary aliphatic alcohol historically used as a solvent in nail care cosmetic products, but new concentration of use data indicate that it also is being used at low concentrations in eye makeup, personal hygiene, and shaving cosmetic products. n-Butyl Alcohol has been generally recognized as safe for use as a flavoring substance in food and appears on the 1982 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of inactive ingredients for approved prescription drug products. n-Butyl Alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. n-Butyl Alcohol may be formed by hydrolysis of butyl acetate in the blood, but is rapidly oxidized. The single oral dose LD(50) of n-Butyl Alcohol for rats was 0.79 to 4.36 g/kg. The dermal LD(50) for rabbits was 4.2 g/kg. Inhalation toxicity studies in humans demonstrate sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but only at levels above 3000 mg/m(3). Animal studies demonstrate intoxication, restlessness, ataxia, prostration, and narcosis. Exposures of rats to levels up to 4000 ppm failed to produce hearing defects. High concentrations of n-Butyl Alcohol vapors can be fatal. Ocular irritation was observed for n-Butyl alcohol at 0.005 ml of a 40% solution. The behavioral no-effect dose for n-Butyl Alcohol injected subcutaneously (s.c.) was 120 mg/kg. Fetotoxicity has been demonstrated, but only at maternally toxic levels (1000 mg/kg). No significant behavioral or neurochemical effects were seen in offspring following either maternal or paternal exposure to 3000 or 6000 ppm. n-Butyl Alcohol was not mutagenic in Ames tests, did not induce sister-chromatid exchange or chromosome breakage in chick embryos or Chinese hamster ovary cells, did not induce micronuclei formation in V79 Chinese hamster cells, did not have any chromosome-damaging effects in a mouse micronucleus test, and did not impair chromosome distribution in the course of mitosis. Clinical testing of n-Butyl Alcohol for

  6. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits growth of mouse ovarian antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbasava2@illinois.edu; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-01-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer that has been shown to inhibit growth of mouse antral follicles, however, little is known about the mechanisms by which DEHP does so. Oxidative stress has been linked to follicle growth inhibition as well as phthalate-induced toxicity in non-ovarian tissues. Thus, we hypothesized that DEHP causes oxidative stress and that this leads to inhibition of the growth of antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice (age 31–35 days) were cultured with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) ± N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant at 0.25–1 mM). During culture, follicles were measured daily. At the end of culture, follicles were collected and processed for in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays to measure the presence of free radicals or for measurement of the expression and activity of various key antioxidant enzymes: Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that DEHP inhibits the growth of follicles compared to DMSO control and that NAC (0.25–1 mM) blocks the ability of DEHP to inhibit follicle growth. Furthermore, DEHP (10 μg/ml) significantly increases ROS levels and reduces the expression and activity of SOD1 compared to DMSO controls, whereas NAC (0.5 mM) rescues the effects of DEHP on ROS levels and SOD1. However, the expression and activity of GPX and CAT were not affected by DEHP treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that DEHP inhibits follicle growth by inducing production of ROS and by decreasing the expression and activity of SOD1. -- Highlights: ► DEHP inhibits growth and increases reactive oxygen species in ovarian antral follicles in vitro. ► NAC rescues the effects of DEHP on the growth and reactive oxygen species levels in follicles. ► DEHP decreases the expression and activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which can be rescued by NAC, in antral

  7. [A cohort study on association between the first trimester phthalates exposure and fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Gao, H; Huang, K; Xu, Y Y; Sheng, J; Tao, F B

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To examine the association between the phthalate exposure in the first trimester and fasting blood glucose level or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the third trimester in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women, receiving their prenatal examination in Ma' anshan Maternal and Child Health-Care Hospital of Anhui province, were selected from May 2013 to September 2014. Questionnaires were used to collect the information about their socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics and GDM diagnostic results in the first, second and third trimesters. Urine samples and fasting venous blood samples were collected. Concentrations of 7 kinds of phthalate metabolites in urine samples were detected by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS), and multiple linear regression model was used for statistical analyses. Logistic regression analysis on the risk of the first trimester phthalate exposure for GDM in the third trimester was conducted. Results: The prevalence of GDM in this study was 12.8%, monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) exposure levels were positively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P levels were negatively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P blood glucose level in both normal group and GDM group. However, MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP, MEHP and MEOHP exposure levels had influences on the third trimester fasting blood glucose level in normal group but not in GDM group. MMP and MBP exposure might increase the risk of GDM, but MEOHP exposure might reduce the risk of GDM. Conclusion: The phthalate exposure in the first trimester might be associated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester, MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHHP concentrations were positively

  8. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katherine; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Burguete-García, Ana; Cebrián, Mariano E; Calafat, Antonia M; Needham, Larry L; Claudio, Luz; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2011-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age (±5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR(T3 vs. T1)=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR(T3 vs. T1)=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children's airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Allan C; Miller, Rachel L; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Rundle, Andrew G; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E; Calafat, Antonia M; Perera, Frederica P; Whyatt, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. Although DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (i) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (ii) a 2-week home indoor air sample, and (iii) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category "vinyl or linoleum" flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m(3)) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m(3)). Children from homes with "vinyl or linoleum" flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman's rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children's exposure to BBzP via indoor air.

  10. Intake of phthalate-tainted foods alters thyroid functions in Taiwanese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ≤10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. METHODS: One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1-500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP. After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. RESULTS: Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels (P = 0.001 and 0.024. At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3 levels was significantly changed (P = 0.034 in high exposure group (n = 13. For serum estradiol (E2, the detectable rate (≥8 pg/mL decreased from 76.9% (10/13 to 30.8% (4/13 (P = 0.070. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure.

  11. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the use of phthalates in perfumes has gained attention because these chemicals are sometimes added intentionally as a solvent and a fixative. Five phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were measured in 47 branded perfumes using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed considerable amounts of phthalate in all 47 brands with detection frequencies > limit of quantitation in the following order: DEP (47/47) > DMP (47/47) > BBP (47/47) > DEHP (46/47) > DBP (23/45). Of the 47 brands, 68.1, 72.3, 85.1, 36.2, and 6.7 % had DEP, DMP, BBP, DEHP, and DBP levels, respectively, above their reported threshold limits. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.625 ppm) and a maximum of 23,649.247 ppm. The use of DEP in the perfume industry is not restricted because it does not pose any known health risks for humans. DMP had the second highest level detected in the perfumes, with a mean value of 30.202 ppm and a maximum of 405.235 ppm. Although DMP may have some uses in cosmetics, it is not as commonly used as DEP, and again, there are no restrictions on its use. The levels of BBP were also high, with a mean value of 8.446 ppm and a maximum of 186.770 ppm. Although the EU banned the use of BBP in cosmetics, 27 of the tested perfumes had BBP levels above the threshold limit of 0.1 ppm. The mean value of DEHP found in this study was 5.962 ppm, and a maximum was 147.536 ppm. In spite of its prohibition by the EU, 7/28 perfumes manufactured in European countries had DEHP levels above the threshold limit of 1 ppm. The DBP levels were generally low, with a mean value of 0.0305 ppm and a maximum value of 0.594 ppm. The EU banned the use of DBP in cosmetics; however, we found three brands that were above the

  12. Bisphenol and phthalate concentrations and its determinants among pregnant women in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands, 2004–5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Santos, Susana; Trasande, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Background Exposure to bisphenols and phthalates in pregnancy may lead to adverse health effects in women themselves and their offspring. Objective To describe first trimester bisphenol and phthalate urine concentrations, including bisphenol and phthalate replacements, and determine nutritional, socio-demographic and lifestyle related determinants. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort of 1396 mothers, we measured first trimester bisphenol, phthalate and creatinine urine concentrations (samples collected in 2004–2005, median gestational age 12.9 weeks [inter-quartile range (IQR) 12.1–14.4]). We examined associations of potential determinants with log-transformed bisphenol and phthalate concentrations. Outcomes were back-transformed. Nutritional analyses were performed in a subgroup of 642 Dutch participants only, as the Food Frequency Questionnaire was aimed at Dutch food patterns. Results Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and bisphenol F were detected in 79.2%, 67.8% and 40.2% of the population, respectively. Mono-n-butylphthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate and monobenzylphthalate were detected in > 90% of the population. Nutritional intake was not associated with bisphenol and phthalate concentrations after correction for multiple testing was applied. Obesity was associated with higher high-molecular-weight phthalate concentrations and the lack of folic acid supplement use with higher di-n-octylphthalate concentrations (respective mean differences were 46.73 nmol/l [95% CI 14.56–93.72] and 1.03 nmol/l [0.31–2.06]). Conclusion Bisphenol S and F exposure was highly prevalent in pregnant women in the Netherlands as early as 2004–5. Although associations of dietary and other key factors with bisphenol and phthalate concentrations were limited, adverse lifestyle factors including obesity and the lack of folic acid supplement use seem to be associated with higher phthalate concentrations in pregnant women. The major limitation was the

  13. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte

  14. Early-Life Phthalate Exposure and Adiposity at 8 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaff, Jessica; Papandonatos, George D; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Yolton, Kimberly; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-09-11

    Early-life phthalate exposure may influence child adiposity, but prior studies have not determined if there are periods of enhanced vulnerability to phthalates. To examine the relationship between child adiposity at 8 y of age and repeated urinary biomarkers of phthalate exposure from gestation through childhood to determine if there are distinct periods of vulnerability. In 219 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio, we quantified nine urinary phthalate metabolites up to two times prenatally and six times from 1-8 y of age. We measured child body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat at 8 y of age. To identify periods of vulnerability, we used two statistical methods to estimate phthalate-adiposity associations at each visit, test differences in phthalate-adiposity associations across visits, and model trajectories of phthalate concentrations for children at different levels of adiposity. Prenatal phthalate concentrations were not associated with excess child adiposity. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations during pregnancy and childhood were inversely associated with adiposity. The associations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑DEHP) metabolites and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with child adiposity depended on the timing of exposure. A 10-fold increase in ∑DEHP at 1 and 5 y was associated with a 2.7% decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8, -0.5] and 2.9% increase (95% CI: 0.3, 5.5) in body fat, respectively. MEP concentrations at 5 and 8 y of age were associated with higher child adiposity, but earlier childhood concentrations were not. In this cohort, we did not find evidence of an obesogenic effect of prenatal phthalate exposure. Positive associations between postnatal MEP and ∑DEHP concentrations depended on the timing of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1022.

  15. Study of 2-methyl -2-oxo-3,5-di-tert.-butyl-Δ4-1,3,2-oxazaphospholine interaction with lanthanide shifting reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turov, A.V.; Povolotskij, M.I.; Balitskij, Yu.V.; Kornilov, M.Yu.; Boldeskul, I.E.

    1983-01-01

    2-methyl-2-oxo-3.5-di-tret.-butyl-Δ 4 -1, 3, 2-oxazaphospholine in CDCl 3 solution reacts with lanthanide shifting reagents-tris (dipivaloylmethanates) of europium (3) and praseodymium (3)-with the formation of adducts of constant composition. At that, in ( + H, 13 C) NMR spectra considerable pseudocontact induced shifts of substratum signals take place. Geometry of the adducts formed is calculated

  16. Association between Phthalate Exposure and the Use of Plastic Containers in Shanghai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui Hua; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Mei Ru; Chen, Jing Si; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang; Chen, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Consuming phthalates may be due to the presence of food contact materials, such as plastic containers. In this study, we investigated the association between plastic container use and phthalate exposure in 2,140 Shanghai adults. Participants completed a questionnaire on the frequency of using plastic containers in different scenarios in the previous year (e.g., daily, weekly) and on the consumption of plastic-packaged foods in the previous three days (yes or no). Urinary phthalate metabolites were used to assess the association between phthalate exposure and the use of plastic containers. The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most frequently detected in urine. The results revealed that phthalate exposure was associated with consumption of plastic-packaged breakfast or processed food items in the previous three days. The consumption of these two food items had strong synergistic effects on increasing urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites. Our results of plastic-packaged breakfast and processed food may be explained by the use of flexible plastic containers, indicating the importance of risk assessment for the application of flexible plastic containers. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Phthalate Exposure in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Consumer Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Serrano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES, using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolite levels (95% CI: −2.0, −0.2. Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: −29.5, −1.3 in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7 than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed.

  18. Dietary Phthalate Exposure in Pregnant Women and the Impact of Consumer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Samantha E.; Karr, Catherine J.; Seixas, Noah S.; Nguyen, Ruby H. N.; Barrett, Emily S.; Janssen, Sarah; Redmon, Bruce; Swan, Shanna H.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are contaminants in food and contribute to significant dietary exposures. We examined associations between reported consumption of specific foods and beverages and first trimester urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in 656 pregnant women within a multicenter cohort study, The Infant Development and Environment Study (TIDES), using multivariate regression analysis. We also examined whether reported use of ecofriendly and chemical-free products was associated with lower phthalate biomarker levels in comparison to not following such practices. Consumption of one additional serving of dairy per week was associated with decreases of 1% in the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite levels (95% CI: −2.0, −0.2). Further, participants who reported sometimes eating homegrown food had monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) levels that were 16.6% lower (95% CI: −29.5, −1.3) in comparison to participants in the rarely/never category. In contrast to rarely/never eating frozen fruits and vegetables, participants who reported sometimes following this practice had monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) levels that were 21% higher (95% CI: 3.3, 41.7) than rarely/ever respondents. Future study on prenatal dietary phthalate exposure and the role of consumer product choices in reducing such exposure is needed. PMID:24927036

  19. Double-Balloon-Assisted n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization of Intrahepatic Arterioportal Shunt Prior to Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp; Shibata, Eisuke; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    A case of multiple hepatocellular carcinomas with a severe intrahepatic arterioportal shunt that was successfully embolized with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate with coaxial double-balloon occlusion prior to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is presented. A proximal balloon positioned at the proper hepatic artery was used for flow control, and a coaxial microballoon, positioned in the closest of three arterial feeding branches to the arterioportal shunt, was used to control the delivery of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This coaxial double-balloon technique can prevent proximal embolization and distal migration of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and enable precise control of the distribution of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. It could also be applicable to n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate embolization for other than intrahepatic arterioportal shunt.

  20. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children’s airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Allan C.; Miller, Rachel L.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring, as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. While DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (1) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (2) a two-week home indoor air sample, and (3) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category “vinyl or linoleum” flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m3) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m3). Children from homes with “vinyl or linoleum” flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman’s rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children’s exposure to BBzP via indoor air. PMID:25690585

  1. In situ 1H NMR studies of high-temperature nitroxide-mediated polymerization of n-butyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlalele, L.; Klumperman, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results on the independence of the rate of polymerization of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) toward initial concentration of the alkoxyamine initiator. The alkoxyamine, 2-methyl-2-[N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethoxyphosphoryl-2,2-dimethylpropyl)aminooxy]propionic acid (MAMA-DEPN), was used to

  2. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: kessler@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  3. Metabolism of the fungicide Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butyl-benzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate, S-1358) and Denmert sulfoxides in liver enzyme systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hideo; Okihara, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Junshi

    1976-01-01

    On incubation with rat liver microsomes plus MADPH, Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate) underwent at least two different types of oxidation; hydroxylation and sulfoxidation. Hydroxylation of Denmert at the tert-butyl group was one of the major metabolic attacks in mammalian metabolism. Sulfoxidation of Denmert gave two isomers of Denmert sulfoxides which were intermediates in the metabolism and readily transformed into 2-(3'-pyridylimino)-4-carboxylthiazolidine (HM) in the presence of L-cysteine without enzymatic mediation. This type of conjugation with cysteine appears to be a new class of metabolic reactions in mammals. Denmert S-oxide showed increased fungicidal activity when assayed in liquid cultures, but not on plant leaves. (auth.)

  4. The public health threat of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs in Taiwan: the policies the government implemented and the lessons we learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Chia-Fang; Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Eric K; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    A major incident of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs happened in Taiwan between April and July, 2011. Phthalates were deliberately added to foodstuffs as a substitute of emulsifier. We describe the course of this incident, government response and management of the crisis, and its future implications. Five major food categories, including sports drinks, fruit beverages, tea drinks, fruit jam or jelly, and health food or supplements in tablet or powder form, were contaminated with Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and/or Di-isononyl phthalate. At least 900 different food products were affected. Like the scandal of melamine-tainted infant formula, this event represents another large deliberate food contamination incident. It is important to be reminded that many governments in developing countries make rapid economic growth as their first priority, often compromising environmental safety and public health. The administration leaders need to find a balance between economic expansion and health and environmental safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changqing; Gao, Liying; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2017-03-01

    Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200 μg/kg/day, 200 and 500 mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13 months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice. - Highlights: • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture disrupts F1 estrous cyclicity. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 ovarian cysts. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture decreases F1 female fertility-related indices. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 breeding complications.

  6. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2000-01-01

    In two separate studies with exposure duration 9 weeks or 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were dosed with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by gavage and exposed to drinking water with or without acetone (0.5% wt/v in the 9-week study, 1.0% wt/v in the 4-week study). In the 9-week study the doses of DEHP...... were 0, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 4-week study the doses of DEHP were increased to 1000, 5000 and 10,000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 9-week study, the relative liver weight was increased in the rats exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. No interaction of DEHP and acetone was observed in any...... of the measured parameters. In the 4-week study DEHP, at the highest dose level, resulted in severe general toxicity. The group exposed to DEHP in combination with acetone was more affected. Male fertility was decreased. Body weight was decreased, and the relative weight of the liver, kidney, heart, brain...

  7. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  8. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fanli; Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng; Peng, Danhong; Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  9. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fanli [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009 (China); Peng, Danhong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhong Da Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  10. 1,4-Di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Molano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 1,4-di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene was synthesized in 94% yield through the Heck reaction between 2,5-diiodo-1,4-dimethoxybenzene and n-butyl acrylate, using bis(dibenzylideneacetone palladium(0 as homogeneous catalyst.

  11. Characterization of phthalates exposure and risk for cosmetics and perfume sales clerks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Chin; Liao, Kai-Wei; Chang, Jung-Wei; Chan, Shiou-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2018-02-01

    High levels of phthalates in name-brand cosmetics products have raised concerns about phthalate exposure and the associated risk for cosmetics sales clerks. We assessed the exposure and risk of phthalates in 23 cosmetics, 4 perfume, and 9 clothing department store sales clerks. We collected 108 urine samples pre- and post-shift and analyzed for phthalate monoesters through liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Phthalates in 32 air samples were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics and information on the exposure scenarios were obtained through questionnaires. Principal component analysis, cluster and risk analysis were applied to identify the exposure profile and risk of phthalate. Median post-shift levels of urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP) were significantly higher than the corresponding pre-shift levels in cosmetics group (53.3 vs. 30.9 μg/g-c for MEHP; 34.4 vs. 22.5 μg/g-c for MMP; both P perfume group (26.6 vs. 14.9 μg/g-c, P perfume (1.75 μg/m 3 ) groups and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in perfume group (6.98 μg/m 3 ) were higher than those in clothing group (DEP: 0.89; DEHP: 2.16 μg/m 3 ). Over half of cosmetic (70%) and perfume sale clerks had exceeded cumulative risk of phthalate exposure for anti-androgenic effect. We concluded that cosmetic and perfume workers had increased risks of reproductive or hepatic effects for DBP and DEHP exposure. We suggest that not only inhalation but dermal exposure is important route of phthalate exposure for cosmetics and perfume workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resolution of 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-3-phospholene 1-oxide with TADDOL derivatives and calcium salts of O,O'-Dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)- or O,O'-di-p-toluoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Péter; Fekete, András; Kállay, Mihály; Hessz, Dóra; Kubinyi, Miklós; Holczbauer, Tamás; Czugler, Mátyás; Fogassy, Elemér; Keglevich, György

    2014-03-01

    The resolution methods applying (-)-(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(diphenylhydroxymethyl)-2,2-dimethyldioxolane ("TADDOL"), (-)-(2R,3R)-α,α,α',α'-tetraphenyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-2,3-dimethanol ("spiro-TADDOL"), as well as the acidic and neutral Ca(2+) salts of (-)-O,O'-dibenzoyl- and (-)-O,O'-di-p-toluoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid were extended for the preparation of 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-3-phospholene 1-oxide in optically active form. In one case, the intermediate diastereomeric complex could be identified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute P-configuration of the enantiomers of the phospholene oxide was also determined by comparing the experimentally obtained and calculated CD spectra. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Morphometric analysis of peroxisome proliferation by phthalate esters in rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormans JAMA; Jansen EHJM; de Vlugt-van den Koedijk FM; Riool-Nesselaar G

    1992-01-01

    Morphometric analysis was performed on liver sections of rats at light (LM) and electron microscopical (EM) level to demonstrate proliferation of peroxisomes after administration of di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate at dietary levels of 0, 60, 200, 600, 2000 and 6000 mg/kg diet for 2 weeks. Enzyme

  14. The occurrence and removal of phthalates in a trickle filter STW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Roly; May, Eric; Williams, John

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated the fate of phthalates in a trickle filter sewage treatment works. A wide variety of phthalates were researched of which only two were present in significant amounts. Mean concentrations of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) measured throughout the system were 23.6 and 25.0 microg/l in raw sewage, 22.0 and 24.8 microg/l in primary, 14.6 and 0.60 microg/l in trickle filter, 18.6 and 0.10 microg/l in humus tank and 18.5 and 0.40 microg/l in reedbed effluents, respectively. Removal by the trickle filter was constantly high for DEP (94-99%) whereas DEHP was variable (<1-44%). Mean concentrations of DEHP and DEP in raw sludge were 30.2 and 1.60 microg/g dry wt, respectively. A mass balance for DEHP was calculated using data from field studies and estimates of sludge production at the works. The mass balance approach helped to provide information that could be used to improve the design and operation of sewage treatment works.

  15. Solvent-free sample preparation by headspace solid-phase microextraction applied to the tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, J; Daenens, P

    1996-01-01

    The most common alkyl nitrites encountered in forensic toxicology are iso-butyl, n-butyl and iso-pentyl(amyl) nitrites. All have become popular as an aphrodisiac, especially among the homosexual population. Alkyl nitrites are a volatile and unstable group of compounds, which hydrolyse in aqueous matrices to the alcohol and nitrite ion. Here we describe a fast, clean and sensitive procedure for the detection of hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite in whole human blood using a new, solvent-free sampling technique, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HSPME), combined with GC/FID analysis. Sample preparation was investigated using two different stationary phases (100 microns polydimethylsiloxane and 85 microns polyacrylate), coating a fused silica fibre. The effect of different sampling times at fixed temperatures was also studied. Our results demonstrate that the HSPME/GC/FID procedure allows tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse and detects hydrolysed n-butyl nitrite, i.e., released n-butanol, in whole blood at the 1 ng/mL level.

  16. Linear free energy relationships in heterogeneous catalysis--13. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols over silica-alumina. [N-butyl alcohol, sec. -butyl or isopropyl alcohol, tert. -butyl alcolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, J; Matsumoto, T; Yoneda, Y

    1978-01-01

    The dehydration of n-butyl alcohol at 120/sup 0/-166/sup 0/C, sec.-butyl or isopropyl alcohol at 100/sup 0/-145/sup 0/C, and tert.-butyl alcohol at 54/sup 0/-80/sup 0/C, over silica/alumina catalyst was zero order in alcohol at 0.01-0.1 atm, and the activation energies were 35.3, 31.7, 32.0, and 29.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The zero-order rate constants were mainly affected by the activation energies since the preexponential factors varied little except for tert.-butyl alcohol. A linear relationship was found between the activation energy or the logarithm of the zero-order rate constant and the heterolytic bond dissociation energy for the carbon-oxygen bond in alcohols D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The activation energy increased and the rate constant decreased with increasing D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The results indicate that dehydration is E1 over this catalyst, but a similar correlation was observed based on published data for dehydration over alumina, which follows an E2 mechanism, indicating that heterolytic cleavage of the C-O bond is rate-determining in both mechanisms.

  17. Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uren-Webster, Tamsyn M.; Lewis, Ceri; Filby, Amy L.; Paull, Gregory C. [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Santos, Eduarda M., E-mail: e.santos@exeter.ac.uk [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and are known to adversely affect male reproductive health in mammals through interactions with multiple receptor systems. However, little is known about the risks they pose to fish. This project investigated the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most commonly used phthalate, on the reproductive health of male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Males were treated with 0.5, 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} (body weight) for a period of 10 days via intraperitoneal injection. The effects of the exposure were assessed by analysing fertilisation success, testis histology, sperm DNA integrity and transcript profiles of the liver and testis. A significant increase in the hepatosomatic index and levels of hepatic vitellogenin transcript were observed following exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1}. Exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} also resulted in a reduction in fertilisation success of oocytes spawned by untreated females. However, survival and development of the resulting embryos were unaffected by all treatments, and no evidence of DEHP-induced sperm DNA damage was observed. Exposure to 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} caused alterations in the proportion of germ cells at specific stages of spermatogenesis in the testis, including a reduction in the proportion of spermatozoa and an increase in the proportion of spermatocytes, suggesting that DEHP may inhibit the progression of meiosis. In parallel, exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} increased the levels of two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive genes (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and enoyl-coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ehhadh). These data demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DEHP disrupts spermatogenesis in adult zebrafish with a consequent decrease in their ability to fertilise oocytes spawned by untreated females. Furthermore, our data suggest that the adverse effects caused by

  18. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin

  19. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna [Laboratorio di Immunologia, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IEOS-CNR), Napoli (Italy); Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Renzo, Gianfranco [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Canzoniero, Lorella M.T., E-mail: canzon@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Formisano, Luigi, E-mail: cformisa@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  20. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 μg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 μg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 μg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrfios-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates). PMID:19394271

  1. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects.......1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because...

  2. In vitro effects of phthalate esters in human myometrial and leiomyoma cells and increased urinary level of phthalate metabolite in women with uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Hoon; Oh, Young Sang; Ihm, Hyo Jin; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the possible role of phthalate, a ubiquitous chemical used in consumer products, in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. Experimental and prospective case-control study using human samples. University hospital. Fifty-three women with histologic evidence of uterine leiomyoma and 33 surgical controls without leiomyoma. Human myometrial and leiomyoma cells were treated with di-(2-thylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP). Cell viability assay and Western blot analyses after in vitro DEHP treatment; high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in cases and controls. In vitro treatment with DEHP led to an increased viability and increased expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B-cell lymphoma 2 protein, and type I collagen in myometrial and leiomyoma cells. The urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate was higher in women with leiomyoma compared with controls. These findings suggest that exposure to phthalate may play a role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma by enhancing proliferative activity, exerting an antiapoptotic effect, and increasing collagen contents in myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study on the degradation of dibutyl phthalate by two newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dibutyl phthalate is (DBP the top priority toxicant responsible for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine disruption. This study demonstrates the DBP degradation capability of the two newly isolated bacteria from municipal solid waste leachate samples. The isolated bacteria were designated as Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F after scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Gram-staining, antibiotic sensitivity tests, biochemical characterization, 16S-rRNA gene identification and phylogenetic studies. They were able to grow on DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, and protocatechuate. It was observed that Pseudomonas sp. V21b was more efficient in DBP degradation when compared with Comamonas sp. 51F. It degraded 57% and 76% of the initial DBP in minimal salt medium and in DBP contaminated samples respectively. Kinetics for the effects of DBP concentration on Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F growth was also evaluated. Stoichiometry for DBP degradation and biomass formation were compared for both the isolates. Two major metabolites diethyl phthalate and monobutyl phthalates were identified using GC–MS in the extracts. Key genes were amplified from the genomes of Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F. DBP degradation pathway was also proposed.

  4. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  5. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  6. Endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate on esophagojejunal anastomotic leak: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulos Stamatis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case report describes an esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The leak was treated successfully with endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This is the first case report on the endoscopic application of cyanoacrylate alone for the treatment of an anastomotic leak. Case presentation This report describes a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. He underwent total gastrectomy and esophagojejunal anastomosis with Roux-en-Y anastomosis plus transverse colectomy. An anastomotic leak was treated conservatively at first for a total of three weeks. However, the leak persisted; therefore, the decision was made to apply topical endoscopic n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusion The endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate alone can be used successfully to treat esophagojejunal anastomotic leakage.

  7. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, J.M.; O'Connor, G.A.; Eiceman, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net 14 C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with 14 C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net 14 C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net 14 C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net 14 C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops

  8. Exposure to phthalates among premenstrual girls from rural and urban Gharbiah, Egypt: A pilot exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hablas Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. Materials and methods We collected one spot urine sample from 60 10-13 year old females, 30 from rural Egypt, and 30 from urban Egypt from July to October 2009. Samples were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites. Additionally, we collected anthropometrics as well as questionnaire data concerning food storage behaviors, cooking practices, and cosmetic use. Phthalate metabolite concentrations were compared between urban and rural Egyptians as well as to age and gender matched Americans. Results Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, was detected at the highest concentration in urine of Egyptian girls (median: 43.2 ng/mL in rural, 98.8 ng/mL in urban. Concentrations of urinary metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were comparable between Egyptians and age matched US girls. Storage of food in plastic containers was a statistically significant predictor of urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP concentrations when comparing covariate adjusted means. Conclusions Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were similar in Egyptian and US populations, suggesting that phthalate exposure also occurs in developing nations. Dietary intake is likely an important route of exposure to phthalates in both urban and rural populations.

  9. Urinary phthalate metabolites and their biotransformation products: predictors and temporal variability among men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2012-01-01

    Most epidemiology studies investigating potential adverse health effects in relation to phthalates measure the urinary concentration of the free plus glucuronidated species of phthalate metabolites (i.e., total concentration) to estimate exposure. However, the free species may represent the biologically relevant dose. In this study, we collected 943 urine samples from 112 men and 157 women and assessed the between- and within-person variability and predictors of a) the free and total urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, and b) the percentage of free phthalate metabolites (a potential phenotypic indicator of individual susceptibility). We also explored the proportion of urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites contributed to by the bioactive mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), considered a possible indicator of susceptibility to phthalate exposure. The percentage of phthalate metabolites present in the free form were less stable over time than the total metabolite concentration, and, therefore, it is not likely a useful indicator of metabolic susceptibility. Thus, the added costs and effort involved in the measurement of free in addition to total metabolite concentrations in large-scale studies may not be justified. Conversely, the proportion of DEHP metabolites contributed to by MEHP was more stable within individuals over time and may be a promising indicator of susceptibility if time of day of sample collection is carefully considered. PMID:22354176

  10. Migration of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) and Phthalates From Twist Closures into Food and Enforcement of the Overall Migration Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Fankhauser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces...... and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO...... was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di...

  11. Reducing prenatal phthalate exposure through maternal dietary changes: results from a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Methods Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for three days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Results Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F=0.21; adjusted p-value=0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t=−1.07, adjusted p-value=0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  12. Prenatal phthalate exposure and altered patterns of DNA methylation in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Olivia; Yousefi, Paul; Huen, Karen; Gunier, Robert B; Escudero-Fung, Maria; Barcellos, Lisa F; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors with ubiquitous exposures in the general population including pregnant women, and they have been linked with a number of adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between in utero phthalate exposure and altered patterns of cord blood DNA methylation in 336 Mexican-American newborns. Concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine samples collected at 13 and 26 weeks gestation as a measure of fetal exposure. DNA methylation was assessed using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip adjusting for cord blood cell composition. To identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that may be more informative than individual CpG sites, we used two different approaches, DMRcate and comb-p. Regional assessment by both methods identified 27 distinct DMRs, the majority of which were in relation to multiple phthalate metabolites. Most of the significant DMRs (67%) were observed for later pregnancy (26 weeks gestation). Further, 51% of the significant DMRs were associated with the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. Five individual CpG sites were associated with phthalate metabolite concentrations after multiple comparisons adjustment (FDR), all showing hypermethylation. Genes with DMRs were involved in inflammatory response (IRAK4 and ESM1), cancer (BRCA1 and LASP1), endocrine function (CNPY1), and male fertility (IFT140, TESC, and PRDM8). These results on differential DNA methylation in newborns with prenatal phthalate exposure provide new insights and targets to explore mechanism of adverse effects of phthalates on human health. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:398-410, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Long-term effects of di-octyl phthalate on the expression of immune-related genes in Tegillarca granosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Li, Ye; Dai, Juan; Su, Xiurong; Li, Chenghua; Shen, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Di-octyl phthalate (DOP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the plastics industry. As a result, DOP is often found in marine water ecosystems where many species are exposed to it. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of long-term (14 d) DOP exposure (2.6, 7.8, or 31.2 mg/L) on the expression of immunerelated genes in Tegillarca granosa. The expression of small heat shock protein (sHSPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were highest in clams exposed to 31.2 mg/L DOP on days 7 and 14. The relative expression of Tg-ferritin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and metallothionein (MT) increased initially then decreased as the concentration of DOP increased. The hemoglobin of T. granosa (Tg-HbI) exhibited two distinct expression patterns at two time points. Our results suggest that the immune response of T. granosa against DOP pollution varies depending on the dose. Additionally, we identified some immune-related genes that are promising candidates for biomarkers of DOP.

  14. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, and 100μg/L DEHP. To examine DEHP estrogenic activity, one group of goldfish was exposed to 17β-estradiol (5μg/L E2) for comparison. Following 30d of exposure, sperm production was decreased and suppressed in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish, respectively. Sperm motility and velocity were decreased...... in goldfish exposed to 100 and 10μg/L DEHP at 15s post-sperm activation, respectively. Compared to control, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were decreased at 10 and 1μg/L DEHP at day 15 and 30, respectively. In E2 treated goldfish, 11-KT levels were decreased compared to control during the period...

  15. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its metabolites in hepatic microsomal incubations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrogrande, M.C.; Rossi, D.; Paganetto, G

    2003-03-17

    A method is reported for the determination of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolites in in vitro metabolism studies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis allows separation of 18 by-products of DEHP metabolism. On the basis of retention time and specific mass spectra m/z values, three classes of compounds can be identified: (i) alcohols as hydrolysis product; (ii) acids produced by alcohol oxidation; (iii) compounds retaining phthalic moiety. The chromatogram can also be acquired in SIM mode at m/z 149 resulting in 13 well-separated chromatographic peaks: from retention time and mass spectra it can be inferred that the main peaks correspond to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and ({omega}-1)-hydroxyl-MEHP. The kinetics of DEHP metabolism was studied using an S9 Aroclor-induced liver fraction as in vitro model and following incubation assay after 20, 40, 60 and 90 min. The composition of incubation mixtures can be quantitatively evaluated from selected ion monitoring chromatograms at m/z 149: the by-product concentration increases during the incubation time, as a consequence of DEHP degradation. During the incubation test a significant conversion of DEHP into MEHP is observed: a conversion yield of 10, 13, 16 and 20% of the original DEHP is obtained after 20, 40, 60 and 90 min, respectively. The metabolic conversion of DEHP to MEHP explains the endocrine-disrupting activity of the original DEHP; moreover, it has been demonstrated that MEHP and its ({omega}-1)-oxidation metabolite induce peroxisome proliferation. This result strengthens the suggestion that the study of DEHP metabolic pathway is fundamental to better understanding its toxicological behavior.

  16. Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Parastar, Saeed; Ebrahimpour, Karim; Shoshtari-Yeganeh, Bahareh; Hashemi, Majid; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary concentration of mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethyl-5-exohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites were determined. For comparison of means, t test and to evaluate the association of analytes in different groups according to weight ANOVA was used. The correlation was applied to determine the association between phthalate metabolites with age, sex, WC, BMI, and BMI z-score. The univariate and multivariate regression models were used to determine the association of metabolites concentration with BMI z-score and WC. Mean (SD) BMI, BMI z-score and WC were 23.89 (4.41) kg/m 2 , 1.37 (1.3), and 82.37 (12.71) cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between boys' age with BMI z-score (p value = 0.03) and WC (p value = 0.01), while the corresponding figures were not statistically significant in girls (p value = 0.48, and 0.4, respectively). Of the total population, 37 participants (15.3%) were obese. MMP, MBP, and MBzP metabolites were observed in all samples while MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP in 99.6, 95.86, and 96.28% of the studied population. Mean concentration of MMP (64.38 μg/L) and MBzP (268 μg/L) had the lowest and highest concentrations of metabolites, respectively. A significant relationship was observed among all studied metabolites and weight groups (p value ≤ 0.02). After adjustment for potential confounders, all metabolites (except MMP) showed a low-to-moderate positive and significant relationship with BMI z-score (β = 0.17-0.3). A weak to moderate positive and significant relationship was observed between all phthalate metabolites and WC (

  17. Cumulative exposure to phthalates from phthalate-containing drug products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    European regulatory limit of exposure ranging between 380-1710 mg/year throughout the study period. Lithium-products constituted the majority of dibutyl phthalate exposure. Diethyl phthalate exposure, mainly caused by erythromycin, theophylline and diclofenac products, did not exceed the EMA regulatory...... to quantify annual cumulated phthalate exposure from drug products among users of phthalate-containing oral medications in Denmark throughout the period of 2004-2016. METHODS: We conducted a Danish nationwide cohort study using The Danish National Prescription Registry and an internal database held...

  18. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  19. Parental Concern about Environmental Chemical Exposures and Children's Urinary Concentrations of Phthalates and Phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Tripler; Eliot, Melissa; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Yolton, Kimberly; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether parents' concerns about environmental chemical exposures were associated with urinary phthalate and phenol concentrations in their school-age children. In a prospective cohort of 218 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (2010-2014), we measured 11 phthalate metabolites and 5 phenols in urine samples when children were age 8 years and used questionnaire data from caregivers. We estimated the covariate-adjusted percent difference in phthalates and phenols among children of parents who expressed concern about environmental chemical exposures compared with children whose parents did not. Concentrations of 4 phthalates, bisphenol S, and bisphenol A were lower among children whose parents expressed concern about environmental chemicals (n = 122) compared with those who did not (n = 96). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites, bisphenol S, and bisphenol A concentrations were 23% (95% CI -38, -5), 37% (95% CI -49, -21), and 13% (95% CI -26, 3) lower, respectively, among children whose parents expressed concern compared with those whose parents did not. Triclosan concentrations were 35% greater (95% CI -2, 87) among children whose parents expressed concern compared with children whose parents did not. Parental concern about environmental chemicals was associated with lower childhood urine concentrations of several phthalates and phenols; unexpectedly, parental concern was associated with greater triclosan concentrations. These results suggest that parental concern may be an important factor in mitigating children's phthalate and phenol exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of 2-methyl-2-oxo-3,5-di-tert. -butyl-. delta. /sup 4/-1,3,2-oxazaphospholine interaction with lanthanide shifting reagents. [Lanthanides: Eu, Pr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turov, A.V.; Povolotskij, M.I.; Balitskij, Yu.V.; Kornilov, M.Yu.; Boldeskul, I.E. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii; Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1983-10-01

    2-methyl-2-oxo-3.5-di-tret.-butyl-..delta../sup 4/-1, 3, 2-oxazaphospholine in CDCl/sub 3/ solution reacts with lanthanide shifting reagents-tris (dipivaloylmethanates) of europium (3) and praseodymium (3)-with the formation of adducts of constant composition. At that, in (/sup +/H, /sup 13/C) NMR spectra considerable pseudocontact induced shifts of substratum signals take place. Geometry of the adducts formed is calculated.

  1. Peroxisome proliferation due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): species differences and possible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcombe, C.R.; Mitchell, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to mono(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) for 72 hr resulted in marked induction of peroxisomal enzyme activity (β-oxidation; cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidase) and concomitant increases in the number of peroxisomes. Similar treatment of cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes revealed little or no effect of MEHP. In order to eliminate possible confounding influences of biotransformation, the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from MEHP have been identified. Using cultured hepatocytes these agents were found to be metabolite VI [mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate] and metabolite IX [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate]. The addition of these active metabolites to cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes again revealed little effect upon peroxisomes or related enzyme activities (peroxisomal β-oxidation or microsomal lauric acid hydroxylation). These studies demonstrate a marked species difference in the response of hepatocytes to MEHP-elicited peroxisome proliferation. Preliminary studies have also suggested that peroxisome proliferation due to MEHP may be due to an initial biochemical lesion of fatty acid metabolism

  2. Latex paint as a delivery vehicle for diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate: predictable boundary layer concentrations and emission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Fauck, Christian; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J

    2014-10-01

    The description of emission processes of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) from building products requires a detailed understanding of the material and the air flow conditions at the surface boundary. The mass flux between the surface of the material and air depends on the mass transfer coefficient (hm) through the boundary layer, the gas phase concentration of the target compound immediately adjacent to the material (y0), and the gas-phase concentration in bulk air (y(t)). In the present study emission experiments were performed in two chambers of quite different sizes (0.25 m(3) and 55 m(3)), and, in the larger chamber, at two different temperatures (23°C and 30°C). The emitting material was latex wall paint that had been doped with two plasticizers, diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP). The phthalate content in the paint was varied in the small chamber experiment to evaluate the impact of the initial concentration in the bulk material (C0) on the emission rate. Boundary layer theory was applied to calculate hm for the specific phthalates from the Sherwood number (Sh) and the diffusion coefficient (Dair). Then y0 was determined based on the bulk gas-phase concentration at steady state (y¯). For both, DEP and DnBP, the y0 obtained was lower than the respective saturation vapor pressure (Ps). Furthermore, for both phthalates in latex paint, the material/air partition coefficient (C0/y0) was close in value to the octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA). This study provides a basis for designing phthalate emitting reference materials that mimic the emission behavior of common building materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 4-Bromo-N-(di-n-propylcarbamothioylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the title compound, C14H19BrN2OS, involves the reaction of 4-bromobenzoyl chloride with potassium thiocyanate in acetone followed by condensation of the resulting 4-bromobenzoyl isothiocyanate with di-n-propylamine. Typical thiourea carbonyl and thiocarbonyl double bonds, as well as shortened C—N bonds, are observed in the title compound. The short C—N bond lengths in the centre of the molecule reveal the effects of resonance in this part of the molecule. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains two crystallographically independent molecules, A and B. There is very little difference between the bond lengths and angles of these molecules. In molecule B, one di-n-propyl group is twisted in a −antiperiplanar conformation with C—C—C—H = −179.1 (3° and the other adopts a −synclinal conformation with C—C—C—H = −56.7 (4°; in molecule A the two di-n-propyl groups are twisted in + and −antiperiplanar conformations, with C—C—C—H = −179.9 (3 and 178.2 (3°, respectively. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into dimeric pairs via pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds.

  4. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ri Hyeon; Yoo, Roh Eul; Kim, Hyo Cheol [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  5. Removal of endocrine disruptors PAEs in drinking water by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Zheng Zheng; Zheng Binguo; Wang Changbao; Li Lili

    2012-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) belong to environmental endocrine disruptor. The dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were selected for the radiation study. The removal efficiencies of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water by gamma-ray irradiation are discussed. The results show that these PAEs could be efficiently removed by gamma-ray irradiation. The removal efficiencies of DMP, DEP and DBP (12 mg/L) in aqueous solutions by 0.8 kGy gamma-ray treatment were 96.6%, 94.5% and 86.2%. The absorbed dose needed for the removal of total carbon in aqueous solutions was much larger than the doses for PAEs degradation. When 2 kGy was selected, the removal efficiencies of TC for DMP, DEP and DBP were only 23.6%, 14.3% and 12.9%. The study results also show that the radiation degradation reaction of PAEs should be divided into two stages: low dose addition reaction and high dose ring-opening reaction. This study is of significance in the disposal of micro-polluted drinking water. (authors)

  6. Association of PAEs with Precocious Puberty in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty (PP currently affects 1 in 5000 children and is 10 times more common in girls. Existing studies have tried to detect an association between phathalic acid esters (PAEs and PP, but the results did not reach a consensus. Objective: To estimate the association between PAEs and children with PP based on current evidence. Methods: Databases including PubMed (1978 to March 2015, OVID (1946 to March 2015, Web of Science (1970 to March 2015, EBSCO (1976 to March 2015, CNKI (1979 to March 2015, WANFANG DATA (1987 to March 2015, CBM (1978 to March 2015 and CQVIP (1989 to March 2015 were searched to identify all case-control studies that determined the exposure and concentration of PAEs and their metabolites in children with PP. Meta-analysis of the pooled standard mean difference (SMD and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: A total of 14 studies involving 2223 subjects were finally included. The pooled estimates showed that PP was associated with di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP exposure (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.77 to 5.49. Besides, the concentration of DEHP (SMD: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.91 and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP (SMD: 4.31, 95% CI: 2.67 to 5.95 in the PP group were significantly higher than those in the control group, respectively, while no difference was detected between case and control groups in either serum or urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP, monobutyl phthalate (MBP, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate(MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, monomethyl phthalate (MMP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP or monoethyl phthalate (MEP. Conclusions: Exposure of DEHP and DBP might be associated with PP risk for girls, however, there is no evidence to show an association between the exposure to most PAE metabolites and PP. Given the moderate strength of the results, well-designed cohort studies with large sample size should be performed in future.

  7. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  8. Migration of Phthalates from Plastic Containers into Soft Drinks and Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Bošnir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of phthalate migration from plastic containers to soft drinks and mineral water and to identify a possible relationship between the amount and type of phthalate migration, type of preservative used, and the pH of the sample. The analysis included 45 samples of products packed in containers made from polyethylene terephthalate. The samples were divided into 5 groups: group 1 (N=9, soft drinks preserved with orthophosphoric acid; group 2 (N=14, soft drinks preserved with Na-benzoate; group 3 (N=5, soft drinks preserved with K-sorbate; group 4 (N=8, soft drinks preserved with a combination of Na-benzoate and K-sorbate; and group 5 (N=9, mineral water without preservatives. The samples were analyzed by the method of gas chromatography, with a detection limit of 0.005 μg/L. The mean pool phthalate level and mean pH value were 91.67 μg/L and 2.82±0.30 in group 1; 116.93 μg/L and 2.75±0.32 in group 2; 819.40 μg/L and 2.88±0.15 in group 3; 542.63 μg/L and 2.82±0.54 in group 4; and 20.22 μg/L and 5.82±1.26 in group 5, respectively. The highest rate of migration to soft drinks was recorded for dimethyl phthalate, ranging from 53.51 to 92.73 %, whereas dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate showed highest rate of migration to the mineral water (56.04 and 43.42 %, respectively. The highest level of phthalate migration from plastic containers to soft drinks was found in the products preserved with K-sorbate. The rate of phthalate migration appears to be influenced also by the drink pH, i.e. the lower the pH value, the greater the phthalate migration. Dimethyl phthalate showed highest migration to preserved drinks as an acidic medium, which might stimulate modification in the composition of plastic containers according to the type and composition of the product. Additional studies in a greater number of samples are needed. Although the phthalate levels measured in these samples pose no risk for

  9. (R-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R-tert-butylsulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butanesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Bin Fan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  10. Di-4-octylphenylphosphoric acid as extractant : extraction of vanadium (IV) and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajankush, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of vanadium and beryllium has been studied using di-4-octylphenyl phosphoric acid (DOPPA) as metal extractant. The factors which affect the extraction have been studied in detail. An attempt has been made to clarify the mechanism of extraction and compare the results with those reported for di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA). In the case of vanadium it was found that vanadium (IV) is more suitable for extraction. Synergistic extractionwas observed in the presence of neutral organophosphorous compounds like tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl butyl phosphate (DBBP) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). The possibility of separating vanadium and uranium when they are present together in leach solutions has also been studied. The extraction of beryllium was found to be a slow process. The factors controlling the rate as well as the extent of extraction have been investigated. However, the results showed that in both respects DOPPA is better than DEHPA which was earlier studied by other authors. The separation of aluminium from beryllium has also been studied. (author)

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Oxo(diperoxo(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine-molybdenum(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alírio E. Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxodiperoxo complex MoO(O22(tbbpy (tbbpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'- bipyridine was isolated from the reaction of MoO2Cl2(tbbpy in water under microwaveassisted heating at 120 ºC for 4 h. The structure of the oxodiperoxo complex was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The MoVI centre is seven-coordinated with a geometry which strongly resembles a highly distorted bipyramid. Individual MoO(O22(tbbpy complexes are interdigitated along the [010] direction to form a column. The crystal structure is formed by the close packing of the columnar-stacked complexes. Interactions between neighbouring columns are essentially of van der Waals type mediated by the need to effectively fill the available space.

  12. 75 FR 67692 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of... teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate...

  13. Disposition of diiosononyl phthalate and its effects on sexual development of the male fetus following repeated dosing in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Rebecca A; Sochaski, Mark; Edwards, Kendra; Creasy, Dianne M; Willson, Gabrielle; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) from GD 12 to 19 via corn oil gavage to study the dose response for effects on fetal male rat sexual development as well as metabolite disposition in the dam and fetus. Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP), mono(hydroxyl-isononyl) phthalate (MHiNP), mono(oxo-isononyl) phthalate (MOiNP), and monoisononyl phthalate glucuronide (MiNP-G) were found in all measured tissues. MCiOP was the major metabolite, followed in decreasing order by MiNP, MHiNP, MOiNP, and MiNP-G. Percentage of dose absorbed decreased at 750 mg/kg/day. Testosterone concentration in the fetal testes was reduced at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. Multinucleated germ cells were increased in the testes of rats at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for this study was 50 mg/kg/day based on increased MNGs and reduced testes testosterone concentration in the fetal rat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant effects of inhaled mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in BALB/cJ mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Larsen, Søren Thor; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are widely used and have been linked with the development of wheezing and asthma. The main metabolite of DEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), was investigated for adjuvant effects in a mouse inhalation model. BALB/cJ mice were exposed...... to aerosols of 0.03 or 0.4 mg/m(3) MEHP 5 days/week for 2 weeks and thereafter weekly for 12 weeks together with a low dose of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. Mice exposed to OVA alone or OVA+Al(OH)(3) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Finally, all groups were exposed to a nebulized...... as of eosinophils in BAL fluid were observed. OVA-specific IgG1 production in both MEHP groups was significantly increased. OVA-specific IgE and IgG2a were not increased significantly. A dose-dependent increase in inflammatory cells was observed in BAL fluid, leading to significantly higher lymphocyte...

  15. Relation between photochromic properties and molecular structures in salicylideneaniline crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johmoto, Kohei; Ishida, Takashi; Sekine, Akiko; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Ohashi, Yuji

    2012-06-01

    The crystal structures of the salicylideneaniline derivatives N-salicylidene-4-tert-butyl-aniline (1), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-methoxyaniline (2), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-bromoaniline (3), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-3-chloroaniline (4), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-4-bromoaniline (5), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-aniline (6), N-3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene-4-carboxyaniline (7) and N-salicylidene-2-chloroaniline (8) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient temperature to investigate the relationship between their photochromic properties and molecular structures. A clear correlation between photochromism and the dihedral angle of the two benzene rings in the salicylideneaniline derivatives was observed. Crystals with dihedral angles less than 20° were non-photochromic, whereas those with dihedral angles greater than 30° were photochromic. Crystals with dihedral angles between 20 and 30° could be either photochromic or non-photochromic. Inhibition of the pedal motion by intra- or intermolecular steric hindrance, however, can result in non-photochromic behaviour even if the dihedral angle is larger than 30°.

  16. Phthalates biodegradation in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Herbert H P; He, Jianzhong

    2008-08-01

    Phthalates are synthesized in massive amounts to produce various plastics and have become widespread in environments following their release as a result of extensive usage and production. This has been of an environmental concern because phthalates are hepatotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic by nature. Numerous studies indicated that phthalates can be degraded by bacteria and fungi under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions. This paper gives a review on the biodegradation of phthalates and includes the following aspects: (1) the relationship between the chemical structure of phthalates and their biodegradability, (2) the biodegradation of phthalates by pure/mixed cultures, (3) the biodegradation of phthalates under various environments, and (4) the biodegradation pathways of phthalates.

  17. Assessment of fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male rat following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters are a large class of plasticizer compounds widely used in many consumer product applications. Some phthalates induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and reproductive malformations through disruption of hormone production during sexual differentiation. Regulatory ag...

  18. Synthesis of [[sup 123]I]tert-Butyl 8-iodo-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiaze pine 3-carboxylate, a potential SPECT imaging agent for diazepam-intensive (DI) benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaoshu; Matecka, Dorota; Gu, Ziqiang; Rice, K C; Costa, B.R. de [National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lee, K S [National Inst. of Mental Health, Washington, DC (United States); Wong, Garry; Skolnick, Phil [National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States). Lab. of Neuroscience

    1994-01-01

    [[sup 123]I]tert-Butyl 8-iodo-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo [1,5-a] [1,4]benzodiazepine 3-carboxylate ([[sup 123]I]3), a high affinity and selective radioligand for the diazepam insensitive (DI) benzodiazepine receptor was synthesized in 2 steps from tert-butyl 8-bromo-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiaz epine 3-carboxylate. (Author).

  19. Degradation kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-F.; Kumar, Mathava; Lin, J.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The potential degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge by composting was investigated using laboratory reactor at different operating conditions (E-1, E-2 and E-3). In all conditions, single stage thermophilic phase was observed within 2 days and almost, 60% of DEHP was degraded under this phase. At the end of composting, total DEHP degradation of more than 85% was observed in all conditions and total carbon reduction was 11.8% in E-1, 7.6% in E-2 and 10.8% in E-3. Similar trend was observed in the degradation of total nitrogen. The reduction of volatile solids (VS) in the composting reactors was 5.4% in E-1 (18 days), 5.5% in E-2 (12 days) and 4.3% in E-3 (18 days). The degradation kinetics of DEHP in thermophilic phase (including initial mesophilic phase) and the phase there after were determined by first order and fractional power kinetics, respectively. The significance of experimental parameters in DEHP degradation was assessed by Pearson correlation approach. Elevated temperature produced during composting was effective for the rapid degradation of DEHP from sewage sludge compared to mesophilic treatment

  20. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  1. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hai Yen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults

  2. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Yamaji, Yukiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  3. Application of non-ionic surfactant as a developed method for the enhancement of two-phase solvent bar microextraction for the simultaneous determination of three phthalate esters from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandforuzi, Samereh Ranjbar; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-08-03

    The extraction of phthalate esters (PEs) from aqueous matrices using two-phase solvent bar microextraction by organic micellar phase was investigated. A short hollow fiber immobilized with reverse micelles of Brij 35 surfactant in 1-octanol was served as the solvent bar for microextraction. Experimental results show that the extraction efficiency were much higher using two-phase solvent bar microextraction based on non-ionic surfactant than conventional two-phase solvent bar microextraction because of a positive effect of surfactant-containing extraction phase in promoting the partition process by non-ionic intermolecular forces such as polar and hydrophobicity interactions. The nature of the extraction solvent, type and concentration of non-ionic surfactant, extraction time, sample pH, temperature, stirring rate and ionic strength were the effecting parameters which optimized to obtain the highest extraction recovery. Analysis of recovered analytes was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Under the optimum conditions, linearity was observed in the range of 1-800 ng mL -1 for dimethylphthalate (DMP) and 0.5-800 ng mL -1 for diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with correlation determination values above 0.99 for them. The limits of detection and quantification were ranged from 0.012 to 0.03 ng mL -1 and 0.04-0.1 ng mL -1 , respectively. The ranges of intra-day and inter-day RSD (n = 3) at 20 ng mL -1 of PEs were 1.8-2.1% and 2.1-2.6%, respectively. Results showed that developed method can be a very powerful, innovative and promising sample preparation technique in PEs analysis from environmental and drinking water samples. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Phthalate metabolites in Norwegian mothers and children: Levels, diurnal variation and use of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity. Data on levels of these compounds in the Norwegian population is limited. In this study, urine samples were collected from 48 mothers and their children in two counties in Norway. Eleven different phthalate metabolites originating from six commonly used phthalates in consumer products were determined. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in children compared to mothers except for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). The mothers provided several urine samples during 24hours (h) and diurnal variation showed that the concentrations in the morning urine samples (24-8h) were significantly higher than at other time-periods for most of the phthalate metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 24-hour time-period were in the range of 0.49-0.81. These moderate to high ICCs indicate that one spot urine sample can be used to estimate the exposure to phthalates. Since a significant effect of time of day was observed, it is still advisable to standardize the collection time point to reduce the variation. For the mothers, the use of personal care products (PCPs) were less associated with morning urine samples than early day (8-12h) and evening (16-24h) urine samples. The use of perfume and hair products were positively associated with the urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates. Use of shower soap and shampoo were positively associated with urinary concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. For children, face cream use was positively associated with phthalate metabolites in the morning samples, and hand soap use was negatively associated with concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites in afternoon/evening samples. Since different PCPs were associated with the urinary phthalate metabolites in different time-periods during a day, more than one spot urine sample might be required to study associations between urinary

  5. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifei Zhang; Liang Dong; Lijun Ren; Shuangxin Shi; Li Zhou; Ting Zhang; Yeru Huang

    2012-01-01

    The pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the surface water of the rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta region was investigated.Fourteen surface water samples were collected in June 2010.Water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Concentrations of PAHs and PAEs ranged 12.9-638.1 ng/L and 61-28550 ng/L,respectively.Fluoranthene,naphthalene,pyrene,phenanthrene,di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate,and di-n-butyl phthalate were the most abundant compounds in the samples.The water samples were moderately Polluted with benzo[a]pyrene according to China's environmental quality standard for surface water.The two highest concentrations of PAHs and PAEs occurred in samples from Taihu Lake,Wuxi City and the western section of Yangchenghu Lake.Potential sources of Pollution at S7 were petroleum combustion and the plastics industry,and at Yangchenghu Lake were petroleum combustion and domestic waste.Pollution in samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal originated from diesel engines.There were no obvious sources of pollution for the other water samples.These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs of pollution from PAHs and PAEs.

  6. Synthesis and Structure Determination of Di-tert-butyltin (IV) Dithiocarbamate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirah Faizah Abdul Muthalib; Ibrahim Baba; Yang Farina Abdul Aziz; Mohd Wahid Samsudin

    2013-01-01

    New diorganotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes have been synthesized from di-tert-butyltin (IV) dichloride, N-dialkylamine and carbon disulphide. Elemental and gravimetric analysis confirmed the general formula of these complexes as (t- C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn[S 2 CNR 1 R 2 ] 2 (R 1 = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , C 7 H 7 dan R 2 = C 2 H 5 , C 6 H 11 , iC 3 H 7 , CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , C 4 H 9 , C 7 H 7 ). The structures of these complexes have been elucidated on the basis of infrared, ultraviolet, 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these complexes showed three main peaks for v(C-N), v(C-S) and v(Sn-S) bands that appeared in the region of 1447-1496, 947-988 and 352-370 cm -1 , respectively. The 13 C NMR spectrum showed the chemical shift for ?(N 13 CS 2 ) in the range of 199.1-201.8 ppm. X-ray single crystal structure (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn[S 2 CN(CH 3 )(iC 3 H 7 )] 2 demonstrated a six-coordination geometry around the tin atom adopting a monoclinic system with a space group of P2/n with a = 11.2934(11) Angstrom, b = 7.0175(7) Angstrom, c = 15.6894(15) Angstrom; β = 95.016(1) degree. The (N-benzyl-N-ethyl dithiocarbamato)chloride di-tert-butyltin(IV) and (N,N-dibenzyl dithiocarbamato)chloride-di-(tert-butyl)tin(IV) formed a different geometry with one dithiocarbamate ligand and one chlorine atom attached to the tin centre to form a five-coordinate structure. Crystal of (N-benzyl-N-ethyl dithiocarbamato)chloride di-tert-butyltin(IV) adopts a triclinic system with space group of P1 and cell parameter of a = 8.6140 (2) Angstrom, b = 10.9604 (3) Angstrom, c = 11.4765 (3) Angstrom; α = 91.858 (2) degree, β = 96.193 (2) degree, γ = 96.011 (2) degree, while (N,N-dibenzyl dithiocarbamato)chloride-di-(tert-butyl)tin(IV) adopts a monoclinic system with space group of P2 i with cell parameter a = 9.0600 (2) Angstrom, b = 10.9238 (2) Angstrom, c = 12.7845 (3) Angstrom; β= 102.759 (2) degree. (author)

  7. Development of Short-term Molecular Thresholds to Predict Long-term Mouse Liver Tumor Outcomes: Phthalate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term molecular profiles are a central component of strategies to model health effects of environmental chemicals. In this study, a 7 day mouse assay was used to evaluate transcriptomic and proliferative responses in the liver for a hepatocarcinogenic phthalate, di (2-ethylh...

  8. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-Supported Boron Trifluoride; Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of N-tert-Butyl Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mokhtary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient method for the preparation of N-tert-butyl amides by reaction of nitriles with tert-butyl acetate is described using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-supported boron trifluoride (PVPP-BF3 at 70°C in good to excellent yields. Selective amidation of benzonitrile in the presence of acetonitrile was also achieved. polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-boron trifluoride complex shows non-corrosive and stable solid catalyst elevated Lewis acid property.

  9. 75 FR 36639 - Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes and Correction of E-mail Address AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in...

  10. Effect of addition of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer and zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate/organoclay biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, B. A. P.; Juwono, A. L.; Rochman, N. T.

    2017-07-01

    Plastics as packaging materials and coatings undergo increasing demands globally each year. This pose a serious problem to the environment due to its difficulty to degrade. One solution to addressing the problem of plastic wastes is the use of bioplastics. According to the European Organization Bioplastic, one of the biodegradable plastics is derivative of cellulose. To improve mechanical properties of bioplastic, biocomposites are made with the addition of certain additives and fillers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer (BBP) and ZnO nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) / organoclay biocomposite. ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from commercial ZnO precursor by using sol-gel size reduction method. ZnO was dissolved in a solution of citric acid in the ratio 1:1 to 1:5 to form zinc citrate. Zinc citrate then decomposed by calcination at temperature of 600oC. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 44.4 nm is obtained at a ratio of 1: 2. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles and BBP plasticizer was varied to determine the effect on the mechanical properties of biocomposite. The addition of 10 - 15 %wt ZnO nanoparticles and 30 - 40 %wt BBP plasticizer was studied to determine the effect on the tensile strength, elongation, and modulus elasticity of the biocomposites. Biocomposite films were made by using solution casting method with acetone as solvent. The addition of plasticizer BBP and ZnO nanoparticles by 30% and 10% made biocomposite has a tensile strength of 2.223 MPa.

  11. n-Alkane assimilation and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) oxidation capacity in Mycobacterium austroafricanum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas; Mathis, Hugues; Labbé, Diane; Monot, Frédéric; Greer, Charles W; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

    2007-06-01

    Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012, which grows on methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and on tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), the main intermediate of MTBE degradation, also grows on a broad range of n-alkanes (C2 to C16). A single alkB gene copy, encoding a non-heme alkane monooxygenase, was partially amplified from the genome of this bacterium. Its expression was induced after growth on n-propane, n-hexane, n-hexadecane and on TBA but not after growth on LB. The capacity of other fast-growing mycobacteria to grow on n-alkanes (C1 to C16) and to degrade TBA after growth on n-alkanes was compared to that of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012. We studied M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 and IFP 2015 able to grow on MTBE, M. austroafricanum IFP 2173 able to grow on isooctane, Mycobacterium sp. IFP 2009 able to grow on ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), M. vaccae JOB5 (M. austroaafricanum ATCC 29678) able to degrade MTBE and TBA and M. smegmatis mc2 155 with no known degradation capacity towards fuel oxygenates. The M. austroafricanum strains grew on a broad range of n-alkanes and three were able to degrade TBA after growth on propane, hexane and hexadecane. An alkB gene was partially amplified from the genome of all mycobacteria and a sequence comparison demonstrated a close relationship among the M. austroafricanum strains. This is the first report suggesting the involvement of an alkane hydroxylase in TBA oxidation, a key step during MTBE metabolism.

  12. Sutureless vascular anastomoses by N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate adhesive: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, D; Yilmaz, M; Yavuz, H; Noyan, S; Avci, B; Ercan, A; Ozkan, H; Cengiz, M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to find out whether sutureless anastomoses using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate were effective in the suppression of neointimal hyperplasia or not. Ten male adult mongrel dogs were used in this animal study. The animals were randomly divided into a control group (n = 5) and a study group (n = 5). The study group underwent sutureless anastomoses using N-buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive. Infrarenal aortoaortic graft was interposed using polytetrafluoroethylene. In the study group, the mean intimal thickness at the proximal anastomosis was 27.4 +/- 1.94 microm and 27.4 +/- 1.51 microm at the distal anastomosis. In the control group, the mean intimal thickness was 138.4 +/- 5.02 mum at the proximal anastomosis and 67.6 +/- 6.42 microm at the distal anastomosis. Intimal thickness at the proximal and distal anastomoses in the control group was significantly (p anastomoses using with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive might be a good alternative to conventional suture technique. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans.

  14. Hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in humans, dogs, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using microsomal fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Kinashi, Yu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and has endocrine-disrupting effects. MEHP is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of MEHP in humans, dogs, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of MEHP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and dogs, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m and V max values of human liver microsomes were 110 µM and 5.8 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes followed the biphasic model for humans, dogs, and mice, and the Michaelis-Menten model for rats. The K m and V max values of human intestinal microsomes were 5.6 µM and 0.40 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the high-affinity phase, and 430 µM and 0.70 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the low-affinity phase. The relative levels of V max estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were dogs (2.0) > mice (1.4) > rats (1.0) ≈ humans (1.0) for liver microsomes, and mice (8.5) > dogs (4.1) > rats (3.1) > humans (1.0) for intestinal microsomes. The percentages of the V max values of intestinal microsomes to liver microsomes were mice (120 %) > rats (57 %) > dogs (39 %) > humans (19 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward MEHP markedly differed among species, and imply that these species differences are strongly associated with the toxicity of DEHP.

  15. Crystal structure of trans-N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyloxamide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Ángel Velázquez-Carmona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The here crystallized oxamide was previously characterized as an unsolvated species [Jímenez-Pérez et al. (2000. J. Organomet. Chem. 614–615, 283–293], and is now reported with methanol as a solvent of crystallization, C30H44N2O4·CH3OH, in a different space group. The introduction of the solvent influences neither the molecular symmetry of the oxamide, which remains centrosymmetric, nor the molecular conformation. However, the unsolvated molecule crystallized as an ordered system, while many parts of the solvated crystal are disordered. The hydroxy group in the oxamide is disordered over two chemically equivalent positions, with occupancies 0.696 (4:0.304 (4; one tert-butyl group is disordered by rotation about the C—C bond, and was modelled with three sites for each methyl group, each one with occupancy 1/3. Finally, the methanol solvent, which lies on a twofold axis, is disordered by symmetry. The disorder affecting hydroxy groups and the solvent of crystallization allows the formation of numerous supramolecular motifs using four hydrogen bonds, with N—H and O—H groups as donors and the oxamide and methanol molecule as acceptors.

  16. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  17. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  18. Phthalate metabolites related to infertile biomarkers and infertility in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangpo; Wang, Heng; Tian, Meiping; Zhang, Jie; Panuwet, Parinya; D'Souza, Priya Esilda; Barr, Dana Boyd; Huang, Qingyu; Xia, Yankai; Shen, Heqing

    2017-12-01

    Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have demonstrated androgen and anti-androgen effects on male reproduction from phthalate exposures, human studies still remain inconsistent. Therefore, a case-control study (n = 289) was conducted to evaluate the associations between phthalate exposures, male infertility risks, and changes in metabolomic biomarkers. Regional participants consisted of fertile (n = 150) and infertile (n = 139) males were recruited from Nanjing Medical University' affiliated hospitals. Seven urinary phthalate metabolites were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Associations between levels of phthalate metabolites, infertility risks, and infertility-related biomarkers were statistically evaluated. MEHHP, one of the most abundant DEHP oxidative metabolites was significantly lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.039). When using the 1st quartile range as a reference, although statistically insignificant for odds ratios (ORs) of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles (OR (95% CI) = 1.50 (0.34-6.48), 0.70 (0.14-3.52) and 0.42 (0.09-2.00), respectively), the MEHHP dose-dependent trend of infertility risk expressed as OR decreased significantly (p = 0.034). More interestingly, most of the phthalate metabolites, including MEHHP, were either positively associated with fertile prevention metabolic biomarkers or negatively associated with fertile hazard ones. Phthalate metabolism, along with their activated infertility-related biomarkers, may contribute to a decreased risk of male infertility at the subjects' ongoing exposure levels. Our results may be illustrated by the low-dose related androgen effect of phthalates and can improve our understanding of the controversial epidemiological results on this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of n-butyl mercaptan on acrylic compounds obtained winder γ-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcos S.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The chain transfer agents play a key role in the production of polymers, as they allow better control of their molecular weight, among other functions. For this reason we performed this study to perform an analysis on the influence of n-butyl mercaptan in the reaction of compounds of ethyl methacrylate by varying the density and shrinkage of the samples. In the present study can be seen that n-butyl mercaptan, acts as transfer agent, which influences the reaction kinetics of composite acrylic, since it presence in the compound increased average density and contraction average. It is also possible to minimize the variability of the compound density, even if they are altered. Final products with improved properties homogeneously could be obtained. (author)

  20. Phthalates in baby skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Heather P; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    The systemic toxicity of phthalates has been extensively reported. Although rarely sensitizing, phthalates have been implicated in promoting the development of both atopy and contact dermatitis in animal models. Dermal absorption of phthalates may contribute to overall chemical burden. Infants may be particularly susceptible to chemical exposures. Baby skin care products may be a significant source of phthalate exposure. We measured the phthalate content of 30 skin care products intended for babies and children. Nineteen leave-on and 11 wash-off baby skin care products were analyzed for 17 unique phthalates by an independent laboratory using standard gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. Of 30 products tested, four had phthalate levels above the reporting limit (0.1-0.5 ppm); of these, only one had levels above 1 ppm (44 ppm). There was no statistical significance of phthalate detection in leave-on versus wash-off products (p = .578). The majority (26 of 30) of the baby skin care products analyzed did not have detectable phthalate levels. Four products had detectable phthalate levels. In baby skin care products, levels of the 17 phthalates tested are low overall, but occasional products may contain higher phthalate levels. Monitoring products to ensure safety standards are met may be warranted.

  1. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO_3)_4 by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO_3 at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO_3 loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  2. Use of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-containing infusion systems increases the risk for cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rettberg, Heike; Hannman, Torsten; Subotic, Ulrike; Brade, Joachim; Schaible, Thomas; Waag, Karl Ludwig; Loff, Steffan

    2009-08-01

    Most polyvinylchloride infusion systems are plasticized with up to 60% of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). DEHP is easily extracted from the tubing by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions and has been shown to have toxic effects on various organ systems including the liver in animals and humans. A role was postulated for DEHP in the development of hepatobiliary dysfunction in premature and newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition, and the incidence of cholestasis was investigated after changing from polyvinylchloride infusion systems to polyvinylchloride-free infusion systems. Two 3-year periods from 1998 to 2004 were investigated retrospectively before and after changing from polyvinylchloride to polyvinylchloride-free infusion systems in our department. This resulted in 1 group of 30 patients treated with polyvinylchloride lines and a second group of 46 patients treated with polyvinylchloride-free lines. The 2 groups were examined for the incidence of cholestasis and other possible contributing factors. Statistics were performed by using SAS software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). After changing infusion systems, the incidence of cholestasis dropped from 50% to 13%. Using DEHP-plasticized polyvinylchloride infusion systems for TPN increased the risk for cholestasis by a factor of 5.6. The use of polyvinylchloride lines correlated strongly with the development of TPN-associated cholestasis (P = .0004). Using DEHP-containing polyvinylchloride infusions systems contributes to the development of cholestasis. Therefore, the use of DEHP-free infusion systems for TPN is recommended, especially in premature and newborn infants.

  3. Apparent molal volumes of symmetrical and asymmetrical isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nicolás; Malagón, Andrés; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent molal volumes of five isomers of Bu 4 NBr in water have been measured. • The structural effect of branched and linear chains is discussed. • The structural contributions to the ionic volume were calculated. -- Abstract: Apparent molal volumes of a series of differently substituted quaternary ammonium bromides, namely tetra-iso-butyl-, tetra-sec-butyl-, tetra-n-butyl-, di-n-butyl-di-sec-butyl- and di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide have been determined as a function of molal concentration at (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and ionic molar volumes of these quaternary ammonium cations were determined. Structural volume contributions to the ionic molar volume were also calculated. The symmetric and asymmetric quaternary ammonium cations are “structure making” ions. The contribution of the branched butyl chains predominates over the linear butyl chains in the asymmetric cations

  4. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Exposure Impairs Growth of Antral Follicle in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    Full Text Available Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection. Our results demonstrated that the percentage of large antral follicles was significantly reduced when mice were exposed to 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP every 5 days from postnatal day 0 (0 dpp to 15 dpp. In 20 dpp, we performed microarray of these ovaries. The microarray results indicated that mRNA levels of apoptosis related genes were increased. The mRNA levels of the apoptosis and cell proliferation (negative related genes Apoe, Agt, Glo1 and Grina were increased after DEHP exposure. DEHP induced the differential gene expression of Hsp90ab1, Rhoa, Grina and Xdh which may play an important role in this process. In addition, TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence showed that DEHP exposure significantly increased the number of TUNEL, Caspase3 and γH2AX positive ovarian somatic cells within the mouse ovaries. Flow cytometer analyses of redox-sensitive probes showed that DEHP caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ovarian somatic cell antioxidative enzymes was down-regulated both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that DEHP exposure induced oxidative stress and ovarian somatic cell apoptosis, and thus may impact antral follicle enlargement during the pre-pubertal stage in mice.

  6. 76 FR 13988 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., and other potentially susceptible individuals; and Consider possible similar health effects of... Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate... convene a CHAP ``to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as...

  7. Intake of Phthalate-tainted Foods and Serum Thyroid Hormones in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Wu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Po-Chin; Chen, Mei-Lien; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-07-01

    On April-May, 2011, phthalates, mainly Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foodstuff as a substitute emulsifier in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationship between DEHP-tainted foodstuffs exposure and thyroid function in possibly affected children and adolescents. Two hundred fifty participants food items. Blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical workups to measure current exposure derived from three urinary DEHP metabolites using a creatinine excretion-based model. More than half of 250 participants were estimated to be exposed to DEHP-tainted foods found to exceed the recommend tolerable daily intake of DEHP established by the European Food Safety Authority (studies may want to follow the long-term health effects of this food scandal in affected children and adolescents.

  8. 76 FR 63610 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ..., pregnant women, and other potentially susceptible individuals; and Consider possible similar health effects... Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate... Commission to convene a CHAP ``to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate...

  9. 4-Bromo-N-(di-n-propyl-carbamothioyl)-benzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzet, Gün; Flörke, Ulrich; Külcü, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2009-02-04

    The synthesis of the title compound, C(14)H(19)BrN(2)OS, involves the reaction of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride with potassium thio-cyanate in acetone followed by condensation of the resulting 4-bromo-benzoyl isothio-cyanate with di-n-propyl-amine. Typical thio-urea carbonyl and thio-carbonyl double bonds, as well as shortened C-N bonds, are observed in the title compound. The short C-N bond lengths in the centre of the mol-ecule reveal the effects of resonance in this part of the mol-ecule. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains two crystallographically independent mol-ecules, A and B. There is very little difference between the bond lengths and angles of these mol-ecules. In mol-ecule B, one di-n-propyl group is twisted in a -anti-periplanar conformation with C-C-C-H = -179.1 (3)° and the other adopts a -synclinal conformation with C-C-C-H = -56.7 (4)°; in mol-ecule A the two di-n-propyl groups are twisted in + and -anti-periplanar conformations, with C-C-C-H = -179.9 (3) and 178.2 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked into dimeric pairs via pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds.

  10. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PHTHALATES DEHP, BBP AND DINP, BUT NOT DEP, DMP OR DOTP ALTERS SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of AR antagonists like vinclozolin and procymidone or chemicals like di (2-bis) ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), that inhibit ...

  11. A Rare Case of Retrogastric Abscess Occurring Six Months after N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate Injection into Gastric Varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a proven and successful therapeutic modality for treatment of patients with bleeding gastric varices. However, a variety of complications have also been associated with its use. Here, we report a rare case of retrogastric abscess which occurred almost six months after this therapy. This abscess was attributed to the hampered microbial clearance caused by the venous obliterations from N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The abscess was successfully treated with 3 months of antibiotics.

  12. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2015-05-01

    Reported research work presents real time non-invasive detection of phthalates in spiked aqueous samples by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique incorporating a novel interdigital capacitive sensor with multiple sensing thin film gold micro-electrodes fabricated on native silicon dioxide layer grown on semiconducting single crystal silicon wafer. The sensing surface was functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (APTES) with embedded molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte. Frequency response analyzer (FRA) algorithm was used to obtain impedance spectra so as to determine sample conductance and capacitance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the sample solution. Spectrum analysis algorithm interpreted the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by applying complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting in order to obtain electrochemical equivalent circuit and corresponding circuit parameters describing the kinetics of the electrochemical cell. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the effects of surface immobilized molecular imprinted polymer layer on the evaluated circuit parameters and its electrical response. The results obtained by the testing system were validated using commercially available high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector system.

  13. Tetracaine – selective electrodes with polymer membranes and their application in pharmaceutical formulation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khudhair Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC membrane electrodes for tetracaine hydrochloride (TCH are described. The sensing membranes incorporating ion-association complexes of tetracaine cation with phosphotungstic acid (PTA or phosphomolybdic acid (PMA or Sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB as electroactive materials and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBPH or tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP as a plasticizer in PVC matrixes were evaluated. The results obtained show the electrodes based on PTA or PMA as electroactive compounds and DBPH as plasticizer with a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a wide concentration range (1 × 10−5–5 × 10−2 M, with cationic slopes of 55.02 and 52.05 mV decade−1 over a pH range of (2.5–6.5. The electrodes show good discrimination of tetracaine from several inorganic cations and sugars. The electrodes were successfully applied for the determination of tetracaine in pharmaceutical formulations.

  14. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    The teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of phthalate esters on living beings are proven in toxicology studies. These ubiquitous food and environmental pollutants pose a great danger to the human race due to their extraordinary use as a plasticizer in the consumer product industry. Contemporary detection techniques used for phthalates require a high level of skills, expensive equipment and longer analysis time than the presented technique. Presented research work introduces a real time non-invasive detection technique using a new type of silicon substrate based planar interdigital (ID) sensor fabricated on basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect phthalates in deionized water. Various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as low as 2 ppb to a higher level of 2 ppm in deionized water were detected distinctively using new planar ID sensor based EIS sensing system. Dip testing method was used to obtain the conductance and dielectric properties of the bulk samples. Parylene C polymer coating was used as a passivation layer on the surface of the fabricated sensor to reduce the influence of Faradaic currents. In addition, inherent dielectric properties of the coating enhanced the sensitivity of the capacitive type sensor. Electrochemical spectrum analysis algorithm was used to model experimentally observed impedance spectrum to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit to analyse the kinetic processes taking place inside the electrochemical cell. Curve fitting technique was used to extract the values of the circuit components and explain experimental results on theoretical grounds. The sensor performance was tested by adding DEHP to an energy drink at concentrations above and below the minimal risk level (MRL) limit set by the ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

  15. Actinide-carbon bonds: insertion reactions of carbon monoxide, tert-butyl isocyanide, and tert-butyl cyanide into [(Me3Si)2N]2MCH2Si(Me)2NSiMe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, S.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The thorium or uranium metallacycles [(Me 2 Si) 2 N] 2 MCH 2 Si(Me) 2 NSiMe 3 (I) react with tert-butyl cyanide to give the six-membered ring compounds [(Me 3 Si) 2 N] 2 MN = C(t-Bu)CH 2 Si(Me) 2 NSiMe 3 . The metallacycles (I) also react with the isoelectronic molecules tert-butyl isocyanide and carbon monoxide to give the unique five-membered ring compounds with exocyclic carbon-carbon double bonds, [(Me 3 Si) 2 N] 2 MXC(=CH 2 )Si(Me) 2 NSiMe 3 , where X is t-BuN or oxygen. The four-membered ring metallacycles (I) give simple coordination complexes of the type [(Me 3 Si) 2 N] 2 MCH 2 Si-(Me) 2 NSiMe 3 (N 3 SiMe 3 ) with trimethylsilyl azide

  16. Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-blockpoly (acrylic acid) triblock terpolymers with highly asymmetric hydrophilic blocks: synthesis and aqueous solution properties

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, P. (Petar); Yoncheva, K. (Krassimira); Mokreva, P. (Pavlina); Konstantinov, S. (Spiro); Irache, J.M. (Juan Manuel); Müller, A.H.E. (Axel H.E.)

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and aggregation behaviour in aqueous media of novel amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)- block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PEO–PnBA–PAA) triblock terpolymers were studied. Terpolymers composed of two highly asymmetric hydrophilic PEO (113 monomer units) and PAA (10–17 units) blocks, and a longer soft hydrophobic PnBA block (163 or 223 units) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate and tert-butyl acrylate ...

  17. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M.S.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Ye, A.; Kannan, K.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    CAUTION While adverse associations were observed, the implications of the findings for couple fecundity and fertility remain to be established. Cautious interpretation is needed in light of reliance on a single measurement of phthalate measure and no correction for multiple comparisons. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (N01-HD-3-3355, N01-HD-3-3356 and NOH-HD-3-3358). The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests. PMID:26350610

  18. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianlong, E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail: WangXianlong@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  19. Environmental pollution and health hazards from distillery wastewater and treatment approaches to combat the environmental threats: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Pankaj; Raj, Abhay; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2018-03-01

    Distillery industries are the key contributor to the world's economy, but these are also one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to the discharge of a huge volume of dark colored wastewater. This dark colored wastewater contains very high biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, sulfate, phosphate, phenolics and various toxic metals. Distillery wastewater also contains a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants such as melanoidins, di-n-octyl phthalate, di-butyl phthalate, benzenepropanoic acid and 2-hydroxysocaproic acid and toxic metals, which are well reported as genotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting in nature. In aquatic resources, it causes serious environmental problems by reducing the penetration power of sunlight, photosynthetic activities and dissolved oxygen content. On other hand, in agricultural land, it causes inhibition of seed germination and depletion of vegetation by reducing the soil alkalinity and manganese availability, if discharged without adequate treatment. Thus, this review article provides a comprehensive knowledge on the distillery wastewater pollutants, various techniques used for their analysis as well as its toxicological effects on environments, human and animal health. In addition, various physico-chemicals, biological as well as emerging treatment methods have been also discussed for the protection of environment, human and animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function.......In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  1. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content, metallothionein (MT content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (p<0.05. Clear toxic effects of DEHP on E. fetida have been generally recognized by means of the disturbance of antioxidant enzyme activity/content and critical proteins, cell membrane and organelle disorder and DNA damage estimated by length of tail, tail DNA ratio, and tail moment parameters. A concentration of DEHP of 3 mg kg-1 may be recommended as a precaution against the potential risk of PAEs in soils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms.

  2. Prepubertal Exposure to Genistein Alleviates Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Dong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22 to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw/day (G, DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450 and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450. On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient, testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors.

  3. Synthesis of zinc sulfide by chemical vapor deposition using an organometallic precursor: Di-tertiary-butyl-disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasekar, Parag; Dhakal, Tara; Ganta, Lakshmikanth; Vanhart, Daniel; Desu, Seshu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide has gained popularity in the last few years as a cadmium-free heterojunction partner for thin film solar cells and is seen as a good replacement for cadmium sulfide due to better blue photon response and non-toxicity. In this work, zinc sulfide films are prepared using an organic sulfur source. We report a simple and repeatable process for development of zinc sulfide using a cost-effective and less hazardous organic sulfur source. The development of zinc sulfide has been studied on zinc oxide-coated glass where the zinc oxide is converted into zinc sulfide. Zinc oxide grown by atomic layer deposition as well as commercially available zinc oxide-coated glass was used. The zinc sulfide synthesis has been studied and the films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and a UV–VIS spectrophotometer. XRD, XPS and optical characterization confirm the zinc sulfide phase formation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of ZnS using a less-hazardous precursor, di-tertiary-butyl-disulfide. ► ZnS process optimized for two types of ZnO films. ► Preliminary results for a solar cell show an efficiency of 1.09%.

  4. Thermochemistry of 1,1'-di-n-butyluranocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.T.; Mitin, V.A.; Kir'yanov, K.V.; Sevast'yanov, V.G.; Bogdanov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Combustion enthalpy, temperature dependence of saturated vapor of uranium 1,1'-di-n-butylcyclooctatetraene (1,1'-di-n-butyluranocene) are determined for the first time and its thermal behaviour is studied using DTA and high temperature spectrophotometry. Melting and thermal decomposition beginning temperatures; melting and vaporization enthalpies; standard formation enthalpies in a condensed and gaseous states; mean dissociation energy of uranium bond to n-butylcyclooctatetraene are calculated according to the data obtained

  5. Maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy causes fetal growth restriction in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ru; Zhao, Ling-Li; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is male developmental toxicant that impairs testis development with reduced anogenital distance. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal DEHP exposure during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a gender-specific manner and to identify the critical window of DEHP-induced fetal IUGR. Pregnant mice were administered with DEHP (0, 50 or 200mg/kg) by gavage. Fetal IUGR was observed not only in males but also in females when litters were exposed to DEHP on gestational day (GD)0-GD17. Interestingly, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced, markedly in dams with DEHP on GD13-GD17, slightly in dams with on GD7-GD12, but not in dams with on GD0-GD6. Further analysis showed that maternal DEHP exposure on GD7-GD12 inhibited cell proliferation, lowered placental weight, and reduced blood sinusoid area in placental labyrinth layer. These results suggest that maternal DEHP exposure induces IUGR in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  7. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2017-06-01

    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO{sub 3} loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of urinary phthalate metabolites of residents in Korea using isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miok; Song, Na Rae; Choi, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jeongae; Pyo, Heesoo

    2014-02-01

    Phthalates are used in industry products, household items, and medical tools as plasticizers. Human exposure to phthalates has raised concern about its toxicity. In the present study, optimization was conducted for the simultaneous analysis of eight kinds of phthalate metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MiNP, MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP. In order to minimize the matrix effect and to do quantitative analysis, isotope dilution and LLE-GC-MS methods were performed. Urine samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted with a mixture of n-hexane and ethyl ether (8:2; v:v), and subsequently derivatized with trimethylsilylation. All eight kinds of analytes showed clear resolution and high reproducibility in GC-MS results. The method detection limit ranged from 0.05 ng/mL to 0.2 ng/mL. Calibration curves were found to be linear from 0.2 to 100 ng/mL with -(2)>0.992. The relative standard deviation of the intraday precision using water and urine ranged from 2.1% to 16.3%. The analysis was performed with urine samples that were collected from adults residing in the Republic of Korea. The analyzed concentration results were compared according to gender and region. As a result, DEHP metabolites showed the highest detected concentration (75.92 μg/g creatinine, 100%), and MiNP, a metabolite of DiNP, showed the lowest detected concentration (0.42 μg/g creatinine, 22.5%). On average, female urine (200.76 μg/g creatinine) had a higher detected concentration of ∑8 phthalate metabolites than male urine. Samples from rural regions (211.96 μg/g creatinine) had higher levels than samples from urban regions. © 2013.

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopic characterisation of catalysts obtained by interaction between tetra-n-butyl-tin and silica or silica supported rhodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, J.M.M.; Toyir, J.; Didillon, B.; Candy, J.P.; Nedez, C.; Basset, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy at 78 K was used to study the interaction between tetra-n-butyl-tin and the surfaces of silica or silica supported rhodium. At room temperature, the tetra-n-butyl-tin was physically adsorbed on the surfaces. After reaction under hydrogen at 373 K, the formation of grafted organometallic fragments on the Rh surface was confirmed whereas with pure silica, ≡SiO-Sn(n-C 4 H 9 ) 3 moieties were observed. After treatment at 523 K, the rhodium grafted organometallic species was completely decomposed and there was formation of a defined bimetallic RhSn compound

  10. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the 'Sandwich' Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: ws6r@virginia.edu; Kalagher, S.; Turba, U. C.; Sabri, S. S.; Park, A.-W.; Stone, J.; Angle, J. F.; Matsumoto, A. H. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007-December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8-1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the 'sandwich technique.'ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8-12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36-48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7-29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response.

  11. Disposition of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol (DBNP), a submarine atmosphere contaminant, in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Kenneth R.; Jung, Anne E.; Ritchie, Glenn D.; Jederberg, Warren W.; Wilfong, Erin R.; Briggs, G. Bruce; Arfsten, Darryl P.

    2005-01-01

    The phenol 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol (DBNP) is a contaminant found onboard submarines and is formed by the nitration of an antioxidant present in turbine lubricating oil TEP 2190. DBNP has been found on submarine interior surfaces, on eating utensils and dishes, and on the skin of submariners. DBNP exposure is a potential health concern because it is an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Adult male rats were dosed once by oral gavage with 15 or 40 mg/kg DBNP mixed with 14 C-DBNP in kanola oil and 0.8% v/v DMSO (n=16/group). The distribution of 14 C in major tissues was measured over time for up to 240 h post-dose. Unexpectedly, 6/16 (40%) of the rats gavaged with 40 mg/kg DBNP died within 24 h of dosing. Prostration, no auditory startle response, reduced locomotor activity, and muscular rigidity persisted in survivors for up to 8 days after dosing. For animals dosed with 15 mg/kg DBNP, radioactivity levels were significantly elevated in the following tissues 24 h after dosing: fat>>>liver>kidneys>heart>lungs>brain>striated muscle>spleen. Radioactivity levels were elevated for fat, liver, kidney, heart, and lungs of animals euthanized 144 h post-dosing and in the liver of animals euthanized 240 h post-dosing. These findings suggest that DBNP may accumulate in the body as a result of continuous or repeat exposures of short interval to DBNP

  12. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R.; Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300 °C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu) 2 ] 2 precursors, where M = Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200 °C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18 nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities

  13. Bis(O-n-butyl dithio-carbonato-κS,S')bis-(pyridine-κN)manganese(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Naveed; Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Zeller, Matthias; Mazhar, Muhammad; Arifin, Zainudin

    2011-08-01

    The structure of the title manganese complex, [Mn(C(5)H(9)OS(2))(2)(C(5)H(5)N)(2)] or [Mn(S(2)CO-n-Bu)(2)(C(5)H(5)N)(2)], consists of discrete monomeric entities with Mn(2+) ions located on centres of inversion. The metal atom is coordinated by a six-coordinate trans-N(2)S(4) donor set with the pyridyl N atoms located in the apical positions. The observed slight deviations from octa-hedral geometry are caused by the bite angle of the bidentate κ(2)-S(2)CO-n-Bu ligands [69.48 (1)°]. The O(CH(2))(3)(CH(3)) chains of the O-n-butyl dithio-carbonate units are disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.589 (2):0.411 (2).

  14. An octanuclear molybdenum(VI) complex containing coordinatively bound 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, [Mo8O22(OH)4(di-tBu-bipy)4]: synthesis, structure, and catalytic epoxidation