WorldWideScience

Sample records for photovoltaics final technical

  1. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J. M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Sherwood, L. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Pulaski, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Cook, C. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Kalland, S. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Haynes, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States)

    2005-08-14

    In September 2000, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) began its 5-year work on contract # DE-FGO3-00SF22116, the Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Project. The objective was to develop and distribute information on photovoltaics and to educate key stakeholder groups including state government agencies, local government offices, consumer representative agencies, school officials and students, and Million Solar Roofs Partnerships. In addition, the project was to identify barriers to the deployment of photovoltaics and implement strategies to overcome them. Information dissemination and education was accomplished by publishing newsletters; creating a base of information, guides, and models on the www.irecusa.org and the www.millionsolarroofs.org web sites; convening workshops and seminars; engaging multiple stakeholders; and widening the solar network to include new consumers and decision makers. Two major web sites were maintained throughout the project cycle. The www.irecusa.org web site housed dedicated pages for Connecting to the Grid, Schools Going Solar, Community Outreach, and Certification & Training. The www.millionsolarroofs.org web site was created to serve the MSR Partnerships with news, interviews, key documents, and resource material. Through the course of this grant, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council has been supporting the Department of Energy's solar energy program goals by providing the Department with expertise services for their network of city, state, and community stakeholders. IREC has been the leading force at the state and federal levels regarding net metering and interconnection policy for photovoltaic systems. The principal goal and benefit of the interconnection and net metering work is to lower both barriers and cost for the installation of PV. IREC typically plays a leadership role among small generator stakeholders and has come to be relied upon for its expertise by industry and regulators. IREC also took a leadership

  2. Final Technical Report for Photovoltaic Power Electronics Research Initiative (PERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Jordan, Charlie [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); batarseh, Issa [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The Power Electronics team at the University of Central Florida (UCF) has developed a novel three-phase micro-inverter for photovoltaic (PV) distributed applications. Based on a new advanced topology and control methodology, the developed inverter is small in size, and achieved DoE targeted power density, cost and efficiency specifications. Today’s inverters are widely used in PV based energy harvesting systems, but are based on single-phase design with limited application to large installations. These micro-inverters have been shown to have advantageous over their string inverter counterparts in both grid-tied PV energy harvesting and standalone micro-grid systems with energy storage. Some of these are simplified installation, no high voltage DC wiring, no single point of failure and improved energy harvesting. Several patents have been issued and this new solar conversion technology has been licensed to the private sector.

  3. Surrogate Final Technical Report for "Solar: A Photovoltaic Manufacturing Development Facility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Paul [State University of New York Research Foundation, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-06-27

    The project goal to create a first-of-a-kind crystalline Silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) Manufacturing & Technology Development Facility (MDF) that will support the growth and maturation of a strong domestic PV manufacturing industry, based on innovative and differentiated technology, by ensuring industry participants can, in a timely and cost-effective manner, access cutting-edge manufacturing equipment and production expertise needed to accelerate the transition of innovative technologies from R&D into manufacturing.

  4. CIS Photovoltaic Technology; Final Technical Report 12 January 1997 - 15 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.S.; Kiss, Z.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Energy Photovoltaics, Inc. (EPV) during the third phase of a three-phase, cost-shared subcontract. Researchers at EPV explored novel sequential formation recipes for CIGS that can be implemented on a unique pilot line constructed to coat low-cost, glass substrates 4300 cm2 in area; implemented a particular CIGS recipe on the pilot line that enabled large-area modules to be prepared with efficiencies up to 7.6%; and performed electrical resistance monitoring of the film that proved capable of indicating the temperature of compound formation and detecting termination. The substrate/Mo/Na working group (which included EPV, NREL, and others) studied Na in Mo and the effect of Na on devices, and found it beneficial except at concentrations exceeding 0.4%. Researchers determined the following properties of large-area, magnetron-sputtered ZnO:Al: sheet resistance 24 W/sq., transmission 82%, conductivity 440 S cm-1; and preheating the glass increases the conductivity. Devices prepared using a baseline CIGS process averaged 11.7% in efficiency. Modules and mini-modules were prepared using a diode-laser-pumped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for the Mo patterning and mechanical scribing for the cuts. Large-area CIGS formation involves the use of linear sources, and thickness profiles were presented for simple and optimized linear sources. An unencapsulated module producing 25 watts (7.65% aperture-area efficiency) was produced. Using a new diagnostic technique, the fill factor of a CIGS module was decomposed into contributions from the intrinsic device fill factor and ZnO sheet resistance

  5. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  6. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Ross

    2003-04-30

    The Final Technical Report summarizes research accomplishments and Publications in the period of 5/1/99 to 4/30/03 done on the grant. Extensive progress was made in the period covered by this report in the areas of chemical kinetics of non-linear systems; spatial structures, reaction - diffusion systems, and thermodynamic and stochastic theory of electrochemical and general systems.

  8. CEEM Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, John [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-11-26

    concentrating photovoltaic applications thathave substantially higher efficiency than single substrate cells made of elemental semiconductors such as silicon. This task required the development of new cell bonding methods with excellent coupling of both photons and electrons between the sub-cells. To accomplish this, we developed (1) GaInN solar cells with enhanced performance by using quantum-well absorbers and front-surface optical texturing, (2) a hybrid "pillar-array" bond which uses an array of metal pillars for electrical coupling, and (3) a "hybrid moth-eye" optical coating which combines the benefits of nano-imprinted moth-eye coatings and traditional multilayer coatings. The technical effectiveness was assessed by measurement of the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells made using these techniques; the ultrahigh efficiencies targeted by this work are of compelling economic value for concentrating photovoltaics.

  9. Photovoltaic demonstration project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jicarilla Apache Tribe

    2002-01-01

    The Jicarilla Apache Nation is in Rio Arriba County in North Central New Mexico. The photovoltaic project was installed at the Dulce High School in the town of Dulce. Dulce is in the most northern part of the reservation near the New Mexico/Colorado boundary and can be reached from the New Mexico State Capitol in Santa Fe, hence to the town of Chama along U.S. Highway 84 to the junction of U.S. Highway 64. Dulce is about 12 miles west of the junction along U.S. Highway 64. Dulce community is in the mountainous part of the Nation with a population of about 4000. No industry exists in the community, however, a few commercial sites do exist such as a motel, restaurants, gas stations, food and liquor stores

  10. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    gas jet chamber and laser beam path from the final focusing mirror. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1: Fundamental studies of cutting front mechanisms, beam propagation, nozzle design and chemical reactions in the cut kerf with special emphasize on high laser powers and thick sections...... cutting nozzle which can be adjusted independently to the laser beam has been developed. The position of the focus relative the workpiece can be adjusted to cutting applications with relatively large processing windows, i.e. both mild and stainless steels, and of a broad thickness range. A build-in auto......This project entails research with the goal to extend laser cutting of steel based metals to thickness above 20 mm and laser powers in the 10 kW range, with adequate accuracy and economically viable cutting speeds. The technical approach is to develop mirror based cutting heads with truly coaxial...

  11. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdan W. Oppenheim; Rudolf Marloth

    2007-10-26

    Executive Summary The document contains Final Technical Report on the Industrial Assessment Center Program at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, covering the contract period of 9/1/2002 to 11/30/2006, under the contract DE-FC36-02GO 12073. The Report describes six required program tasks, as follows: TASK 1 is a summary of the assessments performed over the life of the award: 77 assessments were performed, 595 AR were recommended, covering a very broad range of manufacturing plants. TASK 2 is a description of the efforts to promote and increase the adoption of assessment recommendations and employ innovative methods to assist in accomplishing these goals. The LMU IAC has been very successful in accomplishing the program goals, including implemented savings of $5,141,895 in energy, $10,045,411 in productivity and $30,719 in waste, for a total of $15,218,025. This represents 44% of the recommended savings of $34,896,392. TASK 3 is a description of the efforts promoting the IAC Program and enhancing recruitment efforts for new clients and expanded geographic coverage. LMU IAC has been very successful recruiting new clients covering Southern California. Every year, the intended number of clients was recruited. TASK 4 describes the educational opportunities, training, and other related activities for IAC students. A total of 38 students graduated from the program, including 2-3 graduate students every semester, and the remainder undergraduate students, mostly from the Mechanical Engineering Department. The students received formal weekly training in energy (75%) and productivity (25). All students underwent extensive safety training. All students praised the IAC experience very highly. TASK 5 describes the coordination and integration of the Center activities with other Center and IAC Program activities, and DOE programs. LMU IAC worked closely with MIT, and SDSU IAC and SFSU IAC, and enthusiastically supported the SEN activities. TASK 6 describes other tasks

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  15. Technical Report - FINAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Luke, Director, UNLV Engineering Geophysics Laboratory

    2007-04-25

    Improve understanding of the earthquake hazard in the Las Vegas Valley and to assess the state of preparedness of the area's population and structures for the next big earthquake. 1. Enhance the seismic monitoring network in the Las Vegas Valley 2. Improve understanding of deep basin structure through active-source seismic refraction and reflection testing 3. Improve understanding of dynamic response of shallow sediments through seismic testing and correlations with lithology 4. Develop credible earthquake scenarios by laboratory and field studies, literature review and analyses 5. Refine ground motion expectations around the Las Vegas Valley through simulations 6. Assess current building standards in light of improved understanding of hazards 7. Perform risk assessment for structures and infrastructures, with emphasis on lifelines and critical structures 8. Encourage and facilitate broad and open technical interchange regarding earthquake safety in southern Nevada and efforts to inform citizens of earthquake hazards and mitigation opportunities

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, Tim [ZeaChem Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States); O' Neill, Brian [ZeaChem Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2016-08-17

    ZeaChem Inc. and US DOE successfully demonstrated the ZeaChem process for producing sugars and ethanol from high-impact biomass feedstocks. The project was executed over a 5-year period under a $31.25 million cooperative agreement (80:20 Federal:ZeaChem cost share). The project was managed by dividing it into three budget periods. Activities during Budget Period 1 were limited to planning, permitting, and other pre-construction planning. Budget Period 2 activities included engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning, start-up and initial operations through the Independent Engineer Test Runs. The scope of construction was limited to the Chem Frac and Hydrogenolysis units, as the Core Facility was already in place. Construction was complete in December 2012, and the first cellulosic ethanol was produced in February 2013. Additional operational test runs were conducted during Budget Period 3 (completed June 2015) using hybrid poplar, corn stover, and wheat straw feedstocks, resulting in the production of cellulosic ethanol and various other biorefinery intermediates. The research adds to the understanding of the Chem Frac and Hydrogenolysis technologies in that the technical performance of each unit was measured, and the resulting data and operational experience can be used as the basis for engineering designs, thus mitigating risks for deployment in future commercial facilities. The Chem Frac unit was initially designed to be operated as two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, with first stage conditions selected to remove the hemicellulose fraction of the feedstock, and the second stage conditions selected to remove the cellulose fraction. While the Chem Frac unit met or exceeded the design capacity of 10 ton(dry)/day, the technical effectiveness of the Chem Frac unit was below expectations in its initial two-stage dilute acid configuration. The sugars yields were low, the sugars were dilute, and the sugars had poor fermentability caused by excessive inhibitors

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Isaac [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Fueglistaler, Stephan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-09-19

    We have constructed and analyzed a series of idealized models of tropical convection interacting with large-scale circulations, with 25-50km resolution and with 1-2km cloud resolving resolution to set the stage for rigorous tests of convection closure schemes in high resolution global climate models. Much of the focus has been on the climatology of tropical cyclogenesis in rotating systems and the related problem of the spontaneous aggregation of convection in non-rotating systems. The PI (Held) will be delivering the honorary Bjerknes lecture at the Fall 2016 AGU meeting in December on this work. We have also provided new analyses of long-standing issues related to the interaction between convection and the large-scale circulation: Kelvin waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, water vapor transport into the stratosphere, and upper tropospheric temperature trends. The results of these analyses help to improve our understanding of processes, and provide tests for future high resolution global modeling. Our final goal of testing new convections schemes in next-generation global atmospheric models at GFDL has been left for future work due to the complexity of the idealized model results meant as tests for these models uncovered in this work and to computational resource limitations. 11 papers have been published with support from this grant, 2 are in review, and another major summary paper is in preparation.

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Mayda [Northwestern University

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gary [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Albritton, John [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2018-01-31

    technology has great potential to provide clean syngas from coal and petcoke-based gasification at increased efficiency and at significantly lower capital and operating costs than conventional syngas cleanup technologies. However, before the technology can be deemed ready for scale-up to a full commercial-scale demonstration, additional R&D testing is needed at the site to address the following critical technical risks: WDP sorbent stability and performance; Impact of WDP on downstream cleanup and conversion steps; Metallurgy and refractory; Syngas cleanup performance and controllability; Carbon capture performance and additional syngas cleanup The proposed plan to acquire this additional R&D data involves: Operation of the units to achieve an additional 3,000 hours of operation of the system within the performance period, with a target of achieving 1,000 hours of those hours via continuous operation of the entire integrated pre-commercial demonstration system; Rapid turnaround of repairs and/or modifications required as necessary to return any specific unit to operating status with documentation and lessons learned to support technology maturation, and; Proactive performance of maintenance activities during any unplanned outages and if possible while operating.

  20. Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-06-01

    This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.

  1. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [No longer NREL employee; Ryberg, David [No longer NREL employee

    2018-03-19

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM) software, Version 2016.3.14 Revision 4 (SSC Version 160). It is an update to the 2015 edition of the manual, which describes the photovoltaic model in SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41). This new edition includes corrections of errors in the 2015 edition and descriptions of new features introduced in SAM 2016.3.14, including: 3D shade calculator Battery storage model DC power optimizer loss inputs Snow loss model Plane-of-array irradiance input from weather file option Support for sub-hourly simulations Self-shading works with all four subarrays, and uses same algorithm for fixed arrays and one-axis tracking Linear self-shading algorithm for thin-film modules Loss percentages replace derate factors. The photovoltaic performance model is one of the modules in the SAM Simulation Core (SSC), which is part of both SAM and the SAM SDK. SAM is a user-friedly desktop application for analysis of renewable energy projects. The SAM SDK (Software Development Kit) is for developers writing their own renewable energy analysis software based on SSC. This manual is written for users of both SAM and the SAM SDK wanting to learn more about the details of SAM's photovoltaic model.

  2. Photovoltaic systems concept study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The work performed in the conceptual design and systems analysis of three sizes of photovoltaic solar electric power systems is contained in five volumes consisting of nine sections plus appendices. Separate abstracts were prepared for the two sections in this volume. (MHR)

  3. Technical planning activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fusion Energy commissioned the Technical Planning Activity (TPA). The purpose of this activity was to develop a technical planning methodology and prepare technical plans in support of the strategic and policy framework of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan issued by DOE in February 1985. Although this report represents the views of only the US magnetic fusion community, it is international in scope in the sense that the technical plans contained herein describe the full scope of the tasks that are prerequisites for the commercialization of fusion energy. The TPA has developed a well-structured methodology that includes detailed definitions of technical issues, definitions of program areas and elements, statements of research and development objectives, identification of key decision points and milestones, and descriptions of facility requirements.

  4. Technical planning activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fusion Energy commissioned the Technical Planning Activity (TPA). The purpose of this activity was to develop a technical planning methodology and prepare technical plans in support of the strategic and policy framework of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan issued by DOE in February 1985. Although this report represents the views of only the US magnetic fusion community, it is international in scope in the sense that the technical plans contained herein describe the full scope of the tasks that are prerequisites for the commercialization of fusion energy. The TPA has developed a well-structured methodology that includes detailed definitions of technical issues, definitions of program areas and elements, statements of research and development objectives, identification of key decision points and milestones, and descriptions of facility requirements

  5. Photovoltaic industry manufacturing technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanecek, D.; Diver, M.; Fernandez, R. [Automation and Robotics Research Inst., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report contains the results of the Photovoltaic (PV) Industry Manufacturing Technology Assessment performed by the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) of the University of Texas at Arlington for the National Renewable Energy laboratory. ARRI surveyed eleven companies to determine their state-of-manufacturing in the areas of engineering design, operations management, manufacturing technology, equipment maintenance, quality management, and plant conditions. Interviews with company personnel and plant tours at each of the facilities were conducted and the information compiled. The report is divided into two main segments. The first part of the report presents how the industry as a whole conforms to ``World Class`` manufacturing practices. Conclusions are drawn from the results of a survey as to the areas that the PV industry can improve on to become more competitive in the industry and World Class. Appendix A contains the questions asked in the survey, a brief description of the benefits to performing this task and the aggregate response to the questions. Each company participating in the assessment process received the results of their own facility to compare against the industry as a whole. The second part of the report outlines opportunities that exist on the shop floor for improving Process Equipment and Automation Strategies. Appendix B contains the survey that was used to assess each of the manufacturing processes.

  6. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  7. PVUSA model technical specification for a turnkey photovoltaic power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the five objectives of PVUSA is to offer U.S. utilities hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems. The procurement process included the development of a detailed set of technical requirements for a PV system. PVUSA embodied its requirements in a technical specification used as an attachment to its contracts for four utility-scale PV systems in the 200 kW to 500 kW range. The technical specification has also been adapted and used by several utilities. The PVUSA Technical Specification has now been updated and is presented here as a Model Technical Specification (MTS) for utility use. The MTS text is also furnished on a computer disk in Microsoft Word 6.0 so that it may be conveniently adapted by each user. The text includes guidance in the form of comments and by the use of parentheses to indicate where technical information must be developed and inserted. Commercial terms and conditions will reflect the procurement practice of the buyer. The reader is referred to PG&E Report Number 95-3090000. 1, PVUSA Procurement, Acceptance and Rating Practices for Photovoltaic Power Plants (1995) for PVUSA experience and practice. The MTS is regarded by PVUSA as a use-proven document, but needs to be adapted with care and attention to detail.

  8. DOE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT RP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUSS PETERMAN

    2012-01-01

    The City of Georgetown Utility Systems (GUS) patnered with the private sector, the American Public Power Association (APPA) and Southwestern University to design, construct, test and monitor a solar co-generation system directly connected to the GUS electric distribution system. This report consists of the Primary Technical Report and 3 attachments.

  9. Guidelines for Preparing Final Technical Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    Prior to submitting the Final Technical Report, any outstanding issues related to dissemination in accordance with ... The report should be an opportunity to reflect on the management of the project from various perspectives: .... of poor quality.

  10. Photovoltaics in buildings. Final report; Photovoltaik in Gebaeuden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erge, T.; Hullmann, H.; Kaiser, R.; Kovach-Hebling, A.; Laukamp, H.; Reise, C.; Sauer, D.U.; Schmid, J.; Schmidt, H.; Sick, F.

    1996-08-31

    The feasibility in principle of photovoltaic plants integrated in buildings was proved in the 1980`s in the context of several pilot and demonstration projects both in Germany and internationally. However, the realisation and operation of these plants showed the necessity for further research and development work both in the system technique and particularly in the architectural area. The research project `Photovoltaics in buildings` reached the target of establishing a bridge between the technically orientated work of the researchers, developers and manufacturers of photovoltaic components on the one hand, and the architects and town planners on the other hand. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die prinzipielle Machbarkeit gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaikanlagen wurde in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen mehrerer Pilot- und Demonstrationsprojekte sowohl in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland als auch international nachgewiesen. Die Realisierung und der Betrieb dieser Anlagen zeigte jedoch die Notwendigkeit weiterer Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten sowohl im systemtechnischen als insbesondere auch im architektonischen Bereich auf. Mit dem Forschungsprojekt `Photovoltaik in Gebaeuden` wurde das Ziel erreicht, eine Bruecke zu schlagen zwischen den eher technisch orientierten Arbeiten der Forscher, Entwickler und Hersteller von Photovoltaikkomponenten auf der einen Seite und den Architekten und Stadtplanern auf der anderen. (orig./AKF)

  11. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R. C.; McCarley, T. M.

    2006-05-04

    . Platform teams organize faculty and students for cross-disciplinary, systems-oriented research and collaborative learning. To date, nine platforms have been developed, although these will most likely be reorganized into a smaller number of broader topics. In the spring of 2004, BRT faculty initiated a regional partnership and collaborative learning program with colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Kansas State University, and South Dakota State University to develop distance education courses in biorenewable resources and technology. As a fledgling graduate program, the BRT graduate program didn’t have the breadth of resources to offer a large number of courses in biorenewables. Other schools faced a similar problem. The academic consortium as first conceived would allow students from the member schools to enroll in biorenewables courses from any of the participating schools, which would assure the necessary enrollment numbers to offer specialized course work. Since its inception, the collaborative curriculum partnership has expanded to include Louisiana State University and the University of Wisconsin. A second international curriculum development campaign was also initiated in the spring of 2004. In particular, several BRT faculty teamed with colleagues at the University of Arkansas, University of Washington, University of Gent (Belgium), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France), and Technical University of Graz (Austria) to develop an EU-US exchange program in higher education and vocational education/training (entitled “Renewable Resources and Clean Technology”).

  13. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, Richard [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Phillips, Brian [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-10-18

    A variety of calcifying organisms produce a transient or metastable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursor phase that is assembled and subsequently transformed into a crystalline biomineral, typically calcite or aragonite. The complex shapes, hierarchical structures, and unique physical properties of the biominerals that result from this calcification pathway have stimulated interest in adapting these concepts for the design and creation of bio-inspired functional materials in the laboratory. ACC also forms as a reactive precursor in diverse inorganic systems and is likely to play a much broader role in calcium carbonate formation. Knowledge of the structure, composition, and behavior of this metastable phase is critical for establishing a structural and mechanistic framework for calcium carbonate formation and its role in biogeochemical processes, including carbon cycling. Minor additives, such as magnesium, phosphorus, and organic macromolecules, are known to play important roles in controlling ACC stability, transformation kinetics, and selection of final crystalline polymorph. Molecular water also occurs in many types of ACC and is thought to play a structural role in its stability and transformation behavior. One of the major challenges that remain unresolved is identification of the structural basis for the role of these minor additives and molecular water. The absence of long-range order in ACC, and other amorphous phases, has posed a challenge for study by techniques commonly used for crystalline solids. Preliminary studies in our group show that the combination of two techniques, synchrotron X-ray-based pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide entirely new insight to structural properties of synthetic ACC over length scales that are most relevant for understanding its transformation properties. Building on preliminary experiments, we propose a systematic study of synthesis, structure, and

  15. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  16. Photovoltaic venture analysis. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Schiffel, D.; Doane, J.; Bishop, C.

    1978-07-01

    This appendix contains a brief summary of a detailed description of alternative future energy scenarios which provide an overall backdrop for the photovoltaic venture analysis. Also included is a summary of a photovoltaic market/demand workshop, a summary of a photovoltaic supply workshop which used cross-impact analysis, and a report on photovoltaic array and system prices in 1982 and 1986. The results of a sectorial demand analysis for photovoltaic power systems used in the residential sector (single family homes), the service, commercial, and institutional sector (schools), and in the central power sector are presented. An analysis of photovoltaics in the electric utility market is given, and a report on the industrialization of photovoltaic systems is included. A DOE information memorandum regarding ''A Strategy for a Multi-Year Procurement Initiative on Photovoltaics (ACTS No. ET-002)'' is also included. (WHK)

  17. Final Technical Report: Results of Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narang, David, J.; Hambrick, Joshua; Srinivasan, Devarajan; Ayyannar, Raja; O' Brien, Kathleen

    2011-09-28

    working, utility distribution feeder. To address the technical challenges related to the integration of distributed PV when PV penetration levels reach or exceed 30% of the total load, technologies and methods to ensure the stable and safe operation of the feeder will be evaluated. Lessons learned will enable APS to improve the framework for future PV integration on its system and may also aid other utilities across the United States energy sector in accelerating the adoption of distributed photovoltaic generation.

  18. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  19. Technical Appraisal Of Solar Photovoltaic Pumping In Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonta, A.D; Akinwumi, I.O; Siyanbola, W.O.

    2004-01-01

    Water is essential for life and its portability ensures good health for users. In rural communities of developing countries, solar photovoltaic water pumping (PVP) is becoming a reliable and cost-effective alternative to conventional method off providing potable water from boreholes and deep wells. This paper has reported the outcome of a technical appraisal carried out in Nigeria. It involved an inventorization exercise, administration of questionnaires, physical inspection of some system sites and personal interaction with contractors, government officials and beneficiaries of such system. the data were analysed using graphical displays, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 10.0) and student t-test statistic. During the fifteen years period (1988 to 2003) covered by the study, it was found that a total of about 600 PVP systems wee installed in Nigeria; 96.2 percent by the government and its agencies and 3.8 percent by the Government Organizations. The mean number of modules per systems was found to be 24, the mean array power is 1564 Wp and the mean borehole depth is 51.3m. The average number of people a system is designed for is 1750. the factor found to be responsible for poor system performance include the usage of low quality component parts, poor system design, low borehole yield and poor construction/installation work. It is recommended that for the sustainable development and dissemination of this technology, pilot projects must be installed in different geographical locations of county. These must be intensively monitored in terms of system and component performance efficiencies and data bank be established to provide information of further research and development

  20. Comparative analysis of concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies: Technical and environmental evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, U.; Zepparelli, F.; Morettini, V.; Garroni, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life cycle was assessed for both concentrated solar power and photovoltaic systems. ► The PV plant has a higher environmental impact than the CSP plant. ► The Global Warming Potential is lower for the CSP than for the PV plant. ► The energy payback time is lower for the CSP than for the PV plant. -- Abstract: Solar energy is an important alternative energy source to fossil fuels and theoretically the most available energy source on the earth. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of thermodynamic cycles and the photovoltaic conversion. Solar thermal technologies, sometimes called thermodynamic solar technologies, operating at medium (about 500 °C) and high temperatures (about 1000 °C), have recently attracted a renewed interest and have become one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Photovoltaic conversion is very interesting, although still quite expensive, because of the absence of moving components and the reduced operating and management costs. The main objectives of the present work are: •to carry out comparative technical evaluations on the amount of electricity produced by two hypothetical plants, located on the same site, for which a preliminary design was made: a solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough collectors and a photovoltaic plant with a single-axis tracking system; •to carry out a comparative analysis of the environmental impact derived from the processes of electricity generation during the whole life cycle of the two hypothetical power plants. First a technical comparison between the two plants was made assuming that they have the same nominal electric power and then the same total covered surface. The methodology chosen to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the power plants is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It allows to analyze all the phases of the life cycle of the plants, from the extraction of

  1. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00, 8507.20.80... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  2. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996

  3. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  4. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  5. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  6. Photovoltaic venture analysis. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Schiffel, D.; Doane, J.; Bishop, C.

    1978-07-01

    A description of the integrating model for photovoltaic venture analysis is given; input assumptions for the model are described; and the integrating model program listing is given. The integrating model is an explicit representation of the interactions between photovoltaic markets and supply under alternative sets of assumptions. It provides a consistent way of assembling and integrating the various assumptions, data, and information that have been obtained on photovoltaic systems supply and demand factors. Secondly, it provides a mechanism for understanding the implications of all the interacting assumptions. By representing the assumptions in a common, explicit framework, much more complex interactions can be considered than are possible intuitively. The integrating model therefore provides a way of examining the relative importance of different assumptions, parameters, and inputs through sensitivity analysis. Also, detailed results of model sensitivity analysis and detailed market and systems information are presented. (WHK)

  7. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  8. Photovoltaic power systems market identification and analysis. Final report, January 1977--February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes the work done by InterTechnology/Solar Corporation, its consultants, Mobil Tyco Solar Energy Corporation and the University of Delaware Institute for Energy Conversion, and its consultants, during the marketing analysis of near and intermediate term photovoltaic power applications. To obtain estimates of the domestic and foreign market potential for photovoltaically powered devices two approaches were used. First, the study was identifying then screening all possible photovoltaic power supply applications. This approach encompassed the first two tasks of the study: (1) a survey of the current uses of photovoltaic systems, both domestic and international, and a projection of the usage of those systems into the future; and (2) a new idea generation task which attempted to come up with new ways of using photovoltaic power. Second, the study required in-depth analysis of key near-term and intermediate-term photovoltaic applications identified during the first phase to obtain reasonable estimates of photovoltaic market potential. This process encompassed the third and fourth tasks of the analysis: (3) refinement of ideas generated in Task 2 so that certain products/applications could be identified, the product defined and a market survey carried out; and (4) development of a detailed product scenario which forecasts sales, barriers to market acceptance, and technical innovationsrequired for proper introduction of the products. The work performed and findings of each task are presented.

  9. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  10. Integration of Photovoltaics in Buildings—Support Policies Addressing Technical and Formal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of photovoltaic (PV generators in the envelope of a building by means of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offers an immense potential, both in market development and the production of renewable electric energy that is close to the point of electricity consumption. In Germany, for example, by integrating photovoltaics in buildings up to 50% of the electricity demand can be covered. The political support of BIPV would contribute to the development and installation of BIPV components and therefore also promote the development of new business areas for industries dealing with components used in building envelopes and photovoltaic generators. BIPV can be separated into three different integration types: “technical”, “formal” and “technical & formal”. Political instruments for the support of PV-installations, particularly BIPV are discussed in this paper using Germany and France as examples. Due to successful financial support policies, PV became the most powerful electricity production technology in Germany. In France, the unique financial support of BIPV is resulting in an exemplary development and growth of certified BIPV components available on the market and, from a technical, aesthetic architectural and legal certainty point of view, facilitating the easy and widespread integration of photovoltaic generators in buildings.

  11. PowerShades. Transparent photovoltaics and solar shading. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzel, E. (PhotoSolar ApS, Taastrup (Denmark)); Univ. of Neuchatel, Institute of Microtechnology, Neuchatel (CH)); Savcor Denmark A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Chem-Tec Plating A/S, Uldum (Denmark)); Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    This report marks the end of the PSO funded R and D project PowerShades. The objective of the project has been to establish knowledge about the manufacturing of PowerShade transparent photovoltaics and to demonstrate the viability of PowerShade, both as a product and when considered a building element. It has not been the objective to demonstrate a full-scale manufacturing of PowerShade, but to establish the knowledge that enables industrial manufacturing. The overall objective of the project has been achieved, and the large majority of the milestones defined have been met to full extent. It has been shown that PowerShade photovoltaic cells with an electrical efficiency of 5% can be reached, and it is expected that future work will lead to even better efficiency. Also, it has been demonstrated by full size side by side comparison that PowerShade transparent photovoltaics may replace exterior solar shading devices without compromise to the thermal properties of the building. The project has identified a number of work areas that must be addressed before an industrial manufacturing can be established. The efficiency of the photovoltaic generator must be increased and the stability of the entire product documented. Also, some of the identified processing steps must be scaled in capacity before manufacturing can be considered. (author)

  12. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  13. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  14. Solar Living House Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Bradley [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-09

    or computing device. These systems allow for more precise calibrations of temperature/humidity/lighting to correspond with user needs and preferences, minimizing energy losses with economical night- or day-time setbacks. Solar Dehumidification System: The most significant technological innovation in the Solar Living House is the solar thermal dehumidification system. This system generates hot water through two rooftop-mounted evacuated tube solar thermal collectors. The hot water is used to continually dry a regenerative solid desiccant material, typically white silica gel. The solid desiccant is used to adsorb moisture and humidity from the air without additional mechanical cooling. This strategy allows humidity to be modulated independently of air temperature, providing greater thermal comfort and reducing the opportunity for the growth of mold spores within the house while also reducing the overall energy consumption of the HVAC system. Economic Feasibility: The team set aggressive goals for affordability, targeting a construction cost of $138,710. An independent professional cost estimator determined the overall project costs, as designed, would be $333,799, or $336.15 per square foot of finished floor area. This is more than 2.4 times the target construction cost. By comparison, the average construction cost for a home in the United States in 2015 was $289,415, or $103.29 per square foot of finished floor area. Following work on the Solar Living House, team leaders incorporated many of its objectives into a net-zero energy home on a site in Gainesville, Florida. This site-built home avoided many of the constraints and complications of modular construction necessitated by the Solar Decathlon, allowing it to be built for a much more modest budget. This two-bedroom two bath 1,800 square foot home was constructed for $135.39 per square foot, including active photovoltaic solar systems, careful attention to continuous air barriers, increased insulation levels, and

  15. Photovoltaic subsystem optimization and design tradeoff study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.J.

    1982-03-01

    Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.

  16. Technical and economical analysis of an induced demand in the photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorba, Umberto; Pauli, Francesco; Menna, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the potential economic impact of a demand of photovoltaic (PV) devices in Morocco, in terms of induced production and job creation. In Morocco a high potential for PV installations exists as proved by the number of national and international deployment initiatives currently underway. In our study, we first describe the manufacturing process providing as final output the solar modules and associate the corresponding costs to each step of the process. These costs are needed to determine the technical coefficients of an ad hoc PV sector to be added to the Morocco Leontief matrix. Then, using the input-output methodology, we evaluate the economic impact of the production of 5 MW p modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5 MW p PV modules, which require an overall investment of euro 16.3 millions, increases production of euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and of euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of intermediate inputs in local economical context

  17. Photovoltaic electricity industry and markets Status and trends in France 1992-2002 - Technical report. Survey report of photovoltaic power applications in France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Juquois, Fabrice

    2003-01-01

    ,30 euros per kilowatt-hour in overseas departments and b) decision by ADEME, Regional Councils and other partners like the European Commission to grant up to 80 % of the PV system investment. Two meetings gathering the stakeholders were organized in February and October 2002 by ADEME and the industry partners in order to present and discuss the technical, financial and legal conditions to implement the new BIPV program. On this occasion ADEME and GENEC presented a compendium of best practices for installing grid-connected distributed PV power systems. From his side CSTB (the French Construction industry scientific and technical centre) in partnership with ADEME has explained the first procedures for the technical assessment of the building integrated PV modules. The assessment campaign in view of issuing the Technical Approvals (ATec CSTB) will start in 2003. A joint group including EDF and SER (a professional syndicate representative of the PV industry) developed both feed-in contracts and technical terms for grid connection of PV power systems. Nevertheless the precise terms of these contracts were not finalized by 2002 but officially released in 2003 after agreement of French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE). To conclude, the year 2002 showed a significant increase (around 20 %) of the level of production of crystalline silicon cells and turnover of main companies. The new market initiative of installing 20 MW of building integrated PV power systems in five years offers new opportunities for the industry in France

  18. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchulik, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B.G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-10-01

    Schuchuli, a small remote village on the Papago Indian Reservation in southwest Arizona, is 27 kilometers (17 miles) from the nearest available utility power. In some respects, Schuchuli resembles many of the rural villages in other parts of the world. For example, it's relatively small in size (about 60 residents), composed of a number of extended family groupings, and remotely situated relative to major population centers (190 km, or 120 miles, from Tucson). Its lack of conventional power is due to the prohibitive cost of supplying a small electrical load with a long-distance distribution line. Furthermore, alternate energy sources are expensive and place a burden on the resources of the villagers. On December 16, 1978, as part of a federally funded project, a solar cell power system was put into operation at Schuchuli. The system powers the village water pump, lighting for homes ad other village buildings, family refrigerators and a communal washing machine and sewing machine. The project, managed for the US Department of Energy by the NASA Lewis Research Center, provided for a one-year socio-economic study to assess the impact of a relatively small amount of electricity on the basic living environment of the villagers. The results of that study are presented, including village history, group life, energy use in general and the use of the photovoltaic-powered appliances. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  19. Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Margolis, Robert; Melius, Jennifer; Phillips, Caleb; Elmore, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    How much energy could we generate if PV modules were installed on all of the suitable roof area in the nation? To answer this question, we first use GIS methods to process a lidar dataset and determine the amount of roof area that is suitable for PV deployment in 128 cities nationwide, containing 23% of U.S. buildings, and provide PV-generation results for a subset of those cities. We then extend the insights from that analysis to the entire continental United States. We develop two statistical models -- one for small buildings and one for medium and large buildings -- and populate them with geographic variables that correlate with rooftop's suitability for PV. We simulate the productivity of PV installed on the suitable roof area, and present the technical potential of PV on both small buildings and medium/large buildings for every state in the continental US. Within the 128 cities covered by lidar data, 83% of small buildings have a location suitable for a PV installation, but only 26% of the total rooftop area of small buildings is suitable for development. The sheer number of buildings in this class, however, gives small buildings the greatest technical potential. Small building rooftops could accommodate 731 GW of PV capacity and generate 926 TWh/year of PV energy, approximately 65% of rooftop PV's total technical potential. We conclude by summing the PV-generation results for all building sizes and therefore answering our original question, estimating that the total national technical potential of rooftop PV is 1,118 GW of installed capacity and 1,432 TWh of annual energy generation. This equates to 39% of total national electric-sector sales.

  20. Virginia Solar Pathways Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Katharine; Cosby, Sarah

    2018-03-28

    This Report provides a technical review of the final results of a funding award to Virginia Electric and Power Company (Dominion Energy Virginia (DEV) or the Company) for a project under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Energy Technologies Office. The three-year project was formally known as the Virginia Solar Pathways Project (VSPP or the Project). The purpose of the VSPP was to develop a collaborative utility-administered solar strategy (Solar Strategy) for DEV’s service territory in the Commonwealth that could serve as a replicable model for other states with similar policy environments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding award enabled DEV to take a focused approach to developing the Solar Strategy for its Virginia service territory. The structure and funding from the DOE award also facilitated valuable input from a formal stakeholder team convened to serve as advisors (Advisory Team) to the VSPP and contribute their perspectives and expertise to both the analysis and strategy development aspects of the Project. The development of the Solar Strategy involved three main goals: • Establish a policy and program framework that would integrate existing solar programs with new options appropriate for the Commonwealth’s policy environment and broader economic development objectives; • Promote wider deployment of solar within a low retail electric rate environment; and • Serve as a sustainable, utility-administered solar model that could be replicated in other states with similar policy environments, including, but not limited to, the entire Southeast region. In support of the VSPP goals, the Project Team commissioned four studies to support the Solar Strategy development. Two studies, completed by Navigant Consulting, focused on the integration of solar into the electric grid. The first solar integration study focused on integration of solar into the distribution grid where the utility system directly connects to and serves end-use customers

  1. Technical assistance contractor Management Plan. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) and its major teaming partners [Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), Sergent, Hauskins & Beckwith Agra, Inc. (SHB Agra), and Geraghty & Miller, Inc. (G&M)]. The first three companies have worked together effectively on the UMTRA Project for more than 10 years. With the initiation of the UMTRA Groundwater Project in April 1991, a need arose to increase the TAC`s groundwater technical breadth and depth, so G&M was brought in to augment the team`s capabilities. The TAC contract`s scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both surface and groundwater projects. The TAC team continues to support the DOE in completing surface remedial actions and initiating groundwater remediation work for start-up, characterization, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. A key feature of the TAC`s management approach is the extensive set of communication systems implemented for the UMTRA Project. These systems assist all functional disciplines in performing UMTRA Project tasks associated with management, technical support, administrative support, and financial/project controls.

  2. Technical review of externalities issues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, V.

    1994-12-01

    Externalities has become the catchword for a major experiment in electric utility regulation. Together with increased competition as a means for economic regulation, this experiment represents a potential revolution in how electric utilities are regulated. It is very important for utilities and policy makers to understand the technical issues and arguments driving the externality experiment. This Technical Review presents four papers covering topics in economics that may play important roles in this revolution. The four papers are: Economic Issues in the Application of Externalities to Electricity Resource Selection; Climate Change, the Marginal Cost of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Implications for Carbon Dioxide Emissions Adders; Positive Externalities and Benefits from Electricity; and Socioeconomic Effects of Externality Adders for Electric Utility Emissions

  3. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  4. Technical study gas storage. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowka, J.; Moeller, A.; Zander, W.; Koischwitz, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study will answer the following questions: (a) For what uses was the storage facility designed and for what use is it currently applied? Provide an overview of the technical data per gas storage facility: for instance, what is its capacity, volume, start-up time, etc.; (b) How often has this facility been used during the past 10 years? With what purpose was the facility brought into operation at the time? How much gas was supplied at the time from the storage facility?; (c) Given the characteristics and the use of the storage facility during the past 10 years and projected gas consumption in the future, how will the storage facility be used in the future?; (d) Are there other uses for which the gas storage facility can be deployed, or can a single facility be deployed for numerous uses? What are the technical possibilities in such cases? Questions (a) and (b) are answered separately for every storage facility. Questions (c) and (d) in a single chapter each (Chapter 2 and 3). An overview of the relevant storage data relating to current use, use in the last 10 years and use in future is given in the Annex

  5. Structure of technical systems: interpersonal networks and performance in nuclear waste and photovoltaic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrum, W.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The organization of scientific technology in modern, industrialized societies is examined by comparing two large-scale, multi-organizational, mission-oriented research networks. Using national data from personal interviews with 297 scientists, engineers, research managers, and policy makers from 97 organizations involved in nuclear waste management and solar-photovoltaic development, this study develops and tests hypotheses on the relationships among governmental, academic, private, and public interest sectors and the kinds of social linkages which are associated with technical performance. The principal finding is that in photovoltaic research, contacts with the research community are associated with high levels of performance, while for nuclear waste researchers, they are not. Instead, linkages to the governmental sector predict performance in nuclear waste research. This difference is explained by the governmental domination of the nuclear-waste system and the lack of private-sector involvement

  6. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, Lim Yun [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lalchand, G.; Sow Lin, Gladys Mak [Malaysia Energy Centre, Building Integrated Photovoltaic Project (Malaysia)

    2008-06-15

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia. (author)

  7. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Lim Yun; Lalchand, G.; Sow Lin, Gladys Mak

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia. (author)

  8. Energy from the desert. Very large scale photovoltaic systems: socio-economic, financial, technical and environmental aspects. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, K.; Ito, M.; Komoto, K.; Vleuten, P. van der; Faiman, D. (eds.)

    2009-05-15

    This executive summary report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) summarises the objectives and concepts of very large scale photovoltaic power generation (VLS-PV) systems and takes a look at the socio-economic, financial and technical aspects involved as well as the environmental impact of such systems. Potential benefits for desert communities, agricultural development and desalination of water are topics that are looked at. The potential of VLS-PV, its energy payback time and CO{sub 2} emission rates are discussed. Case studies for the Sahara and the Gobi Dessert areas are discussed. A VLS-PV roadmap is proposed and scenarios are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made.

  9. DOE Utility Matching Program Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighat, Alireza

    2002-01-01

    This is the Final report for the DOE Match Grant (DE-FG02-99NE38163) awarded to the Nuclear and Radiological Engineering (NRE) Department, University of Florida, for the period of September 1999 to January 2002. This grant has been instrumental for maintaining high-quality graduate and undergraduate education at the NRE department. The grant has been used for supporting student entry and retention and for upgrading nuclear educational facilities, nuclear instrumentation, computer facilities, and computer codes to better enable the incorporation of experimental experiences and computer simulations related to advanced light water fission reactor engineering and other advanced reactor concepts into the nuclear engineering course curricula

  10. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  11. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  12. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-08-01

    This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.

  13. Legal, technical and financial framework of photovoltaic self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: definition and regulatory conditions of self-consumption, share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, grid parity achievement and modification of the support system, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, legal aspects of direct consumption by third parties, opportunities and challenges of PV self-consumption, citizens and companies commitment in energy transition, technical challenges, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', summary and recommendations

  14. Photovoltaic energy in Mali. Technical and organisational challenges of solar solutions deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Olivier; Lesaffre, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, electricity access rate in rural Mali was below 11%. In view of the challenges of electrification and development of rural areas in Mali, solar energy is seen as a strategic technology. The SIDI has asked ENEA to work on the technical and organisational terms ensuring sustainable access and spreading of photovoltaic systems in rural Mali. As such, in this report, ENEA improves the knowledge of the sector's private actors, suggests support architectures tackling the problematic, and highlights critical points by market segments

  15. Final Technical Report - DE-EE0003542

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, James D

    2013-03-31

    Wind has provided energy for thousands of years: some of the earliest windmill engineering designs date back to ancient Babylonia and India where wind would be used as a source of irrigation. Today, wind is the quickest growing resource in Americas expanding energy infrastructure. However, to continue to positively diversify Americas energy portfolio and further reduce the countrys reliance of foreign oil, the industry must grow substantially over the next two decades in both turbine installations and skilled industrial manpower to support. The wind sector is still an emergent industry requiring maturation and development of its labor force: dedicated training is needed to provide the hard and soft skills to support the increasingly complex wind turbine generators as the technology evolves. Furthermore, the American workforce is facing a steep decline in available labor resources as the baby boomer generation enters retirement age. It is therefore vital that a process is quickly created for supporting the next generation of wind technicians. However, the manpower growth must incorporate three key components. First, the safety and technical training curriculum must be standardized across the industry - current wind educational programs are disparate and dedicated standardization programs must be further refined and implemented. Second, it is essential that the wind sector avoid disrupting other energy production industries by cannibalizing workers, which would indirectly affect the rest of Americas energy portfolio. The future wind workforce must be created organically utilizing either young people entering the workforce or train personnel emerging from careers outside of energy production. Third, the training must be quick and efficient as large amounts of wind turbines are being erected each year and this growth is expected to continue until at least 2035. One source that matches these three requirements is personnel transitioning from military service to the

  16. Final Technical Report 09 LW 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R J

    2010-11-28

    Since the development of new antibiotics is out-paced by the emergence of bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics, it is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance existing antibiotics. At the center of this mystery is a poorly understood phenomenon, heteroresistance: the coexistence of multiple subpopulations with varying degrees of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of the fundamental basis of heteroresistance could result in sorely needed breakthroughs in treatment options. This project proposed to leverage a novel microfluidic (microchemostat) technology to probe the heteroresistance phenomenon in bacteria, with the aim of restoring the efficacy of existing {beta}-lactam antibiotics. The clinically important bacteria Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used as the test case of bacteria that exhibits antibiotic heteroresistance. MRSA is difficult to treat because it is resistant to all {beta}-lactam antibiotics, as well as other classes of antimicrobials. Whereas {beta}-lactams such as methicillin and oxacillin are the preferred antibiotics to treat S. aureus infections due to their efficacy and low side effects, accurate determination and use of oxacillin/methicillin dosage is hampered by heteroresistance. In fact, invasive MRSA infections now account for about 95,000 deaths per year, a number that exceeds the deaths due to either influenza or HIV (12). In some MRSA strains, two subpopulations of cells may coexist: both populations carry the mecA gene that confers resistance, but mecA is differentially expressed so that only a small number of cells are observed during in vitro testing. Why this occurs is not understood. Prior experiments have sought to explain this phenomenon with conflicting results, with technology being the primary barrier to test the system sufficiently. This is the final report on work accomplished under the Lab-wide LDRD project 09-LW-112. This project was awarded to Frederick Balagadde who

  17. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  18. Technical analysis and economic effect of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciorba, U.; Pauli, F.; Menna, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is assessed the potential economic impact of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic manufacturing sector, in terms of induced production and job creation, to be implemented in Morocco. This country exhibits indeed a high potential for photovoltaic installations as proved by the relevant number of national and international deployment programs currently underway. Solar electricity generation schemes look very promising for the relevant role they could play in the future, CO2-emission free, world energy scenarios making potentially more appealing the planning of longer-term public investments. In this study, it was described the manufacturing process providing the solar modules as final output and associate to each step of the process the corresponding costs. Then, using input-output method, it was evaluated the economic impact of the production of 5 MWp modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5MWp photovoltaic modules, which require an overall investment of Euro 16.3 millions increases gross domestic product of Euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and only of Euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of inputs in local economical context [it

  19. Key technical and non-technical challenges for mass deployment of photovoltaic solar energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2001-12-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is used for direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. It is not to be confused with low-temperature thermal solar energy (e.g. solar domestic hot water systems) and with solar electricity production using a conventional high-temperature steam cycle (using parabolic troughs or 'power towers'). Important features of PV are: inherently renewable; sustainable if well designed, manufactured, used, and disposed; no moving parts, quiet; reliable if well designed and engineered; modular (from milliwatts to multi-megawatts); suitable for a wide variety of applications (stand-alone and grid-connected); large potential (regionally and globally); intermittent; capacity factor (ratio of average system power to installed (=peak) power) =0.08-0.24. PV is among the major renewable energy technologies in all well known energy scenarios, although a substantial role in % of the total energy production can only be achieved on the long term (typically 40-60 years years). Fortunately, long before that the PV market may be a rapidly growing, multi-billion euro business, providing enormous economic opportunities and many jobs

  20. Mission related to regulation and development of the photovoltaic sector in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, J.M; Sine, A.; Helleisen, Ph.; Tlili, C.; Trink, C.; Stoffaes, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the development of the photovoltaic stock in France (high potential with a middle term development constrained by high costs, consequences of a very strong increase of demands at the end of 2009, perspective of development at a rather high rate). Then, it outlines and discusses the financial consequences of such a high rate development, and the inadequacy between industrial objectives and development rate. It presents a development plan for this sector, stresses the need to implement new purchase obligation measures before the summer 2010, and to define a global action plan to be implemented at the beginning of 2011 for the development of photovoltaic electricity. Elements of international comparison are finally proposed

  1. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  2. Photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  3. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, B.; Kronschnabel, H.; Mueller, W.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    There is an investigation whether accessibility can be produced to fuel elements stored in a salt mine. All solutions of the problem were followed up until the technically best one was found. Two conditions must be fulfilled for access to the final storage barrel: - There must be a climate which is suitable for people. The Mining Order is the basis for this. - The pit building must be fixed, in the convergence in the salt mine should not lead to it becoming impossible to reach part of the mine. Due to heat-producing waste, rock temperatures are caused in the salt mine, in which mining is no longer possible. Building on the idea of cooling the whole final storage area using concentric sections, the amount of heat to be removal was first estimated. Cooling of the whole final storage area proved to be technically unjustifiable and uninteresting at present. (orig./HP) [de

  4. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development

  5. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  6. Technical evaluation report of the Fort St. Vrain final draft upgraded technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a technical evaluation of the final draft of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Upgraded Technical Specifications (UT/S) as issued by Public Service of Colorado (PSC) on May 27, 1988 with subsequent supplemental updates issued on June 15, 1988 and August 5, 1988. It has been compared for consistency, and safety conservatism with the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), the FSV Safety Evaluation Report (SER), the Facility Operating License, DPR-34, and all amendments to the Facility Operating License issued as of June 1, 1988, and Appendix A to the Operating License DPR-34, Technical Specifications. Because of the age of the plant, no supplements to the Fort St. Vrain SER have been issued since the original SER was not issued as a WASH or a NUREG report. This made it necessary to review all amendments to the Facility Operating License since they would contain the safety evaluations done to support changes to the Facility Operating License. The upgraded Fort St. Vrain Technical Specifications were also broadly compared with the latest Westinghouse Standard Technical Specifications (WSTS) to assure that what was proposed for Fort St. Vrain was consistent with the latest NRC staff practices for standard technical specifications

  7. Technical and economic design of photovoltaic and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of grid connected photovoltaic system integrating battery energy storage system. • A model to manage the energy flows and assess the system profitability is presented. • The model evaluates the effective PV power rate and battery energy system capacity. • An application and multi-scenario analysis based on an Italian context is discussed. • Results show the system technical feasibility and an energy cost save of 52 €/MW h. - Abstract: In the last years, the technological development and the increasing market competitiveness of renewable energy systems, like solar and wind energy power plants, create favorable conditions to the switch of the electricity generation from large centralized facilities to small decentralized energy systems. The distributed electricity generation is a suitable option for a sustainable development thanks to the environmental impact reduction, the load management benefits and the opportunity to provide electricity to remote areas. Despite the current cut off of the national supporting policies to the renewables, the photovoltaic (PV) systems still find profitable conditions for the grid connected users when the produced energy is self-consumed. Due to the intermittent and random nature of the solar source, PV plants require the adoption of an energy storage system to compensate fluctuations and to meet the energy demand during the night hours. This paper presents a technical and economic model for the design of a grid connected PV plant with battery energy storage (BES) system, in which the electricity demand is satisfied through the PV–BES system and the national grid, as the backup source. The aim is to present the PV–BES system design and management strategy and to discuss the analytical model to determine the PV system rated power and the BES system capacity able to minimize the Levelized Cost of the Electricity (LCOE). The proposed model considers the hourly energy demand profile for a reference

  8. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Volume two. Technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The question of photovoltaic system interactions with electric utility grids is addressed. Discussions of system configurations, effects on utility dispatch and generation planning, effects of utility rate structures on photovoltaic deployment and vice versa, interactions of photovoltaic and electrical storage systems, effects on end-use reliability, and the ultimate limitations on photovoltaic penetration into electric grids are presented. Photovoltaic system economic issues are considered. Discussions of the high first cost and the Program plans and strategies to reduce costs (and PV prices), expected evolution of photovoltaic technology, effects of various financial incentives on photovoltaics, implications of utility vs non-utility ownership of photovoltaics, likelihood that sufficient capital will be available to adequately finance the deployment of photovoltaic systems, current status and expected evolution of the photovoltaic supply industry, and the programmatic activities directed at aiding the evolution of a healthy, competitive industry are presented. The basic issues of photovoltaic market development are studied. The potential of various market segments and the complexity involved in defining and identifying the various segments; issues to be faced in deployment of dispersed photovoltaic systems including innovation acceptance on the part of the building industry, building codes, zoning, insurance, information dissemination, public acceptance, solar access, state and local solar photovoltaic incentives, and the implications for urban and suburban land use; and the need for, and method of development of, photovoltaic standards and warranties on photovoltaic systems are discussed. The conclusions of the report with respect to the information requested by Congress are summarized, and findings for congressional action are presented. (WHK)

  9. Final Technical Report, Wind Generator Project (Ann Arbor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Nathan [City of Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-20

    A Final Technical Report (57 pages) describing educational exhibits and devices focused on wind energy, and related outreach activities and programs. Project partnership includes the City of Ann Arbor, MI and the Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum, along with additional sub-recipients, and U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Report relays key milestones and sub-tasks as well as numerous graphics and images of five (5) transportable wind energy demonstration devices and five (5) wind energy exhibits designed and constructed between 2014 and 2016 for transport and use by the Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum.

  10. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David [Sacramento Municipal Unitlity District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  11. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simu...

  12. 75 FR 61509 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... Procurement; Title III, Trade Agreements Act of 1979; Country of Origin of solar photovoltaic panel system... solar photovoltaic (``PV'') panel systems contain both U.S. and foreign-origin raw materials and...

  13. Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig [Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Everett, WA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    This document represents the final report for the Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, located in Puget Sound, Washington, United States. The Project purpose was to license, permit, and install a grid-connected deep-water tidal turbine array (two turbines) to be used as a platform to gather operational and environmental data on tidal energy generation. The data could then be used to better inform the viability of commercial tidal energy generation from technical, economic, social, and environmental standpoints. This data would serve as a critical step towards the responsible advancement of commercial scale tidal energy in the United States and around the world. In late 2014, Project activities were discontinued due to escalating costs, and the DOE award was terminated in early 2015. Permitting, licensing, and engineering design activities were completed under this award. Final design, deployment, operation, and monitoring were not completed. This report discusses the results and accomplishments achieved under the subject award.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  15. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  16. Final Report: Vapor Transport Deposition for Thin Film III-V Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Shannon [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Greenaway, Ann [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Boucher, Jason [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Aloni, Shaul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    ternary GaAsxP1-x and In0.5Ga0.5P alloys, with composition set by the ratio of GaAs/GaP or InP/GaP mixed as the source powder. GaAs0.3P0.7 has the appropriate bandgap to serve as a top cell on Si and In0.5Ga0.5P is near the composition used as a surface passivation layer on GaAs pn junction photovoltaics. In the final task we demonstrated III-V selective area epitaxy using CSVT as a first step toward the growth of III-V micro- or nanostructures for an integrated tandem solar cell on Si. We also found that direct epitaxial growth on Si appears to be impossible in the current H2O-CSVT reactor design, likely due to the formation of SiOx. This work sets the stage for targeted development of an improved CSVT process and for the scale up of the proof-of-concept work from a research to manufacturing-relevant platform. Replacing H2O as a transport agent with HCl would provide the ability to deposit directly on Si by avoiding oxide formation and to allow for the deposition of Al-containing alloys that would otherwise oxidize. Improved engineering design and implementation of an in-line multi-station CSVT would allow for direct deposition of device structures in a single system.

  17. Final Technical Report for SISGR: Ultrafast Molecular Scale Chemical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Guest, Jeffrey R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Guisinger, Nathan P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Hla, Saw Wai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Schatz, George C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Seideman, Tamar [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-04-10

    The Northwestern-Argonne SISGR program utilized newly developed instrumentation and techniques including integrated ultra-high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-TERS/STM) and surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS) to advance the spatial and temporal resolution of chemical imaging for the study of photoinduced dynamics of molecules on plasmonically active surfaces. An accompanying theory program addressed modeling of charge transfer processes using constrained density functional theory (DFT) in addition to modeling of SE-FSRS, thereby providing a detailed description of the excited state dynamics. This interdisciplinary and highly collaborative research resulted in 62 publications with ~ 48% of them being co-authored by multiple SISGR team members. A summary of the scientific accomplishments from this SISGR program is provided in this final technical report.

  18. FERMI(at)Elettra FEL Design Technical Optimization Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William; Penn, Gregory; Allaria, Enrico; De Ninno, Giovanni; Graves, William

    2006-01-01

    This is the final report of the FEL Design Group for the Technical Optimization Study for the FERMI(at)ELETTRA project. The FERMI(at)ELETTRA project is based on the principle of harmonic upshifting of an initial ''seed'' signal in a single pass, FEL amplifier employing multiple undulators. There are a number of FEL physics principles which underlie this approach to obtaining short wavelength output: (1) the energy modulation of the electron beam via the resonant interaction with an external laser seed (2) the use of a chromatic dispersive section to then develop a strong density modulation with large harmonic overtones (3) the production of coherent radiation by the microbunched beam in a downstream radiator. Within the context of the FERMI project, we discuss each of these elements in turn

  19. Mathematics Intensive Summer Session (MISS). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This final technical report appears in two parts: the report for the 1995 summer MISS program and the report for the 1996 summer MISS program. Copies of the US Department of Energy Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program 1995 Entry Form and 1996 Entry Form completed by all participants were sent to the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education in the fall of 1995 and 1996 respectively. Those forms are on file should they be needed. Attached also is a copy of the Summary of ideas for panel discussions, problem-solving sessions, or small group discussions presented at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program Project Directors Meeting held in San Antonio, TX, November 12--14, 1995.

  20. Audit of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit 1 technical specifications. Final technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.

    1985-07-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumptions of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented, and the Comments and Responses to the Wolf Creek Technical Specification Draft Inspection Report. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, the SER as supplemented, and the Draft Inspection Report was performed with the Wolf Creek T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR, SER, and Draft Inspection Report

  1. Technical and economic assessment of hybrid photovoltaic/wind system with battery storage in Corsica island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaf, S.; Belhamel, M.; Haddadi, M.; Louche, A.

    2008-01-01

    The sizing and techno-economical optimization of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind system (HPWS) with battery storage is presented in this paper. The main objective of the present study is to find the optimum size of system, able to fulfill the energy requirements of a given load distribution, for three sites located at Corsica island and to analyze the impact of different parameters on the system size. The methodology used provides a useful and simple approach for sizing and analyzing an HPWS. In the proposed stand-alone system, a new concept such as the supply of wind power via a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is introduced and therefore the energy produced by the wind generator can be sent directly to the load. In this context, an optimization sizing model is developed. It consists of three submodels; system components submodels, technical submodel based on the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the economical submodel based on the levelized cost of energy (LCE). Applying the developed model, a set of configurations meeting the desired LPSP are obtained. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal one. Analyzing the optimal system configurations used to satisfy the requirements of typical residential home (3 kWh/day), a significant reduction in system size is observed as the available renewable potential increases leading to a considerable decrease in LCE (case of Cape corse site). The 2 days storage capacity is found to be the best for the optimal configuration with the lowest LCE. On the other hand, for low energy requirements, the LCE is found relatively high and decreases sharply with the increase in load. However, for low LPSP values, the LCE is found to rise sharply for a little increase in LPSP

  2. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  3. Technical-economic-social impact of a photovoltaic installation - Paomia (Corsica) - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.G. de; Peri, G.

    1990-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high-technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by CEE aids. The Paomia photovoltaic plant - 44 K W p - is the french CEE project. It is the principal European photovoltaic R and D programme. This plant originally unadapted to users' needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Customers prefer at last the use of the conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author)

  4. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. Technical and potential problems. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Zhao, Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    Traditional electric power systems are designed in large part to utilize large baseload power plants, with limited ability to rapidly ramp output or reduce output below a certain level. The increase in demand variability created by intermittent sources such as photovoltaic (PV) presents new challenges to increase system flexibility. This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected PV system regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The investigation was conducted to critically review the literature on expected potential problems associated with high penetration levels and islanding prevention methods of grid tied PV. According to the survey, PV grid connection inverters have fairly good performance. They have high conversion efficiency and power factor exceeding 90% for wide operating range, while maintaining current harmonics THD less than 5%. Numerous large-scale projects are currently being commissioned, with more planned for the near future. Prices of both PV and balance of system components (BOS) are decreasing which will lead to further increase in use. The technical requirements from the utility power system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid. Identifying the technical requirements for grid interconnection and solving the interconnect problems such as islanding detection, harmonic distortion requirements and electromagnetic interference are therefore very important issues for widespread application of PV systems. The control circuit also provides sufficient control and protection functions like maximum power tracking, inverter current control and power factor control. Reliability, life span and maintenance needs should be certified through the long-term operation of PV system. Further reduction of cost, size and weight is required for more utilization of PV

  5. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  6. Key technical issues associated with a method of pulse compression. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.O. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Key technical issues for angular multiplexing as a method of pulse compression in a 100 KJ KrF laser have been studied. Environmental issues studied include seismic vibrations man-made vibrations, air propagation, turbulence, and thermal gradient-induced density fluctuations. These studies have been incorporated in the design of mirror mounts and an alignment system, both of which are reported. A design study and performance analysis of the final amplifier have been undertaken. The pulse compression optical train has been designed and assessed as to its performance. Individual components are described and analytical relationships between the optical component size, surface quality, damage threshold and final focus properties are derived. The optical train primary aberrations are obtained and a method for aberration minimization is presented. Cost algorithms for the mirrors, mounts, and electrical hardware are integrated into a cost model to determine system costs as a function of pulse length, aperture size, and spot size

  7. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical report. 252.235-7011 Section 252.235-7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.235-7011 Final scientific or technical report. As prescribed in 235.072(d), use the following clause: Final Scientific or Technical Report (NOV 2004) The Contractor...

  8. From low cost to high tech: possible margins of technical progress in photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaic is developing in response to 3 requirements: conservation of the environment, security in energy, and economic growth. Given this, the terawatt (TW) scale should be used to measure the magnitude of energy needs. Can solar, in particular photovoltaic, power meet these needs? This has nothing to do with the availability of solar energy - in a single hour, the sun sends to the earth as much energy as the electricity consumed by all of humanity during an entire year. Instead, it raises questions about the industrial deployment and, eventually, the availability of raw materials and land. The sustainable development of photovoltaic power implies wisely using resources (raw materials, energy and capital) and improving the efficiency not only of the process for transforming resources into photovoltaic units but also of the photovoltaic units themselves for converting light into electricity. It is worth noting that the predictable change of scale in the photovoltaic industry will have implications for this industry's deployment on a large scale. This deployment depends on: the availability of technology, know-how, capital and raw materials; the cost of investments; the speed of implementation; and the rhythm of production of cells. (author)

  9. Final Scientific Technical Report Crowder College MARET Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyt, Art [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States); Eberle, Dan [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States); Hudson, Pam [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States); Hopper, Russ [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States)

    2013-06-30

    , exploring and validating new applications of solar and other renewable technologies, the MARET Facility will house a wide variety of programs which will advance implementation of renewable energy throughout the region. These program goals include; Curriculum in renewable energy for pre-engineering transfer programs; Certification and degree programs for technical degrees for Energy Efficiency, Wind, Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal professionals; Short courses and workshops for building management and design professionals; Public education and demonstration projects in renewable energy through conferences and K-12 educational outreach; Technical degree offering in building construction incorporating “best practices” for energy efficiency and renewables; and Business incubators for new renewable energy businesses and new product development The new MARET facility will support the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Program, “to improve America’s security, environmental quality, and economic prosperity through public-private partnerships that bring reliable and affordable solar energy technologies to the marketplace,” through a variety of educational and business assistance programs. Further, technical innovations planned for the MARET facility and its applied research activities will advance the Solar Program strategic goals to “reduce the cost of solar energy to the point it becomes competitive in relevant energy markets (e.g., buildings, power plants) and for solar technology to enable a sustainable solar industry.” Overarching Goals relative to program needs, future expansion, flexibility, quality of materials, and construction and operational costs:; Experimental: The structure and systems of the building operate as an educational resource. The systems are meant to be a source for data collection and study for building users and instructors; Educational: Part of the evolution of this building and its ongoing goals is to use the building as an

  10. 77 FR 47495 - Final Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting-National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting--National IDEA Technical... 34 CFR Chapter III [CFDA Number 84.373Z] Final Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting--National IDEA Technical Assistance Center on Early Childhood...

  11. 76 FR 18624 - Research, Technical Assistance and Training Programs: Notice of Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... to FTA Circular 6100.1D, Research and Technical Assistance Training Program: Application Instructions... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Research, Technical Assistance and Training Programs: Notice of Final Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION...

  12. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  13. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  14. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.157 Section 52.157 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  15. 10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. (a) The application must contain a final safety... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.79 Section 52.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  16. Economic and Technical Aspects of Flexible Storage Photovoltaic Systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Zsiborács

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has an increasing role in the global energy mix. The need for flexible storage photovoltaic systems and energy storage in electricity networks is becoming increasingly important as more generating capacity uses solar and wind energy. This paper is a study on the economic questions related to flexible storage photovoltaic systems of household size in 2018. The aim is to clarify whether it is possible in the European Union to achieve a payback of the costs of flexible storage photovoltaic system investments for residential customers considering the technology-specific storage aspects prevalent in 2018. We studied seven different flexible storage photovoltaic investments with different battery technologies in Germany, France, Italy, and Spain because, in Europe, these countries have a prominent role with regard to the spread of photovoltaic technology. These investment alternatives are studied with the help of economic indicators for the different cases of the selected countries. At the end of our paper we come to the conclusion that an investment of a flexible storage photovoltaic (PV system with Olivine-type-LiFePO4, Lithium-Ion, Vented lead-acid battery (OPzS, Sealed lead-acid battery (OPzV, and Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI batteries can have a positive net present value due to the high electricity prices in Germany and in Spain. The most cost-effective technology was the Olivine-type-LiFePO4 and the Lithium-Ion at the time of the study. We suggest the provision of governmental support and uniform European modifications to the regulatory framework, especially concerning grid fees and tariffs, which would be necessary in the beginning to help to introduce these flexible storage PV systems to the market.

  17. Impact of the organic halide salt on final perovskite composition for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, David T.; Sai, Hiroaki; Wee Tan, Kwan; Estroff, Lara A.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The methylammonium lead halide perovskites have shown significant promise as a low-cost, second generation, photovoltaic material.Despite recent advances, however, there are still a number of fundamental aspects of their formation as well

  18. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Holbert, Connie [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Watkins, Bart [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Irick, David [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector

  19. Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic systems in Indonesia: a technical evaluation at multiple levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With over 8,000 inhabited islands, the distribution of fuels and electricity is extremely challenging in Indonesia. Photovoltaic (PV) energy systems could offer new opportunities and could become increasingly important for the future electricity mix of Indonesia. To stimulate this transition, it is

  20. 77 FR 30512 - Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and Extension of Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and... American Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary waives 34 CFR 75.250 and 75.261(c)(2) in order...

  1. Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency Through Molecule Scale Control. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yardley, James T. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The direct conversion of sunlight into electricity represents one of the most important general means for sustainable energy production. Most modern photovoltaic cells are based on some form of semiconductor material such as silicon that is described by a characteristic energy or ''bandgap''. For solar rays with photon energy lower than the bandgap no absorption occurs and thus no energy is generated. For solar rays with photon energy greater than the bandgap, light may be absorbed to create a pair of electrical charges but only one bandgap of energy is created, leaving any additional energy lost as heat. Thus low bandgap materials can use a great part of the spectrum but can lose much of that energy; high bandgap materials fail to capture much of the spectrum. Thus there is a limit to the efficiency of such a solar cell that turns out to be about 32%. This limit is known as the Shockely-Queisser Limit. The Columbia EFRC program is dedicated to exploration of concepts that in principle can provide for efficiencies beyond this limit. One concept that this EFRC has explored for enhancing the efficiency of solar photovoltaic cells is called “Singlet Fission.” In this concept the absorption of light rays with photon energy at least twice the value of the basic bandgap for the system can produce two pairs of electrical charge carriers. If properly implemented this in principle can significantly reduce the energy lost as heat and give rise to solar cell efficiencies greater than the Shockley-Queisser limit. The problem is that there are virtually no materials that can undergo this process effectively. We have developed new materials that have demonstrated singlet fission efficiencies of almost 100%. We understand how these materials work and we have learned how to design many more systems in the future. So far we have only demonstrated the basic capability for efficient singlet fission. Much more work will be required to design and engineer

  2. The French photovoltaic sector: assessment, perspectives and strategy. September 2015 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidat, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at proposing a strategy to support the development of the photovoltaic sector in France between 2016 and 2020. It is based on a quantitative survey of 1.200 French actors, and on interviews with more than 50 key actors. This study was also an opportunity to model costs, profitability, and jobs all along the value chain of the photovoltaic sector. It also proposes a return on experience from other countries. It analyses and discusses the current evolution of the photovoltaic market and sector in the world and in France. As far as the French market is concerned, it shows that a development without subsidy will be possible from 2020 and on. It reports a contrasted assessment of the French photovoltaic public policy, highlights that this sector is still seeking its position. It describes how the four years to come (2016-2020) are an opportunity to implement a strong-willed public policy for a competitive photovoltaic sector and a stronger French sector. It notably outlines that ZNI (non interconnected areas) are an opportunity for tools of integration to the grid

  3. A Detector for Combined SPECT/CT. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Nagarkar

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Phase I research was to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a high performance SPECT/CT detector module based on a combination of microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an EMCCD readout. We are very pleased to report that our Phase I research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of our approach with a very high degree of success. Specifically, we were able to implement a back-thinned EMCCD with a fiberoptic window which was successfully used to demonstrate the feasibility of near simultaneous radionuclide/CT using the proposed concept. Although significantly limited in imaging area (24 x 24 mm 2 ) and pixel resolution (512 x 512), this prototype has shown exceptional capabilities such as a single optical photon sensitivity, very low noise, an intrinsic resolution of 64 (micro)m for radionuclide imaging, and a resolution in excess of 10 lp/mm for x-ray imaging. Furthermore, the combination of newly developed, thick, microcolumnar CsI and an EMCCD has shown to be capable of operating in a photon counting mode, and that the position and energy information obtained from these data can be used to improve resolution in radionuclide imaging. Finally, the prototype system has successfully been employed for near simultaneous SPECT/CT imaging using both, 125 I and 99m Tc radioisotopes. The tomographic reconstruction data obtained using a mouse heart phantom and other phantoms clearly demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of the detector in small animal research. The following were the objectives specified in the Phase I proposal: (1) In consultation with Professor Hasegawa, develop specifications for the Phase I/Phase II prototype detector; (2) Modify current vapor deposition protocols to fabricate ∼2 mm thick microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillators with excellent columnar structure, high light yield, and high spatial resolution; (3) Perform detailed characterization of the film morphology, light output, and spatial resolution, and use

  4. Technical analysis - an economic system outdoor lighting, powered with solar photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Lay Portuondo; Belen, Acosta Herrera

    2011-01-01

    The mains characteristics of LED output lighting are high efficiency, long lifetime and the ability of low level voltage operation, making it suitable for working with photovoltaic panels. In the beginning this application was constrained to isolated and disaster areas where there are not possibilities of connection with the electric grid, this situation is changing as a consequence of the systematic price reduction in photovoltaic panels and LEDs and the increasing of the efficiency of this light source, therefore this option has become attractive in lighting projects of new facilities. It is important to know that in our country we have the means for the design and manufacturing of the elements of the lighting system and for making the lighting project, assuring a high level of national production integration. In this work the factors that make possible the feasibility of this type of illumination are analyzed and several options for its implementation are proposed. (author)

  5. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Karen I.

    2007-05-12

    This project contributed significantly to the development of new codes and standards, both domestically and internationally. The NHA collaborated with codes and standards development organizations to identify technical areas of expertise that would be required to produce the codes and standards that industry and DOE felt were required to facilitate commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and infrastructure. NHA staff participated directly in technical committees and working groups where issues could be discussed with the appropriate industry groups. In other cases, the NHA recommended specific industry experts to serve on technical committees and working groups where the need for this specific industry expertise would be on-going, and where this approach was likely to contribute to timely completion of the effort. The project also facilitated dialog between codes and standards development organizations, hydrogen and fuel cell experts, the government and national labs, researchers, code officials, industry associations, as well as the public regarding the timeframes for needed codes and standards, industry consensus on technical issues, procedures for implementing changes, and general principles of hydrogen safety. The project facilitated hands-on learning, as participants in several NHA workshops and technical meetings were able to experience hydrogen vehicles, witness hydrogen refueling demonstrations, see metal hydride storage cartridges in operation, and view other hydrogen energy products.

  6. Final waste classification and waste form technical position papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    The waste classification technical position paper describes overall procedures acceptable to NRC staff which may be used by licensees to determine the presence and concentrations of the radionuclides listed in section 61.55, and thereby classifying waste for near-surface disposal. This technical position paper also provides guidance on the types of information which should be included in shipment manifests accompanying waste shipments to near-surface disposal facilities. The technical position paper on waste form provides guidance to waste generators on test methods and results acceptable to NRC staff for implementing the 10 CFR Part 61 waste form requirements. It can be used as an acceptable approach for demonstrating compliance with the 10 CFR Part 61 waste structural stability criteria. This technical position paper includes guidance on processing waste into an acceptable stable form, designing acceptable high-integrity containers, packaging cartridge filters, and minimizing radiation effects on organic ion-exchange resins. The guidance in the waste form technical position paper may be used by licensees as the basis for qualifying process control programs to meet the waste form stability requirements, including tests which can be used to demonstrate resistance to degradation arising from the effects of compression, moisture, microbial activity, radiation, and chemical changes. Generic test data (e.g., topical reports prepared by vendors who market solidification technology) may be used for process control program qualification where such generic data is applicable to the particular types of waste generated by a licensee

  7. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  8. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  9. Arrangement of technical information on photovoltaic power generation systems; Taiyoko hatsuden system kanren gijutsu joho no seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to effectively contribute to the development of the technology required to put them to practical use, technical information on photovoltaic power generation systems, such as the results of overseas and domestic research and development work, which have been obtained by NEDO, were collected, categorized, sorted, and processed to make a data base. This report presents the details of the project for fiscal 1995. Papers from the 10th ECPVSEC held at Lisbon, Portugal in April 1991 and the 6th PVSEC held at New Delhi, India in February 1992, and papers published by NEDO were investigated and arranged. The total number of the papers processed in 1995 is 424 from two international conferences, and 176 from NEDO. The implementation steps consist of the collection of overseas and domestic research reports and other documents, the preparation of summaries of research results reported in those documents, the preparation of brief summaries of data obtained from the results of experiments including numerical data, and the sort and processing of them by research area, material used to fabricate photovoltaic cells, etc. The results of the above work are stored on 3.5 inch floppy disks as MS-DOS text data. The report also provides the general publication through the Internet. 7 tabs.

  10. Final Technical Report DOE/GO/13142-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mulvihill; Quang Nguyen

    2010-09-15

    This research adds to the understanding of the areas of residual starch and biomass conversion to alcohol, by providing data from pilot plant equipment of larger scale than the minimum required to give commercially scalable data. Instrumentation and control is in place to capture the information produced, for economic and technical evaluation. The impact of rheology, recycle streams, and residence time distributions on the technical and economic performance can be assessed. Various processes can be compared technically and economically because the pilot plants are readily modifiable. Several technologies for residual starch yield improvement have been identified, implemented, and patent applications filed. Various biomass-to-ethanol processes have been compared and one selected for technical optimization and commercialization. The technical and economic feasibility of the current simplified biomass conversion process is being confirmed by intensive pilot plant efforts as of this writing. Optimization of the feedstock handling and pretreatment is occurring to increase the alcohol yield above the minimum commercially viable level already demonstrated. Samples of biomass residue and reactor blowdown condensate are being collected to determine the technical and economic performance of the high-water-recycle waste treatment system being considered for the process. The project is of benefit to the public because it is advancing the efforts to achieve low-cost fermentable substrates for conversion to transportation fuels. This process combines the hydrolysis of agricultural residues with novel enzymes and organisms to convert the sugars released to transportation fuels. The process development is taking place at a scale allowing commercial development to proceed at a rapid pace.

  11. Technical advisory panel for the large acceptance spectrometer: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Technical Advisory Panel for the Large Acceptance Spectrometer met on November 17--19, 1988, at CEBAF to perform a second review of the status of this project. The charge to the Panel was ''to provide technical advice to the CEBAF directorate on the design, construction, cost, schedule, and implementation of the Large Acceptance Spectrometer.'' In this written report, an overview of the entire project is given. Specific comments on the major components, data handling and analysis, assembly and installation, and management are presented. The Panel's conclusions are contained in the Executive Summary at the beginning of the report

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report – March 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Neal R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-21

    The Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM) was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES) from August 1, 2009 – December 31, 2014 under Award Number DE-SC0001084, as part of a broad set of Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) designed to underpin the development of economical energy conversion platforms for the 21st century. CISSEM successfully integrated the research groups of 19 principal investigators at The University of Arizona (the lead institution), the Georgia Institute of Technology, Princeton University, the University of Washington, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) into a coordinated and synergistic program, while also building a highly productive collaboration with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Our mission was to advance the understanding of interface science underlying solar energy conversion technologies based on organic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials – specifically in organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs); and to inspire, recruit and train future scientists and leaders in the basic science of solar electric energy conversion. CISSEM researchers focused on establishing a foundational understanding of the electronic properties of interfaces in area-scalable, thin-film photovoltaic platforms. Metal oxide interlayers used in OPVs to improve the efficiency of charge harvesting at electrodes was our central focus. A key feature of CISSEM research has been our ability to develop a comprehensive understanding of interfaces and interfacial processes at the atomic and molecular scales. This is a scientific foundation for thin-film photovoltaic technologies and our nation’s pursuit of lowering the costs of transforming the sun’s energy into electricity. Our efforts combined: i) theoretical modeling; ii) new materials development; iii) developing new measurement science approaches to characterize composition, molecular and supramolecular

  13. Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the MOD-RTG reference flight design, and Section 3.0 discusses the Ground Demonstration System design. Multicouple technology development is discussed in Section 4.0, and Section 5.0 lists all published technical papers prepared during the course of the contract.

  14. Marin Solar Village: feasibility study and technical analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-31

    The energy needs of Hamilton Air Force Base's Solar Village for electricity and heating and cooling of buildings are considered and alternative ways of meeting the Village's requirements for these forms of energy are evaluated. First, Solar Village's energy demand is calculated and compared to a base case representing calculations for typical energy usage for a development of similar size and density that is in conformance with current state and local ordinances. The potential of selected alternative technologies to meet the Solar Village projected demand for electrical power and natural gas is evaluated. Scenarios were developed to reduce demand, particularly in the building sector. Four alternative on-site energy technologies have been evaluated: wind, solar thermal electric, biomass conversion, photovoltaics. Each alternative is analyzed in detail. Of the four alternatives considered, the one with the greatest present potential is biomass conversion. Two technologies have been incorporated into the design. A 3-acre land fill is covered with a mantle of soil. A network of pipes carries off the methane gas which is a natural product of anaerobic decomposition of the materials in the land fill. The second technology involves the planting of rapidly-growing trees on denuded and unused portions of the site; 50 acres devoted to tree production could yield 12% of the back-up energy required for home heating on a sustainable basis.

  15. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  16. 78 FR 29239 - Final Priority; Technical Assistance To Improve State Data Capacity-National Technical Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Assistance To Improve State Data Capacity--National Technical Assistance Center To Improve State Capacity To... Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Technical Assistance to Improve State... (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus attention on an identified national need to...

  17. Final Scientific and Technical Report State and Regional Biomass Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, Rick; Stubbs, Anne D.

    2008-12-29

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program successfully employed a three pronged approach to build the regional capacity, networks, and reliable information needed to advance biomass and bioenergy technologies and markets. The approach included support for state-based, multi-agency biomass working groups; direct technical assistance to states and private developers; and extensive networking and partnership-building activities to share objective information and best practices.

  18. Technical oversight for installation of TNX piezometers, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidcoe, W.W. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-06-05

    Science Applications International Corporation was tasked under subcontract C002025P to provide technical oversight for the drilling of one pilot borehole, and the drilling and installation of five piezometers in the TNX Area Swamp. The work was performed in accordance with the Statement of Work in Task Order Proposal No. ER39-129 dated August 6, 1996. This report describes the activities associated with the performance of the task.

  19. Technical considerations associated with spent fuel acceptance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1996-06-01

    This study was initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to identify technical considerations associated with spent fuel acceptance and implementation of a waste management system that includes the use of transportable storage systems, and to serve as an opening dialogue among Standard Contract Holders and the department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste management (OCRWM) prior to the development of waste acceptance criteria or issuance of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking by OCRWM to amend the Standard Contract. The original purpose of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking was to address changes to the Standard Contract to implement a multi-purpose canister based system and to address other issues that were not adequately addressed in the standard contract. Even if DOE does not develop a multi-purpose canister based system for waste acceptance, it will still be necessary to develop waste acceptance criteria in order to accept spent fuel in transportable storage systems that are being deployed for at-reactor storage. In this study, technical issues associated with spent fuel acceptance will be defined and potential options and alternatives for resolution of technical considerations will be explored

  20. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashkin, Lee J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  1. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings: Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building- integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring on- site solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high- quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building envelope. The advantage of being able to use the entire solar spectrum for

  2. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    In the conditioning plant, fuel elements which have been stored for ten years are loaded into transport containers, unloaded, identified and welded into a dry storage box. The dry store barrel is introduced into a final storage container, which, after being closed, is packed in lost shielding. This so-called final storage barrel is finally placed in a transport container and leaves the conditioning plant in this form by rail for transport to the final storage mine. The fuel element method of treatment 'packing of three complete fuel elements' was used as the reference process. In addition, the method of treatment 'fuel elements dismantled into fuel rods' was also examined. The handling of fuel elements and secondary waste treatment in the reference process are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug

    2014-01-22

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost

  4. Concentrating photovoltaics for the Tropics. Final Report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    The design and specification of a photovoltaic concentrator total energy system are presented. The design will provide nearly half the electrical energy needs and most of the thermal energy needs (absorption chillers) of the Center for Energy and Environment Research, University of Puerto Rico, and the hot water needs of the Oncologic Hospital and Children's Hospital, Puerto Rico Medical Center. The system will utilize 34,190 sq ft of 40X slat type concentrators with secondary CPC concentrators to provide 162 kWe. The combined photovoltaic/thermal collector system utilizes a 20,000 gal steel thermal storage tank, and two absorption refrigeration units which will produce a total of 149 tons of cooling. Detailed drawings and system fabrication and installation plans are included. Insolation data for the San Juan, Puerto Rico site are presented, and calculated system performance based on this data is presented. (WHK)

  5. Concentrating photovoltaics for the Tropics. Final Report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    The design and specification of a photovoltaic concentrator total energy system are presented. The design will provide nearly half the electrical energy needs and most of the thermal energy needs (absorption chillers) of the Center for Energy and Environment Research, University of Puerto Rico, and the hot water needs of the Oncologic Hospital and Children's Hospital, Puerto Rico Medical Center. The system will utilize 34,190 sq ft of 40X slat type concentrators with secondary CPC concentrators to provide 162 kWe. The combined photovoltaic/thermal collector system utilizes a 20,000 gal steel thermal storage tank, and two absorption refrigeration units which will produce a total of 149 tons of cooling. Detailed drawings and system fabrication and installation plans are included. Insolation data for the San Juan, Puerto Rico site are presented, and calculated system performance based on this data is presented. (WHK)

  6. Impact of the organic halide salt on final perovskite composition for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, David T.

    2014-08-01

    The methylammonium lead halide perovskites have shown significant promise as a low-cost, second generation, photovoltaic material.Despite recent advances, however, there are still a number of fundamental aspects of their formation as well as their physical and electronic behavior that are not well understood. In this letter we explore the mechanism by which these materials crystallize by testing the outcome of each of the reagent halide salts. We find that components of both salts, lead halide and methylammonium halide, are relatively mobile and can be readily exchanged during the crystallization process when the reaction is carried out in solution or in the solid state. We exploit this fact by showing that the perovskite structure is formed even when the lead salt\\'s anion is a non-halide, leading to lower annealing temperature and time requirements for film formation. Studies into these behaviors may ultimately lead to improved processing conditions for photovoltaic films. © 2014 Author(s).

  7. Impact of the organic halide salt on final perovskite composition for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Moore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The methylammonium lead halide perovskites have shown significant promise as a low-cost, second generation, photovoltaic material. Despite recent advances, however, there are still a number of fundamental aspects of their formation as well as their physical and electronic behavior that are not well understood. In this letter we explore the mechanism by which these materials crystallize by testing the outcome of each of the reagent halide salts. We find that components of both salts, lead halide and methylammonium halide, are relatively mobile and can be readily exchanged during the crystallization process when the reaction is carried out in solution or in the solid state. We exploit this fact by showing that the perovskite structure is formed even when the lead salt's anion is a non-halide, leading to lower annealing temperature and time requirements for film formation. Studies into these behaviors may ultimately lead to improved processing conditions for photovoltaic films.

  8. Airport Solar Photovoltaic Concentrator Project. Phase 1 - final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The system design, analysis, and specification, site preparation, and operation and evaluation plan for a 500 kWe photovoltaic power supply to be located at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix, Arizona, are presented. The solar cell arrays are concentrator silicon solar cells with tracking 70X Cassegrain-type concentrators. The power conditioning system, tracking system, and control systems are described in detal. Environmental impact studies are described. Component specifications and drawings are included. (WHK)

  9. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  10. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  11. Photovoltaic barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The european Union photovoltaic market reached the limits of the sector supply capacity for the first time. Meanwhile the prospects of growth in the photovoltaic market are still just as good as before. Silicon producers have finally responded to the expectations of the photovoltaic industry by announcing new production capacities. These extensions led to massively investing in new production capacities, in phase with ever greater demand. This increase in demand remains, however dependent upon the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Functional criteria for emergency response facilities. Technical report (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This report describes the facilities and systems to be used by nuclear power plant licensees to improve responses to emergency situations. The facilities include the Technical Support Center (TSC), Onsite Operational Support Center (OSC), and Nearsite Emergency Operations Facility (EOF), as well as a brief discussion of the emergency response function of the control room. The data systems described are the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and Nuclear Data Link (NDL). Together, these facilities and systems make up the total Emergency Response Facilities (ERFs). Licensees should follow the guidance provided both in this report and in NUREG-0654 (FEMA-REP-1), Revision 1, for design and implementation of the ERFs

  13. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd

    2012-02-28

    The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

  14. Establishment of the International Power Institute. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julius E. Coles

    2000-08-04

    The International Power Institute, in collaboration with American industries, seeks to address technical, political, economic and cultural issues of developing countries in the interest of facilitating profitable transactions in power related infrastructure projects. IPI works with universities, governments and commercial organizations to render project-specific recommendations for private-sector investment considerations. IPI also established the following goals: Facilitate electric power infrastructure transactions between developing countries and the US power industry; Collaborate with developing countries to identify development strategies to achieve energy stability; and Encourage market driven solutions and work collaboratively with other international trade energy, technology and banking organizations.

  15. Final Technical Report. Results of Phases 2-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narang, David [Arizona Public Service Company (APS), Phoenix, AZ (United States); Ayyanar, Raja [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); Gemin, Paul [General Electric, Fairfield, CT (United States); Baggu, Murali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasan, Devarajan [ViaSol Energy Solutions, LLC, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-27

    APS’s renewable energy portfolio, driven in part by Arizona’s Renewable Energy Standard (RES) currently includes more than 1100 MW of installed capacity, equating to roughly 3000 GWh of annual production. Overall renewable production is expected to grow to 6000 GWh by 2025. It is expected that distributed photovoltaics, driven primarily by lower cost, will contribute to much of this growth and that by 2025, distributed installations will account for half of all renewable production (3000GHW). As solar penetration increases, additional analysis may be required for routine utility processes to ensure continued safe and reliable operation of the electric distribution network. Such processes include residential or commercial interconnection requests and load shifting during normal feeder operations. Circuits with existing high solar penetration will also have to be studied and results will need to be evaluated for adherence to utility practices or strategy. Increased distributed PV penetration may offer benefits such as load offsetting, but it also has the potential to adversely impact distribution system operation. These effects may be exacerbated by the rapid variability of PV production. Detailed effects of these phenomena in distributed PV applications continue to be studied. Comprehensive, high-resolution electrical models of the distribution system were developed to analyze the impacts of PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including coordination and anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/VAr control schemes. Modeling methods were refined by validating against field measurements. To augment the field measurements, methods were developed to synthesize high resolution load and PV generation data to facilitate quasi-static time series simulations. The models were then extended to explore boundary conditions for PV hosting capability of the feeder and to simulate common utility practices such as feeder

  16. PowerShades II. Optimisation and validation of highly transparent photovoltaic. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of the project is continued development and validation of a novel Danish photovoltaic product with the work title ''PowerShade''. The PowerShade insulating glazing unit (IGU) is a combination of a strong solar shading device and a power producing photovoltaic coating. The core technology in the PowerShade IGU is a thin film silicon photovoltaic generator applied to a micro structured substrate. The geometry of the substrate provides the unique combination of properties that characterizes the PowerShade module - strong progressive shading, high transparency, and higher electrical output than other semitransparent photovoltaic products with similar transparencies. The project activities fall in two categories, namely development of the processing/product and validation of the product properties. The development part of the project is focussed on increasing the efficiency of the photovoltaic generator by changing from a single-stack type cell to a tandem-stack type cell. The inclusion of PowerShade cells in insulating glazing (IG) units is also addressed in this project. The validation part of the project aims at validation of stability, thermal and optical properties as well as validation of the electrical yield of the product. The validation of thermal and optical properties has been done using full size modules installed in a test facility built during the 2006-08 ''PowerShades'' project. The achieved results will be vital in the coming realisation of a commercial product. Initial processing steps have been automated, and more efficient tandem-type solar cells have been developed. A damp heat test of an IGU has been carried out without any degradation of the solar cell. The PowerShade module assembly concept has been further developed and discussed with different automation equipment vendors and a pick-and-place tool developed. PowerShade's influence on the indoor climate has been modelled and verified by

  17. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  18. SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-11

    The SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing attracted 164 domestic and international researchers, from academia, industry, and government. It provided a stimulating forum in which to learn about the latest developments, to discuss exciting new research directions, and to forge stronger ties between theory and applications. Final Report

  19. University of Maryland component of the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorland, William [University of Maryland

    2014-11-18

    The Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics (CMPD) was a five-year Fusion Science Center. The University of Maryland (UMD) and UCLA were the host universities. This final technical report describes the physics results from the UMD CMPD.

  20. 78 FR 12955 - Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Native American Career and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... career and technical education programs (20 U.S.C. 2326(e)). This notice does not preclude us from... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter IV [Docket ID ED-2012-OVAE-0053] Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria--Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP) [Catalog...

  1. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report – BISfuel EFRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, Devens

    2015-07-13

    The vast majority of the country’s energy needs are met with fossil fuels in the form of natural gas, coal and oil. The use of these fossil fuels contributes to climate change, the unequal distribution of fossil fuel deposits in the earth leads to geopolitical and economic problems, and eventually, fossil fuels will be exhausted. Thus, a renewable, widely distributed, environmentally benign, and inexpensive substitute large enough to meet the needs of society is required. Solar energy meets these criteria. Solar energy may be converted to electricity by photovoltaics, but the need for a continuous energy supply and high-density energy requirements for transportation necessitate technology for storage of energy from sunlight in a fuel. Cost-effective technologies for solar fuel production do not exist, prompting the need for new fundamental science. Fuel production requires not only energy, but also a source of electrons and precursor materials suitable for reduction to useful fuels. Given the immense magnitude of the human energy requirement, the most reasonable source of electrons is water oxidation, and suitable precursor materials are hydrogen ions (for hydrogen gas production) and carbon dioxide (for production of reduced carbon fuels such as methane or methanol). Natural photosynthesis is the only proven “technology” for solar fuel production. It harvests solar energy on a magnitude much larger than that necessary to fill human needs, and has done so for billions of years, creating fossil fuels along the way. BISfuel has approached the design of a complete system for solar water oxidation and hydrogen production by applying the fundamental principles of photosynthesis to the construction of synthetic components and their incorporation into an operational unit. In this artificial photosynthetic approach, the functional blueprint of photosynthesis is followed using non-biological materials. BISfuel brought together a group of investigators from the

  3. Final Technical Report for subcontract number B612144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayali, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marcu, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-11

    The original statement of work stipulated that the Subcontractor shall perform bacterial and algal cultivation and manipulation, microbe isolation, preparation of samples for sequencing and isotopic analysis, data analysis, and manuscript preparation. The Subcontractor shall work closely with Dr. Mayali and other LLNL scientists, and shall participate in monthly SFA meetings (either in person or by telephone). The Subcontractor shall deliver a final report at the conclusion of the work.

  4. Design and performance of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center photovoltaic system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Begovic, M.; Long, R.; Ropp, M.; Pregelj, A.

    1996-12-31

    A building-integrated DC PV array has been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. The array is mounted on the roof of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center (GTAC), site of the aquatic events during the 1996 Paralympic and Olympic Games in Atlanta. At the time of its construction, it was the world`s largest roof-mounted photovoltaic array, comprised of 2,856 modules and rates at 342 kW. This section describes the electrical and physical layout of the PV system, and the associated data acquisition system (DAS) which monitors the performance of the system and collects measurements of several important meteorological parameters.

  5. Usage aspects of photovoltaic energy in public lighting systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Boetzelaer, J.C.S.; Beltman, J.L.M.; Dullens, M.; Schumacher, R.A.

    2001-04-01

    The largest part of the market for autonomous photovoltaic cells consists of public lighting systems. In the Netherlands are circa 400 solar light lampposts. Suppliers of lampposts believe that the potential of that market is much larger. However, sales figures show that the market has come to a halt. It is the opinion of the suppliers that some prejudices exist with respect to usage aspects (e.g., high cost for purchase and maintenance, low reliability of the systems and sensitive for hooliganism). The (non)-existence of those prejudices is subject of this study

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Chagas Prevention in Central America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carlota Monroy

    INFORME FINAL: PROYECTO ID 106531 - 001. CORRESPONDIENTE AL PERIODO DEL 1 DE MARZO 2011 AL 31 DE MARZO 2014. CONTENIDO. 1. Información general ……………………………………………………………1. 2. Resumen del proyecto ………………………………………………………….2. 3. Metas objetivos ...

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelpuk, B.; Joy, P.; Crouthamel, M.

    1977-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of various thermal energy storage alternatives is determined by comparing the system performance and annualized cost which result from each storage alternative operating with the same solar collector model, the same building load model, and the same heating system and controls model. Performance and cost calculations are made on the basis of an hour-by-hour time step using actual weather bureau data for Albuquerque, N. M., and New York City for a single six-month heating season. The primary approach to comparing various storage alternatives is to allow the collector area and storage mass to vary until a minimum cost combination is achieved. In the Albuquerque location collector area of 325 ft/sup 2/, water storage mass of 12.5 lb/ft/sup 2/ of collector area, and phase change mass of 6.25 lb/ft/sup 2/ of collector area results in minimum cost systems, each of which delivers about 50% of the total building demand. The primary conclusion is that, using current costs for materials and containers, water is the cheapest storage alternative for heating applications in both Albuquerque and New York City. The cost of containing or encapsulating phase change materials, coupled with their small system performance advantage, is the main reason for this conclusion. The use of desiccant materials for thermal storage is considered to be impractical due to irreversibilities in thermal cycling.

  8. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  9. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  10. Team Massachusetts & Central America Solar Decathlon 2015 Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.

  11. Technical feasibility and financial analysis of hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage for Cooma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, B.D.; Aye, L. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Musgrave, P. [Snowy Hydro Ltd., Cooma, NSW (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) system incorporating compressed hydrogen gas storage was studied for Cooma (Australia). Cooma has an average annual solar and wind energy availability of 1784 and 932 kWh/m{sup 2}, respectively. A system with 69 kWh{sub e}/day (load) and 483 kWh{sub e}(storage) was studied. Hydrogen is generated in electrolysers using excess electricity from the system. The system components were selected according to their availability and cost. The 'discounted cash flow' method, with the 'levelized energy cost' (LEC) as a financial indicator was used for analysis. Configurations with PV% of 100, 60, 12 and zero were analysed. The lowest LEC of AU $2.52/kWh{sub e} was found for 100% PV. The cost of hydrogen generation from 100% PV was AU $692/GJ of hydrogen. Fifty-two percent of the total project costs were due to the electrolyser. Hence, a reduction in the electrolyser cost would reduce the cost of the overall system. (Author)

  12. Final priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection--IDEA Data Management Center. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) announces a priority under the Technical Assistance on State Data Collection program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to fund a cooperative agreement to establish and operate an IDEA Data Management Center (Center) that will provide technical assistance (TA) to improve the capacity of States to meet the data collection requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

  13. 48 CFR 1852.235-73 - Final Scientific and Technical Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final Scientific and Technical Reports. 1852.235-73 Section 1852.235-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL..., including recommendations and conclusions based on the experience and results obtained. The final report...

  14. Texas Hydrogen Education Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David; Bullock, Dan

    2011-06-30

    , and hydrogen fueling) are effective for engaging target audiences, and (3) a clear path forward is needed for state and local agencies interested in project implementation (funding, financing, preliminary design, technical assistance, etc.).

  15. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  16. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  17. Development of High-Performance Cast Crankshafts. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Mark E [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop technologies that would enable the production of cast crankshafts that can replace high performance forged steel crankshafts. To achieve this, the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the new material needs to be 850 MPa with a desired minimum Yield Strength (YS; 0.2% offset) of 615 MPa and at least 10% elongation. Perhaps more challenging, the cast material needs to be able to achieve sufficient local fatigue properties to satisfy the durability requirements in today’s high performance gasoline and diesel engine applications. The project team focused on the development of cast steel alloys for application in crankshafts to take advantage of the higher stiffness over other potential material choices. The material and process developed should be able to produce high-performance crankshafts at no more than 110% of the cost of current production cast units, perhaps the most difficult objective to achieve. To minimize costs, the primary alloy design strategy was to design compositions that can achieve the required properties with minimal alloying and post-casting heat treatments. An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) based approach was utilized, rather than relying only on traditional trial-and-error methods, which has been proven to accelerate alloy development time. Prototype melt chemistries designed using ICME were cast as test specimens and characterized iteratively to develop an alloy design within a stage-gate process. Standard characterization and material testing was done to validate the alloy performance against design targets and provide feedback to material design and manufacturing process models. Finally, the project called for Caterpillar and General Motors (GM) to develop optimized crankshaft designs using the final material and manufacturing processing path developed. A multi-disciplinary effort was to integrate finite element analyses by engine designers and geometry-specific casting

  18. IRIS International Reactor Innovative and Secure Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four

  19. SENTINEL trademark technical basis report for Limerick. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, E.T.; Lee, L.K.; Mitman, J.T.; Vanover, D.E.; Wilson, D.K.

    1997-12-01

    PECO Energy in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) installed the SENTINEL trademark software at its Limerick Generating Station. This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems which are used to display the defense in depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of the plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During the past year, PECO Energy personnel have used this display to evaluate the safety of proposed on-line maintenance schedules. The report describes the motivation for and the development of the SENTINEL software. It describes the generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and the susceptibility of the plant to critical transient events. Their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green, through yellow and orange to red to show increasingly hazardous conditions. The report describes the use of the Limerick Probabilistic Safety Assessment within the SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator. Finally, the report describes the Performance Criteria Assessment which tracks and trends system/train unavailability to document conformance to the requirements of the Maintenance Rule

  20. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0012297

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Antonio, Ian [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This is the final report on the work performed in award DE-SC0012297, Cosmic Frontier work in support of the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration's work to develop algorithms, simulations, and statistical tests to ensure optimal extraction of the dark energy properties from galaxy clusters observed with LSST. This work focused on effects that could produce a systematic error on the measurement of cluster masses (that will be used to probe the effects of dark energy on the growth of structure). These effects stem from the deviations from pure ellipticity of the gravitational lensing signal and from the blending of light of neighboring galaxies. Both these effects are expected to be more significant for LSST than for the stage III experiments such as the Dark Energy Survey. We calculate the magnitude of the mass error (or bias) for the first time and demonstrate that it can be treated as a multiplicative correction and calibrated out, allowing mass measurements of clusters from gravitational lensing to meet the requirements of LSST's dark energy investigation.

  1. Final technical report on studies of plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, T.M.; Driscoll, C.F.; Malmberg, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the scientific results obtained under the DOE grant, and references the journal articles which give more complete descriptions of the various topics. Recently, the research has been focused on 2-dimensional vortices and turbulence: experiments using a new camera-diagnosed electron plasma apparatus have given surprising results which both clarify and challenge theories. Here, the crossfield E x B flow of the electron plasma is directly analogous to the 2-d flow of an ideal fluid such as water, and may also give insight into more complicated poloidal flows exhibited in toroidal plasmas. The shear-flow instabilities, turbulence, and vortices can be accurately observed, and the free relaxation of this turbulence has been characterized. The physical processes underlying the complicated turbulent evolution can also be studied in more controlled near-linear regimes. The original experimental focus of this program was on radial particle transport from applied external field asymmetries. Here, this research program clearly identified the importance of the collective response of the plasma, giving smaller fields from shielding, or enhanced fields from resonant modes. Experiments and theory work have also elucidated the flow of a plasma along the magnetic field. Finally, some theory was pursued for direct application to fusion plasmas, and to gravitating gas clouds in astrophysics. This program was highly successful in clarifying basic plasma transport processes

  2. Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques.Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby, PhD

    2006-01-01

    Final report describing NEER research on Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques. The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of which was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work and that digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  3. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.

    1984-10-01

    A radiation protection concept was worked out for final storage of spent fuel elements. It contains the areas of instrumentation and equipment with the necessary devices and measuring equipment for monitoring emission and the room air, personnel dosimetry, measuring contamination, local dose rate measurements and division into radiation protection areas. The barrel incoming inspection is described. The work for determining the radiological load of the operating staff and the environment for correct and incorrect operation is also described. The radiological load of the operating staff for correct operation was determined in the form of the collective dose with dose factors in accordance with ICRP and individual doses according to Radiation Protection Ordinance. The collective dose is 0.28 pers. Sv/a and the maximum individual dose remains below 1.0 E-2 Sv/a. The individual doses determined remain below the permitted limits of Radiation Protection Ordinance. In the context of accident analysis, it was found that no accidents occur, which load the operating staff radiologically above the permitted limits of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. A probability consideration of accidents shows that the accident risk of the operating staff is several orders of magnitude below that of the normal operating risk. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Applied photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wenham, Stuart R; Watt, Muriel E; Corkish, Richard; Sproul, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The new edition of this thoroughly considered textbook provides a reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. Written by a group of award-winning authors it is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, it features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. The new edition has been fully updated with the latest information on photovoltaic cells,

  5. Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States. A Detailed Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elmore, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    How much energy could be generated if PV modules were installed on all of the suitable roof area in the nation? To answer this question, we first use GIS methods to process a lidar dataset and determine the amount of roof area that is suitable for PV deployment in 128 cities nationwide, containing 23% of U.S. buildings, and provide PV-generation results for a subset of those cities. We then extend the insights from that analysis to the entire continental United States. We develop two statistical models--one for small buildings and one for medium and large buildings--and populate them with geographic variables that correlate with rooftop's suitability for PV. We simulate the productivity of PV installed on the suitable roof area, and present the technical potential of PV on both small buildings and medium/large buildings for every state in the continental US. Within the 128 cities covered by lidar data, 83% of small buildings have a location suitable for a PV installation, but only 26% of the total rooftop area of small buildings is suitable for development. The sheer number of buildings in this class, however, gives small buildings the greatest technical potential. Small building rooftops could accommodate 731 GW of PV capacity and generate 926 TWh/year of PV energy, approximately 65% of rooftop PV's total technical potential. We conclude by summing the PV-generation results for all building sizes and therefore answering our original question, estimating that the total national technical potential of rooftop PV is 1,118 GW of installed capacity and 1,432 TWh of annual energy generation. This equates to 39% of total national electric-sector sales.

  6. Final Technical Report: Development of Post-Installation Monitoring Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, Brian [University of Washington

    2014-03-31

    The development of approaches to harness marine and hydrokinetic energy at large-scale is predicated on the compatibility of these generation technologies with the marine environment. At present, aspects of this compatibility are uncertain. Demonstration projects provide an opportunity to address these uncertainties in a way that moves the entire industry forward. However, the monitoring capabilities to realize these advances are often under-developed in comparison to the marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies being studied. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County has proposed to deploy two 6-meter diameter tidal turbines manufactured by OpenHydro in northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The goal of this deployment is to provide information about the environmental, technical, and economic performance of such turbines that can advance the development of larger-scale tidal energy projects, both in the United States and internationally. The objective of this particular project was to develop environmental monitoring plans in collaboration with resource agencies, while simultaneously advancing the capabilities of monitoring technologies to the point that they could be realistically implemented as part of these plans. In this, the District was joined by researchers at the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington, Sea Mammal Research Unit, LLC, H.T. Harvey & Associates, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Over a two year period, the project team successfully developed four environmental monitoring and mitigation plans that were adopted as a condition of the operating license for the demonstration project that issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in March 2014. These plans address nearturbine interactions with marine animals, the sound produced by the turbines, marine mammal behavioral changes associated with the turbines, and changes to benthic habitat associated with colonization

  7. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the

  8. Technical and economic analysis of a 1mw grid-connected solar photovoltaic power system at KNUST-Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko Kumi, Ebenezer

    2012-09-01

    Grid-connected solar PV systems, though the fastest growing renewable energy technology in the world, have not been fully exploited in Africa; one of the reasons being the very high initial investment. Prices of solar PV systems have however been on a decline for the past few years due to technological innovations which have led to improvements in cell efficiencies and the economies of scale resulting from increase in production. The main purpose of this thesis is to present a technical and economic analysis of a 1MW grid-connected solar photovoltaic power system for the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi using rooftops of buildings on the campus. A solar resource assessment done to know the amount of solar radiation available at KNUST showed that KNUST receives about 4.30kWh/m 2 /day. A roof assessment which considered parameters such as the surface orientation and pitch of roofs, roof area and the possibility of shading of the roof, also revealed there is about 43,697m 2 of roof space available for grid-connected solar PV installations. In technical analysis of the 1MWp solar PV system, the three (3) commonest solar PV module technologies were selected and their performance simulated using PVsyst software. Amorphous silicon modules were found to perform better than monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules over the one (1) year simulation period. The financial analysis carried out using RETScreen revealed that at a solar PV market price of US$4.45/Wp and a tariff of US$0.11/kWh (tariff paid for Asogli Power Plant which happens to be the most expensive generation source in the country), the project is not viable unless feed-in tariffs greater than US$0.43/kWh are paid. (au)

  9. Final Technical Report - In-line Uranium Immunosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    In this project, personnel at Tulane University and Sapidyne Instruments Inc. developed an in-line uranium immunosensor that could be used to determine the efficacy of specific in situ biostimulation approaches. This sensor was designed to operate autonomously over relatively long periods of time (2-10 days) and was able to provide near real-time data about uranium immobilization in the absence of personnel at the site of the biostimulation experiments. An alpha prototype of the in-line immmunosensor was delivered from Sapidyne Instruments to Tulane University in December of 2002 and a beta prototype was delivered in November of 2003. The beta prototype of this instrument (now available commercially from Sapidyne Instruments) was programmed to autonomously dilute standard uranium to final concentrations of 2.5 to 100 nM (0.6 to 24 ppb) in buffer containing a fluorescently labeled anti-uranium antibody and the uranium chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline. The assay limit of detection for hexavalent uranium was 5.8 nM or 1.38 ppb. This limit of detection is well below the drinking water standard of 30 ppb recently promulgated by the EPA. The assay showed excellent precision; the coefficients of variation (CV's) in the linear range of the assay were less than 5% and CV?s never rose above 14%. Analytical recovery in the immunosensors-based assay was assessed by adding variable known quantities of uranium to purified water samples. A quantitative recovery (93.75% - 108.17%) was obtained for sample with concentrations from 7.5 to 20 nM (2-4.75 ppb). In August of 2005 the sensor was transported to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for testing of water samples at the Criddle test site (see Wu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:3978-3985 2006 for a description of this site). In this first on-site test, the in-line sensor was able to accurately detect changes in the concentrations of uranium in effluent samples from this site. Although the absolute values for the uranium

  10. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline

  11. Technical assistance for Meharry Medical College Energy Efficiency Project. Final project status and technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-08

    This report presents the results of a program to provide technical assistance to Meharry Medical College. The purpose of the program is to facilitate Meharry`s effort to finance a campus-wide facility retrofit. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) funded the program through a grant to the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development (TECD). The University of Memphis-Technology and Energy Services (UM-TES), under contract to TECD, performed program services. The report has three sections: (1) introduction; (2) project definition, financing, and participants; and (3) opportunities for federal participation.

  12. Final priority. Rehabilitation Training: Job-Driven Vocational Rehabilitation Technical Assistance Center. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training program to establish a Job-Driven Vocational Rehabilitation Technical Assistance Center (JDVRTAC). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus on training in an area of national need. Specifically, this priority responds to the Presidential Memorandum to Federal agencies directing them to take action to address job-driven training for the Nation's workers. The JDVRTAC will provide technical assistance (TA) to State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies to help them develop for individuals with disabilities training and employment opportunities that meet the needs of today's employers.

  13. SIMS study on statistics and environmental factors in health. Final technical report to Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This final technical report to DOE consists of five individual technical reports and one working paper by members of the SIMS Study at Stanford. Research topics include testing goodness-of-fit for the distribution of errors in regression models, mathematical models of cancer and their use in risk assessment, pollutant standards index (Psi), osteosarcomas among beagles exposed to 239 Plutonium, air pollution and respiratory disease, and models of human exposure to air pollution. Individual summaries of the six reports are indexed separately

  14. Final Report: Transforming Organic Photovoltaics into a Fully Practical Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-08-03

    The main purpose of this project is to advance the organic photovoltaic cell technology by addressing the three pillars: (I) efficiency, (II) reliability, and (III) low cost and scalability. This project uses several proprietary technologies, such as multi-junction planar mixed solar cells, exciton blocking layers, organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD), liquid and vacuum-phase deposition processes, developed at the University of Michigan. The methods used are based primarily (although not exclusively) on small molecular weight organic materials used in high power conversion efficiency (PCE) single- and multi-junction cells. At the same time, we explore the operational lifetime, and fundamental failure modes for both discrete and multijunction cells employing our most efficient materials sets (as already developed, or to be developed under separate funding). Large test modules consisting of up to (10 cm)2 arrays of 1 cm2 devices will be made using scalable growth technologies including organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD), liquid and vacuum-phase deposition processes developed in our laboratory. All deposition techniques used have the ability to scale to very large substrates, including having compatibility with roll-to-roll deposition.

  15. Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.

  16. Dissemination of Continuing Education Materials Via Television Delivery Systems. Final Technical Report and Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munushian, Jack

    In 1972, the University of Southern California School of Engineering established a 4-channel interactive instructional television network. It was designed to allow employees of participating industries to take regular university science and engineering courses and special continuing education courses at or near their work locations. Final progress…

  17. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  18. Photovoltaics: The present presages the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.; Brown, L.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a technical assessment on photovoltaics and what effect new technology has on the ability of photovoltaics to compete in the utility market. The topics of the article include the solar resource, photovoltaic cells and systems, thick and thin film cells, the spherical cell, photovoltaic modules and systems, photovoltaic economics and utility applications, and technology transfer programs in the area of photovoltaic manufacturing

  19. Multi-parameter analysis for the technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic systems in the main European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance cost model assesses the feasibility and profitability of PV systems. • Multi-country and multi-parameter analysis of PV systems in the European Union area. • The impact of key technical, environmental, economic and financial data is assessed. • Germany, Italy and Spain present the most effective PV sector support strategies. • The rated power and energy self-consumption ratio affect PV plant profitability. - Abstract: In the last decades, the attention to solar energy as a renewable and nonpolluting energy source increased a lot through scientists, private and public institutions. Several efforts are made to increase the diffusion of such a source and to create the conditions making it competitive for the energy market. Particularly, for the photovoltaic (PV) sector, the module efficiency increase, manufacturing cost reduction and a strong public support, through favorable incentive schemes, generates a significant rise in the installed power, exceeding 40 GWp in 2010. Although the global trend of the PV sector is positive, differences among countries arise out of local peculiarities and evolutions in the national support policies. This paper investigates such issues focusing on the feasibility analysis of PV solar systems for eight relevant countries in the European Union area, i.e. France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Turkey and United Kingdom. A multi-country and multi-parameter comparative analysis, based on the net present value and payback capital budget indices, allows to highlight the conditions most affecting the economic feasibility of PV systems. The national support strategies, along with the most relevant technical, environmental, economic and financial parameters, are the key features included and compared in the analysis. The major results deal with the conditions which make PV systems potentially profitable for each country and installation feature. The national support strategies to the PV

  20. The Michigan high-level radioactive waste program: Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report comprises the state of Michigan's final technical report on the location of a proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Included are a list of Michigan's efforts to review the DOE proposal and a detailed report on the application of geographic information systems analysis techniques to the review process

  1. DOE final technical report 3/1997 to 2/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Franz L.

    2005-01-01

    DOE final technical report 3/1997 to 2/2005 This grant supported basic theoretical research into the derivation (from relativistic field theories) of relativistic equations for few body systems, with practical applications to the properties of 2 and 3 nucleon systems and to the nature of few-quark systems

  2. "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for Studying Dark Energy" Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, Stan [Lick Observatory, San Jose, CA (United States); Kasen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Final technical report for project "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for the Study of Dark Energy" awarded jointly to scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz and Berkeley, for computer modeling, theory and data analysis relevant to the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology.

  3. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS): Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finamore, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, Phillip [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Albert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Charles [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gao, Ru-Shan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Hock, Terry [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This final technical report details activities undertaken as part of the referenced project. Included is information on the preparation of aircraft for deployment to Alaska, summaries of the three deployments covered under this project, and a brief description of the dataset and science directions pursued. Additionally, we provide information on lessons learned, publications, and presentations resulting from this work.

  4. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  5. Photovoltaic industry in France in 2013. French version of the report written for the photovoltaic program of the International Energy Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2014-06-01

    This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaic energy for the year 2013. This report provides a comprehensive review of photovoltaic activities in France in 2013. It describes the current state of the PV market, including French authorities' support measures and economic aspects. It gives an account of PV industry with key manufacturers and operators as well as R and D programmes. The data contained in the report concern the year 2013. The main sources of information used for the report are the following: data produced by the French Observation and statistics office (SOeS, Service de l'observation et des statistiques), ADEME's reports and studies, reports and studies produced by the Syndicat des energies renouvelables (SER) and by ENERPLAN union, publications Systemes solaires, reports by Observatoire des energies renouvelables (Observer), Plein Soleil magazine, web sites (institutional, photovoltaic.info, L'echo du solaire, etc.), data from equipment suppliers, company publications and press releases, corporate strategy flyers and contacts with professionals in the sector

  6. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed

  7. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-01-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  10. Technical and logistic provisions for the delivery of radioactive wastes in the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeppinghaus, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of radioactive waste delivery to the final repository Konrad is planned for 2019. The main issue for the technical and logistic provisions is the development of a concept for the transport of the licensed radioactive waste containers to the site, including a turning concept for cylindrical waste forms and planning, construction and manufacture of transport equipment. Further issues include a logistic concept considering specific boundary conditions as administrative processes, priorities, special features of the delivering institutions and technical requirements of the repository.

  11. 77 FR 30514 - Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waiver and Extension of Project Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waiver and... Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.259A... Technical Education Program (NHCTEP), the Secretary hereby waives 34 CFR 75.261(c)(2) in order to extend the...

  12. Summary report of the final technical meeting on 'International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Patrick J.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2003-10-01

    Presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Final Technical Meeting on 'International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002' are summarized in this report. The main aims of this meeting were to discuss scientific and technical matters related to reactor dosimetry and to assign responsibilities for the preparation of the final version of the IRDF- 2002 library and the associated TECDOC. Tasks were assigned and deadlines were agreed. Participants emphasized that accurate and complete nuclear data for reactor dosimetry are essential to improve the assessment accuracies for reactor pressure vessel service lifetimes in nuclear power plants, as well as for other neutron metrology applications such as boron neutron capture therapy, therapeutic use of medical isotopes, nuclear physics measurements, and reactor safety applications. (author)

  13. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  14. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-98ER45737

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Harald W.

    2018-04-24

    Final Technical Report For DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-98ER45737 Development of a Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope Polymer Thin Films and Self Assembled Monolayers: Pattern Formation and Surface Interactions NEXAFS Microscopy and Resonant Scattering of Polymeric Materials Organic Heterojunction Devices: Structure, Composition, and Performance at <20 nm Resolution Fundamental Science of High Open Circuit Voltage Excitonic Solar Cells Control of Interface- and Mesoscopic Structure in High Performance Organic Solar Cells: Towards a Predictive Device Paradigm

  15. Final Technical Report for contract number DE-FG02-05ER15670

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazebrook, Jane [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This is the final technical report for contract number DE-FG02-05ER15670. The project is now complete, and results of the project have been published. Two papers were published based on work done in the last three-year funding period. The DOIs of these papers are included below. The abstracts of the papers, providing summaries of the work, are included in the body of the report.

  16. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  17. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  18. Photovoltaics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  19. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Scott; Baca, Georgina; O'Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  20. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; Baca, Georgina [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; O' Connor, Michael [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company

    2015-12-31

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  1. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerbowsk Radosław; Ceran Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. T...

  2. Technical support document for the surface disposal of sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the surface disposal of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in sewage sludge placed on surface disposal sites. The management practices associated with surface disposal are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through surface disposal are discussed

  3. Technical support document for the surface disposal of sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the surface disposal of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in sewage sludge placed on surface disposal sites. The management practices associated with surface disposal are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through surface disposal are discussed.

  4. Technical basis for the ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) is the 4th major milestone, representing the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities. With the approval of the Detailed Design Report (DDR), the design work was concentrated on the requirements of operation, with only relatively minor changes to design concepts of major components. The FDR is the culmination of almost 6 years collaborative design and supporting technical work by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under the terms of the ITER EDA Agreement. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Technical basis for the ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) is the 4th major milestone, representing the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities. With the approval of the Detailed Design Report (DDR), the design work was concentrated on the requirements of operation, with only relatively minor changes to design concepts of major components. The FDR is the culmination of almost 6 years collaborative design and supporting technical work by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under the terms of the ITER EDA Agreement

  6. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  7. Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. Final technical report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    This final technical report summarizes the significant research results obtained during the period July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1996 in the DOE-supported research project entitled, open-quotes Alumina Reinforced Tetragonal Zirconia (TZP) Compositesclose quotes. The objective of the research was to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach used included reinforcement of Celia- or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP or Y-TZP) with particulates, platelets, or continuous filaments of alumina

  8. DE-FG02-04ER63746 FinalTechnicalReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstrom, M.E.

    2009-09-05

    This is the final technical report for a project involving the study of stress response systems in the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. Three stresses of importance for a mixed waste treatment strain were studied, heat shock, solvent shock, and phosphate starvation. In each case, specific genes involved in the ability to survive the stress were identified using a systems biology approach, and analysis of mutants was used to understand mechanisms. This study has led to increased understanding of the ways in which a potential treatment strain could be manipulated to survive multiple stresses for treatment of mixed wastes.

  9. Mission related to regulation and development of the photovoltaic sector in France. Final report; Mission relative a la regulation et au developpement de la filiere photovoltaique en France. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, J.M; Sine, A.; Helleisen, Ph.; Tlili, C. [Inspection Generale des Finances - IGF, 75 - Paris (France); Trink, C.; Stoffaes, Ch. [Conseil General de l' Industrie de l' Energie et des Technologies - CGIET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    This report first gives an overview of the development of the photovoltaic stock in France (high potential with a middle term development constrained by high costs, consequences of a very strong increase of demands at the end of 2009, perspective of development at a rather high rate). Then, it outlines and discusses the financial consequences of such a high rate development, and the inadequacy between industrial objectives and development rate. It presents a development plan for this sector, stresses the need to implement new purchase obligation measures before the summer 2010, and to define a global action plan to be implemented at the beginning of 2011 for the development of photovoltaic electricity. Elements of international comparison are finally proposed

  10. An analysis of the technical exigencies and CE marking relative to low voltage (less than 5 kW) photovoltaic inverters marketed in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, V.; Olias, E.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the standards relative to technical exigencies and CE marking that correspond to photovoltaic inverters of low voltage (less than 5 kW) as marketed in Spain. For this study, around 400 different models of inverters from the European market were compiled. Twelve of them, 50 Hz single phase, were chosen, made up of different brands and options of transformer below 5 kW. For these inverters, regulations for each model were examined according to their data sheet specifications, manual and EC Declarations of Conformity. Heterogeneity in compliance to the standards was found. In addition, in view of results obtained it is possible to conclude that it would be wise to establish a common set of standards for every country in the world (or at least a common European normalization) according to PV grid inverters. It would enable all grid inverters to be commercialised in compliance with the same standards everywhere. (author)

  11. Special issue photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In this letter of the INES (french National Institute of the Solar Energy), a special interest is given to photovoltaic realizations in Europe. Many information are provided on different topics: the China future fifth world producer of cells in 2005, batteries and hydrogen to storage the solar energy and a technical sheet on a photovoltaic autonomous site installation for electric power production. (A.L.B.)

  12. Development of the smart photovoltaic system blind and its impact on net-zero energy solar buildings using technical-economic-political analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Ban, Cheolwoo; Oh, Jeongyoon

    2017-01-01

    It is expected that the rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems can realize net-zero energy solar buildings (nZESBs), but it is not enough by itself. To realize 100% of nZESBs, the smart photovoltaic system blind (SPSB) was proposed to generate electricity in the PV system and to reduce indoor cooling demands through the shading effect in the blind system. Before its implementation, this study aims to investigate the impact of the proposed SPSB on nZESBs, which is conducted in three ways (i.e., technical, economic, and political analyses). The detailed results can be summarized as follows: (i) technical analysis: when applying the SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s (which represents the SPSB with the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) PV panel and the two-axis tracking system), its energy self-sufficiency rate was determined to be 1.25–2.31 times superior to other alternatives; (ii) economic analysis: in terms of the NPV_2_5 (net present value at year 25), SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s was determined to be 1.41–2.97 times superior to others; in terms of the SIR_2_5 (savings-to-investment ratio at year 25), 1.14–1.26 times; and in terms of the break-even point, 1.4–3.0 years; and (iii) political analysis: the grid-connected utilization plan including solar renewable energy certificates (GC_i_n_c_l_._S_R_E_C plan) was determined to improve the economic profitability of the proposed SPSB. - Highlights: • The smart photovoltaic system blind was developed as prototype model in four ways. • The SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s was determined to be superior to other prototype models. • A holistic analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of the SPSB on nZESBs. • When implementing the GC_i_n_c_l_._S_R_E_C plan, the economic profitability was maximized. • Results showed the NPV_2_5 (US$2.37/m"2), SIR_2_5 (2.97 times), and BEP (7.6 years).

  13. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbowsk Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. The authors describe the limits of investment costs intended for the construction, which use hybrid power generation system (HPGS is viable.

  14. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules; Annual Technical Progress Report: 15 June 1999--14 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J.

    2000-09-29

    Spire is addressing the PVMaT project goals of photovoltaic (PV) module cost reduction and improved module manufacturing process technology. New cost-effective automation processes are being developed for post-lamination PV module assembly, where post-lamination is defined as the processes after the solar cells are encapsulated. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin-film solar cell modules. Four main process areas are being addressed: (1) Module buffer storage and handling between steps; (2) Module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing; (3) Junction-box installation; and (4) Testing for module performance, electrical isolation, and ground-path continuity.

  15. Photovoltaic systems on flat roofs. A new approach; Photovoltaique sur toits plats. Une nouvelle approche. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roecker, C.; Bonvin, J.; Muller, A.

    1999-06-01

    Flat roofs are among the best choices to mount photovoltaics on buildings. Nevertheless, standard solutions in use till the mid-nineties were quite poor, as far as price, aesthetics and ease of maintenance were concerned. This report presents, following a comprehensive typology study of flat roofs, a series of new and innovative solutions, fully developed and tested. There are three main system groups, differing essentially by the ballasting method used to keep the panels on the roof: (i) the SOFREL family, using concrete blocs weighting; (ii) the SOLBAC family, using existing ballast weighting; and (iii) the SOLGREEN family, using ballast and earth weighting. Some more systems, not finalised, are also described, giving some hints for possible new developments. To conclude, this project has brought three main systems, all three already or soon commercially available, allowing a simple and easy mounting of photovoltaic panels on any flat roof type. (author)

  16. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final Report. Volume II: Silicon material

    OpenAIRE

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the FSA Project, was to develop and ...

  17. SERF photovoltaic systems. Technical report on system performance for the period, August 1, 1994--July 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, E.E. van; Strand, T.R.; Hansen, R.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of performance data on the two identical, 6 kW{sub ac}, grid-connected photovoltaic systems located on the roof of the Solar Energy Research Facility building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The data cover the monitoring period August 1, 1994, to July 31, 1995, and the performance parameters analyzed include direct current and alternating current power, aperture-area efficiency, energy, capacity factor, and performance index. These parameters are compared to plane-of-array irradiance, ambient temperature, and back-of-module temperature as a function of time, either daily or monthly. We also obtained power ratings of the systems for data corresponding to different test conditions. This study has shown, in addition to expected seasonal trends, that system monitoring is a valuable tool in assessing performance and detecting faulty equipment. Furthermore, methods applied for this analysis may be used to evaluate and compare systems using cells of different technologies. The systems were both found to be operating at approximately 7% below their estimated rating, which was based on Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications test conditions. This may be attributed to the design inverter efficiency being estimated at 95% compared to measured values of approximately 88%, as well as the fact that aperture-area efficiency that was overestimated at 12.8% compared to a measured value of 11.0%. The continuous monitoring also revealed faulty peak-power point tracking equipment.

  18. Technical and Economic Assessment of a 450 W Autonomous Photovoltaic System with Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carriço

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about an autonomous photovoltaic system making use of the novel Lithium Iron Phosphate as a battery pack for isolated rural houses. More particularly, this paper examines the behavior and efficiency of a low-cost isolated photovoltaic system for typical rural houses near Luena in Angola. The proposed system (solar panel, batteries, controller, and inverter has been projected having in mind the required household daily load of 1,300 Wh and available solar irradiance. The initial batteries charging revealed to be essential to not only ensure a long battery life but using a balanced pack it was possible to achieve more stored energy. On-site, the polycrystalline solar panels used showed a daily average efficiency of 10.8%, with the total system having 75% efficiency. This result was adjusted to the average temperature in Angola. This way, it was made an extrapolation to the monthly irradiation values in Angola. The results achieved showed good energy production during almost all year except January and December, which revealed critical production values of 1,356 Wh and 1,311 Wh, respectively. These values are too close to the daily consumed energy and indicate the addition of a 2nd alternative source of energy (wind generator, diesel generator, etc. to be explored further.

  19. Energy payback and CO2 gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES)

  20. SAM Technical Review Committee Final Report: Summary and Key Recommendations from the Onsite TRC Meeting Held April 22-23, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, S.; Janzou, S.; Gilman, P.; Freeman, J.; Kaffine, L.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a broad and robust set of models and frameworks for analyzing both system performance and system financing. It does this across a range of technologies dominated by solar technologies including photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program requested the SAM development team to review the photovoltaic performance modeling with the development community and specifically, with the independent engineering community. The report summarizes the major effort for this technical review committee (TRC).

  1. Correlated charge-changing uion-atom collisions. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Tanis

    2005-01-01

    This document comprises the final technical report for atomic collisions research supported by DOE grant No. DE-FG02-87ER13778 from September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2004. The research involved the experimental investigation of excitation and charge-changing processes occurring in ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. Major emphases of the study were: (1) interference effects resulting from coherent electron emission in H2, (2) production of doubly vacant K-shell (hollow ion) states due to electron correlation, and (3) formation of long-lived metastable states in electron transfer processes. During the period of the grant, this research resulted in 23 publications, 12 invited presentations, and 39 contributed presentations at national and international meetings and other institutions. Brief summaries of the completed research are presented below

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurwein, J.

    2011-01-01

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  4. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's review of Atlas Corporation's proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Microscopic heavy-ion theory. Final technical report, June 1, 1993 - May 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.J.; Oberacker, V.E.; Umar, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this Final Technical Report, the authors summarize the research activities of the three Principal Investigators (Professors Ernst, Oberacker, and Umar) at Vanderbilt University since the last reporting period through the subject award expiration date (Dec. 31, 1996) under contract DE-FG05-87ER40376 with the Department of Energy. The research effort is divided between the following three areas: nuclear structure and astrophysics (microscopic nuclear structure studies and properties of exotic nuclei at HRIBF, supernovae calculations in connection with nuclear astrophysics, and nuclear viscosity studies via muon-induced fission at PSI); pion and kaon interactions with the nucleus at high energies (interaction of pions and kaons with nuclei from low energies to 1 GeV, propagation of excited hadrons in the nuclear medium as probed by pion and electron induced reactions); nuclear physics at high energies (dynamical string-parton model to study multi-particle production at RHIC, electromagnetic lepton pair production at RHIC)

  7. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  8. Technical evaluation of two 6-kW mono-Si photovoltaic systems at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, E.E. van; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of performance data on the two 6-kW{sub ac} grid-connected photovoltaic systems at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The performance parameters analyzed include dc and ac power, aperture efficiency, energy, capacity factor and performance index which are compared to plane-of-array irradiance, ambient temperature, and back-of-module temperature as a function of time, either daily or monthly. Power ratings of the systems were also obtained for data corresponding to different test conditions. This study has shown, in addition to expected seasonal trends, that system monitoring is a valuable tool in assessing performance and detecting faulty equipment. In addition, methods applied for this study may be used to evaluate and compare systems employing different cell technologies.

  9. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  10. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J

    2011-07-18

    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing green building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2's most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a cafe and river vistas for miles of New York City's skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects, selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy

  11. Final priority; technical assistance to improve state data capacity--National Technical Assistance Center to improve state capacity to accurately collect and report IDEA data. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Technical Assistance to Improve State Data Capacity program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus attention on an identified national need to provide technical assistance (TA) to States to improve their capacity to meet the data collection and reporting requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). We intend this priority to establish a TA center to improve State capacity to accurately collect and report IDEA data (Data Center).

  12. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  13. RTI photovoltaic concentrator applications experiment. Phase I. System design. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, R M; Whisnant, R A; Drake, W C; Daluge, D R; Alberts, R D

    1979-03-01

    An experiment has been designed in which a 100 kW photovoltaic concentrator system serving the electrical load provided by an energy-efficient office-laboratory building will be built and operated in the Research Triangle Park of North Carolina. Since the purpose of the experiment is to provide the essential data for design and installation of future operational systems, the system is designed for operational flexibility. In its main operational mode, a defined primary load is diverted from the utility during all peak-demand periods. This requires the use of 1000 kWh of lead-acid batteries for energy storage. Other operational modes provide for obtaining data on peak demand reduction, on alternative battery use strategies, and on system performance with an isolated load. Operation of the system in parallel with utility-supplied power requires that the photovoltaic array outputs be inverted and that the power be controlled to achieve the operational objectives. Ten 2-axis tracking arrays consisting of 70X parabolic concentrators are used. The system will provide approximately 103 megawatt-hours of power annually to the load and the design is compatible with future retrofits including more efficient solar cells, higher concentration ratios, thermal energy collection, and other technological developments, ensuring its usefulness in research and development beyond the PRDA-35 experiment.

  14. Photovoltaic engineering handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, F; Ang, T G [Asian Institute of Technolgoy, Bangkok (TH)

    1990-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Handbook is a comprehensive 'nuts and bolts' guide to photovoltaic technology and systems engineering aimed at engineers and designers in the field. It is the first book to look closely at the practical problems involved in evaluating and setting up a PV power system. The authors' comprehensive insight into the different procedures and decisions that a designer needs to make. The book is unique in its coverage and the technical information is presented in a concise and simple way to enable engineers from a wide range of backgrounds to initiate, assess, analyse and design a PV system. Energy planners making decisions on the most appropriate system for specific needs will also benefit from reading this book. Topics covered include technological processes, including solar cell technology, the photovoltaic generator, photovoltaic systems engineering; characterization and testing methods, sizing procedure; economic analysis and instrumentation. (author).

  15. Are small-scale grid-connected photovoltaic systems a cost-effective policy for lowering electricity bills and reducing carbon emissions? A technical, economic, and carbon emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    This research discusses findings from technical simulations and economic models of 1 kW p and 3 kW p grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems supplying a rural home electricity load in parallel with the electricity network in Western Australia (WA). The technical simulations are based on electricity billing, consumption monitoring, an energy audit data, combined with 15 min interval load and PV system performance for commercially available technologies and balance of system components, using long-term meteorological input data. The economic modelling uses 2010 market prices for capital costs, operational costs, electricity tariffs, subsidies, and is based on discounted cash flow analyses which generate a final net present value (NPV) for each system against network electricity costs (in Australian dollars, AUD) over a 15 year investment horizon. The results suggest that current market prices generate a negative NPV (a net private loss), even with the current government subsidies, which lead to higher home electricity costs than conventional network electricity use. Additionally, the private costs of carbon emission mitigation (AUD tCO 2 -e −1 ) for the grid-connected PV system simulations and models were around AUD 600-700 tCO 2 -e −1 , a particularly expensive option when compared to existing large-scale renewable energy mitigation activities. - Highlights: ► Subsidised small-scale grid-connected PV systems can increase home electricity costs. ► Subsidies for private PV systems are provided by those who do not receive a benefit. ► Small-scale grid-connected PV systems result in very high costs of mitigation. ► Verifying actual mitigation from grid-connected small-scale systems is problematic. ► Maintain medium/large-scale grid-connected or small-scale off-grid system subsidies.

  16. Critical Success Factors for the Large-Scale Introduction of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. A survey focusing on the non-technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, B.J.; De Lange, T.J.; Lako, P.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M.; Tool, C.J.J.; De Wild-Scholten, M.J.

    2000-11-01

    The differences in Significance and Status of 15 factors that might be of decisive influence in achieving a large-scale market introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are analyzed. As a research method the opinions of PV experts and persons involved in the implementation of PV have been surveyed. A questionnaire was sent to about 300 persons all over the world (America, Europe and Asia). The methods applied to analyze the returned questionnaires can be divided into a comparing method (Mann-Whitney test) and ranking methods (Friedman test and the Medal-Classification test). One of the main conclusion is that the ranking of the main critical success factors on Significance shows no large differences between the American and European respondents. The answers from the American and European respondents show that the technical and financial factors are the most Significant: RD and D, technical reliability, financing and cost reduction. The Asian ranking does differ from the American and European ranking. The answers from the Asian respondents show that the international factors: global developments and internationalisation together with specialist knowledge and image are the most Significant success factors. Another main conclusion is that the three regions differ in the ranking of the actual Status of the factors. A comparison of the American ranking with the Asian ranking show the largest differences, whereas Europe is taking an intermediary position. Another interesting observation is that the Status of factors, e.g. internationalisation, global developments and the technical/commercial network, are considered more positive in America, whereas Asia and Europe are more positive about the factors RD and D, image and financing. More specific conclusions show that there is a significant difference in answers between the American and European respondents about the Significance of the factor cost reduction. There is also a significant difference between the

  17. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  18. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  19. Technical and economical assessment of the utilization of photovoltaic systems in residential buildings: The case of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Al-Hamamre, Z.; Sharaf, F.; Abdelkader, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of utilizing photovoltaic systems in a standard residential apartment in Amman city in Jordan. Data on solar radiation, sunshine duration and the ambient temperature has been recorded in Amman city. An apartment in Amman was chosen as a case study to conduct energy and economic calculations. The electrical power needs and cost were calculated for the apartment. The component design and cost of PV system required to supply required energy was calculated and the payback period for the suggested stand-alone PV system in this paper was estimated in a constant inflation rate in electricity price similar to that of interest rate. The calculated payback period was high in a stand-alone system, to decrease payback period a grid-connected PV system is suggested. Considering an annual increase of 3% in electricity price, 15% of payback period was decreased in a stand-alone PV system and 21% in a grid-connected PV system. The output results of this study show that installation of PV system in a residential flat in Jordan may not be economically rewarding owing to the high cost of PV system compared to the cost of grid electricity. A feed-in tariff law of solar electricity may help to reduce PV system cost like the case of Germany. Additional conclusions are PV systems may be economically rewarding in Jordan if applied in locations far from electrical grid or in remote large scale PV power installations to overcome economical limitations of PV technology.

  20. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  1. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  2. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  3. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  4. Vadose zone microbial community structure and activity in metal/radionuclide contaminated sediments. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkwill, David L.

    2002-08-17

    This final technical report describes the research carried out during the final two months of the no-cost extension ending 11/14/01. The primary goals of the project were (1) to determine the potential for transformation of Cr(VI) (oxidized, mobile) to Cr(III) (reduced, immobile) under unsaturated conditions as a function of different levels and combinations of (a) chromium, (b) nitrate (co-disposed with Cr), and (c) molasses (inexpensive bioremediation substrate), and (2) to determine population structure and activity in experimental treatments by characterization of the microbial community by signature biomarker analysis and by RT-PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. It was determined early in the one-year no-cost extension period that the T-RFLP approach was problematic in regard to providing information on the identities of microorganisms in the samples examined. As a result, it could not provide the detailed information on microbial community structure that was needed to assess the effects of treatments with chromium, nitrate, and/or molasses. Therefore, we decided to obtain the desired information by amplifying (using TR-PCR, with the same primers used for T-RFLP) and cloning 16S rRNA gene sequences from the same RNA extracts that were used for T-RFLP analysis. We also decided to use a restriction enzyme digest procedure (fingerprinting procedure) to place the clones into types. The primary focus of the research carried out during this report period was twofold: (a) to complete the sequencing of the clones, and (b) to analyze the clone sequences phylogenetically in order to determine the relatedness of the bacteria detected in the samples to each other and to previously described genera and species.

  5. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-01-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  6. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Final technical report, 4 September 1992--4 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, R.A. II; Raffensperger, C.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1996-02-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. A review of the work conducted under this grant is presented in this Final Technical Report. Both experimental and theoretical work have been conducted to examine the inhibition of the combustion by the fluidized bed material, sand. It has been shown that particulate phase at incipient fluidization inhibits the combustion of propane by free radical destruction at the surface of sand particles within the particulate phase. The implications of these findings is that at bed temperatures lower than the critical temperatures, gas combustion can only occur in the bubble phase or at the top surface of a bubbling fluidized bed. In modeling fluidized bed combustion this inhibition by the particulate phase should be included.

  7. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost and Throughput Improvements for Thin Film CIGS-Based Modules: Final Technical Report, July 1998 -- September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the marked improvements made of the production line under the PVMaT program: successfully developed a high-speed, all-laser, monolithic integration process for CIGS-based modules on polyimide substrates; exceeded PVMaT goals for scribing rate and total interconnect width; developed robust, well-controlled techniques for selective scribing; improved CIGS evaporation sources to allow uniform, controllable delivery; completed foundation required to integrate higher CIGS deposition rates into the production line; developed well-controlled Se delivery system to minimize Se consumption; successfully integrated the parallel-detector spectroscope ellipsometer (PDSE) into a production CIGS deposition chamber; collected useful, in-situ data with PDSE; validated the performance of the X-ray fluorescometry (XRF) sensor in the production CIGS deposition chamber; and successfully incorporated the XRF sensor into the control architecture of the production CIGS deposition chamber .

  8. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  9. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  10. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  11. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, W.

    2013-01-01

    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  12. An Approach to Developing Independent Learning and Non-Technical Skills Amongst Final Year Mining Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called "soft" skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was…

  13. Thin-Film CIGS Photovoltaic Technology: Annual Technical Report-Phase II, 16 April 1999-15 April 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Bruns, J.; Ruppert, A.; Akhtar, M.; Chen, L.; Kiss, Z.J.

    2000-08-24

    A summary of Energy Photovoltaics' Phase II work includes the following: (1) EPV has demonstrated that it can sputter a Mo back-contact capable of supporting very high efficiency cell processing. Using EPV Mo, NREL has deposited a 17.1% CIGS cell (no AR coating). EPV believes it can identify the signature of ``good'' Mo. The Mo was produced on EPV's 0.43 m{sup 2} pilot-line equipment; (2) EPV has performed compound synthesis for several classes of materials, namely non-Cu precursor materials, Cu-containing materials, and ternary buffer materials. Using a ternary compound synthesized at EPV (ZIS) as an evaporation source material for the buffer layer, a Cd-free CIGS device has been produced having an efficiency of 11.5% (560 mV, 32.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF 64.3%). The ZIS films are photoconductive, and the devices exhibit no dark-light crossover or light soaking effects; (3) EPV initiated the interest of the University of Oregon in capacitance spectroscopy of CIGS devices. An Urbach tail with characteristic energy E0 < 20meV was identified by transient photocapacitance spectroscopy; (4) Small-area CIGS devices were produced in the pilot-line system with an efficiency of 12.0% (581 mV, 30.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF 68.7%), and in an R and D-scale system with 13.3% efficiency (569 mV, 34.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF 68.1%); (5) An improved linear evaporation source for Cu delivery has been developed and was used for CIGS formation in the pilot-line system. The deposition width is 45 cm. This technological ``tour de force'' allows EPV to build large-area CIGS systems possessing considerable flexibility. In particular, both EPV's FORNAX process and NREL's 3-stage process have been implemented on the pilot line. A CIGS thickness uniformity of 7% over a 40 cm width has been achieved; (6) A 4-head linear source assembly was designed, constructed, and is in use. Flux monitoring is practiced; (7) Large-area CIGS modules were produced with Voc's up to 36

  14. Thin-Film CIGS Photovoltaic Technology: Annual Technical Report-Phase II, 16 April 1999-15 April 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Bruns, J.; Ruppert, A.; Akhtar, M.; Chen, L.; Kiss, Z.J.

    2000-01-01

    A summary of Energy Photovoltaics' Phase II work includes the following: (1) EPV has demonstrated that it can sputter a Mo back-contact capable of supporting very high efficiency cell processing. Using EPV Mo, NREL has deposited a 17.1% CIGS cell (no AR coating). EPV believes it can identify the signature of''good'' Mo. The Mo was produced on EPV's 0.43 m(sup 2) pilot-line equipment; (2) EPV has performed compound synthesis for several classes of materials, namely non-Cu precursor materials, Cu-containing materials, and ternary buffer materials. Using a ternary compound synthesized at EPV (ZIS) as an evaporation source material for the buffer layer, a Cd-free CIGS device has been produced having an efficiency of 11.5% (560 mV, 32.1 mA/cm(sup 2), FF 64.3%). The ZIS films are photoconductive, and the devices exhibit no dark-light crossover or light soaking effects; (3) EPV initiated the interest of the University of Oregon in capacitance spectroscopy of CIGS devices. An Urbach tail with characteristic energy E0 and lt; 20meV was identified by transient photocapacitance spectroscopy; (4) Small-area CIGS devices were produced in the pilot-line system with an efficiency of 12.0% (581 mV, 30.1 mA/cm(sup 2), FF 68.7%), and in an R and D-scale system with 13.3% efficiency (569 mV, 34.1 mA/cm(sup 2), FF 68.1%); (5) An improved linear evaporation source for Cu delivery has been developed and was used for CIGS formation in the pilot-line system. The deposition width is 45 cm. This technological''tour de force'' allows EPV to build large-area CIGS systems possessing considerable flexibility. In particular, both EPV's FORNAX process and NREL's 3-stage process have been implemented on the pilot line. A CIGS thickness uniformity of 7% over a 40 cm width has been achieved; (6) A 4-head linear source assembly was designed, constructed, and is in use. Flux monitoring is practiced; (7) Large-area CIGS modules were produced with Voc's up to 36.3 V; (8) EPV has started to construct an

  15. Thin-Film CIGS Photovoltaic Technology; Annual Technical Report, Phase I; 16 April 1998 - 15 April 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorobski, D.; Delahoy, A.E.; Kiss, Z.J.; Ziobro, F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Energy Photovoltaics, Inc. (EPV) under Phase I of this subcontract. EPV's new FORNAX process for CIGS formation is capable of producing devices with high Voc ( and gt;600 mV) and no dark aging effects. Parameters of the best device so far are Voc= 611 mV, Jsc= 27.5 mA/cm2, FF= 74.5%, and efficiency= 12.5%. A 34-cm2 16-cell minimodule was produced using FORNAX CIGS with Voc= 9.58 V, Isc= 52.0 mA, FF69.8%, and efficiency= 10.2%. A new version of EPV's linear evaporation source was developed with improved rate and uniformity for Cu deposition over a width of 45 cm. Using the new linear source, the FORNAX process was implemented on 0.43-m2 substrates in EPV's CIGS pilot line, with Voc= 537 mV and FF= 70.3% being achieved on a device. The EPV Subteam of the National CIS R and D Team has produced Cd-free ZnO/CIGS devices on NREL CIGS using the ROMEAO process (reaction of metal and atomic oxygen) for ZnO deposition. After soaking, the best device exhibited a Voc of 565 mV and an efficiency of 12.3%. Novel bias drive methods were devised for field soaking/anti-soaking experiments as a function of time and temperature. Scaling laws and an activation energy of 0.51 eV were found. Thermally stimulated capacitance reveals the existence of three distinct contributions to ZnO/CIGS device capacitance, two appearing to be gap-state effects and one related to net doping concentration. The coating time of the sputtered pilot-line ZnO:Al has been reduced by a factor of 3 while maintaining film quality. The deposition rate is 48 A s-1. Plans are under way to increase the substrate size from 0.43 m2 to 0.79 m2

  16. Systematization of the technical and economic sizing of isolated photovoltaic systems through specific software; Sistematizacao do dimensionamento tecnico e economico de sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados por meio de programa computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Jose A.; Rossi, Luiz A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola

    2005-01-15

    One of the main referring subjects to the solar energy is how to compare it economically with other sources of energy, as alternative as conventional energy (like electric grid). The purpose of this work was to develop a software which congregates the technical and economic main data to identify, through methods of micro economic analysis, the commercial viability in the sizing of photovoltaic systems, besides considering the benefits proceeding from the proper energy generation. Considering the period of useful life of the components of the generation system of photovoltaic electricity, the costs of the energy proceeding from the conventional grid had been identified. For the comparison of the conventional sources, electric grid and diesel generation, three scenes of costs of photovoltaic panels and two for the factor of availability of diesel generation had been used. The results have shown that if the cost of the panels is low and the place of installation is more distant of the electric grid, the photovoltaic system becomes the best option. (author)

  17. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high

  18. Final Technical Report: Integrated Distribution-Transmission Analysis for Very High Penetration Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hale, Elaine [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hansen, Timothy M. [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jones, Wesley [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Biagioni, David [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Baker, Kyri [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Wu, Hongyu [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Giraldez, Julieta [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Sorensen, Harry [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Lunacek, Monte [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Merket, Noel [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jorgenson, Jennie [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))

    2016-01-29

    Transmission and distribution simulations have historically been conducted separately, echoing their division in grid operations and planning while avoiding inherent computational challenges. Today, however, rapid growth in distributed energy resources (DERs)--including distributed generation from solar photovoltaics (DGPV)--requires understanding the unprecedented interactions between distribution and transmission. To capture these interactions, especially for high-penetration DGPV scenarios, this research project developed a first-of-its-kind, high performance computer (HPC) based, integrated transmission-distribution tool, the Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS). The tool was then used in initial explorations of system-wide operational interactions of high-penetration DGPV.

  19. Final Technical Report for Automated Manufacturing of Innovative CPV/PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, David [Cogenra Solar, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Cogenra’s Dense Cell Interconnect system was designed to use traditional front-contact cells and string them together into high efficiency and high reliability “supercells”. This novel stringer allows one to take advantage of the ~100 GW/year of existing cell production capacity and create a solar product for the customer that will produce more power and last longer than traditional PV products. The goal for this program was for Cogenra Solar to design and develop a first-of-kind automated solar manufacturing line that produces strings of overlapping cells or “supercells” based on Cogenra’s Dense Cell Interconnect (DCI) technology for their Low Concentration Photovoltaic (LCPV) systems. This will enable the commercialization of DCI technology to improve the efficiency, reliability and economics for their Low Concentration Photovoltaic systems. In this program, Cogenra Solar very successfully designed, developed, built, installed, and started up the ground-breaking manufacturing tools required to assemble supercells. Cogenra then successfully demonstrated operation of the integrated line at high yield and throughput far exceeding expectations. The development of a supercell production line represents a critical step toward a high volume and low cost Low Concentration Photovoltaic Module with Dense Cell Interconnect technology and has enabled the evaluation of the technology for reliability and yield. Unfortunately, performance and cost headwinds on Low Concentration Photovoltaics systems including lack of diffuse capture (10-15% hit) and more expensive tracker requirements resulted in a move away from LCPV technology. Fortunately, the versatility of Dense Cell Interconnect technology allows for application to flat plate module technology as well and Cogenra has worked with the DOE to utilize the learning from this grant to commercialize DCI technology for the solar market through the on-going grant: Catalyzing PV Manufacturing in the US With Cogenra

  20. Scalable data management, analysis and visualization (SDAV) Institute. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of the SDAV institute is to provide tools and expertise in scientific data management, analysis, and visualization to DOE’s application scientists. Our goal is to actively work with application teams to assist them in achieving breakthrough science, and to provide technical solutions in the data management, analysis, and visualization regimes that are broadly used by the computational science community. Over the last 5 years members of our institute worked directly with application scientists and DOE leadership-class facilities to assist them by applying the best tools and technologies at our disposal. We also enhanced our tools based on input from scientists on their needs. Many of the applications we have been working with are based on connections with scientists established in previous years. However, we contacted additional scientists though our outreach activities, as well as engaging application teams running on leading DOE computing systems. Our approach is to employ an evolutionary development and deployment process: first considering the application of existing tools, followed by the customization necessary for each particular application, and then the deployment in real frameworks and infrastructures. The institute is organized into three areas, each with area leaders, who keep track of progress, engagement of application scientists, and results. The areas are: (1) Data Management, (2) Data Analysis, and (3) Visualization. Kitware has been involved in the Visualization area. This report covers Kitware’s contributions over the last 5 years (February 2012 – February 2017). For details on the work performed by the SDAV institute as a whole, please see the SDAV final report.

  1. Final Technical Report. DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. January 15, 2010 - March 31, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Habib [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Viselli, Anthony [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goupee, Andrew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Thaler, Jeffrey [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Brady, Damian [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Browne, Peter [HDR, Inc., Omaha, NE (United States); Browning, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Chung, Jade [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Coulling, Alexander [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Deese, Heather [Island Institute, Rockland, ME (United States); Fowler, Matthew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Holberton, Rebecca [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Anant, Jain [Intertek, Duluth, GA (United States); Jalbert, Dustin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Johnson, Theresa [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Karlson, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kimball, Richard [Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME (United States); Koo, Bonjun [Technip, Paris (France); Lackner, Matthew [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lambrakos, Kostas [Technip, Paris (France); Lankowski, Matthew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Leopold, Adrienne [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Lim, Ho-Joon [Technip, Paris (France); Mangum, Linda [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Martin, Heather [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Masciola, Marco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Maynard, Melissa [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); McCleave, James [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Mizrahi, Robert [New Jersey Audubon Society, Bernardsville, NJ (United States); Molta, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Pershing, Andrew [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Pettigrew, Neal [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Prowell, Ian [MMI Engineering, Oakland, CA (United States); Qua, Andrew [Kleinschmidt Associates, Pittsfield, ME (United States); Sherwood, Graham [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Snape, Thomas [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Steneck, Robert [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Stewart, Gordon [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Stockwell, Jason [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Swift, Andrew H. P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Thomas, Dale [Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME (United States); Viselli, Elizabeth [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2013-06-11

    This is the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy-funded program, DE-0002981: DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. The project objective was the partial validation of coupled models and optimization of materials for offshore wind structures. The United States has a great opportunity to harness an indigenous abundant renewable energy resource: offshore wind. In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimated there to be over 4,000 GW of potential offshore wind energy found within 50 nautical miles of the US coastlines (Musial and Ram, 2010). The US Energy Information Administration reported the total annual US electric energy generation in 2010 was 4,120 billion kilowatt-hours (equivalent to 470 GW) (US EIA, 2011), slightly more than 10% of the potential offshore wind resource. In addition, deep water offshore wind is the dominant US ocean energy resource available comprising 75% of the total assessed ocean energy resource as compared to wave and tidal resources (Musial, 2008). Through these assessments it is clear offshore wind can be a major contributor to US energy supplies. The caveat to capturing offshore wind along many parts of the US coast is deep water. Nearly 60%, or 2,450 GW, of the estimated US offshore wind resource is located in water depths of 60 m or more (Musial and Ram, 2010). At water depths over 60 m building fixed offshore wind turbine foundations, such as those found in Europe, is likely economically infeasible (Musial et al., 2006). Therefore floating wind turbine technology is seen as the best option for extracting a majority of the US offshore wind energy resource. Volume 1 - Test Site; Volume 2 - Coupled Models; and Volume 3 - Composite Materials

  2. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting. Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 (micro)m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of ∼ 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light

  3. Hazards assessment and technical actions due to the production of pressured hydrogen within a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for agricultural equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot power system formed by photovoltaic panels, alkaline electrolyser and fuel cell stacks was designed and set up to supply the heating system of an experimental greenhouse. The aim of this paper is to analyse the main safety aspects of this power system connected to the management of the pressured hydrogen, such as the explosion limits of the mixture hydrogen-oxygen, the extension of the danger zone, the protection pressure vessels and the system to make unreactive the plant. The electrolyser unit is the core of this plant and from the safety point of view has been equipped with devices able to highlight the malfunctions before they cause damages. Alarm situations are highlighted and the production process is cut off in safe conditions in the event that the operational parameters have an abnormal deviation from the design values. Also the entire power system has been designed so that any failure to its components does not compromise the workers’ safety even if the risk analysis is in progress because technical operations are being carried out for enhancing the plant functionality, making it more suitable to the designed task of supplying electrically the greenhouse heating system during cold periods. Some experimental data pertinent to the solar radiation and the corresponding hydrogen production rate are also reported. At present it does not exist a well-established safety reference protocol to design the reliability of these types of power plants and then the assumed safety measures even if related to the achieved pilot installation, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for designing the safety of power plants in the future available for agricultural purposes.

  4. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  5. Vehicle infrastructure integration proof of concept : technical description--vehicle : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-19

    This report provides the technical description of the VII system developed for the Cooperative Agreement VII Program between the USDOT and the VII Consortium. The basic architectural elements are summarized and detailed descriptions of the hardware a...

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  7. Technical-economic-social impact of a photovoltaic installation - Paomia (Corsica) - France. Impacto tecno-economico-social de uma instalacao fotovoltaica - Paomia (Corsega) - Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J.G. de; Peri, G

    1990-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high-technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by CEE aids. The Paomia photovoltaic plant - 44 K W p - is the french CEE project. It is the principal European photovoltaic R and D programme. This plant originally unadapted to users' needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Customers prefer at last the use of the conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author).

  8. Organic photovoltaics. Technology and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, Christoph J.

    2004-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics has come into the international research focus during the past three years. Up to now main efforts have focused on the improvement of the solar conversion efficiency, and in recent efforts 5% white light efficiencies on the device level have been realized. Despite this in comparison to inorganic technologies low efficiency, organic photovoltaics is evaluated as one of the future key technologies opening up completely new applications and markets for photovoltaics. The key property which makes organic photovoltaics so attractive is the potential of reel to reel processing on low cost substrates with standard coating and printing processes. In this contribution we discuss the economical and technical production aspects for organic photovoltaics

  9. Final Technical Report: Low-Cost Solar Variability Sensors for Ubiquitous Deployment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this project, an integrated solution to measuring and collecting solar variability data called the solar variability datalogger (SVD) was developed, tested, and the value of its data to distribution grid integration studies was demonstrated. This work addressed the problem that high-frequency solar variability is rarely measured – due to the high cost and complex installation of existing solar irradiance measuring pyranometers – but is critical to the accurate determination of the impact of photovoltaics to electric grid operation. For example, up to a 300% difference in distribution grid voltage regulator tap change operations (a measure of the impact of PV) [1] has been observed due solely to different solar variability profiles.

  10. Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  13. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  14. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  15. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  16. Public attitudes towards photovoltaic developments: Case study from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsantopoulos, Georgios; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Tampakis, Stilianos

    2014-01-01

    The present decade is considered to be vitally important both as regards addressing energy requirements and for environmental protection purposes. The decisions taken, both on an individual and a collective level, will have a decisive impact on the environment, and primarily on climate change, due to the increased energy demands and the need to reduce carbon use in energy generation. The present study was designed and carried out while an extensive debate was ongoing in Greece regarding changes to the legislative framework that would specifically disallow new applications for the installation of photovoltaic systems; its aim is to depict the attitude of Greek citizens, through the completion of 1068 questionnaires. The research results show that over half the respondents are informed about the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. Furthermore, almost half are willing to invest in such systems, either at home or on a plot of land. The factors contributing to the installation of photovoltaic systems are mainly “environmental”, “financial” and “social”. Finally, the citizens who are most willing to invest in residential photovoltaic systems are mainly university or technical school graduates; they would rather take such a decision after being motivated by institutional bodies and would do so for reasons of recognition. - Highlights: • The circumstances for RES are favorable both in the EU and in Greece. • The growth of renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic systems, is provenly following an upward trend. • The photovoltaic electricity production is an environmentally-friendly, sustainable and socially acceptable answer to the future energy requirements of society. • The Greek citizens state that they are adequately informed and sufficiently willing to invest in photovoltaic systems either residentially or in a plot of land

  17. Technical specification improvements to containment heat removal and emergency core cooling systems: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.P.; Ha, C.; Pentzien, D.C.; Visweswaran, S.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis for technical specification improvements to the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) and containment heat removal systems (EPRI Research Project 2142-3). The objective of this project is to further develop a reliability- and risk-based methodology to provide improvements by considering groups of surveillance test intervals and allowed out-of-service times jointly. This was done for the technical specifications for the ECCS, containment heat removal equipment, and supporting systems of a boiling water reactor plant. The project (1) developed a methodology for optimizing groups of surveillance test intervals and allowed out-of-service times jointly, (2) applied the methodology in a case study of a specific operating plant, Hatch-2, and (3) evaluated benefits of the application. The results of the case study demonstrate that beneficial technical specification improvements can be realized with application of the methodology. By tightening a small group of sensitive surveillance test intervals (STIs) and allowed out-of-service times (AOTs), a larger group of less sensitive STIs and AOTs can be extended resulting in an overall plant operating cost improvement without reducing the plant safety. The reliability- and risk-based methodology and results from this project can be effectively applied for technical specification improvements at other operating plants

  18. Final Technical Close out Report University Research Program in Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James S. Tulenko; Carl Crane

    2004-01-01

    The report covers the 2003-04 contract period, with a retrospective of the 11 years for the contract, from 1993 to 2004. This includes personnel, technical publications and reports, plus research laboratories employed. Specific information is given in eight research areas, reporting on all technology developed and/or deployed by the University of Florida

  19. Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the overall accomplishments and benefits of Solar Electric Specialties Co. (SES) under this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. SES addressed design issues related to their modular autonomous PV power supply (MAPPS) and a mobile photogenset. MAPPS investigations included gel-cell batteries mounted horizontally; redisgn of the SES power supply; modified battery enclosure for increased safety and reduced cost; programmable, interactive battery charge controllers; and UL and FM listings. The photogenset systems incorporate generators, battery storage, and PV panels for a mobile power supply. The unit includes automatic oil-change systems for the propane generators, collapsible array mounts for the PV enclosure, and internal stowage of the arrays. Standardizing the products resulted in product lines of MAPPS and Photogensets that can be produced more economically and with shorter lead times, while increasing product quality and reliability. Product assembly and quality control have also been improved and streamlined with the development of standardized assembly processes and QC testing procedures. SES offers the UL-listed MAPPS at about the same price as its previous non-standardized, unlisted products

  1. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  2. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Site selection criteria. Technical and economical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations, geological and socioeconomical criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations are treated. More attention is given to the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes and different solutions searched abroad which seems of interest for Spain. (author)

  3. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic...... solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency...... of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating...

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report for award DE-FC--07-00AL67053

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    The project ''Creating an Educational Consortium to Support the Recruitment and Retention of Expertise for the Nuclear Weapons Complex'' was also known as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) University Fellowship Program. Since its inception, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program and its predecessor, the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, have engaged university researchers and students in the sciences necessary to answer technical questions related to reducing high-level waste volumes, optimizing the economics and performance of Yucca Mountain, reducing the technical need for a second repository, reducing the long-term inventories of plutonium in spent fuel, and enabling the proliferation-resistant recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The Advanced Fuel Cycle University Fellowship Program is intended to support top students across the nation in a variety of disciplines that will be required to support transmutation research and technology development in the coming decades

  5. Final Technical Report: "Achieving Regional Energy Efficiency Potential in the Southeast”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Mandy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA), Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2018-03-07

    The overall objective of this award was to facilitate sharing of DOE resources and best practices as well as provide technical assistance to key stakeholders to support greater compliance with energy efficiency standards and increased energy savings. The outcomes of this award include greater awareness among key stakeholders on energy efficiency topics, increased deployment and utilization of DOE resources, and effective policies and programs to support energy efficiency in the Southeast.

  6. National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baxter, Ivan [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Washington, DC (United States); Brown, Judith [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Carleton, Michael [Matrix Genetics, Seattle, WA (United States); Cattolico, Rose Anne [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Taraka, Dale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Detter, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devarenne, Timothy P. [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Dutcher, Susan K. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, David T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodenough, Ursula [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Jaworski, Jan [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kramer, David [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCormick, Margaret [Matrix Genetics, Seattle, WA (United States); Merchant, Sabeeha [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Molnar, Istvan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Panisko, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pellegrini, Matteo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Polle, Juergen [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Brooklyn College; Sabarsky, Martin [Cellana, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Sayre, Richard T. [New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Starkenburg,, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stormo, Gary [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Twary, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unkefer, Clifford J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unkefer, Pat J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yuan, Joshua S. [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Arnold, Bob [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Bai, Xuemei [Cellana, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Boeing, Wiebke [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Brown, Lois [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Gujarathi, Ninad [Reliance Industries Limited, Mumbai (India); Huesemann, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lammers, Pete [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Laur, Paul [Eldorado Biofuels, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Khandan, Nirmala [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Parsons, Ronald [Solix BioSystems, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Samocha, Tzachi [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Thomasson, Alex [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Unc, Adrian [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Waller, Pete [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Bonner, James [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States); Coons, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fernando, Sandun [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables, Dexter, MI (United States); Kadam, Kiran [Valicor Renewables, Dexter, MI (United States); Lacey, Ronald [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Wei, Liu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marrone, Babs [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikolov, Zivko [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Trewyn, Brian [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Albrecht, Karl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Capareda, Sergio [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Cheny, Scott [Diversified Energy, Gilbert, AZ (United States); Deng, Shuguang [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cesar, Granda [Terrabon, LLC, Bryan, TX (United States); Hallen, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lupton, Steven [UOP Honeywell Co, LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Lynch, Sharry [UOP Honeywell Co, LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Marchese, Anthony [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Nieweg, Jennifer [Albemarle Catilin, Ames, IA (United States); Ogden, Kimberly [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Oyler, James [Genifuel, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reardon, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Roberts, William [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sams, David [Albemarle Catilin, Ames, IA (United States); Schaub, Tanner [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Silks, Pete [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archibeque, Shawn [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Foster, James [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Gaitlan, Delbert [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Lawrence, Addison [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Lodge-Ivey, Shanna [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wickersham, Tyron [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Blowers, Paul [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Downes, C. Meghan [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Dunlop, Eric [Pan Pacific Technologies Pty. Ltd., Adelaide (Australia); Frank, Edward [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Handler, Robert [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Newby, Deborah [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pienkos, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richardson, James [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Seider, Warren [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shonnard, David [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Skaggs, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The main objective of NAABB was to combine science, technology, and engineering expertise from across the nation to break down critical technical barriers to commercialization of algae-based biofuels. The approach was to address technology development across the entire value chain of algal biofuels production, from selection of strains to cultivation, harvesting, extraction, fuel conversion, and agricultural coproduct production. Sustainable practices and financial feasibility assessments ununderscored the approach and drove the technology development.

  7. Technical procedures for ecology: Environmental field program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including walkover surveys for threatened, endangered, or candidate species; vegetation classification and mapping; reclamation planning; wetland and floodplain determination and characterization of playas; wildlife habitat mapping methods; mammal sampling; bird survey methods; reptile and amphibian survey methods; preexisting environmental; stress and disturbance studies methods; voucher specimens for plants; and voucher specimens to wildlife. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Development of a Foam OTEC System. Final technical report for Fiscal Year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research on Development of a Foam OTEC System, as carried out at Carnegie-Mellon University from October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979, is described. To a brief section summarizing highlights of research results are appended 12 technical reports which detail specific sections of the program. The work described is continuing and a proposal is currently being submitted to provide support in fiscal 1980.

  9. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  10. A study of potential high band-gap photovoltaic materials for a two step photon intermediate technique in fission energy conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelas, M.A.

    1996-01-24

    This report describes progress made to develop a high bandgap photovoltaic materials for direct conversion to electricity of excimer radiation produced by fission energy pumped laser. This report summarizes the major achievements in sections. The first section covers n-type diamond. The second section covers forced diffusion. The third section covers radiation effects. The fourth section covers progress in Schottky barrier and heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The fifth section covers cell and reactor development.

  11. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling/ Transport and Dynamics in Torodial Fusion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanck, Dalton D.

    2010-01-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Extended MHD Modeling, DE-FC02-06ER54870, for the period 7/1/06 to 2/15/08. Principal results for this period are: 1. Development of a model for computational modeling for the primitive form of the extended MMD equations. This was reported as Phys. Plasmas 13, 058103 (2006). 2. Comparison between the NIMROD and M3D codes for simulation of the nonlinear sawtooth crash in the CDXU tokamak. This was reported in Phys. Plasmas 14, 056105 (2006). 3. Demonstration of 2-fluid and gyroviscous stabilization of interchange modes using computational extended MHD models. This was reported in Phys. Rev. Letters 101, 085005 (2008). Each of these publications is attached as an Appendix of this report. They should be consulted for technical details.

  12. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed

  13. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  14. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  15. Photovoltaic barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The global solar photovoltaic market enjoyed a strong revival in 2013. Preliminary estimates put it in excess of 37 GWp, compared to 30 GWp in 2012 and 2011. The solar photovoltaic sector led the annual installed capacity ratings for renewable energies, taking worldwide capacity up to 137 GWp by the end of the year which means a 35% year-on-year increase. At global level the high growth markets - China, Japan and America - contrast sharply with the contracting European Union market. The strong recovery of the global photovoltaic market is due to the drop in module prices which in some zones has dropped below the conventional electricity price. In the E.U, in 2013 the photovoltaic electricity reached 80.2 TWh while the capacity connected during this year was 9922.2 MWp. Concerning the capacity connected in 2013 the 2 main contributors in Europe are Germany (3310.0 MWc) and Italy (1462.0 MWc). These 2 countries represent also 68% of the cumulated and connected capacity in Europe. All along the article various charts and tables give the figures of the photovoltaic capacity per inhabitant for each E.U country in 2013, the electricity production from photovoltaic power for each E.U country, and the main photovoltaic module manufacturers in 2013 worldwide reporting production and turnover

  16. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  17. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical description: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Socioeconomic impacts must be assessed both for the near term and for the future. One means of addressing the need for the assessment of such impacts has been through the development of the computerized socioeconomic assessment model called the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) model. The SEARS model was developed for the Battelle Project Management Division. It was refined and adapted from state-of-the-art computerized projection models and thoroughly validated and is now available for use in projecting the likely socioeconomic impacts of a repository facility. This Technical Description is one of six major products that describe the SEARS modeling system. 61 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  19. Tectonic history of the terrestrial planets. Final technical report, 1 October 1976-30 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.C.

    1990-02-01

    It is impossible in a single brief summary to convey the full range of research results that have come from this project over the last 13 years. The sweep of subjects covered ranges widely over the broad areas of the thermal and tectonic evolution of the terrestrial planets. A full list of all publications supported by this grant is presented. The list includes 48 published journal articles, 2 papers currently in press, 3 chapters of books, 4 M.I.T. theses, 1 technical report, and 107 published abstracts and extended abstracts. All of these publications were submitted separately to NASA at the time of publication or submission

  20. Final Technical Report of the project "Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Davide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The report describes hypotheses, aims, methods and results of the project 20170675PRD2, “Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations”, which has been run from July 31, 2017 to January 7, 2018. The technical work has been performed by Director’s Fellow Davide Girolami of the T-4 Division, Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, under the supervision of Wojciech Zurek (T-4), Lukasz Cincio (T-4), and Marcus Daniels (CCS-7). The project ended as Davide Girolami has been converted to J. R. Oppenheimer Fellow to work on the project 20180702PRD1, “Optimal Control of Quantum Machines”, started on January 8, 2018.

  1. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  2. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-01-01

    The project entitled, 'Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors', was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A and M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  4. Photovoltaic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module including a plurality of serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, each including a first electrode, a printed light-harvesting layer and a printed second electrode, wherein at least one of the electrodes is transparent, and wherein the second electrode...... of a first cell is printed such that it forms an electrical contact with the first electrode of an adjacent second cell without forming an electrical contact with the first electrode of the first cell or the light-harvesting layer of the second cell, and a method of making such photovoltaic cell modules....

  5. Photovoltaic barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic sector is continuing on track, just as the extent of solar energy's electricity-generating potential is dawning on the public mind. The annual global installation figure was up more than twofold in 2010 (rising from just short of 7000 MWp in 2009). It leapt to over 16000 MWp, bringing worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity close to 38000 MWp. The photovoltaic power generated in the European Union at the end of 2010 reached 22.5 TWh which means an additional capacity of 13023 MWp during 2010. Concerning the cumulated installed capacity, Germany and Spain rank first and second in the European Union with respectively 17370 MWp and 3808 MWp

  6. Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Erik

    2014-02-06

    The committee has during the earlier period finalized their work on the report, Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation (2013) . The report did undergo review and initial editorial processing. The NRC released a pre-publication report on August 13, 2012. A final report is now available. The study director has been able to practice his skills in running a national academies committee. From a research perspective the grant has generated a report with recommendations to the government. The work itself is the meetings where the committee convened to hear presenters and to discuss the status of optics and photonics as well as writing the report.

  7. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of aging nuclear materials processing facilities within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex are now being shut down and deactivated. These facilities, situated throughout the United States, will require a monumental effort to clean up safely and with minimal environmental insult. Current cleanup technologies tend to be labor intensive and expensive, they produce an unacceptably large volume of waste, and they expose workers to radioactive and other hazardous substances. This document describes an emerging program designed to develop and demonstrate new technical approaches to the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) program for DOE`s nuclear materials processing facilities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the program seeks to integrate the strengths of DOE`s technical, managerial, and systems engineering capabilities with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. Once developed, these technologies will help to provide US industry with a competitive edge in the worldwide market that exists for improved environmental restoration and D&D services.

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  9. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of aging nuclear materials processing facilities within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Complex are now being shut down and deactivated. These facilities, situated throughout the United States, will require a monumental effort to clean up safely and with minimal environmental insult. Current cleanup technologies tend to be labor intensive and expensive, they produce an unacceptably large volume of waste, and they expose workers to radioactive and other hazardous substances. This document describes an emerging program designed to develop and demonstrate new technical approaches to the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) program for DOE's nuclear materials processing facilities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the program seeks to integrate the strengths of DOE's technical, managerial, and systems engineering capabilities with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. Once developed, these technologies will help to provide US industry with a competitive edge in the worldwide market that exists for improved environmental restoration and D ampersand D services

  10. Final report of the UMTRA independent technical review of TAC audit programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This report details the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of practices and procedures for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project audit program. The audit program is conducted by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the UMTRA Project. The purpose of the ITR was to ensure that the TAC audit program is effective and is conducted efficiently. The ITR was conducted from May 16-20, 1994. A review team observed audit practices in the field, reviewed the TAC audit program's documentation, and discussed the program with TAC staff and management. The format of this report has been developed around EPA guidelines; they comprise most of the major section headings. Each section begins by identifying the criteria that the TAC program is measured against, then describing the approach used by the ITR team to measure each TAC audit program against the criteria. An assessment of each type of audit is then summarized for each component in the following order: Radiological audit summary; Health and safety audit summary; Environmental audit summary; Quality assurance audit summary

  11. Ion anomalous transport and feedback control. Final technical report, September 1, 1987 - August 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    This final report is comprised of the following six progress reports: Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1989; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, August 1991; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1993; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, May 1994; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, April 1995; and Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, December 1997

  12. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  13. Photovoltaic barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After the euphoria of 2011, the European Union's photovoltaic market slowed right down in 2012. EurObserv'ER puts newly connected capacity in 2012 at 16.5 GWp compared to 22 GWp in 2011, which is a 25% drop. At global level the market generally held up, with just over 30 GWp installed, bolstered by the build-up of the American and Asian markets. The photovoltaic electricity generated in the EU reached 68.1 TWh in 2012. The article begins with the description of the worldwide situation of photovoltaic electricity, then details the situation for each EU member with the help of tables and charts and ends with the state of photovoltaic industry at the world scale

  14. Technical specifications for the provision of heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In October 1999, the National Energy Strategy was approved by the Lithuanian Parliament. The National Energy Strategy included the decision to close Unit-1 of INPP before 2005. Later is has been decided to close Unit 2 before the end of 2009 as well. The closure and decommissioning will have heavy impact on the heat supply for the city of Visaginas. Unit 1 and Unit 2 of INPP supplies hot water and steam to INPP for process purposes and for space heating of residential and commercial buildings. When Unit 1 is permanently shut down, reliable heat and steam sources independent of the power plants own heat and steam generation facilities are required for safety reasons in the event of shutdown of the remaining unit for maintenance or in an emergency. These steam and heat sources must be operational before single unit operation is envisaged. Provision of a reliable independent heat and steam source is therefore urgent. After both reactors are shut down permanently, a steam source will be needed at the plant for radioactive waste storage and disposal. INPP and DEA has performed a feasibility study for the provision of a reliable heat source for Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and Visaginas, and the modernisation of Visaginas district heating system. The objective of this project is to prepare technical specifications for the provision of new heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas, and for rehabilitation of the heat transmission pipeline between INPP, the back-up boiler station and Visaginas City. The results of the study are presented in detail in the reports and technical specifications: 1. Transient analysis for Visaginas DH system, 2. Non-destructive testing of boiler stations, pump stations and transmission lines, 3. Conceptual design, 4. Technical specifications, Package 1 to 6. The study has suggested: 1. Construction of new steam boiler station, 2. Construction of new heat only boiler station, 3. Renovation of existing back-up heat only boiler station, 4

  15. Photovoltaic barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    spain and Germany set the pace for the world photovoltaic market in 2008, which grew to more than twice its 2007 size. The European Union continued to drive photocell installation with an additional 4 592.3 MWp in 2008, or 151.6% growth over 2007. However, European growth prospects for the photovoltaic market in 2009 are being dampened by the global financial crisis and the scheduled slow-down of the Spanish market. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, Darren M; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power in...

  17. Photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidrach, M.

    1992-01-01

    The most common terrestrial applications of photovoltaic plants are reviewed. Classification of applications can be done considering end-use sectors and load profiles (consumption demand). For those systems with direct coupling the working point is determined by the intersection of the load line with the I-V curve Design guidelines are provided for photovoltaic systems. This lecture focusses on the distribution system and safeguards

  18. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, M.B.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases and conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in an appendix

  19. 7th BOC Priestley Conference. Final technical report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The 1994 BOC Priestly Conference was held at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, PA, from June 24 through June 27, 1994. This conference, managed by the American Chemical Society (ACS), was a joint celebration with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) commemorating Joseph Priestley`s arrival in the US and his discovery of oxygen. There were 120 attendees. The basic theme of the conference was Oxidants and Oxidation in the Earth`s Atmosphere, with a keynote lecture on the history of ozone. A distinguished group of US and international atmospheric chemists addressed the issues dominating current research and policy agendas. Topics crucial to the atmospheric chemistry of global change and local and regional air pollution were discussed. The program for the conference included four technical sessions on the following topics: Oxidative fate of atmospheric pollutants; Photochemical smog and ozone; Stratospheric ozone; and, Global tropospheric ozone.

  20. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Conway, Lawarence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Lahoda, Edward J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; DeSilva, Greg [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Hu, Min H. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Hartz, Josh [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Bachrach, Uriel [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Smith, Larry [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Dudek, Daniel F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Toman, Gary J. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Feng, Dandong [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  1. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R.; Conway, Lawarence E.; Oriani, Luca; Lahoda, Edward J.; DeSilva, Greg; Hu, Min H.; Hartz, Josh; Bachrach, Uriel; Smith, Larry; Dudek, Daniel F.; Toman, Gary J.; Feng, Dandong; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2006-01-01

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a ''standard'' 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (∼600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output

  2. Final Technical Report for GO17004 Regulatory Logic: Codes and Standards for the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakarado, Gary L. [Regulatory Logic LLC, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-22

    The objectives of this project are to: develop a robust supporting research and development program to provide critical hydrogen behavior data and a detailed understanding of hydrogen combustion and safety across a range of scenarios, needed to establish setback distances in building codes and minimize the overall data gaps in code development; support and facilitate the completion of technical specifications by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for gaseous hydrogen refueling (TS 20012) and standards for on-board liquid (ISO 13985) and gaseous or gaseous blend (ISO 15869) hydrogen storage by 2007; support and facilitate the effort, led by the NFPA, to complete the draft Hydrogen Technologies Code (NFPA 2) by 2008; with experimental data and input from Technology Validation Program element activities, support and facilitate the completion of standards for bulk hydrogen storage (e.g., NFPA 55) by 2008; facilitate the adoption of the most recently available model codes (e.g., from the International Code Council [ICC]) in key regions; complete preliminary research and development on hydrogen release scenarios to support the establishment of setback distances in building codes and provide a sound basis for model code development and adoption; support and facilitate the development of Global Technical Regulations (GTRs) by 2010 for hydrogen vehicle systems under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations and Working Party on Pollution and Energy Program (ECE-WP29/GRPE); and to Support and facilitate the completion by 2012 of necessary codes and standards needed for the early commercialization and market entry of hydrogen energy technologies.

  3. Photovoltaics - why this 'religious war'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the possible reasons behind controversies concerning photovoltaics in Switzerland. The author, who considers that no other energy technology awakes such varying opinions, presents ten points that should be considered in this connection. These include aspects concerning research and development, trade and industry as well as markets and applications. The 'enormous' potential of photovoltaics and questions concerning availability and environmental issues are discussed. Costs, developments and the question of economic viability are looked at. The situation in Switzerland is compared with international conditions. Finally, political issues are reviewed and the key role to be played by photovoltaics in the future is stressed

  4. The chirped-pulse free-electron laser: Final technical report, September 1987--October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This is the final report of a theoretical and numerical investigation into the operation of pulsed free-electron lasers in which the electron energy depends on the time of injection into the wiggler. Such energy ''chirping'' over each of a train of electron micropulses injected into an FEL oscillator is expected to give rise to a laser pulse inside the optical resonator with a chirped carrier frequency ω/sub s/(/tau/). 8 refs., 7 figs

  5. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia.

  6. 'Advancement of KHPS to DOE TRL 7/8' Project - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Corren, Dean [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Smith, Ron [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Hernandez, Aaron [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Final Report describing activities performed under the 'Advancement of the KHPS to DOE TRL 7/8' project, including the development of critical component test protocols, testing and analysis of the Gen5 KHPS main shaft seal, and continuing compliance work on approved operational environmental monitoring plans in anticipation of KHPS turbine installation at Verdant Power's Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project site in New York, NY.

  7. The Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience, University of North Carolina, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Robert [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2018-01-20

    This is the final report for the UNC component of the SciDAD Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience. In this report, we describe activities on the SUPER project at RENCI at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While we focus particularly on UNC, we touch on project-wide activities as well as, on interactions with, and impacts on, other projects.

  8. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia

  9. Plasmasol, photovoltaic effect in a solar photo plasma. Final report of the project. Concerted action energy - 2003; Plasmasol, effet photovoltaique dans un photoplasma solaire. Rapport final du Projet. Action Concertee Energie - 2003 CNRS-MRNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this project was to study the feasibility of the solar energy photovoltaic conversion from the photo-ionization of a gaseous medium constituted of metallic vapors. After a bibliography and a recall of based physical data the report presents the absorption of the solar radiation by the cesium vapor, a simplified model of the photovoltaic effect in a photo-plasma, the experimental device and the results. (A.L.B.)

  10. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  11. Final Technical Report for "High Energy Physics at The University of Iowa"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, Usha; Meurice, Yannick; Nachtman, Jane; Onel, Yasar; Reno, Mary

    2013-07-31

    Particle Physics explores the very fundamental building blocks of our universe: the nature of forces, of space and time. By exploring very energetic collisions of sub-nuclear particles with sophisticated detectors at the colliding beam accelerators (as well as others), experimental particle physicists have established the current theory known as the Standard Model (SM), one of the several theoretical postulates to explain our everyday world. It explains all phenomena known up to a very small fraction of a second after the Big Bang to a high precision; the Higgs boson, discovered recently, was the last of the particle predicted by the SM. However, many other phenomena, like existence of dark energy, dark matter, absence of anti-matter, the parameters in the SM, neutrino masses etc. are not explained by the SM. So, in order to find out what lies beyond the SM, i.e., what conditions at the earliest fractions of the first second of the universe gave rise to the SM, we constructed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN after the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Each of these projects helped us push the boundary further with new insights as we explore a yet higher energy regime. The experiments are extremely complex, and as we push the boundaries of our existing knowledge, it also requires pushing the boundaries of our technical knowhow. So, not only do we pursue humankind’s most basic intellectual pursuit of knowledge, we help develop technology that benefits today’s highly technical society. Our trained Ph.D. students become experts at fast computing, manipulation of large data volumes and databases, developing cloud computing, fast electronics, advanced detector developments, and complex interfaces in several of these areas. Many of the Particle physics Ph.D.s build their careers at various technology and computing facilities, even financial institutions use some of their skills of simulation and statistical prowess. Additionally, last

  12. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  13. Final Scientific/ Technical Report. Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weinkauf, Don [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Khan, Mushtaq [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Helgeson, Wes [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weedeward, Kevin [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); LeClerc, Corey [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Fuierer, Paul [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-06-30

    The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the country’s western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are; Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate that’s favorable to solar customers; Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. California’s aggressive RPS of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents; Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development; Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV

  14. Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Manual Gastroenterology-Urology Surgical Instruments and Accessories. Final rule; technical amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the identification of manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instruments and accessories to reflect that the device does not include specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogyencologic surgical mesh specifically intended for use as an aid in the insertion, placement, fixation, or anchoring of surgical mesh during urogynecologic procedures ("specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh"). These amendments are being made to reflect changes made in the recently issued final reclassification order for specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh.

  15. Final technical report for DE-SC00012633 AToM (Advanced Tokamak Modeling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Christopher [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Orlov, Dmitri [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Izzo, Valerie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2018-02-05

    This final report for the AToM project documents contributions from University of California, San Diego researchers over the period of 9/1/2014 – 8/31/2017. The primary focus of these efforts was on performing validation studies of core tokamak transport models using the OMFIT framework, including development of OMFIT workflow scripts. Additional work was performed to develop tools for use of the nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics code NIMROD in OMFIT, and its use in the study of runaway electron dynamics in tokamak disruptions.

  16. Medium-energy nuclear physics research. Final technical progress report, May 1, 1971-November 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    Final results are summarized for this program with the primary emphasis on measurement of ten independent parameters for proton-proton elastic scattering at 800 MeV and four independent such parameters at 650 MeV. Inelastic proton-proton reactions have also been measured at 800 MeV. Proton-deuteron elastic scattering cross sections and polarization analyzing powers have been obtained at 800 MeV. Proton-nucleus total and total reaction cross sections were measured at 700 MeV for a number of nuclei. Major instrumentation was designed and constructed to carry out this program

  17. Hollow ceramic block: containment of water for thermal storage in passive solar design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winship, C.T.

    1983-12-27

    The project activity has been the development of designs, material compositions and production procedures to manufacture hollow ceramic blocks which contain water (or other heat absorptive liquids). The blocks are designed to serve, in plurality, a dual purpose: as an unobtrusive and efficient thermal storage element, and as a durable and aesthetically appealing surface for floors and walls of passive solar building interiors. Throughout the grant period, numerous ceramic formulas have been tested for their workabilty, thermal properties, maturing temperatures and color. Blocks have been designed to have structural integrity, and textured surfaces. Methods of slip-casting and extrusion have been developed for manufacturing of the blocks. The thermal storage capacity of the water-loaded block has been demonstrated to be 2.25 times greater than that of brick and 2.03 times greater than that of concrete (taking an average of commonly used materials). Although this represents a technical advance in thermal storage, the decorative effects provided by application of the blocks lend them a more significant advantage by reducing constraints on interior design in passive solar architecture.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Program Title: Solar Powered Dewvaporation Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Shashidhar [Polestar Technologies Inc., Needham Heights, MA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Desalination technologies have been used increasingly throughout the world to produce the drinking water from the brackish ground and sea water for the past few decades. Among the commercially available desalination technologies, reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash distillation are the most widely used technologies globally. However, these technologies are difficult to be directly integrated with green energies without converting them to electricity. Dewvaporation, a desalination process, uses saturated steam as a carrier-gas to evaporate water from saline feeds and form pure condensate. It has the major technical benefit of reusing energy, released from vapor condensation, multiple times. The current proposal has been planned to address this issue. In Phase I, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a new plasmonic nanoparticle based approach through fabrication and evaluation of a solar powered water vapor generation module. The water vapor generation module allows generation of high temperature plasmon on a fiber bundle end, where strong water and plasmon interaction occurs generating water vapor. Plasmon enhanced water evaporation has been realized on plasmonic nanoparticle immobilized substrate with an energy conversion efficiency of over 50%.

  19. STTR Phase 1 Final Technical Report for Project Entitled "Developing a Mobile Torrefaction Machine"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Joseph J. [President, ATP

    2014-03-11

    The goal of this project, sponsored by Agri-Tech Producers, LLC (ATP), the small business grantee, was to determine if the torrefaction technology, developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU), which ATP has licensed, could be feasibly deployed in a mobile unit. The study adds to the area investigated, by having ATP’s STTR Phase I team give thoughtful consideration to how to use NCSU’s technology in a mobile unit. The findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology would best perform in units 30’ by 80’ (See Spec Sheet for the Torre-Tech 5.0 Unit in the Appendix) and the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility investigation suggested that such units were not easily, efficiently or safely utilized in a forest or farm setting. (Note rendering of possible mobile system in the Appendix) Therefore, the findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology could not feasibly be deployed as a mobile unit.

  20. Regional analysis of potential energy production from agricultural wastes: technical and economic study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Have, H

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities for utilization of agricultural wastes for energy production are analyzed in two Danish counties, Ringkoebing and Vestsjaelland, which have different agricultural production patterns. The quantitative analysis shows that the major waste products, surplus straw, waste wood and animal waste, in total with present technique can cover about 28% of the demand for heat energy (mostly space heating) in both counties. The potential coverage from straw, wood and animal waste is about 3, 3 and 22% in Ringkoebing and 18, 2 and 8% in Vestsjaelland respectively. A technical analysis indicates that direct combustion is the most favorable conversion method for straw and wood while biological conversion at present is best suited for animal waste. An economic analysis based on costs of collection, storage, transport and conversion of wastes and costs of corresponding oil and oil conversion were made. From a community point of view only straw and wood are found to be competitive to the expensive gas fuel oil when burned in automatically stoked furnaces. From a heating station point of view waste utilization is more attractive because of the sales tax on oil products. Here straw and wood are competitive fuels to both gas and heavy fuel oil in all the analyzed systems except from the small manually stoked furnaces. Animal waste seems to be competitive only when replacing gas fuel oil in medium size (500 kW) well utilized aerobic fermenters.

  1. An innovative fuel design concept for improved light water reactor performance and safety. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research was to explore a technique for extending fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a non-alkaline liquid metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Due to the thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding, and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap, while preserving the expansion and pellet loading capabilities. The resultant lower fuel temperature directly impacts fuel performance limit margins and also core transient performance. The application of liquid bonding techniques to LWR fuel was explored for the purposes of increasing LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) has been developed under the program to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid metal bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of Liquid Metal Bonded LWR fuel

  2. National Solar Radiation Data Base, Vol. 2 - Final Technical Report (1961-1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, E. L.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.

    1995-01-01

    This technical report explains the procedures used during the 4-year production of the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) (1961-1990). It is the second volume in a two-volume report on the NSRDB. The first volume, User's Guide-National Solar Radiation Data Base, provides the information needed to use the data base products. Volume 2 concentrates on results from the R&D required to producea solar radiation data base that would represent a significant update of a previous data base (SOLMET). More than 90% of the data in the NSRDB were estimated using a model--the Meteorological/Statistical (METSTAT) model. Much of Volume 2 concerns the METSTAT model and the sources of its input data. In addition, it contains results of comparisons of the NSRBD with the previous SOLMET data base.Results of the model evaluations and data base comparisons favor the use of NSRDB data over SOLMET data to select optimum sites and estimate performance for solar energy systems. The report noted that to improve data on solar radiation, 'measured' data need to become the mainstav of future data bases.

  3. Final Technical Report: Thermoelectric-Enhanced Cookstove Add-on (TECA) for Clean Biomass Cookstoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, David [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-29

    This program seeks to demonstrate a solution to enhance existing biomass cookstove performance through the use of RTI’s Thermoelectric Enhanced Cookstove Add-on (TECA) device. The self-powered TECA device captures a portion of heat from the stove and converts it to electricity through a thermoelectric (TE) device to power a blower. Colorado State University and Envirofit International are partners to support the air injection design and commercialization to enhance combustion in the stove and reduce emissions. Relevance: By demonstrating a proof of concept of the approach with the Envirofit M-5000 stove and TECA device, we hope to apply this technology to existing stoves that are already in use and reduce emissions for stoves that have already found user acceptance to provide a true health benefit. Challenges: The technical challenges include achieving Tier 4 emissions from a biomass stove and for such a stove to operate reliably in the harsh field environment. Additional challenges include the fact that it is difficult to develop a cost effective solution and insure adoption and proper use in the field. Outcomes: In this program we have demonstrated PM emissions at 82 mg/MJd, a 70% reduction as compared to baseline stove operation. We have also developed a stove optimization approach that reduces the number of costly experiments. We have evaluated component-level reliability and will be testing the stove prototype in the field for performance and reliability.

  4. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  5. Final Technical Report: "New Tools for Physics with Low-energy Antimatter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surko, Clifford M. [U. C. San Diego

    2013-10-02

    The objective of this research is to develop new tools to manipulate antimatter plasmas and to tailor them for specific scientific and technical uses. The work has two specific objectives. One is establishing the limits for positron accumulation and confinement in the form of single-component plasmas in Penning-Malmberg traps. This technique underpins a wealth of antimatter applications. A second objective is to develop an understanding of the limits for formation of cold, bright positron beams. The research done in this grant focused on particular facets of these goals. One focus was extracting tailored beams from a high-field Penning-Malmberg trap from the magnetic field to form new kinds of high-quality electrostatic beams. A second goal was to develop the technology for colder trap-based beams using a cryogenically cooled buffer gas. A third objective was to conduct the basic plasma research to develop a new high-capacity multicell trap (MCT) for research with antimatter. Progress is reported here in all three areas. While the goal of this research is to develop new tools for manipulating positrons (i.e., the antiparticles of electrons), much of the work was done with test electron plasmas for increased data rate. Some of the techniques developed in the course of this work are also relevant to the manipulation and use of antiprotons.

  6. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Much of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL's main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers

  7. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive

  8. Technical assistance for an evaluation of international schemes to promote biomass sustainability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, M.

    2009-12-01

    In this technical assistance report to the title subject report is given of Task 1: Review of GREEN-X assumptions on biomass availability and costs; Task 2: Impacts of sustainability criteria on biomass availability and costs; Task 3: Applicability of existing certification schemes; Task 4: Identification of feasible verification options; and Task 5: summary, integration. The key objective of Task 1 is to validate the present and future availability (up to 2020) and costs of biomass energy in the EU 27. The GREEN-X model forecasts the deployment of renewable energy systems under various scenarios in terms of supporting policy instruments, the availability of resources and generation technologies and energy, technology and resource price developments. Objective of task 2 is to assess to what extent the sustainability criteria as specified in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED (EP/EC 2009)) affect availability and costs of biofuels. The objective of task 3 is to assess to what extent national and international certification schemes (existing and under development) would be applicable for safeguarding the sustainability criteria as mentioned in the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) directive. The objective of Task 4 is to identify and analyse feasible options to verify compliance with biomass sustainability criteria, in the case of forest biomass.

  9. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  10. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  11. Safety-technical characteristics of biomass, coal and straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Safety-technical factors related to spontaneous ignition and dust explosions of biomasses were investigated. Parametres of dust explosions and effect of inertisation on the maximum pressure (pmax) and the maximum rate of pressure rise (Kstmax) were studied at elevated initial pressure (1-9 bar). The level of inertisation required to prevent dust explosions totally was determined at different initial pressures. The sensitivity of fuels to spontaneous ignition and the effect of pressure on the sensitivity to and temperature of spontaneous ignition were studied on a pressurised dynamic self-ignition equipment. The effect of inertisation on the self-ignition temperature and alternatives of preventing spontaneous ignition by effective inertisation in the pressure ranges of 1 and 25 bar were investigated. As an example of application, results obtained with the laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to bin sizes used in practice. As a factor contributing to spontaneous ignition, the flowability of different fuels in bins and lock-hoppers (stagnant fuel layers are especially sensitive to spontaneous ignition) in continuous flow and in flow stopped for a storage time of 1 hour was also studied. Walker`s rotating ring shear equipment and Jenike`s linear shear equipment based on shearing the fuel were used in the flowability measurements. The effect of fuel temperature (22 deg C, 40 deg C) on flowability was determined for forest residue chips. Dynamic friction coefficients between fuels and handling equipment were determined for stainless steel and rusty metal surface. As an example of application, results obtained with laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to a bin size of 21 m{sup 3} by calculating the size of the minimum discharge opening required by mass flow of different coals and forest residue chips and the minimum angle of repose of the conical part for a bin of stainless steel

  12. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the decision to reduce the size of the nuclear weapons production complex have created a need for DOE to deactivate, decontaminate, and decommission (D ampersand D) a large number of aging, surplus facilities. The nature and magnitude of the facility D ampersand D problems require EM to facilitate the development and application of technologies that will address these problems quickly and cost-effectively. The needed technologies can best be provided by integrating the strengths of DOE's national laboratories with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. To help focus and direct these activities toward achieving DOE's goals, the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) devised the strategic concept of an Integrated Demonstration (ID), which involves selecting, demonstrating, testing, and evaluating an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific EM problems, such as those posed by D ampersand D. The ID approach allows optimal use of DOE's resources by avoiding duplication of effort and ensuring rapid demonstration of applicable technologies. Many technologies, including both the commercially mature and the innovative, are combined and evaluated for a cradle-to-grave solution to specific EM problems in areas such as D ampersand D. The process will involve transforming an existing problem condition to a desired end state, recycling waste materials generated, wherever feasible, and minimizing requirements for waste disposal. The D ampersand D ID Strategic Plan has been prepared by a Technical Support Group (TSG) assembled from various sites within the DOE Complex and intended to identify cross-cutting problem areas amenable to applications of the D ampersand D ID concept and to develop specific ID proposals for these problem areas

  13. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

    1982-05-15

    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  14. Improving measurement quality assurance for photon irradiations at Department of Energy facilities. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    For radiation-instrument calibration to be generally acceptable throughout the US, direct or indirect traceability to a primary standard is required. In most instances, one of the primary standards established at NIST is employed for this purpose. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is an example of a program employing dosimetry based on the NIST primary photon-, beta particle- and neutron-dosimetry standards. The NIST primary dosimetry standards for bremsstrahlung were first established in the 1950s. They have been updated since then on several occasions. In the 1970s, Technical Committee 85 of the International Standards Organization (ISO) started its work on establishing sets of internationally acceptable, well-characterized photon beams for the calibration of radiation-protection instruments. It is the intent of this paper to make a detailed comparison between the current NIST and the most up-to-date ISO techniques. At present, 41 bremsstrahlung techniques are specified in ISO 4037 while NIST supports a total of 32 techniques. Given the existing equivalences, it makes sense to try to extend the NIST techniques to cover more of the ISO Narrow Spectrum and High Air-Kerma Rate Series. These extensions will also allow the possibility for use of ISO beam techniques in future revisions of the DOELAP standard, which has been suggested by DOE. To this end, NIST was funded by DOE to procure material and make adaptations to the existing NIST x-ray calibration ranges to allow NIST to have the capability of producing all the ISO bremsstrahlung techniques. The following sections describe the steps that were taken to achieve this

  15. Safety-technical characteristics of biomass, coal and straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Safety-technical factors related to spontaneous ignition and dust explosions of biomasses were investigated. Parametres of dust explosions and effect of inertisation on the maximum pressure (pmax) and the maximum rate of pressure rise (Kstmax) were studied at elevated initial pressure (1-9 bar). The level of inertisation required to prevent dust explosions totally was determined at different initial pressures. The sensitivity of fuels to spontaneous ignition and the effect of pressure on the sensitivity to and temperature of spontaneous ignition were studied on a pressurised dynamic self-ignition equipment. The effect of inertisation on the self-ignition temperature and alternatives of preventing spontaneous ignition by effective inertisation in the pressure ranges of 1 and 25 bar were investigated. As an example of application, results obtained with the laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to bin sizes used in practice. As a factor contributing to spontaneous ignition, the flowability of different fuels in bins and lock-hoppers (stagnant fuel layers are especially sensitive to spontaneous ignition) in continuous flow and in flow stopped for a storage time of 1 hour was also studied. Walker`s rotating ring shear equipment and Jenike`s linear shear equipment based on shearing the fuel were used in the flowability measurements. The effect of fuel temperature (22 deg C, 40 deg C) on flowability was determined for forest residue chips. Dynamic friction coefficients between fuels and handling equipment were determined for stainless steel and rusty metal surface. As an example of application, results obtained with laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to a bin size of 21 m{sup 3} by calculating the size of the minimum discharge opening required by mass flow of different coals and forest residue chips and the minimum angle of repose of the conical part for a bin of stainless steel

  16. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  17. Systems Integration | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Systems Integration The National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) at NREL provides grid integration support, system-level testing, and systems analysis for the Department of Energy's solar distributed grid integration projects supported by the SunShot Initiative. These projects address technical

  18. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  19. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest - CCSTNW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James

    2013-09-30

    This report details the activities of the Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest (CCSTNW) program 2009 to 2013. The CCSTNW created, implemented, and provided Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) training over the period of the program. With the assistance of an expert advisory board, CCSTNW created curriculum and conducted three short courses, more than three lectures, two symposiums, and a final conference. The program was conducted in five phases; 1) organization, gap analysis, and form advisory board; 2) develop list serves, website, and tech alerts; 3) training needs survey; 4) conduct lectures, courses, symposiums, and a conference; 5) evaluation surveys and course evaluations. This program was conducted jointly by Environmental Outreach and Stewardship Alliance (dba. Northwest Environmental Training Center – NWETC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL).

  1. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, Cameron [Vertum Partners LP, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capps, Scott [Vertum Partners LP, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  2. A vision for photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Perezagua, E. [Isofoton, Madrid (Spain); Demarcq, F.; Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Paris (France); Alferov, Z.I.; Andreev, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); De Segundo, K. [Shell International Renewables, London (United Kingdom); Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Solar GMBH und Co.KG, Marbach am Neckar (Germany); Goetzberger, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Itoiz Beunza, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Lojkowski, W. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Nowak, S. [NET Nowak nergy and Technology Ltd, St. Ursen (Switzerland); Vleuten, P. van der [Free Energy International, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Zolingen, R.J.C. [Shell Solar, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-02-01

    The report identifies the major technical and non-technical barriers to the uptake of the technology and outlines a strategic research agenda designed to ensure a breakthrough of PV (photovoltaics) and an increase in deployment in the Union and worldwide. The Council proposes the use of a European Technology Platform as a mechanism to implement the strategy and achieve the wider goals defined in the vision.

  3. Sensor guided control and navigation with intelligent machines. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.

    2001-03-26

    This item constitutes the final report on ''Visionics: An integrated approach to analysis and design of intelligent machines.'' The report discusses dynamical systems approach to problems in robust control of possibly time-varying linear systems, problems in vision and visually guided control, and, finally, applications of these control techniques to intelligent navigation with a mobile platform. Robust design of a controller for a time-varying system essentially deals with the problem of synthesizing a controller that can adapt to sudden changes in the parameters of the plant and can maintain stability. The approach presented is to design a compensator that simultaneously stabilizes each and every possible mode of the plant as the parameters undergo sudden and unexpected changes. Such changes can in fact be detected by a visual sensor and, hence, visually guided control problems are studied as a natural consequence. The problem here is to detect parameters of the plant and maintain st ability in the closed loop using a ccd camera as a sensor. The main result discussed in the report is the role of perspective systems theory that was developed in order to analyze such a detection and control problem. The robust control algorithms and the visually guided control algorithms are applied in the context of a PUMA 560 robot arm control where the goal is to visually locate a moving part on a mobile turntable. Such problems are of paramount importance in manufacturing with a certain lack of structure. Sensor guided control problems are extended to problems in robot navigation using a NOMADIC mobile platform with a ccd and a laser range finder as sensors. The localization and map building problems are studied with the objective of navigation in an unstructured terrain.

  4. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  5. Recovery Act: Alpena Biorefinery and Alpena Biorefinery Lignin Separation Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retsina, Theodora [American Process Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-12-19

    The Alpena Biorefinery (AB) was constructed in Alpena, Michigan, at the Decorative Panels International hardboard manufacturing facility. The goal of the AB was to demonstrate a modular, technically successful, and financially viable process of making cellulosic ethanol from woody biomass extract at wood processing facilities. At full capacity, the AB can produce 894,200 gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol and 696,000 gallons per year of aqueous potassium acetate, using extract from northern hardwood and aspen woodchips feedstock. The project objectives and the value proposition of AB promote the national goals of energy independence, greenhouse gas reduction, and green job creation and retention. A successful outcome of the Alpena Biorefinery project has been commercial sales of the first ever cellulosic ethanol RINS generated from woody biomass in the US, under the EPA’s Renewable Fuels Standard Program. We believe that American Process is also likely the first company in the world to produce commercial quantities of cellulosic ethanol from mixed forest residue. Life Cycle Analysis performed by Michigan Institute of Technology found that the entire life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from the plant’s cellulosic ethanol were only 25 percent that of petroleum-based gasoline. They found the potassium acetate runway de-icer coproduct generates up to 45 percent less greenhouse gases than the production of conventional potassium acetate. The Alpena Biorefinery project created 31 permanent jobs for direct employees and helped retain 200 jobs associated with the existing Decorative Panels International facility, by increasing its economic viability through significant savings in waste water treatment costs. The AB project has been declared a Michigan Center of Energy Excellence and was awarded a $4 million State of Michigan grant. The project also received New Market Tax Credit financing for locating in an economically distressed community. All other equity funds

  6. Exascale Virtualized and Programmable Distributed Cyber Resource Control: Final Scientific Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.J.Ben [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Lauer, Gregory S. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-30

    file transfers within a single domain. Adding support for IP traffic changes the nature of the RSA problem: instead of choosing to accept or deny each request for network support, IP traffic is inherently elastic and thus lends itself to a bandwidth maximization formulation. We developed a number of algorithms that could be easily deployed within existing and new FlexGrid networks, leading to networks that better support scientific collaboration. Cross-domain RSA research is essential to support large-scale FlexGrid networks, since configuration information is generally not shared or coordinated across domains. The results presented here are in their early stages. They are technically feasible and practical, but still require coordination among organizations and equipment owners and a higher-layer framework for managing network requests.

  7. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  8. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  9. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    others. All required permit and license applications were completed and submitted under this award, including a Final License Application for a pilot hydrokinetic license from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The tasks described above have brought the project through all necessary requirements to construct a tidal pilot project in Admiralty Inlet with the exception of final permit and license approvals, and the selection of a general contractor to perform project construction.

  10. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis: Pushing to High Field Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Mohit; McIntyre, Peter

    2009-01-01

    crystalline boron results in the formation of parasitic phases such as MgB4, MgB7, etc. Such parasitic phases are a primary element of the connectivity problem, in which even though a sample powder may contain grains of high-quality MgB2, adjacent grains are surrounded by intergrowths of parasitic phases so that current trans-port is badly degraded. The best results to date have been obtained using boron powder produced long ago for a rocket propellant development project. The synthesis process was complex and is now largely lost, and the manufacturing equipment has long since been scrapped. The last batch of the powder has been used during recent years to support MgB2 R and D at several labs, but supplies are dwindling. ATC has identified a first application of its plasma torch to synthesize phase-pure amorphous boron flake using a rapid-quench splat technique. Inexpensive technical-grade boron would be purified of contaminants, then dispersed as an aerosol in inert gas and passed through the plasma torch to melt it into a spray. The spray would be splat-condensed on a rotating drum to form pure amorphous flake. The process would begin with technical-grade boron powder, having good stoichiometric purity, nanoscale particles, but significant contamination of MgO and crystalline boron. We used wet chemistry to remove B2O3 completely and reduced the MgO impurity, and analyzed the particle size distribution using a Coulter counter and the phase composition using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The next step will be to build an rf plasma torch with a recirculating single-component aerosol feed and the cooled splat drum and collector, and undertake process devel-opment for amorphous boron powder. This revised goal has two benefits. First, it is an easier technology than our ultimate goal of a multi-component laminar flow torch. We have been counseled by those experienced in plasma torch technology that our ultimate goal will require a torch that should be feasible but has never been

  11. [Superferric Super Collider R and D Collaboration]: Final technical report: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, F.R.

    1987-07-01

    The idea of using a superferric magnet for a large accelerator such as the SSC arises from three considerations: Low Current. If the field is dominated by the iron, then the current is minimized. Forces and stored energy are lower by an order of magnitude than coil dominated magnets. Persistent currents and field errors due to coil placement are negligible; Simple and Reliable. Since the current is low and the number of turns is 8, the magnets are much simpler to construct and easier to operate. Reliability should be very good; and Inexpensive. The dominant cost of a superconducting magnet is the superconductor. The total cost of superconductor is directly proportional to the ampere-turns. Superferric magnets have 1/4 or less total pounds of superconductor than the 5 or 6.5 T magnets. This report describes a design of a superferric magnet that satisfies the three previous conditions. The first section of the report discusses a lattice that is designed for this magnet. The body of the report discusses the design, construction, assembly and installation of the magnets. The cryogenic section describes a complete system including cooldown, warm-up, steady state and quenches. The power supply is described with the quench detection and response system. Finally, the instrumentation is discussed

  12. Use on non-conjugate prior distributions in compound failure models. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultis, J.K.; Johnson, D.E.; Milliken, G.A.; Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-12-01

    Several theoretical and computational techniques are presented for compound failure models in which the failure rate or failure probability for a class of components is considered to be a random variable. Both the failure-on-demand and failure-rate situation are considered. Ten different prior families are presented for describing the variation or uncertainty of the failure parameter. Methods considered for estimating values for the prior parameters from a given set of failure data are (1) matching data moments to those of the prior distribution, (2) matching data moments to those of the compound marginal distribution, and (3) the marginal maximum likelihood method. Numerical methods for computing the parameter estimators for all ten prior families are presented, as well as methods for obtaining estimates of the variances and covariance of the parameter estimators, it is shown that various confidence, probability, and tolerance intervals can be evaluated. Finally, to test the resulting failure models against the given failure data, generalized chi-squage and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests are proposed together with a test to eliminate outliers from the failure data. Computer codes based on the results presented here have been prepared and are presented in a companion report

  13. Final Technical Report: Magnetic Reconnection in High-Energy Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Fox, William [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This report describes the final results from the DOE Grant DE-SC0007168, “Fast Magnetic Reconnection in HED Laser-Produced Plasmas.” The recent generation of laboratory high-energy-density physics facilities has opened significant physics opportunities for experimentally modeling astrophysical plasmas. The goal of this proposal is to use these new tools to study fundamental problems in plasma physics and plasma astrophysics. Fundamental topics in this area involve study of the generation, amplification, and fate of magnetic fields, which are observed to pervade the plasma universe and govern its evolution. This project combined experiments at DOE laser facilities with kinetic plasma simulation to study these processes. The primary original goal of the project was to study magnetic reconnection using a new experimental platform, colliding magnetized laser-produced plasmas. However through a series of fortuitous discoveries, the work broadened out to allow significant advancement on multiple topics in laboratory astrophysics, including magnetic reconnection, Weibel instability, and collisionless shocks.

  14. Final Technical Report: Imaging a Dry Storage Cask with Cosmic Ray Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori; Hayward, Jason; Can, Liao; Liu, Zhengzhi

    2018-03-31

    The goal of this project is to build a scaled prototype system for monitoring used nuclear fuel (UNF) dry storage casks (DSCs) through cosmic ray muon imaging. Such a system will have the capability of verifying the content inside a DSC without opening it. Because of the growth of the nuclear power industry in the U.S. and the policy decision to ban reprocessing of commercial UNF, the used fuel inventory at commercial reactor sites has been increasing. Currently, UNF needs to be moved to independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), as its inventory approaches the limit on capacity of on-site wet storage. Thereafter, the fuel will be placed in shipping containers to be transferred to a final disposal site. The ISFSIs were initially licensed as temporary facilities for ~20-yr periods. Given the cancellation of the Yucca mountain project and no clear path forward, extended dry-cask storage (~100 yr.) at ISFSIs is very likely. From the point of view of nuclear material protection, accountability and control technologies (MPACT) campaign, it is important to ensure that special nuclear material (SNM) in UNF is not stolen or diverted from civilian facilities for other use during the extended storage.

  15. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  16. Organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the International Conference and Exhibition at 16th September,2010 at the Maritim Hotel (Wuerzburg, Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) History of Organic Photovoltaics (Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci); (2) PV Activities at the ZAE Bayern (Vladimir Dyakonov); (3) Progress in Solid State DSC (Peter Erk); (4) Polymer Semiconductors for OPV (Mats Andersson); (5) Fullerene Derivative N-Types in Organic Solar Cells (David Kronholm); (6) Modelling Charge-Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Materials (Jenny Nelson); (7) Multi Junction Modules R and D Status and Outlook (Paul Blom); (8) Imaging Technologies for Organic Solar Cells (Jonas Bachmann); (9) Production of Multi-junction Organic Photovoltaic Cells and Modules (Martin Pfeiffer); (10) Upscaling of Polymer Solar Cell Fabrication Using Full Roll-to-roll Processing (Frederik Christian Krebs); (11) Industrial Aspects and Large Scale OPV Production (Jens Hauch).

  17. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology. Final Technical Research Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States); Woskov, Paul [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Einstein, Herbert [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Livesay, Bill [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260°C, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be

  18. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    help guide Hawaii and the nation toward more reliable adoption of clean energy resources. Results from these efforts are helping to inform Hawaiian utilities continue to Transform infrastructure, Incorporate renewable considerations and priorities into new processes/procedures, and Demonstrate the technical effectiveness and feasibility of new technologies to shape our pathways forward. Lessons learned and experience captured as part of this effort will hopefully provide practical guidance for others embarking on major legacy infrastructure transformations and renewable integration projects.

  19. Knowledge Boosting Curriculum for New Wind Industry Professionals Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Ruth H; Rogers, Anthony L

    2012-12-18

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV KEMA) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the curriculum for a series of short courses intended to address Topic Area 5 Workforce Development, one of the focus areas to achieve the goals outlined in 20% Wind by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to Electricity Supply. The aim of the curriculum development project was to provide material for instructors to use in a training program to help professionals transition into careers in wind energy. Under this grant DNV KEMA established a knowledge boosting program for the wind energy industry with the following objectives: 1. Develop technical training curricula and teaching materials for six key topic areas that can be implemented in a flexible format by a knowledgeable instructor. The topic areas form a foundation that can be leveraged for subsequent, more detailed learning modules (not developed in this program). 2. Develop an implementation guidance document to accompany the curricula outlining key learning objectives, implementation methods, and guidance for utilizing the curricula. This curriculum is intended to provide experienced trainers course material that can be used to provide course participants with a basic background in wind energy and wind project development. The curriculum addresses all aspects of developing a wind project, that when implemented can be put to use immediately, making the participant an asset to U.S. wind industry employers. The curriculum is comprised of six short modules, together equivalent in level of content to a one-semester college-level course. The student who completes all six modules should be able to understand on a basic level what is required to develop a wind project, speak with a reasonable level of confidence about such topics as wind resource assessment, energy assessment, turbine technology and project economics, and contribute to the analysis and review of project information. The content of

  20. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, W.D.

    1995-05-01

    We submit here a final technical report for the research program entitled: Fundamental Studies of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond, DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER45345-M006. This research program was initiated in 1988 under the direction of the late Professor David A. Stevenson and was renewed in 1992. Unfortunately, at the end of 1992, just as the last phase of this work was getting underway, Professor Stevenson learned that he had developed mesothelioma, a form of cancer based on asbestos. Professor Stevenson died from that disease in February of 1994. Professor William D. Nix, the Chairman of the Materials Science department at Stanford was named the Principal Investigator. Professor Nix has assembled this final technical report. Much of the work of this grant was conducted by Mr. Paul Dennig, a graduate student who will receive his Ph.D. degree from Stanford in a few months. His research findings are described in the chapters of this report and in the papers published over the past few years. The main discovery of this work was that surface topology plays a crucial role in the nucleation of diamond on silicon. Dennig and his collaborators demonstrated this by showing that diamond nucleates preferentially at the tips of asperities on a silicon surface rather than in the re-entrant comers at the base of such asperities. Some of the possible reasons for this effect are described in this report. The published papers listed on the next page of this report also describe this research. Interested persons can obtain copies of these papers from Professor Nix at Stanford. A full account of all of the research results obtained in this work is given in the regular chapters that follow this brief introduction. In addition, interested readers will want to consult Mr. Dennig`s Ph.D. dissertation when it is made available later this year.

  1. Enzymology of acetone-butanol-isopropanol formation. Final technical report, June 1, 1985--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiann-Shin

    1998-03-01

    Several species of anaerobic bacteria within the genus Clostridium produce acetone, n-butanol, and isopropanol (solvents), which are important industrial chemicals and fuel additives. Commercial production of solvents by the clostridia is a classical example of largescale chemical production by bacterial fermentation. Although the fermentation has been in use for decades, it still faces problems that include strain degeneration, a relatively low final product concentration due to butanol toxicity, and a need to fine-tune the growth conditions to achieve a high yield. The long-term goal of this project was to understand the fundamental properties of bacterial solvent production for the purpose of achieving a positive control on the metabolic switch leading to solvent production and on the proportion of useful products formed as well as of developing strategies for preventing the degeneration of producing strains. The objectives for the project included those approved in 1985 for the initial project period and those approved in 1988, 1991, and 1994 when the project was renewed. The objectives for the entire project period may be summarized as (1) To purify and characterize the enzymes that are specifically required for the formation of acetone, butanol, and isopropanol by the clostridia, (2) To clone and characterize the genes that encode enzymes or regulatory proteins for the production of solvents, and the emphasis was to determine the control mechanism for the transcription of the solvent-production genes, (3) To characterize the onset of solvent production and the intra- and extra-cellular parameters surrounding the metabolic switch to solvent production, and (4) To determine the genetic identity of the strains of solvent-producing clostridia that are currently in use by investigators around the world.

  2. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Friction of self-lubricating surfaces by ion beam techniques. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Rai, A.K.

    1992-05-01

    UES, Inc. conducted a research and development program designed to establish conditions for ion implantation/mixing of suitable additives into the surfaces of bulk ceramics and metals for obtaining self-lubricating low friction and wear characteristics. The substrates considered were ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, steel and Ni-base superalloy. The lubricant additives chosen were BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2}Ag, MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The initial tasks of the program were to synthesis these lubricant compounds by co-implantation of constituent elements if sufficient beams of desired elements were obtained. The final tasks were to investigate high energy (MeV) ion mixing of deposited coatings as well as to investigate ion beam assisted deposition using low energy ion beams. It was shown that MoS{sub 2} can be synthesized by co-implantation of Mo{sup +} and S{sup +} in ceramic materials with appropriate choice of energies to obtain nearly overlapping depth profiles. The sliding life of DC magnetron sputtered MoS{sub 2} films of thicknesses {approximately}7500{Angstrom} on ceramic materials such as sapphire, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 3} were improved by ten to thousand fold after 2 Mev Ag{sup +} ion mixing. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and ion beam mixing were utilized to fabricate self-lubricating coatings of CaF{sub 2}/Ag and BaF/CaF{sub 2}/Ag composites.

  4. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei

    1996-01-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  5. Strengthening the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report on DOE Award No. DE-FG03-92ER75838 A000, a three year matching grant program with Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to support strengthening of the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. The program began on September 30, 1992. The program has enabled UCLA to use its strong existing background to train students in technological problems which simultaneously are of interest to the industry and of specific interest to PG and E. The program included undergraduate scholarships, graduate traineeships and distinguished lecturers. Four topics were selected for research the first year, with the benefit of active collaboration with personnel from PG and E. These topics remained the same during the second year of this program. During the third year, two topics ended with the departure o the students involved (reflux cooling in a PWR during a shutdown and erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping). Two new topics (long-term risk and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel) were added; hence, the topics during the third year award were the following: reflux condensation and the effect of non-condensable gases; erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping; use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs (diagnosis of plant status during a PWR station blackout scenario); the influence on risk of organization and management quality; considerations of long term risk from the disposal of hazardous wastes; and a probabilistic treatment of fuel motion and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel during a severe core damage accident

  6. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  7. Sistematização do dimensionamento técnico e econômico de sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados por meio de programa computacional Systematization of the technical and economic sizing of isolated photovoltaic systems through specific software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Marini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais questões referentes à energia solar é como compará-la, técnica e economicamente, com outras fontes de energia, tanto alternativas quanto com as convencionais (como a rede elétrica. O propósito deste trabalho foi desenvolver um programa computacional que reúne os principais dados técnicos e econômicos, para identificar, por meio de métodos de análise microeconômica, a viabilidade comercial no dimensionamento de sistemas fotovoltaicos, além de considerar os benefícios provenientes da própria geração energética. Na análise microeconômica da energia solar, foram identificados os custos da energia proveniente da rede convencional durante o período de vida útil dos componentes do sistema gerador de eletricidade fotovoltaica, pelo estudo dos custos de investimentos iniciais e manutenção do sistema. Para comparação com as fontes convencionais - rede elétrica e grupo diesel - foram usados três cenários de custos de painéis fotovoltaicos e dois para o fator de disponibilidade do grupo diesel. Pelos resultados, verifica-se que, quanto mais baixo o custo dos painéis e mais distante o local situar-se da rede elétrica, o sistema fotovoltaico torna-se a opção mais vantajosa.One of the main referring subjects to the solar energy is how to compare it economically with other sources of energy, as much alternatives as with conventionals (like the electric grid. The purpose of this work was to develop a software which congregates the technical and economic main data to identify, through methods of microeconomic analysis, the commercial viability in the sizing of photovoltaic systems, besides considering the benefits proceeding from the proper energy generation. Considering the period of useful life of the components of the generation system of photovoltaic electricity, the costs of the energy proceeding from the conventional grid had been identified. For the comparison of the conventional sources, electric grid

  8. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-02-01

    utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR's Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument's robustness in a real-world situation.

  10. DE-FG02-08ER64658 (OASIS) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharman, Jonathan

    2013-09-05

    Project OASIS (Operation of Advanced Structures, Interfaces and Sub-components for MEAs) was a 12 month project that ran from 1st September 2008 to 31st August 2009, and was managed by the Department of Energy Office of Science, Chicago Office, as Award No DE-FG02-08ER64658, with Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Inc. as the sole contractor. The project was completed on schedule, with technical successes (details below) and payment of the full grant award made by DOE. The aim of the project was the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for H2/air polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells that would give higher performance under hot/dry and dry operating conditions, ideally with no loss of performance under wet conditions. Reducing or eliminating the need for humidifying the incoming gases will allow significant system cost and size reduction for many fuel cell applications including automotive, stationary and back-up power, and portable systems. Portable systems are also of particular interest in military markets. In previous work Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells had developed very stable, corrosion-resistant catalysts suitable for resisting degradation by carbon corrosion in particular. These materials were applied within the OASIS project as they are considered necessary for systems such as automotive where multiple start-stop events are experienced. These catalysts were contrasted with more conventional materials in the design of catalyst layers and novel microporous layers (MPLs) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) combinations were also explored. Early on in the work it was shown how much more aggressive high temperature operation is than dry operation. At the same humidity, tests at 110?C caused much more dehydration than tests at 80?C and the high temperature condition was much more revealing of improvements made to MEA design. Alloy catalysts were introduced and compared with Pt catalysts with a range of particle sizes. It was apparent that the larger

  11. A Systems Approach to Bio-Oil Stabilization - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C; Meyer, Terrence; Fox, Rodney; Submramaniam, Shankar; Shanks, Brent; Smith, Ryan G

    2011-12-23

    The objective of this project is to develop practical, cost effective methods for stabilizing biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil for at least six months of storage under ambient conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy has targeted three strategies for stabilizing bio-oils: (1) reducing the oxygen content of the organic compounds comprising pyrolysis oil; (2) removal of carboxylic acid groups such that the total acid number (TAN) of the pyrolysis oil is dramatically reduced; and (3) reducing the charcoal content, which contains alkali metals known to catalyze reactions that increase the viscosity of bio-oil. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM), are known to catalyze decomposition reactions of biomass carbohydrates to produce light oxygenates that destabilize the resulting bio-oil. Methods envisioned to prevent the AAEM from reaction with the biomass carbohydrates include washing the AAEM out of the biomass with water or dilute acid or infusing an acid catalyst to passivate the AAEM. Infusion of acids into the feedstock to convert all of the AAEM to salts which are stable at pyrolysis temperatures proved to be a much more economically feasible process. Our results from pyrolyzing acid infused biomass showed increases in the yield of anhydrosugars by greater than 300% while greatly reducing the yield of light oxygenates that are known to destabilize bio-oil. Particulate matter can interfere with combustion or catalytic processing of either syngas or bio-oil. It also is thought to catalyze the polymerization of bio-oil, which increases the viscosity of bio-oil over time. High temperature bag houses, ceramic candle filters, and moving bed granular filters have been variously suggested for syngas cleaning at elevated temperatures. High temperature filtration of bio-oil vapors has also been suggested by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory although there remain technical challenges to this approach. The fast pyrolysis of biomass yields three main organic

  12. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    standard dies by at least 50%. Dies provided by an AST customer, made of plain carbon 1045 steel and used for pellet manufacturing outperformed the standard dies by more than 100%. Concrete crusher liner wear plates provided by an EHT customer and made of 1045 steel, had the same surface hardness as the plates made of more expensive, pre-hardened high alloy HARDOX-500 material supplied by a Swedish company and used currently by the EHT customer. The 1045 material intensively quenched wear plates are currently in the field. Concrete block molding machine wear plates provided by an IQT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed at the AST production IQ system using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. An effective case depth in the intensively quenched wear plates was the same as in the standard, oil quenched parts. Base keys provided by an EHT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. The intensively quenched parts showed the same performance as standard parts. IQT introduced the IQ process in heat treat practices of three commercial heat-treating shops: Akron Steel Treating Co., Summit Heat Treating Co. and Euclid Heat Treating Co. CWRU conducted a material characterization study for a variety of steels to develop a database to support changing/modification of recognized standards for quenching steel parts. IQT conducted a series of IQ workshops, published seven technical papers and participated in ASM Heat Treating Society conference and exposition and in Furnace North America Show. IQT designed and built a fully automated new IQ system installed at the Center for Intensive Quenching. This system includes the following major components: a stand-alone 1,900-gallon IQ water system, a 24'' x 24'' atmosphere pit furnace, and an automated load transfer mechanism. IQT established a ''Center for Intensive Quenching'' at the AST facilities. The 4,000 square feet Center includes the following

  13. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum

    2005-08-30

    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to

  14. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    blooms. Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

  15. Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Matt [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This document summarizes research done under the SunShot Next Generation PV II project entitled, “Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution,” award number DE-EE0005324, at the University of California, Irvine, from 9/1/11 thru 11/30/16. The project goal was to develop iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) as an absorber layer for solution-processible p-n heterojunction solar cells with a pathway to >20% power conversion efficiency. Project milestones centered around seven main Tasks: (1) make device-quality pyrite thin-films from solar ink; (2) develop an ohmic bottom contact with suitable low resistivity; (3) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 400 mV; (4) make a solar cell with >5% power conversion efficiency; (5) use alloying to increase the pyrite band gap to ~1.2-1.4 eV; (6) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 500 mV; and finally (7) make a solar cell with >10% power conversion efficiency. In response to project findings, the Tasks were amended midway through the project to focus particular effort on passivating the surface of pyrite in order to eliminate excessively-strong surface band bending believed to be responsible for the low VOC of pyrite diodes. Major project achievements include: (1) development and detailed characterization of several new solution syntheses of high-quality thin-film pyrite, including two “molecular ink” routes; (2) demonstration of Mo/MoS2 bilayers as good ohmic bottom contacts to pyrite films; (3) fabrication of pyrite diodes with a glass/Mo/MoS2/pyrite/ZnS/ZnO/AZO layer sequence that show VOC values >400 mV and as high as 610 mV at ~1 sun illumination, although these high VOC values ultimately proved irreproducible; (4) established that ZnS is a promising n-type junction partner for pyrite; (5) used density functional theory to show that the band gap of pyrite can be increased from ~1.0 to a more optimal 1.2-1.3 eV by alloying with oxygen; (6) through extensive measurements of ultrahigh

  16. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0

  17. Combined Characterization Techniques to Understand the Stability of a Variety of Organic Photovoltaic Devices - the ISOS-3 inter- laboratory collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira-Cantu, Monica; Tanenbaum, David M.; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    . The results reported from the combination of the different characterization techniques results in a proposed degradation mechanism. The final conclusion is that the failure of the photovoltaic response of the device with time under full sun solar simulation, is mainly due to the degradation of the electrodes...... and not to the active materials of the solar cell.......This work is part of the inter-laboratory collaboration to study the stability of seven distinct sets of state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic (OPVs) devices prepared by leading research laboratories. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at the Danish Technical University (DTU, formerly...

  18. Evaluation of effects of phenol recovery on biooxidation and tertiary treatment of SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.W.; Watt, J.C.; Cowan, W.F.; Schuyler, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    Addition of phenol recovery to the wastewater treatment scheme in the Baseline Design for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant was evaluated as a major post-Baseline effort. Phenol recovery affects many downstream processes, but this study was designed to assess primarily its effects on biooxidation and subsequent tertiary treatment. Two parallel treatment schemes were set up, one to treat dephenolated wastewaters and the other for processed nondephenolated wastewaters, a simulation of the Baseline Design. The study focused on comparisons of five areas: effluent quality; system stability; the need for continuous, high-dose powdered activated carbon (PAC) augmentation to the bioreactor; minimum bioreactor hydraulic residence time (HRT); and tertiary treatment requirements. The results show that phenol recovery improves the quality of the bioreactor effluent in terms of residual organics and color. With phenol recovery, PAC augmentation is not required; without phenol recovery, PAC is needed to produce a comparable effluent. Dephenolization also enhances the stability of biooxidation, and reduces the minimum HRT required. With tertiary treatment, both schemes can meet the effluent concentrations published in the SRC-I Final Envivornmental Impact Statement, as well as the anticipated effluent limits. However, phenol recovery does provide a wider safety margin and could eliminate the need for some of the tertiary treatment steps. Based solely on the technical merits observed in this study, phenol recovery is recommended. The final selection should, however, also consider economic tradeoffs and results of other studies such as toxicology testing of the effluents. 34 references, 30 figures and 26 tables.

  19. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  20. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  1. Final Technical Report for Project 'Improving the Simulation of Arctic Clouds in CCSM3 (SGER Award)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrus, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    climate model. J. Climate, 21, 5673-5687.). The article also provides a novel synthesis of surface- and satellite-based Arctic cloud observations that show how much the new freezedry parameterization improves the simulated cloud amount in high latitudes (Fig. 3). Freezedry has been incorporated into the CCSM3.5 version, in which it successfully limits the excessive polar clouds, and may be used in CCSM4. Material from this work is also appearing in a synthesis article on future Arctic cloud changes (Vavrus, D. Waliser, J. Francis, and A. Schweiger, 'Simulations of 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount in the global climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4', accepted in Climate Dynamics) and was used in a collaborative paper on Arctic cloud-sea ice coupling (Schweiger, A., R. Lindsay, S. Vavrus, and J. Francis, 2008: Relationships between Arctic sea ice and clouds during autumn. J. Climate, 21, 4799-4810.). This research was presented at the 2007 CCSM Annual Workshop, as well as the CCSM's 2007 Atmospheric Model Working Group and Polar Working Group Meetings. The findings were also shown at the 2007 Climate Change Prediction Program's Science Team Meeting. In addition, I served as an instructor at the International Arctic Research Center's (IARC) Summer School on Arctic Climate Modeling in Fairbanks this summer, where I presented on the challenges and techniques used in simulating polar clouds. I also contributed to the development of a new Arctic System Model by attending a workshop in Colorado this summer on this fledgling project. Finally, an outreach activity for the general public has been the development of an interactive web site ( ) that displays Arctic cloud amount in the CMIP3 climate model archive under present and future scenarios. This site allows users to make polar and global maps of a variety of climate variables to investigate the individual and ensemble-mean GCM response to greenhouse warming and the extent to which models adequately represent Arctic

  2. Final Technical Report for NSF/DOE partnership grant ER54905; 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2009-01-01

    emissions are only observed in whistler spheromaks and FRCs but not in mirrors or asymmetric configurations lacking magnetic null lines. The collisionless electron energization in a toroidal null line usually produces non-Maxwellian distributions. Off the null axis electrons gain more perpendicular than parallel energy. Distributions with T # perpendicular# > T # parallel# lead to whistler instabilities which have been observed. A whistler spheromak is a source of high-frequency whistler emissions. These are usually small amplitude whistlers propagating in a complicated background magnetic field. The waves are emitted from a moving source. High frequency whistlers propagate faster than the spheromak, thus partly move ahead of it and partly in the reverse direction. In test wave experiments wave growth opposite to the direction of the hot electron flow has been observed, confirming that Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance instabilities account for the emission process. Propagating whistler mirrors produce no significant instabilities except when they interact with other fields which exhibit null lines. For example, a whistler mirror has been launched against a stationary FRC, resulting in strong FRC heating and whistler instabilities. In the whistler mirror configuration the antenna near-zone field produces a toroidal null line outside the coil which can also become a source for whistler emissions. Finally, nonlinear EMHD research has been extended to initially unmagnetized plasmas where a new nonlinear skin depth has been discovered. When a small-amplitude oscillating magnetic field is applied to a plasma the field penetration is governed by the skin depth, collisional or collisionless depending on frequency, collision frequency and plasma frequency. However, when the magnetic field increases the electrons become magnetized and the field penetration occurs in the whistler mode if the cyclotron frequency exceeds the oscillating frequency. This phenomenon has been observed. A

  3. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500 C to 600 C) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: (1) Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion - Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment - Extrusion database on DU metal - Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys - Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys - Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals (2) Low-temperature sintering of U alloys - Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment - Sintering database on DU metal - Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys - Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the

  4. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  5. High Penetration Photovoltaic Power Electronics and Energy Management Technology Research, Development and Demonstration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-517

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgins, Andrew P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-25

    Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., will partner with DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct research and development to demonstrate technologies that will increase the penetration of photovoltaic (PV) technologies for commercial and utility applications. Standard PV power control systems use simple control techniques that only provide real power to the grid. A focus of this partnership is to demonstrate how state of the art control and power electronic technologies can be combined to create a utility interactive control platform.

  6. Assessment of quantum dots concentrators for photovoltaic electricity production; Evaluation du potentiel de concentrateurs a quantum dots pour la production d'electricite photovoltaique. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Kostro, A.; Huriet, B.

    2006-07-01

    One of the most promising application of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of photovoltaics might be planar photoluminescent concentrators. Even for diffuse solar radiation, considerable concentration factors might be achieved. Such devices have originally been designed on the basis of organic dyes and might benefit from a considerably improved lifetime when replacing the organic fluorescent substances by inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals, so-called quantum dots. Quantum dot containing nanocomposite thin films are synthesized at EPFL-LESO by a low cost sol-gel process. In order to study the potential of the use of quantum dot solar concentrators in photovoltaic solar energy conversion, reliable computer simulations are needed. A tool for ray tracing simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators has been developed at EPFL-LESO on the basis of Monte-Carlo methods that are applied to polarization-dependent reflection/transmission at interfaces, photon absorption by the semiconductor nanocrystals and photoluminescent re-emission. Together with the knowledge on the optoelectronical properties of suitable photovoltaic cells, such simulations allow to predict the total efficiency of the envisaged concentrating PV systems, and to optimize pane dimensions, photoluminescent emission frequencies, and choice of PV cell types. (author)

  7. Assessment of quantum dots concentrators for photovoltaic electricity production; Evaluation du potentiel de concentrateurs a quantum dots pour la production d'electricite photovoltaique. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A; Kostro, A; Huriet, B

    2006-07-01

    One of the most promising application of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of photovoltaics might be planar photoluminescent concentrators. Even for diffuse solar radiation, considerable concentration factors might be achieved. Such devices have originally been designed on the basis of organic dyes and might benefit from a considerably improved lifetime when replacing the organic fluorescent substances by inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals, so-called quantum dots. Quantum dot containing nanocomposite thin films are synthesized at EPFL-LESO by a low cost sol-gel process. In order to study the potential of the use of quantum dot solar concentrators in photovoltaic solar energy conversion, reliable computer simulations are needed. A tool for ray tracing simulations of quantum dot solar concentrators has been developed at EPFL-LESO on the basis of Monte-Carlo methods that are applied to polarization-dependent reflection/transmission at interfaces, photon absorption by the semiconductor nanocrystals and photoluminescent re-emission. Together with the knowledge on the optoelectronical properties of suitable photovoltaic cells, such simulations allow to predict the total efficiency of the envisaged concentrating PV systems, and to optimize pane dimensions, photoluminescent emission frequencies, and choice of PV cell types. (author)

  8. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  9. Quality and energy yield of modules and photovoltaic plants - Final report; Qualita e resa energetica di moduli ed impianti fotovoltaici. Centrale ISAAC-TISO - Periodo VII: 2003-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D; Bernasconi, A; Friesen, G; Cereghetti, N; Pola, I; Bura, E; Nagel, K; Pittet, D; Realini, A; Pasinelli, P; Ballerini, N; Rioggi, S

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the ISAAC-TISO test centre in southern Switzerland. The main objective of the test centre is the evaluation of photovoltaic module quality, i.e. the assessment of the power values declared by the manufacturer, the electrical behaviour and energy production in varying climatic conditions, the stability of these values over time, and module life-span. Up till now, both outdoor and indoor structures for testing the electrical behaviour of modules have been realised. Indoor measurements under standard conditions are carried out using a solar simulator, outdoor measurements are carried out using external stands capable of accommodating 18 pairs of modules. The aim of the test procedure is to verify the actual power of modules; to verify if module guarantees are respected; to observe the behaviour of modules under real climatic conditions; to compare the energy yield of the different types of module; and finally, to develop methods for forecasting energy yield. The test installations are described in detail and various results are presented. Building-integrated photovoltaics is discussed and the mechanical characteristics of various module types are examined.

  10. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  11. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  12. Trends of Photovoltaic Research, Development and Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. S.; Yoon, K. H.; Yu, K. J. [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The Korean National Photovoltaic Project was initiated on October 1989 to develop technologies for the generation of economically competitive electric power by photovoltaic systems. It consists of four stages through the year 2006 with technical goals and cost targets related with solar cells, balance of systems and system application. The objectives of the project are to utilize photovoltaic technology, to transfer developed technology to industries and end users by research activities and to diffuse photovoltaic systems by demonstration projects. This paper reviews long-term plan and status of technology R and D, and markets of photovoltaic. Some activities designed to promote collaboration with foreign countries are also introduced. (author). 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chii-Dong

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop new novel methods for studying correlated motion of atomic systems. This involves new formulations of the theoretical approaches, the performance of numerical calculations, and the detailed comparison with available experiment. Different theoretical methods have been developed for different classes of problems. The basis of our theoretical method is the hyperspherical approach. We have studied in general three-body systems and restricted four-body systems, and examined the qualitative properties such as the visualization of the wavefunctions which then allows us to do classifications, and then develop accurate theoretical methods for performing calculations to predict results that can be compared to experiments

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering; Lobban, Lance [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Khanna, Vikas [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maravelias, Christos [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Petkovic, Lucia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Duong, Nhung [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2018-01-24

    The goal was to develop a biomass conversion process that optimizes fractionation and conversion to maximize Carbon efficiency and Hydrogen consumption to obtain drop-in fuels. Selective fractionation of raw biomass was obtained via multi-stage thermal fractionation to produce different streams that are enriched in a particular chemical family (acids, furanics or phenolics). These streams were later catalytically upgraded in both liquid and vapor phase to perform C-C bond formation and hydrodeoxygenation. Among various upgrading strategies investigated we have identified an effective path in which cyclopentanone is a crucial intermediate that can be derived from furfural and other furanics obtained in high concentrations from this thermal staged process. Cyclopentanone is a very versatile molecule, which can couple with itself to product high quality jet-fuel, or couple with phenolic or furanics to create long chain molecules. These (mono-oxygenated) compounds in the correct molecular weight fuel range can be hydrotreated to direct drop-in fuels. Interestingly, we have found that the conversion of furfural to cyclopentanone is not affected by the presence of acetic acid, and, more interestingly, it is enhanced by the presence of water. These are very significant findings, since water and acetic acid are always present in all streams from the primary conversion stage. These results have allowed to complete detailed life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis that have been back-fed to the experimentalists to refine the catalyst selection and process operations with the objective of maximizing C efficiency at minimum H utilization. These combined investigations have opened the possibility of an economically and technologically effective process that could result in commercial fuels produced from renewable sources at a cost that might be competitive with fossil fuels.

  15. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargione, Joseph

    2012-02-24

    The United States has abundant wind resources, such that only about 3% of the resource would need to be developed to achieve the goal of producing 20% of electricity in the United States by 2030. Inappropriately sited wind development may result in conflicts with wildlife that can delay or derail development projects, increase projects costs, and may degrade important conservation values. The most cost-effective approach to reducing such conflicts is through landscape-scale siting early in project development. To support landscape scale siting that avoids sensitive areas for wildlife, we compiled a database on species distributions, wind resource, disturbed areas, and land ownership. This database can be viewed and obtained via http://wind.tnc.org/awwi. Wind project developers can use this web tool to identify potentially sensitive areas and areas that are already disturbed and are therefore likely to be less sensitive to additional impacts from wind development. The United States goal of producing 20% of its electricity from wind energy by the year 2030 would require 241 GW of terrestrial nameplate capacity. We analyzed whether this goal could be met by using lands that are already disturbed, which would minimize impacts to wildlife. Our research shows that over 14 times the DOE goal could be produced on lands that are already disturbed (primarily cropland and oil and gas fields), after taking into account wind resource availability and areas that would be precluded from wind development because of existing urban development or because of development restrictions. This work was published in the peer reviewed science journal PLoS ONE (a free online journal) and can be viewed here: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0017566. Even projects that are sited appropriately may have some impacts on wildlife habitat that can be offset with offsite compensatory mitigation. We demonstrate one approach to mapping and quantifying mitigation costs, using the state of Kansas as a case study. Our approach considers a range of conservation targets (species and habitat) and calculates mitigation costs based on actual costs of the conservation actions (protection and restoration) that would be needed to fully offset impacts. This work was published in the peer reviewed science journal PLoS ONE (a free online journal) and can be viewed here: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026698.

  16. Technical Report: Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Wang, Cheng-Yu

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this work was to develop catalyzed nanoporous materials that have superior hydrogen uptake between 300K and 400K and moderate pressures. Platinum nanoparticles were introduced to both activated carbons (ACs) and microporous metal organic frameworks (MMOFs) in order to dissociate molecular hydrogen into an active hydrogen species that diffuses from the catalyst to weakly chemisorbs to the AC/MMOF support; this combined sequence is referred to as the hydrogen spillover mechanism. For all materials studied, maximum excess hydrogen uptake was 1-1.4 wt% (excess) at 300K, falling short of DOE storage goals (5.5 wt% by 2015). Select Pt/AC materials (after in situ catalyst activation) had high uptake (up to 1.4 wt%) at low pressure which significantly exceeded that expected for physisorption. The uptake was not correlated to size of Pt catalyst, but appeared to be associated with high surface activity of the AC support and the methodology of catalyst doping. Multiple techniques were explored to introduce Pt nanoparticles into MMOFs, but most led to significant structural degradation. Ultimately, a ‘pre-bridge’ (PB) technique was used to introduce Pt/AC catalysts into MMOFs, as the PB technique led to virtually non-detectable changes in structure. At high pressure, hydrogen spillover of ~1 wt% (excess) to a PB-MMOF was very slow (i.e. >80 hours at 70-80 bar), which can be attributed to high diffusion barriers in a complex three-surface domain material (Pt, AC, MMOF) as well as unexpected evidence for mechanical instability of the undoped MMOF precursor. In a low-pressure comparison study of three PB-MMOFs, we found evidence that the doping technique may introduce defects which may contribute to enhanced adsorption at 300K. However, we could not rule out the effect of active Pt sites, as common predictors of adsorption generally favored the materials without Pt. Furthermore, spectroscopic evidence provided definitive evidence of weak hydrogen chemisorption to two MMOFs and AC, and was found only for materials containing Pt catalyst. Overall, high uptake via hydrogen spillover requires high catalytic activity and an energy neutral surface landscape for ready diffusion, with little to no correlation to the size of the Pt nanoparticle or textural properties (i.e. surface area or porosity) of the AC or MMOF support.

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Silver

    2009-05-28

    The work done with DOE support during this 15 year period was extensive and successful. It is best summarized by the list of 58 publications (below) which reported progress made with DOE support. These are from the grant period and a few more recent reporting on grant research. Mostly these are primary research reports in reviewed journals. There are also, however, many summary reviews in review journals and in scientific monographs, as they also are key places for reporting research progress. What we did during this grant period (and much longer) was to characterize genetic determinants for bacterial resistances to additional toxic heavy metals of DOE concern, through starting with phenotypic properties of the resistant bacteria to DNA sequence determination and characterization of the genes involved. Over the years (and as shown in the list of publications), the toxic metal-forming elements we have studied included Ag, As, Cd, Cr, and Hg. In each case, we started with basically nothing (or very little) known, progressed through quite detailed understanding, until other laboratory groups also became strongly involved in related studies. More recently, with DOE support, we were the first laboratory group in the world to identify genes for bacterial resistance to silver salts (sil genes) and the closely related silver-and-copper resistance genes cus. This was initially reported in detail in Gupta et al. (1999; see publications list below). We also identified the first toxic metal 'gene island' (multiple transcripts and perhaps 25 genes each in need of detailed study) which encodes the subunits of arsenite oxidase (which we called aso; Silver and Phung, 2005; but most other researchers have subsequently settled on aox for the gene mnemonic). Both of these systems were firsts. Now a few years later, a search on GenBank shows that each is now represented by gene families with more than a dozen examples that have been identified and sequenced. Most of the additional representative systems are from total bacterial genomes without specific gene characterization.

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager; Subcontractors as listed on the report.

    2007-06-06

    The following report contributes to our knowledge of how to economically produce wildlife-friendly grass mixtures for future fuel feedstocks in the northern plains. It investigates northern-adapted cultivars; management and harvest regimes that are good for yields, soils and wildlife; comparative analysis of monocultures and simple mixtures of native grasses; economic implications of growing grasses for fuel feedstocks in specific locations in the northern plains; and conversion options for turning the grasses into useful chemicals and fuels. The core results of this study suggest the following; Native grasses, even simple grass mixtures, can be produced profitably in the northern plains as far west as the 100th meridian with yields ranging from 2 to 6 tons per acre; Northern adapted cultivars may yield less in good years, but have much greater long-term sustainable yield potential than higher-yielding southern varieties; Grasses require very little inputs and stop economically responding to N applications above 56kg/hectare; Harvesting after a killing frost may reduce the yield available in that given year but will increase overall yields averaged throughout multiple years; Harvesting after a killing frost or even in early spring reduces the level of ash and undesirable molecules like K which cause adverse reactions in pyrolysis processing. Grasses can be managed for biomass harvest and maintain or improve overall soil-health and carbon sequestration benefits of idled grassland; The carbon sequestration activity of the grasses seems to follow the above ground health of the biomass. In other words plots where the above ground biomass is regularly removed can continue to sequester carbon at the rate of 2 tons/acre/year if the stand health is strong and yielding significant amounts of biomass; Managing grasses for feedstock quality in a biomass system requires some of the same management strategies as managing for wildlife benefit. We believe that biomass development can be done in such a way that also maximizes or improves upon conservation and other environmental goals (in some cases even when compared to idled land); Switchgrass and big bluestem work well together in simple mixture plots where big bluestem fills in around the switchgrass which alone grows in bunches and leaves patches of bare soil open and susceptible to erosion; Longer-term studies in the northern plains may also find that every other year harvest schemes produce as much biomass averaged over the years as annual harvests; Grasses can be grown for between $23 and $54/ton in the northern plains at production rates between 3 and 5 tons/acre; Land costs, yields, and harvest frequency are the largest determining factors in the farm scale economics. Without any land rent offset or incentive for production, and with annual harvesting, grass production is likely to be around $35/ton in the northern plains (farm gate); Average transportation costs range from $3 to $10/ton delivered to the plant gate. Average distance from the plant is the biggest factor - $3/ton at 10 miles, $10/ton at 50 miles; There is a substantial penalty paid on a per unit of energy produced basis when one converts grasses to bio-oil, but the bio-oil can then compete in higher priced fuel markets whereas grasses alone compete directly with relatively cheap coal; Bio oil or modified bio-oil (without the HA or other chemical fraction) is a suitable fuel for boiler and combustion turbines that would otherwise use residual fuel oil or number 2 diesel; Ensyn has already commercialized the use of HA in smokey flavorants for the food industry but that market is rather small. HA, however, is also found to be a suitable replacement for the much larger US market for ethanolamines and ethalyne oxides that are used as dispersants; Unless crude oil prices rise, the highest and best use of grass based bio-oil is primarily as a direct fuel. As prices rise, HA, phenol and other chemical fractions may become more attractive; Although we were able to create available glucose from the AHG fraction in the bio-oil it proved recalcitrant to fermentation by yeast. Although fermentation results were much more positive with wood based bio-oil sugars, ethanol does not appear to be a likely product from grass based bio-oil; and A package of policy recommendations has been developed with roughly 75 key stakeholders from throughout the region that would support the transition to greater development of advanced biofuels and products in the region, as well as a strong role for native grass agriculture to support those industries.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitelegge, JP; Faull, KF

    2005-06-01

    Two primary technologies have been employed for analysis and measurement of the Synechocystis proteome. (1) 2D-gel electrophoresis. Currently one of the most reliable options in quantitative proteomics, typical 2D-gel experiments use isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the first dimension. In the case of membrane proteins, detergents must be added to maintain their solubility though only neutral/zwitterionic surfactants are compatible with the IEF process. We have optimized 2D gel separations for Synechocystis proteins extracted and separated into soluble and membrane subfractions. The resolution and coverage of integral membrane proteins is only marginally satisfactory and alternatives to the first dimension are being considered. Size-exclusion chromatography under non-denaturing conditions was one option that was explored but resolution was insufficient for subfractionation of the membrane-bound proteome. A more highly resolving technique, the ''Blue-native gel'' has proven excellent for Synechocystis and we plan to set up this technology in the near future. Proteins with altered expression are being identified through standard LCMSMS technologies. The analysis of PSI, PSII and SDH deficient mutants is completed, establishing the comparative aspect of the project for integration with the ultrastructural and metabolomic experiments at ASU. We are also looking forward to receiving ftsZ and VIPP1 interruption mutants to explore the effects on the proteome of cell enlargement and disruption of thylakoid biogenesis, respectively. (2) 2D liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry of intact proteins. Early experiments with total membrane protein extracts of Synechocystis showed that the spatial resolution of the reverse-phase separation used in front of the mass spectrometer limited detection to the one hundred or so most abundant proteins. The intact mass tags (IMTs) measured in this experiment represent the first of these measurements that will ultimately define the entire proteome. While some of the IMTs were matched to masses calculated from translations of genomic open-reading frames allowing reasonably confident identification of about half of them (hypothetical IMTs), we are currently validating identifications using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting after cyanogen bromide cleavage and LC-MSMS after trypsin, of protein in fractions collected during LC-MS+. In order to gain more complete proteome coverage we are applying a liquid separation in front of the LC-MS+ experiment. Size-exclusion chromatography is the first separation technology to be employed, yielding immediate benefits, while still not satisfactory for overall resolution of complexes. Total membranes were solubilized with dodecyl maltoside (1.5%) and separated on deactivated silica (G 4000 SW). LC-MS+ analysis of less-retained chlorophyll-containing fractions, using reverse-phase and size-exclusion technologies, yielded intact protein mass spectra of the two large photosystem I subunits PsaA and PsaB as well as many other IMTs (Figures 1 & 2). These integral membrane proteins have eleven transmembrane helices and, at 81 and 83 kDa, represented one of the most significant challenges to the intact protein molecular weight approach. The identities of the proteins were confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting and while there is good general agreement between measured and calculated masses it is noted that modest post-translational modifications are necessary to account for the measured molecular weights of the intact proteins. Whether these discrepancies are due to genuine post-translational modifications or DNA sequence errors remains to be determined. The data have been published allowing us to claim to be the first to have completed high-resolution electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of the core subunits of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex providing effective proof-of-principle for application of the intact mass approach to the integral membrane proteome. Significantly, we reported greater integral membrane proteome coverage than a colleague studying thylakoids of Arabidopsis illustrating the benefits of the technique over sequential organic extraction of membrane proteins and 1D-gel analysis. The homogeneity of the PsaA and PsaB protein mass spectra attest to the quality of material grown at ASU and the viability of extraction and work up of the material after transport to UCLA.

  20. Final Technical Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tommy Ngai

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... framework, based on the Kirkpatrick model (Kirkpatrick, D.L. ..... organizations provide education and training services in water and sanitation. .... Although this resulted in slightly more complicated administrative processes, the new structure ..... water and sanitation supplies in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Our BES supported program integrates molecular beam epitaxy growth with in situ atomic scale imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Aided by density functional theory calculations, we explore enhanced functionalities emerging from the interplay of strain, proximity, and spin-orbit interactions in heterostructures of wide band gap semiconductors, graphene, and Dirac materials, focusing on three thrusts: 1) doping wide bandgap semiconductors and graphene; 2) graphene nanoribbons and graphene-semiconductor heterostructures; and 3) Dirac materials. Our findings and discoveries have led to the publication of one book chapter and twenty-three refereed journal articles, including several in high impact journals such as Nature Communications, Physical Review Letters, and Nano Letters. Highlights of each thrust are provided in the report.

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasure, John, et. al.

    2008-03-07

    Through past DOE funding, the MIND Research network has funded a national consortium effort that used multi-modal neuroimaging, genetics, and clinical assessment of subjects to study schizophrenia in both first episode and persistently ill patients. Although active recruitment of research participants is complete, this consortium remains active and productive in terms of analysis of this unique multi-modal data collected on over 320 subjects.

  3. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judy D. Wall

    2009-02-27

    Bioremediation of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface necessitate an understanding of the metabolic capacities and interactions of the anaerobic microorganisms that are found there, including members of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Genetic investigation into the pathway of reductant flow to U(VI) in the SRB belonging to the genus Desulfovibrio has been the focus of this project. In Dv. desulfuricans strain G20, we confirmed the importance of the tetraheme cytochrome c3 by disruption of the gene encoding that cytochrome, cycA, and demonstrated a decrease in the ability of the mutant (I2) to reduce U(VI). We found that the cytochrome c3 was necessary for electrons from pyruvate to reach sulfate or fumarate as terminal electron acceptors. It was not needed for electrons from lactate to reach sulfate, from which we infer that a different pathway is used for the electrons from these two substrates. Cyrstal structure of the tetraheme cytochrome c3 was obtained and site-directed mutations of the protein indicated a binding site for metals at heme 4 of the structure. Kinetic studies for oxidation of reduced cytochrome c3 with U(VI) or molybdate revealed a preference for U(VI) as a substrate. Evidence for a role for sodium gradients in the energetic scheme for this soil organism was obtained.

  4. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Ives; Eric Montgomery; Zhigang Pan; Blake Riddick; Donald Feldman; Lou Falce

    2012-09-25

    This program applied reservoir cathode technology to increase the lifetime of cesiated tungsten photocathodes. Cesiated tungsten photocathodes provide a quantum efficiency of approximately 0.08% when cesium is initially applied to the surface. During operation, however, the cesium evaporates from the surface, resulting in a gradual decrease in quantum efficiency. After 4-6 hours of operation, the efficiency drop to below useful levels, requiring recoating on the emission surface. This program developed a cathode geometry where cesium could be continuously diffused to the surface at a rate matching the evaporation rate. This results in constant current emission until the cesium in the reservoir is depleted. Measurements of the evaporation rate indicated that the reservoir should provide cesium for more than 30,000 hours of continuous operation. This is orders of magnitude longer operation then previously available. Experiments also demonstrated that the photocathode could be rejuvenated following contamination from a vacuum leak. Recoating of the emission surface demonstrated that the initial quantum efficiency could be recovered.

  5. SHIELDS Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. “space weather”, remains a big space physics challenge. A new capability was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. This framework simulates the dynamics of the Surface Charging Environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. In addition to using physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites were developed. An order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the spacecraft surface charging environment was thus obtained. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code and to evaluate anomalies' relation to SCE dynamics. Such diagnostics is critically important when performing forensic analyses of space-system failures.

  6. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Griffith

    2007-01-01

    In this project we provide an example of how to develop multi-tiered models to go across levels of biological organization to provide a framework for relating results of studies of low doses of ionizing radiation. This framework allows us to better understand how to extrapolate laboratory results to policy decisions, and to identify future studies that will increase confidence in policy decisions. In our application of the conceptual Model we were able to move across multiple levels of biological assessment for rodents going from molecular to organism level for in vitro and in vivo endpoints and to relate these to human in vivo organism level effects. We used the rich literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing brain in our models. The focus of this report is on disrupted neuronal migration due to radiation exposure and the structural and functional implications of these early biological effects. The cellular mechanisms resulting in pathogenesis are most likely due to a combination of the three mechanisms mentioned. For the purposes of a computational model, quantitative studies of low dose radiation effects on migration of neuronal progenitor cells in the cerebral mantle of experimental animals were used. In this project we were able to show now results from studies of low doses of radiation can be used in a multidimensional framework to construct linked models of neurodevelopment using molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo in rodents. These models could also be linked to behavioral endpoints in rodents which can be compared to available results in humans. The available data supported modeling to 10 cGy with limited data available at 5 cGy. We observed gradual but non-linear changes as the doses decreased. For neurodevelopment it appears that the slope of the dose response decreases from 25 cGy to 10 cGy. Future studies of neurodevelopment should be able to better define the dose response in this range.

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquelyn Yanch

    2006-05-22

    This project involved the development of a method for in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the investigation of Boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee. The overall objective of this work was a robust approach for rapid screening of new {sup 10}B-labelled compounds to determine their suitability for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis via Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). For BNCS it is essential to obtain a compound showing high uptake levels in the synovium and long residence time in the joints. Previously the in vivo uptake behavior of potential compounds was evaluated in the arthritic knee joints of rabbits via extensive dissection studies. These studies are very labor-intensive and involve sacrificing large numbers of animals. An in vivo {sup 10}B screening approach was developed to provide initial evaluation of potential compounds. Only those compounds showing positive uptake and retention characteristics will be evaluated further via dissection studies. No further studies will be performed with compounds showing rapid clearance and/or low synovial uptake. Two approaches to in vivo screening were investigated using both simulation methods and experimentation. Both make use of neutron beams generated at the MIT Research Reactor. The first, Transmission Computed Tomography (TCT) was developed and tested but was eventually rejected due to very limited spatial resolution using existing reactor beams. The second, in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (IVPGNAA) was much more promising. IVPGNAA was developed using computer simulation and physical measurement coupled with image reconstruction techniques. The method was tested in arthritic New Zealand rabbits previously injected intra-articularly with three boron labeled compounds and shown to be effective in providing information regarding uptake level and residence time of {sup 10}B in the joint.

  8. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diedhiou, Papa Madiallacke

    2010-01-01

    The established training programme, covering three months is structured over 2 main components: 1. Induced mutagenesis for the genetic improvement of Jatropha; 2. Genotyping using molecular markers in order to link phenotypic diversity to genotype.

  9. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loren F. Goodrich

    2011-05-31

    NIST has played a key role in many of the one-on-one, domestic, and international interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors. The history of interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors tells us that careful measurement methods are needed to obtain consistent results. Inconsistent results can lead to many problems including: a mistrust of the results of others, unfair advantages in commerce, and erroneous feedback in the optimization of conductor performance. NIST has experience in many interlaboratory comparisons; a long-term commitment to measurement accuracy; and independent, third-party laboratory status. The principal investigator's direct involvement in the measurements and daily supervision of sample mounting is the unique situation that has allowed important discoveries and evolution of our capabilities over the last 30 years. The principal investigator's research and metrology has helped to improve the accuracy of critical-current (I{sub c}) measurements in laboratories throughout the world. As conductors continue to improve and design limits are tested, the continuation of the long-term commitment to measurement accuracy could be vitally important to the success of new conductor development programs. It is extremely important to the U.S. wire manufacturers to get accurate (high certainty) I{sub c} measurements in order to optimize conductor performance. The optimization requires the adjustment of several fabrication parameters (such as reaction time, reaction temperature, conductor design, doping, diffusion barrier, Cu to non-Cu ratio, and twist pitch) based on the I{sub c} measurement of the conductor. If the I{sub c} measurements are made with high variability, it may be unclear whether or not the parameters are being adjusted in the optimal direction or whether or not the conductor meets the target specification. Our metrology is vital to the U.S. wire manufacturers in the highly competitive international arena and to meet the aggressive performance goals. The latest high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn wires are being designed with higher current densities, larger effective filament diameter, less Cu stabilizer, and, in some cases, larger wire diameters than ever before. In addition, some of the conductor designs and heat treatments cause the residual resistivity ratio (RRR, ratio of room temperature resistivity to the resistivity at 20 K) of the stabilizer to be less than 20. These parameters are pushing the conductors towards less intrinsic stability, into a region we call marginally stable. These parameters also create a whole series of challenges for routine I{sub c} testing on short-samples, even when tested with the sample immersed in liquid helium. High-current, variable-temperature I{sub c} measurements are even more difficult than those made in liquid helium because the sample is only cooled by flowing helium gas. Providing accurate I{sub c} results under these conditions requires a complex system that provide adequate cooling as well as uniform sample temperature. We have been make variable-temperature measurements for about 15 years, but we started to design the first high-current (at least 500 A), variable-temperature, variable-strain apparatus in late 2006. Our first critical-current measurements as a function of strain, temperature, and magnetic field, I{sub c}(B,T,{var_epsilon}), in a new single, unified apparatus (full matrix characterization) were made in the summer of 2008. This is the only such facility in the U.S. and it has some unique components that are not duplicated anywhere in the world. The compounding of all three variables (H, T, {var_epsilon}) makes an already labor and time intensive characterization very formidable; however, the results cannot be generated any other way and are needed to answer key questions about strain and temperature safety margins and about the reliability of using scaling laws based on small data sets to predict performance. In the future, this new apparatus will allow NIST to create a database on strands that would benefit U.S. superconductor wire manufacturers, national research laboratories, and programs using superconductor strands such as HEP and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  10. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry; Giese, Scott R; Beckermann, Christoph; Combi, Joan; Yavorsky, James; Cannon, Fred

    2009-09-30

    The Center for Advanced Biobased was created with funding supplied by the Department of Energy to study biobased alternatives to petroleum based materials used in the manufacture of foundry sand binders. The project was successful in developing two new biobased polymers that are based on renewable agricultural materials or abundant naturally occurring organic materials. The technology has the potential of replacing large amounts of chemicals produced from oil with environmentally friendly alternatives.

  11. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Szoeke, Simon P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2018-03-02

    The investigator and DOE-supported student [1] retrieved vertical air velocity and microphysical fall velocity retrieval for VOCALS and CAP-MBL homogeneous clouds. [2] Calculated in-cloud and cloud top dissipation calculation and diurnal cycle computed for VOCALS. [3] Compared CAP-MBL Doppler cloud radar scenes with (Remillard et al. 2012) automated classification.

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-04-13

    DOE has funded our work in three areas: (1) reactions of sea salt aerosols to form photochemically labile halogen gases that help to drive tropospheric chemistry; (2) oxidation of organics at interfaces and formation of SOA driven by oxides of nitrogen photochemistry; and (3) nucleation and growth of new particles in the troposphere from reactions of methanesulfonic acid with amines.

  13. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis L.; Eggleston

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to experimentally investigate asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral (Penning-Malmberg) plasma trap. These traps provide an excellent platform for transport studies since the plasmas are generally well confined. One can then study transport in a controlled manner: the plasma is perturbed and the resulting transport measured. The focus of this research is the transport produced by applied asymmetric electric fields. The main results of our research concern (1) the theory of asymmetry-induced transport, (2) an absolute comparison of theory predictions with experimental results, (3) the amplitude scaling of the transport, (4) the frequency dependence of the transport, (5) the development of techniques to determine the relative contribution of mobility and diffusion to the transport, and (6) measuring the effect of small axial magnetic variations on the transport

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Douglas C.; Restani, Marco, Ph.D

    2009-12-28

    The Center of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management award was used to establish the organization and initiate investigations of hazardous waste issues along the U.S.-Mexico border. Scientific investigations conducted during the execution of this grant contributed significant data and established new sampling protocols to the dimension, frequency and severity of hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals) along the U.S.-Mexico border. Additionally, new protocols and assessments with distinct Homeland Security implications were embedded thus establishing a baseline that will be significant for related investigations in the future.

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Davis

    2005-03-31

    The forest products industry consumes large amounts of energy. Understanding how genetic variation in trees actually controls the characteristics of wood, the major raw material utilized by the industry, is an opportunity for energy savings. For companies that are vertically integrated (i.e., have both tree production and processing operations), energy savings can accrue for both production and processing. Tree production demands nitrogen fertilizers, the manufacture of which is highly energy intensive. Wood processing for paper product manufacturing requires digestion and bleaching, both of which are more efficient when the lignin content of wood is reduced. This project identified genes involved in utilization of nitrogen from fertilizer, and the coupling of nitrogen demand to lignin content, establishing a framework for reducing tree nitrogen demand per unit carbon gained. This creates opportunities for genetic manipulation of trees for greater energy efficiency.

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng-Po [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Andarawis, Emad [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shaddock, David [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Yin, Liang [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ghandi, Reza [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Srikrishnan, Kashyap [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Saia, Richard [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Patil, Amita [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Fang, Kun [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Shen, Zhenzhen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-09-09

    The development and demonstration in this digital telemetry project has brought SiC-based high temperature electronics to a new level of complexity and integration with the active electronic devices and the packaging materials operating at 300°C for greater than 2000 hours. Our highest level of integration is a 6x6mm die with 474 transistors with the most complex functionality to date. Advances were made in the area of device modeling and fabrication, circuit simulation and design, device testing, and packaging. The technologies developed here would help enable sensor systems in enhanced geothermal systems, as well as other applications with high temperature requirements.

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Timothy S. [Idaho State University

    2013-09-10

    The biochemistry of bacterial proteins involved in redox transformations of metals and minerals is, without dispute, an important area of research. Nevertheless, most studies on bacterial metal transformation have focused not on biochemistry but on genetics and genomics. The objective of this research is to better understand the role of conformation change in electron transfer from cytochromes to minerals, a process that underpins respiratory metal reduction by bacteria in nature and in bioremediation strategies, including reductive immobilization of radioactive contaminants. Our DOE-funded work is specifically focused on answering long-standing questions about the biochemical behavior of these very interesting proteins, and our findings thus far have already made impacts in the fields of environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry. Among the key findings from the project are 1) Successful large-scale production of biomass for protein isolation; 2) Purification of several c-type cytochromes for biochemical study; 3) Characterization of these proteins using spectrophotometric and electrochemical techniques; 4) Examination of protein conformational change and redox activity towards metal oxides using a small mass cytochrome c from Acidiphilium cryptum; 5) Proteomic characterization of A. cryptum biofilms; 6) Training of 2 undergraduate research assistants; 7) Publications and several meeting presentations.

  18. Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; R.C. Greenlund

    2002-12-31

    Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide product with little salt and no hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gas generating capability, which, if isolated from high alkali conditions, would pose no reactivity concerns. The US aluminum industry has historically, along with the steel industry, been a leader in recycling metal. The findings from this project, increased metal recovery, improved salt recycling, and demonstrated end uses for oxide residues, will go a long way in helping the aluminum industry obtain 100% material utilization and zero discharge.

  19. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, Walter David [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-08-27

    This report describes the research carried out under this grant for the period from 1997 to 2014. This work has been previously described in annual progress reports and renewal applications. As a result of this project, ~100 papers were published in open refereed journals and 107 invited talks were given by the PI. The research subjects covered by this project included the synthesis and characterization of super-heavy nuclei, the critical study of the reaction mechanisms used in these synthesis reactions, the mechanism(s) of intermediate energy and relativistic nuclear collisions, the study of reactions induced by radioactive nuclear beams, and general properties of the heaviest elements.

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, James J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The research summarized here has the goal of developing a fundamental understanding of how catalysts work. These materials are demonstrably essential to our daily life, from the cars we drive to the clothes we wear. Our Center advances the science behind how we prepare, analyze, and describe catalysts. This has been identified by one of the documents guiding Federal research objectives (Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination): “Major challenges in heterogeneous catalysis are to more clearly define the nature of the active sites, to engineer at the molecular level catalysis with designed properties in three dimensions, and to create new catalysts for new transformations.” This directly addresses this objective.

  1. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Long, S.; Li, Binsheng; Lamke, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The overall goal of the contract is to provide general support and advice to the DOE, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/EF) on the opportunities for coal and Clean Coal Technology trade in the Asia-Pacific region. The report which follows is divided into six subsections, each pertaining to separate subtasks the U.S. Department of Energy requested. Subtask A includes two reports, one which outlines important coal and clean coal technology news events which occurred during the second half of 1993, and another which outlines the potential for Clean Coal Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region. Subtask B and the first paper in Subtask C contain advisories and briefing papers that present and explain the coal, electricity and Clean Coal Technology situation in China. The second paper in Subtask C is an overview of the coal supply, demand and trade situation in the Asian region with coal projections to the year 2010. Subtask D is an overview of meetings with Asian energy and policy representatives which were carried out to (1) gather key information relevant to this contract, and (2) examine areas for closer cooperation on important coal/CCT-related energy issues. The tasks listed in the contract proposal as Subtasks E and F are summarized in respective sections of this report. Subtask E specifies the activities carried out under the APEC Experts` Group on Clean Coal Technologies, and Subtask F explains the work done by the Coal Project in building contacts and working relationships with key energy and technology planners in China (including The State Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Electric Power and Tsinghua University, and the State Planning Commission). The Subtask E section also includes activities to develop and strengthen the role of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Activities.

  2. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  3. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Brenizer

    2011-05-16

    The Consortium of Big-10 University Research and Training Reactors was by design a strategic partnership of seven leading institutions. We received the support of both our industry and DOE laboratory partners. Investiments in reactor, laboratory and program infrastructure, allowed us to lead the national effort to expand and improve the education of engineers in nuclear science and engineering, to provide outreach and education to pre-college educators and students and to become a key resource of ideas and trained personnel for our U.S. industrial and DOE laboratory collaborators.

  4. Technology fundamentals: photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaschning, V.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of electric power from photovoltaic systems is described in detail. The mechanism of operation of solar cells is described in terms of photons, electrons, charge carriers and charge separation. The various cells, modules, technical terms and related technology are discussed. The chemical elements used in solar cells are mentioned and the manufacturing processes described. The technical advantages of the newer thin-film modules over the traditional silicon cells are given but at present manufacturing cost is limiting their production. Both stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems are described. The potential market for PV systems is discussed. It is suggested that PV could eventually meet the total global electric power demand. (author)

  5. Photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Currently, photovoltaic production is 90% first-generation and is based on silicon wafers. These devices are reliable and durable, but half of the cost is the silicon wafer and efficiencies are limited to around 20%. A second generation of solar cells would use cheap semiconductor thin films deposited on low-cost substrates to produce devices of slightly lower efficiency. A number of thin-film device technologies account for around 5-6% of the current market. As second-generation technology reduces the cost of active material, the substrate will eventually be the cost limit and higher efficiency will be needed to maintain the cost-reduction trend. Third-generation devices will use new technologies to produce high-efficiency devices. Advances in nanotechnology, photonics, optical metamaterials, plasmonics and semiconducting polymer sciences offer the prospect of cost-competitive photovoltaics. It is reasonable to expect that cost reductions, a move to second-generation technologies and the implementation of new technologies and third-generation concepts can lead to fully cost-competitive solar energy in 10-15 years. (author)

  6. Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration Experiment. Final report for Phase-I system design, 6 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, W.M.; Dudek, R.A.

    1979-03-30

    The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentrating Experiment is the design of a 200 kWe peak photovoltaic concentrating system applied to deep well irrigation in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. The site selected is typical of deep well irrigation in arid regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The existing well utilizes a 200 horse power, three phase, 480 volt induction motor to lift water 540 feet to irrigate 380 acres. The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration (PVC) system employs a two axis (azimuth-elevation) tracking parabolic concentrator module that focuses sunlight at 38X concentration on two strings of actively cooled silicon solar cells. The direct current from a field of 102 collector modules is converted by a maximum power point electric power conditioning system to three phase alternating current. The power from the power conditioning system is connected through appropriate switchgear in parallel with the utility grid to the well's induction motor. The operational philosophy of the experiment is to displace daytime utility power with solar generated electric power. The solar system is sized to provide approximately 50 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor. This requires an energy exchange with the utility since peak solar power (200 kWe) generated exceeds the peak motor demand (149.2 kWe). The annual energy production is projected to be 511 Mwh using El Paso, Texas solar TMY data. System electrical power production efficiency is projected to be 7.4 percent at the design point, and 7.0 percent on an annual electrical energy production basis. The system is projected to provide 37.8 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10, excluding energy delivered to the grid in excess of motor demand. The total energy produced is projected to be 39.0 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10.

  7. SOL-IND. Photovoltaics integrated in an industrialised building process. Final report; SOL-IND. Solceller integreret i industrielt byggeri. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, K.H.B.; Vestersager Engdal, J. (EnergiMidt A/S, Silkeborg (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the project, EFP06 - Photovoltaics integrated in an industrialised building process (SOLIND), has been to examine the possibilities for PV (photovoltaics) in an industrialized building process. The project is an information gathering and development project with basis in knowledge about the possibilities for PV in relation to specific housing projects in Skanska Bolig A/S, including BoKlok, developed in cooperation with IKEA. During the project a workshop with participating architectural students has been carried through resulting in detailed concepts. The concepts have in general terms been introduced nationally to the press and were invited to a poster presentation at the world's largest PV conference. In addition to this, a number of prototypes are produced together with other presentation material. The projects has been divided into three phases. The report is divided into these three phases. 1) Knowledge gathering and unravelling 2) Analysis, development and evaluation, workshop for students. 3) Promotion and demonstration of results The main results are: 4) The project has resulted in increased knowledge about the possibilities with photovoltaics in industrialized building processes. 5) A number of concepts have been developed to fit PV in the project phase of an industrialized building process. 6) The most promising concepts has been demonstrated as prototypes in different scale together with other presentation materials The project continues in SOL-IND2, with the purpose to prepare and carry out an integration of a PV system in an industrialized building process. A subsidy is granted in 2008 from the EFP to prepare the construction. (au)

  8. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Final subcontract report, 1 April 1992--30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izu, M. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (US)

    1996-02-01

    ECD has made important progress in the development of materials, device designs, and manufacturing processes required for the continued advancement of practical photovoltaic technology{sub 1-23}. ECD has pioneered and continues further development of two key proprietary technologies, with significant potential for achieving the cost goals necessary for widespread growth of the photovoltaic market: (1) a low cost, roll-to- roll continuous substrate thin-film solar cell manufacturing process; (2) a high efficiency, monolithic, multiple-junction, spectrum- splitting thin-film amorphous silicon alloy device structure. Commercial production of multiple-junction a-Si alloy modules has been underway at ECD and its joint venture company for a number of years using ECD's proprietary roll-to-roll process and numerous advantages of this technology have been demonstrated. These include relatively low semiconductor material cost, relatively low process cost, a light-weight, rugged and flexible substrate that results in lowered installed costs of PV systems, and environmentally safe materials. Nevertheless, the manufacturing cost per watt of PV modules from our current plant remains high. In order to achieve high stable efficiency and low manufacturing cost, ECD has, at ECD's expense, engineered and constructed a 2 MW production line and a 200 kW pilot line, incorporating earlier ECD research advances in device efficiency through the use of multi-junction spectrum-splitting and high performance back-reflector cell design. Under this subcontract six tasks were directed towards achieving this goal. They are: Task I: Optimization of back-reflector system; Task II: Optimization of the Si-Ge narrow bandgap solar cells; Task III: Optimization of the stable efficiency of photovoltaic modules; Task IV: Demonstration of serpentine web continuous roll-to-roll deposition technology; Task V: Material cost reductions; and Task VI: Improving the module assembly process.

  9. Flow in porous media, phase behavior and ultralow interfacial tensions: mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The 1982 outputs of the interdisciplinary team of investigators were again ideas, instruments, techniques, data, understanding and skilled people: forty-one scientific and engineering papers in leading journals; four pioneering Ph.D. theses; numerous presentations to scientific and technical meetings, and to industrial, governmental and university laboratories; vigorous program of research visits to and from Minnesota; and two outstanding Ph.D.'s to research positions in the petroleum industry, one to a university faculty position, one to research leadership in a governmental institute. This report summarizes the 1982 papers and theses and features sixteen major accomplishments of the program during that year. Abstracts of all forty-five publications in the permanent literature are appended. Further details of information transfer and personnel exchange with industrial, governmental and university laboratories appear in 1982 Quarterly Reports available from the Department of Energy and are not reproduced here. The Minnesota program continues in 1983, notwithstanding earlier uncertainty about the DOE funding which finally materialized and is the bulk of support. Supplemental grants-in-aid from nine companies in the petroleum industry are important, as are the limited University and departmental contributions. 839 references, 172 figures, 29 tables.

  10. Final Technical Report for Quantum Embedding for Correlated Electronic Structure in Large Systems and the Condensed Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-04-30

    This is the final technical report. We briefly describe some selected results below. Developments in density matrix embedding. DMET is a quantum embedding theory that we introduced at the beginning of the last funding period, around 2012-2013. Since the first DMET papers, which demonstrated proof-of- principle calculations on the Hubbard model and hydrogen rings, we have carried out a number of different developments, including: Extending the DMET technology to compute broken symmetry phases, including magnetic phases and super- conductivity (Pub. 13); Calibrating the accuracy of DMET and its cluster size convergence against other methods, and formulation of a dynamical cluster analog (Pubs. 4, 10) (see Fig. 1); Implementing DMET for ab-initio molecular calculations, and exploring different self-consistency criteria (Pubs. 9, 14); Using embedding to defi ne quantum classical interfaces Pub. 2; Formulating DMET for spectral functions (Pub. 7) (see Fig. 1); Extending DMET to coupled fermion-boson problems (Pub. 12). Together with these embedding developments, we have also implemented a wide variety of impurity solvers within our DMET framework, including DMRG (Pub. 3), AFQMC (Pub. 10), and coupled cluster theory (CC) (Pub. 9).

  11. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters. Final technical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Betts, W.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; McDonough, J.; Riley, P.; Tang, J.L.

    1998-08-01

    This document is a final technical report describing the accomplishments of the medium/high energy nuclear physics research program at the University of Texas at Austin. The research program had four main thrusts, only one of which can be considered as measurements of N-N parameters: (1) finishing the data analyses associated with recent LAMPF and TRIUMPF N-N experiments, whose overall purpose has been the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes, both for isospin 0 and 1 at medium energies; (2) continuing work on BNL E871, a search for rare decay modes of the K L ; (3) work on the RHIC-STAR project, an experiment to create and study a quark gluon plasma and nuclear matter at high energy density; (4) beginning a new AGS experiment (E896) which will search for the lowest mass state of the predicted strange di-baryons, the Ho, and other exotic states of nuclear matter through nucleus-nucleus collisions

  12. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  13. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  14. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K.A. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  15. Technical analysis and economic effect of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic sector; Effetto dell' analisi tecnica ed economica di una iniziativa industriale nel settore dell'energia fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorba, U.; Pauli, F. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Menna, P. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper it is assessed the potential economic impact of an industrial initiative in the photovoltaic manufacturing sector, in terms of induced production and job creation, to be implemented in Morocco. This country exhibits indeed a high potential for photovoltaic installations as proved by the relevant number of national and international deployment programs currently underway. Solar electricity generation schemes look very promising for the relevant role they could play in the future, Co2-emission free, world energy scenarios making potentially more appealing the planning of longer-term public investments. In this study, it was described the manufacturing process providing the solar modules as final output and associate to each step of the process the corresponding costs. Then, using input-output method, it was evaluated the economic impact of the production of 5 MWp modules a year under different hypotheses. A production of 5MWp photovoltaic modules, which require an overall investment of Euro 16.3 millions increases gross domestic product of Euro 57.6 millions if cells are locally produced and only of Euro 22.3 millions when the cells are imported, creating 2570 and 489 jobs, respectively. These results outline the importance of availability of inputs in local economical context. [Italian] In questo lavoro valutiamo il potenziale impatto economico, in termini di produzione indotta e incremento di occupazione, di un' iniziativa industriale per la fabbricazione di moduli fotovoltaici in Marocco. Questo paese presenta, in effetti, un potenziale per installazioni fotovoltaiche molto interessante, come d'altra parte provano i numerosi programmi nazionali e internazionali attualmente in corso. Nel nostro studio, descriviamo, innanzitutto, il processo relativo alla produzione dei moduli, caratterizzandone ciascuna fase con i relativi costi, adattati al contesto prescelto per questo studio. Quindi, adottando la metodologia di analisi delle

  16. Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ as an improved semiconductor for photovoltaic devices. Final report, July 17, 1976-September 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, A.; Dalal, V.; Devaney, W.E.; Fagen, E.A.; Hall, R.B.; Masi, J.V.; Warfield, G.; Wyeth, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the suitability of Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ as a potentially low cost, high conversion efficiency material for photovoltaic devices. The important results of the research are presented and discussed. The major accomplishments of this work are: (1) the development of a vapor transport method for the growth of large single crystals; (2) the development of two methods of thin film growth: vacuum evaporation and close space transport; (3) the determination of the optical constants of Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ including the indices of refraction, the optical absorption coefficient, and the ultra-violet to visible reflectivity spectra; (4) a determination of the factors which influence the electrical conductivity and how these relate to the defect chemistry of Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/; (5) measurement of the barrier height of metal-Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ contacts and the development of a model which relates the barrier height to the properties of the metal-semiconductor interface; (6) measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length in Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/; (7) the development of several single and double layer anti-reflection coatings; and (8) the development of Schottky barrier photovoltaic devices employing a grid device and transparent metal film design, with conversion efficiencies as high as 6.08% (total area) or 7.6% (active area).

  17. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  18. Revision of the European Ecolabel Criteria for Personal, Notebook and Tablet Computers TECHNICAL REPORT Summary of the final criteria proposals

    OpenAIRE

    DODD NICHOLAS; VIDAL ABARCA GARRIDO CANDELA; WOLF Oliver; GRAULICH Kathrin; BUNKE Dirk; GROSS Rita; LIU Ran; MANHART Andreas; PRAKASH Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    This technical report provide the background information for the revision of the EU Ecolabel criteria for Personal and Notebook Computers. The study has been carried out by the Joint Research Centre with technical support from the Oeko-Institut. The work has been developed for the European Commission's Directorate General for the Environment. The main purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the technical background and rationale for each criterion proposal. This document is compl...

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information on the photovoltaic power system was made, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task I: Exchange of the information on the photovoltaic power system and the spread, the final report on 'the study on added values of PV system' was made. In Task II: Operational performance and design of the photovoltaic power system and subsystem, specifications for new database were determined, and the existing data were checked/revised/added. In Task III: Design and operation of the stand-alone type and remote island use photovoltaic power plant, survey was conducted of the present situation of technical standards and quality guarantee. In Task 7: Photovoltaic power system integrated with construction materials, work was done for making a book of installation samples of the PV system integrated with construction materials in each country. In Task 8: Investigative study of possibilities of the large-scale photovoltaic power generation using the unused land such as desert, a report making of the secondary survey was started. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of commercialization technology of the photovoltaic power system. International cooperation project (Collection of the information on the IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu kokusai jigyo kyoryoku (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on 'the Implementing agreement for a research cooperation project on the photovoltaic power system' being promoted by IEA, collection of the information on the photovoltaic power system was made, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. In Task I: Exchange of the information on the photovoltaic power system and the spread, the final report on 'the study on added values of PV system' was made. In Task II: Operational performance and design of the photovoltaic power system and subsystem, specifications for new database were determined, and the existing data were checked/revised/added. In Task III: Design and operation of the stand-alone type and remote island use photovoltaic power plant, survey was conducted of the present situation of technical standards and quality guarantee. In Task 7: Photovoltaic power system integrated with construction materials, work was done for making a book of installation samples of the PV system integrated with construction materials in each country. In Task 8: Investigative study of possibilities of the large-scale photovoltaic power generation using the unused land such as desert, a report making of the secondary survey was started. (NEDO)

  1. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below$1.00/W

  2. Development of units for change measurement of batteries at photovoltaic plant. Final report; Entwicklung von Einheiten zur Ladezustandserfassung von Batterien in PV-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothert, M.; Knorr, R.; Willer, B.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to contribute to enhanced service life and reliability of batteries in photovoltaic systems by developing further processes and components for charge measurement. The essential basic information in charge determination is the direct measurement of acid concentration in the electrolyte compartment of lead batteries and the evaluation and processing of this signal. Within the framework of this project, operative acidity sensors were developed and tested. They are accurate within an error margin of 0.5 per cent for short periods and of 2 per cent for long periods. A charge measurement unit based on the acid concentration reading was built and special algorithms for measuring charge were developed and tested. This unit stands out particularly because of the following: determination of dynamic charge, long-term stability, and automatic and regular adaptation to the type, size and age of the battery. Using this unit in combination with the acid concentration sensor in photovoltaic plant will permit more efficient plant operation and reliable protection of the battery. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Lebensdauer und Zuverlaessigkeit von Batterien in PV-Anlagen durch die konkrete Weiterentwicklung von Verfahren und Komponenten zur Ladezustandserfassung aufzuzeigen, durchzufuehren und zu demonstrieren. Die direkte Messung der Saeuredichte im Elektrolytraum von Bleibatterien sowie die Auswertung und Weiterverarbeitung dieses Signals bildet dabei die wesentliche Basisinformation. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden funktionstuechtige Saeuredichtesensoren entwickelt und erprobt. Die dabei erreichte Genauigkeit betraegt im Kurzzeitbereich 0,5% und im Langzeitbereich ca. 2%. Eine Ladezustandseinheit basierend auf dem Saeuredichtesignal wurde aufgebaut und spezielle Algorithmen zur Ladezustandserfassung entwickelt und getestet. Besonders die Bestimmung des dynamischen Ladezustands, die Langzeitstabilitaet sowie

  3. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwisch, D. W. (Solar Cells, Inc.)

    1999-09-02

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below $1.00/W.

  4. Integration of thermal photovoltaic hybrid sensors to the building. Final report july 2004. Integrated research project 6.2; Integration de capteurs hybrides photovoltaiques thermiques au bati. Rapport final juillet 2004. Projet de recherche integre 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The electricity and the heat are two complementary energies necessary for the accommodation. A thermal solar installation needs the electric power for the coolant fluid flow. This research project concerns the optimization of integrated solutions to the building, providing simultaneously these two energies. This document presents the proposed researches programs: analysis of the socio-economic aspects, the physical phenomena knowledge, simulation of the behavior, experimentation, hybrid components integration, simulation of the photovoltaic modules operating and thermal simulation of an electric converter. (A.L.B.)

  5. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  6. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  7. [Review comments on the Draft DOE Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project]: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch, S.I.; Stiegliltz, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Research performed under the grant primarily involved review and comment on the Draft Area Recommendations Report (DARR). However, because data and ''recommendations'' included in the DARR are unquestionably tied to years of research and dozens of technical reports and documents, i.e., Screening Methodologies, Regional characterization Reports, etc., it is essential that consultants to the Menominee Tribe review all the relevant DOE documents, working papers, etc. Given the short period provided for technical comment and limited funds available to the Tribe, a well designed and thorough technical review was (and is) without question impossible. What review and comment that did occur on a geotechnical level is included in this report

  8. The photovoltaic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourde, P.; Guerin de Montgareuil, A.; Mattera, F.; Jaussaud, C.; Boulanger, P.; Veriat, G.; Firon, M.

    2004-01-01

    , aside from the sole generation of electricity. Finally, a major research and development effort is making it possible to look to considerable advances, regarding energy storage. In this framework this chapter of the Clefs CEA N50/51 presents studies on: the three paths for solar energy, the high tech cells for cheaper modules, the building-integrated photovoltaic systems and the storage of photovoltaic electricity. (A.L.B.)

  9. IEA Wind Task 23, offshore wind technology and deployment. Subtask 1: Experience with critical deployment issues. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J

    2010-10-15

    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. A comprehensive approach to planning is needed that integrates impacts on ecology, the effects of electrical infrastructure, and the layout of wind farms. Governments, which usually finance ecological research, should disclose results for wide dissemination as they become available. As example the workshop held suggested that documents covering the issues like offshore wind energy legislation, Guidelines for EIAs and SEAs and best practices need to be produced and distributed on a regular basis, as ecological research progresses and experience from the planning and operation of existing wind farms emerges. Research should help strike the balance between optimum regulation and the need to get projects up and running. Such research is needed to increase understanding of offshore wind metrology and its impact on electrical power fluctuations. More work is needed to develop special grid code and standards for offshore. The transient behavior of large cable installations (switching / harmonic/ Behavior and modeling of large HV cable systems) must be better understood. Connection and control systems must be developed for large offshore wind farms. Work is needed to develop the technical architecture of offshore wind grid systems. Public access to measurements (e.g., turbine power output, meteorological masts, buoys) is important, especially for model validation. Determining wake effects is currently the most important challenge in wind engineering. Emphasis should be put into

  10. Assessment of technical risks and R and D requirements for a magnetic confinement fusion fuel system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreece, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report documents a specific use and results of a novel technique for assessing the technical risks associated with the hardware development of a possible future commercial fusion power plant fuel system. Technical risk is defined as the risk that a particular technology or component which is currently under development will not achieve a set of required technical specifications. A technical risk assessment is the quantification of this risk. This Technical Risk Assessment (TRA) methodology was applied to a deuterium-tritium fuel system for a magnetic-confinement fusion power plant. The fuel system is defined to support a generic commercial reactor with at least two viable options for each critical subsystem. Each subsystem option is defined in detail including nominal performance requirements and subsystem interfaces. Subsystem experts were canvassed to obtain values for past, present and future technical performance parameters for each of the subsystem options. These forecasts are presented as probabilities of achieving given levels of performance in specific time periods for assumed funding scenarios. Several funding scenarios were examined to discern whether performance limitations are caused by funding or technology. A computerized Fuel System simulation is described which uses these subsystem performance parameter forecasts as inputs

  11. Cost effectiveness and benefits of photovoltaics in the Gambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Able-Thomas, U.; Hill, R.; O' Keefe, P.; Pearsall, N.M. (Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    This paper discusses the socio-economic benefits that the Gambia has derived from photovoltaics (PV) and its future potential. Technical performance, reliability and cost estimates are assessed for some PV applications. (Author)

  12. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  13. State child health; revisions to the regulations implementing the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Interim final rule with comment period; revisions, delay of effective date, and technical amendments to final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-25

    Title XXI authorizes the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to assist State efforts to initiate and expand the provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. On January 11, 2001 we published a final rule in the Federal Register to implement SCHIP that has not gone into effect. This interim final rule further delays the effective date, revises certain provisions and solicits public comment, and makes technical corrections and clarifications to the January 2001 final rule based on further review of the comments received and applicable law. Only the provisions set forth in this document have changed. All other provisions set forth in the January 2001 final rule will be implemented without change.

  14. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Addendum to the final technical report, May 1--December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Addendum to the Cassini GPHS-RTG Program Final Technical Progress Report describes activities performed during the period 1 May 1998 through 31 December 1998, including effort reflecting contract modification M058. These activities include Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) reentry and related analyses which are detailed in Part A, and effort related to the installation of CAGO equipment within Lockheed Martin`s Building 100 facility in Valley Forge, PA, which is detailed in Part B.

  15. Health care fraud and abuse data collection program: technical revisions to Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank data collection activities. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-21

    The rule finalizes technical changes to the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) data collection reporting requirements by clarifying the types of personal numeric identifiers that may be reported to the data bank in connection with adverse actions. The rule clarifies that in lieu of a Social Security Number (SSN), an individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN) may be reported to the data bank when, in those limited situations, an individual does not have an SSN.

  16. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Addendum to the final technical report, May 1-December 31, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Addendum to the Cassini GPHS-RTG Program Final Technical Progress Report describes activities performed during the period 1 May 1998 through 31 December 1998, including effort reflecting contract modification M058. These activities include Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) reentry and related analyses which are detailed in Part A, and effort related to the installation of CAGO equipment within Lockheed Martin's Building 100 facility in Valley Forge, PA, which is detailed in Part B

  17. Review of technical issues related to the failure of Rosemount pressure transmitters due to fill oil loss. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Gaertner, J.P.; Burns, E.T.; Horn, A.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-08-01

    Rosemount pressure transmitters are extensively used in both safety and non-safety applications in US nuclear power plants. They are used to measure pressure, flow, and water level. Rosemount pressure transmitter models 1151, 1152, 1153A, 1153, and 1154 use a fill oil to hydraulically transmit process pressure exerted on outer isolating diaphragms to internal diaphragms. The resulting deflection of the internal diaphragms changes the distance between them and a central diaphragm separating the transmitter interior into two volumes. The change in distance is measured as a change in electrical capacitance between the isolating diaphragms and the central diaphragm and can be related to differential pressure. The fill oil also functions as a dielectric. It has been well established that this fill oil can potentially leak over time, decreasing transmitter accuracy and increasing transmitter response time. Ultimately, the transmitter can fail. An extensive effort has been expended by the nuclear power industry collectively to analyze this issue and develop technically sound and reasonable requirements to mitigate the effects of oil loss in Rosemount pressure transmitters. Despite this, technical concerns have still been raised regarding the technical validity of the past analyses of this problem and its scope. In May 1993, the NRC created an internal group to comprehensively review the Rosemount issue and the NRC's action in addressing it to ensure that all available technical information has been considered. Because this issue remains of active technical interest and because the past work on this subject has been done by many different groups and organizations, EPRI has prepared this report to thoroughly document the current technical understanding of this issue, to perform additional analysis, and to identify any appropriate additional technical research activities regarding oil loss in Rosemount pressure transmitters

  18. Fundamental Materials Research and Advanced Process Development for Thin-Film CIS-Based Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 October 2001 - 30 September 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. J.; Li, S. S.; Crisalle, O. D.; Craciun, V.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives for this thin-film copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell project cover the following areas: Develop and characterize buffer layers for CIS-based solar cell; grow and characterize chemical-bath deposition of Znx Cd1-xS buffer layers grown on CIGS absorbers; study effects of buffer-layer processing on CIGS thin films characterized by the dual-beam optical modulation technique; grow epitaxial CuInSe2 at high temperature; study the defect structure of CGS by photoluminescence spectroscopy; investigate deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by deep-level transient spectroscopy; conduct thermodynamic modeling of the isothermal 500 C section of the Cu-In-Se system using a defect model; form alpha-CuInSe2 by rapid thermal processing of a stacked binary compound bilayer; investigate pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells; and conduct device modeling and simulation of CIGS solar cells.

  19. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures

  20. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed