WorldWideScience

Sample records for photovoltaic solar system

  1. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  2. Voltage Quality Improvement Using Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Galzina

    2015-06-01

    This paper briefly shows the methods of power quality improvement, and then the results of on-site power quality measurements in the grid before and after the connection of the solar photovoltaic system.

  3. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  4. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianze; Lu Hengwei; Jiang Chuan; Hou Luan; Zhang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  5. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  6. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-connected PV systems and water pumping PV systems.It is designed using a set of S4 classes whose core is a group of slots with multivariate time series. The classes share a variety of methods to access the information and several visualization methods. In addition, the package provides a tool for the visual statistical analysis of the performance of a large PV plant composed of several systems.Although solaR is primarily designed for time series associated to a location defined by its latitude/longitude values and the temperature and irradiation conditions, it can be easily combined with spatial packages for space-time analysis.

  7. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells applied in photovoltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; M. Giedroć; M. Macek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to fabricate the monocrystalline silicon solar cells using the conventional technology by means of screen printing process and to make of them photovoltaic system.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation of current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated under Standard Test Condition. Photovoltaic module was produced from solar cells with the largest short-circuit curren...

  8. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  9. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  10. Photovoltaic Thermal panels in collective thermal solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.; De Lange, E.T.N.; Smit, W.F.

    2003-12-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to assess the options to apply photovoltaic/thermal panels (PVT-panels) in collective solar thermal systems in urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was focused on the technical (architecture and installations) and the economical feasibility of collective PVT-systems in comparison with conventional solar thermal systems and combinations of photovoltaic (PV) panels and solar collectors. The results of the study also give insight into cost and the market for PVT-panels. Three case studies in which collective solar collector systems were applied are analyzed again by simulating the installation of a PVT-panels system and a separate solar thermal PV system [nl

  11. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  12. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  13. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  14. Thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system analysis using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The energy demand in Jordan is primarily met by petroleum products. As such, the development of renewable energy systems is quite attractive. In particular, solar energy is a promising renewable energy source in Jordan and has been used for food canning, paper production, air-conditioning and sterilization. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have received significant attention due to their capabilities in forecasting, modelling of complex nonlinear systems and control. ANNs have been used for forecasting solar energy. This paper presented a study that examined a thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system that was built in Jordan. Historical input-output system data that was collected experimentally was used to train an ANN that predicted the collector, PV module, pump and total efficiencies. The model predicted the efficiencies well and can therefore be utilized to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. The paper provided a description of the photovoltaic solar system including equations for PV module efficiency; pump efficiency; and total efficiency. The paper also presented data relevant to the system performance and neural networks. The results of a neural net model were also presented based on the thermal PV solar integrated system data that was collected. It was concluded that the neural net model of the thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system set the background for achieving the best system performance. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  16. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  17. 75 FR 61509 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... Procurement; Title III, Trade Agreements Act of 1979; Country of Origin of solar photovoltaic panel system... solar photovoltaic (``PV'') panel systems contain both U.S. and foreign-origin raw materials and...

  18. Tracking strategy for photovoltaic solar systems in high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Guillermo; Guillon, Laura; Rousse, Daniel R.; Mehrtash, Mostafa; Dutil, Yvan; Paradis, Pierre-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In cloudy conditions tracking the sun is ineffective. • A methodology to estimate a theoretical threshold for solar tracking was developed. • A tracking strategy to maximize electricity production was proposed. - Abstract: Several studies show that from about 20% to 50% more solar energy can be recovered by using photovoltaic systems that track the sun rather than systems set at a fixed angle. For overcast or cloudy days, recent studies propose the use of a set position in which each photovoltaic panel faces toward the zenith (horizontal position). Compared to a panel that follows the sun’s path, this approach claims that a horizontal panel increases the amount of solar radiation captured and subsequently the quantity of electricity produced. The present work assesses a solar tracking photovoltaic panel hourly and seasonally in high latitudes. A theoretical method based on an isotropic sky model was formulated, implemented, and used in a case study analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic system in Montreal, Canada. The results obtained, based on the definition of a critical hourly global solar radiation, were validated numerically and experimentally. The study confirmed that a zenith-set sun tracking strategy for overcast or mostly cloudy days in summer is not advantageous

  19. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  20. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  1. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system using a new linear actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Castro, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a photovoltaic solar pumping system using a new linear actuator is presented. This linear actuator is a double-sided flat two-phase variable-reluctance linear stepper motor that moves a piston-type water pump with the help of a rope, a pulley and a counterweight. The entire actuator pump ensemble is controlled by a simple electronic unit that manages the electric power generated by a photovoltaic array. The proposed system is suitable for rural communities in developing...

  2. Field trial of rural solar photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, P.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Banerjee, T.; Das, S.; Saha, H.

    Experience, costs, and performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems set up in a remote Indian village to power an adult literacy center and an irrigation pump are described. The center was furnished with a 14-module, 200 W array to power a television and three fluorescent lamps. The pumping installation has 20 modules for a 300 W output directly coupled to a 300-W dc pump motor. Data were gathered on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, specific gravity of the battery fluid, degradation of the cells, nominal operating temperature of the cells, load currents, Amp-hours, water flow rate (pump), and the static head and draw down rate (pump). Monitoring of the array performances in the dusty environment showed that once/week cleaning is necessary. Al-substrates cracked at the center installation and sealant evaporation caused condensation which degraded the light transmissivity and thereby the short-circuit current of the modules. The combination of low-efficiency (5 pct) cells and cheap labor demonstrated economic operation without high-efficiency cells.

  3. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiangchun; Lin, Qingqing; Zhou, Xuedong; Yang, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province, fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient. Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy. This needs modern irrigation method. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture, and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developi...

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  5. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  6. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  7. Automatic data acquisition system for a photovoltaic solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Barrio, C.L.; Guerra, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    An autonomous monitoring system for photovoltaic solar plants is described. The system is able to collect data about the plant's physical and electrical characteristics and also about the environmental conditions. It may present the results on a display, if requested, but its main function is measuring periodically a set of parameters, including several points in the panel I-V characteristics, in an unattended mode. The data are stored on a magnetic tape for later processing on a computer. The system hardware and software are described, as well as their main functions.

  8. Solar Photovoltaic DC Systems: Basics and Safety: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, Peter F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sekulic, William R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dreifuerst, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - retired

    2018-04-02

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and growing with 42.4 GW installed capacity in U.S. (almost 15 GW added in 2016). This paper will help electrical workers, and emergency responders understand the basic operating principles and hazards of PV DC arrays. We briefly discuss the following aspects of solar photovoltaic (PV) DC systems: the effects of solar radiation and temperature on output power; PV module testing standards; common system configurations; a simple PV array sizing example; NEC guidelines and other safety features; DC array commissioning, periodic maintenance and testing; arc-flash hazard potential; how electrical workers and emergency responders can and do work safely around PV arrays; do moonlight and artificial lighting pose a real danger; typical safe operating procedures; and other potential DC-system hazards to be aware of. We also present some statistics on PV DC array electrical incidents and injuries. Safe PV array operation is possible with a good understanding of PV DC arrays basics and having good safe operating procedures in place.

  9. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  10. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic panel driven refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, C. S.; Singh, Dharmendra; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) panel driven refrigeration system employs solar PV panel and play a vital role when combined with storage batteries. The variation in performance of solar PV panel driven refrigeration system has been experimentally investigated in this paper. The change in battery voltage is analyzed with respect to panel size. Different series and parallel combinations have been applied on four solar PV panels of 35W each to get 24V. With the above combination a current in the range of 3-5 ampere has been obtained depending upon the solar intensity. A refrigerator of 110 W and 50 liters is used in the present investigation which requires 0.80 ampere AC at 230 V. The required current and voltage has been obtained from an inverter which draws about 7 ampere DC from the battery bank at 24V. The compressor of the refrigerator consumed 110W which required a PV panel size of 176 W approximately. It is important to note that the compressor consumed about 300W for first 50 milliseconds, 130 W for next five seconds and gradually comes to 110 W in 65 seconds. Thus panel size should be such that it may compensate for the initial load requirement.

  11. A comparative study on three types of solar utilization technologies for buildings: Photovoltaic, solar thermal and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huide, Fu; Xuxin, Zhao; Lei, Ma; Tao, Zhang; Qixing, Wu; Hongyuan, Sun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of Solar thermal, Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/thermal systems are developed. • Experiments are performed to validate the simulation results. • Annual performances of the three solar systems used in china are predicted. • Energy comparison between the three solar systems is analyzed. - Abstract: Buildings need energy including heat and electricity, and both of them can be provided by the solar systems. Solar thermal and photovoltaic systems absorb the solar energy and can supply the heat and electricity for buildings, respectively. However, for the urban residential buildings, the limited available area makes installation of the solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules together impossible. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system can simultaneously generate heat and electricity, which is deemed to be quite suitable for the urban residential buildings application. And yet, for a rural house of China, the available area for installation of the solar collectors is large but daily domestic hot water demand of a rural family is generally not exceeded 300 L. If only the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors are installed on the whole available area, this will lead to an overproduction of the thermal energy, especially in summer. Moreover, buildings requiring for the heat and electricity are different in different regions and different seasons. In this paper, simulation models of the solar thermal, photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems are presented, and experiments are also performed to validate the simulation results. Using the validated models, performances of the three solar systems for residential applications were predicted. And energy comparison between the three solar systems used in Hongkong, Lhasa, Shanghai and Beijing of China, respectively, were also studied. Results show that, for the urban residential building with limited available installation space, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system may have the

  12. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  13. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  14. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  15. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.D.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  16. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  17. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  19. Efficient scale for photovoltaic systems and Florida's solar rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Christopher S.; Arguea, Nestor M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a critical view of Florida's photovoltaic (PV) subsidy system and proposes an econometric model of PV system installation and generation costs. Using information on currently installed systems, average installation cost relations for residential and commercial systems are estimated and cost-efficient scales of installation panel wattage are identified. Productive efficiency in annual generating capacity is also examined under flexible panel efficiency assumptions. We identify potential gains in efficiency and suggest changes in subsidy system constraints, providing important guidance for the implementation of future incentive programs. Specifically, we find that the subsidy system discouraged residential applicants from installing at the cost-efficient scale but over-incentivized commercial applicants, resulting in inefficiently sized installations. - Highlights: ► Describe a PV solar incentive system in the U.S. state of Florida. ► Combine geocoded installation site data with a detailed irradiance map. ► Estimate installation and production costs across a large sample. ► Identify inefficiencies in the incentive system. ► Suggest changes to policy that would improve economic efficiency.

  20. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  1. Designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system in adjunct with a silicon photovoltaic panel for a solar competition car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Rosales, Andrés.; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Solar competition cars are a very interesting research laboratory for the development of new technologies heading to their further implementation in either commercial passenger vehicles or related applications. Besides, worldwide competitions allow the spreading of such ideas where the best and experienced teams bet on innovation and leading edge technologies, in order to develop more efficient vehicles. In these vehicles, some aspects generally make the difference such as aerodynamics, shape, weight, wheels and the main solar panels. Therefore, seeking to innovate in a competitive advantage, the first Colombian solar vehicle "Primavera", competitor at the World Solar Challenge (WSC)-2013, has implemented the usage of a Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) system as a complementary solar energy module to the common silicon photovoltaic panel. By harvesting sunlight with concentrating optical devices, CPVs are capable of maximizing the allowable photovoltaic area. However, the entire CPV system weight must be less harmful than the benefit of the extra electric energy generated, which in adjunct with added manufacture and design complexity, has intervened in the fact that CPVs had never been implemented in a solar car in such a scale as the one described in this work. Design considerations, the system development process and implementation are presented in this document considering both the restrictions of the context and the interaction of the CPV system with the solar car setup. The measured data evidences the advantage of using this complementary system during the competition and the potential this technology has for further developments.

  2. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  4. Optimization and modeling of a photovoltaic solar integrated system by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh'd Sami S.

    2008-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar integrated system is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN's). Data relevant to the system performance was collected on April, 4th 1993 and every 15 min during the day. This input-output data is used to train the ANN. The ANN approximates the data well and therefore can be relied on in predicting the system performance, namely, system efficiencies. The solar system consists of a solar trainer which contains a photovoltaic panel, a DC centrifugal pump, flat plate collectors, storage tank, a flowmeter for measuring the water mass flow rate, pipes, pyranometer for measuring the solar intensity, thermocouples for measuring various system temperatures and wind speed meter. The complex method constrained optimization is applied to the solar system ANN model to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. This information will be very hard to obtain by just looking at the available historical input-output data

  5. Optimization and modeling of a photovoltaic solar integrated system by neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, Moh' d Sami S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    A photovoltaic solar integrated system is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN's). Data relevant to the system performance was collected on April, 4th 1993 and every 15 min during the day. This input-output data is used to train the ANN. The ANN approximates the data well and therefore can be relied on in predicting the system performance, namely, system efficiencies. The solar system consists of a solar trainer which contains a photovoltaic panel, a DC centrifugal pump, flat plate collectors, storage tank, a flowmeter for measuring the water mass flow rate, pipes, pyranometer for measuring the solar intensity, thermocouples for measuring various system temperatures and wind speed meter. The complex method constrained optimization is applied to the solar system ANN model to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. This information will be very hard to obtain by just looking at the available historical input-output data. (author)

  6. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  7. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  8. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  9. Modeling of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system under the influence of panel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinathambi Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system was improved by maintaining the cell temperature in the range between 30°C and 40°C. Experiments have been conducted on a laboratory experimental set-up installed with 6.4 m2 solar panel (by providing air cooling either on the top surface or over the beneath surface of the panel to operate a centrifugal pump with a rated capacity of 0.5 HP. The performance characteristics of the photovoltaic panel (such as, cell temperature, photovoltaic panel output, and photovoltaic efficiency, pump performance characteristics (such as pump efficiency and discharge, and system performance characteristics are observed with reference to solar irradiation, ambient temperature and wind velocity. A thermal model has been developed to predict the variations of photovoltaic cell temperature based on the measured glass and tedlar temperatures. The influences of cell temperature and solar irradiation on the performance of the system are described. The results concluded that cooling of photovoltaic panel on beneath surface has maintained the cell temperature in the range between 30°C and 40°C and improved the overall efficiency by about 1.8% when compared to the system without panel cooling.

  10. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  11. Study on the optimum tilted angle of solar panels in Hainan tropical photovoltaic facility agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxuan; Ge, Zhiwu; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Chunhua; Lin, Yanxia

    2017-04-01

    Photovoltaic facility agriculture system can effectively alleviate the contradiction between limited land and Photovoltaic power generation. It’s flexible to create suitable environment for crop growth, and generate electricity over the same land at the same time. It’s necessary to set appropriate solar panel angle to get more solar energy. Through detailed analysis and comparison, we chose the Hay’s model as solar radiation model. Based on the official meteorological data got from Haikou Meteorological Bureau, and by comparing the amount of radiation obtained at different tilted angles per month, the optimal placement angle of PV panels at different seasons in Haikou was obtained through calculation, and the optimal placement angle from April to October was also obtained. Through optimized angle and arrangement of solar photovoltaic panels, we can get greater power efficiency.

  12. Testing, Performance and Reliability Evaluation of Charge Controllers for Solar Photovoltaic Home Lighting System in India

    OpenAIRE

    Adarsh Kumar; ChandraShekhar Sharma; Dr. Rajesh Kumar; Avinashkumar haldkar

    2016-01-01

    :Charge controller is the most important part of a Solar Photovoltaic Home LightingSystem (SPVHLS) which controls the charging ofbattery from photovoltaic (PV) module and discharging of battery through load. This paper analyzes testresults of fourteen charge controllers (CC) available in Indiaaccording to the Ministry of New and RenewableEnergy (MNRE) specification. The different parameters of charge controllers to be tested arebattery high voltage disconnect (HVD), lo...

  13. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  14. Energetic and economic evaluation of solar thermal and photovoltaic cooling system in Cuban hotel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Torres, Yamile; Valdivia Nodal, Yarelis; Castellanos Molina, Luis Miguel; Torres del Toro, Migdalia; Monteagudo Llanes, José

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses the energetic and economic feasibility of using two configurations of solar cooling in a Cuban Hotel. The air conditioning hybrid system schemes are: conventional system (Chiller) interconnected in parallel with a solar- powered absorption cooling system (SACS); and a photovoltaic cooling system (PCS). There were analyzed by methodologies and thermodynamic principles governing these technologies. The results show that their uses are alternatives for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. (full text)

  15. Design and experimental investigation of a Multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Zeshao; Hu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system was proposed. • A prototype of this new concentrator was developed for experimental investigation. • Experimental investigation results showed a good concentrating uniformity. - Abstract: Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energies and meaningful for the sustainable development of energy source. A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) solar power system was proposed in this paper, the design principle of the multi-segment plate concentrator of this solar power system was given, which could provide uniform solar radiation flux density distribution on solar cells. A prototype of this multi-segment plate CPV solar power system was developed for the experimental study, aiming at the investigations of solar radiation flux density distribution and PV performances under this concentrator design. The experimental results showed that the solar radiation flux density distribution provided by the multi-segment plate concentrator had a good uniformity, and the number and temperature of solar cells both influence the photoelectric transformation efficiency of the CPV solar power system.

  16. Photovoltaic systems in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corba, Z.; Katic, V.; Milicevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possibility of using one of the renewable energy resources in agriculture. Specifically, the paper shows the possibility of converting solar energy into electricity through photovoltaic panels. The paper includes the analysis of the energy potential of solar radiation in the AP Vojvodina (Serbia). The results of the analysis can be used for the design of photovoltaic energy systems. The amount of solar energy on the territory of the province is compared with the same data from some European countries, in order to obtain a clear picture of the possibilities of utilization of this type of renewable sources. Three examples of possible application of photovoltaic systems are presented. The first relates to the consumer who is away from the electric distribution network - photovoltaic system in island mode. The remaining two examples relate to the application of photovoltaic power sources in manufacturing plants, flowers or vegetables. Applying photovoltaic source of electrical energy to power pumps for irrigation is highlighted

  17. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on Photovoltaic Metallization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic Metallization Research forum, under the sponsorship of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project consisted of five sessions, covering: (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques, and (5) future metallization challenges.

  18. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (SPV water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in the selected sites. The designed system is capable of providing a daily average of 10.5, 7 and 6.5 m3/day for 700, 467 and 433 people in Siadberand Wayu, Wolmera and Enderta sites respectively, with average daily water consumption of 15 liters per day per person and the costs of water without any subsidy, are approximately 0.1, 0.14 and 0.16 $/m3for each site respectively. If diesel generator is used instead of solar photovoltaic water pumping system, to provide the same average daily water for the selected community, the costs of water without any subsidy are approximately 0.2, 0.23 and 0.27 $/m3 for each site respectively. A life cycle cost analysis method was also carried out for economic comparison between solar PV and the diesel pumping system. The results of this study are encouraging the use of the PV system for drinking water supply in the remote areas of the country.

  19. The solar photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication first outlines challenges and stakes related to the development of renewable energies, and more particularly of photovoltaic solar energy in France and in the World. Principles and applications (connected and autonomous systems) are briefly presented. Some key data regarding installed capacity and its evolution in France and in other countries are briefly commented. The knowledge status of this technology is discussed in terms of strengths (environmental and energetic benefits, modularity, fast decreasing costs, integration into building envelope, local investment and consumer commitment, an added value and job generating sector), and weaknesses (fluctuating production and impact on the supply-demand balance, local impact on the distribution grid, land use, cautions, a sector with some environmental impact, evolutions of the support arrangement in France). Actions undertaken by the ADEME in different areas (support to research and innovation, installation quality, promotion of technologies with less environmental impacts) are reviewed

  20. Studies of a photovoltaic-thermal solar during system for rural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Y.; Yatim, B.; Bakar, N.A. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Center for Applied Physics Studies; Sopian, K. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Material Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar drying is increasing in areas where the use of abundant, renewable and clean solar energy is advantageous. Particularly in developing countries and in rural areas, the traditional open-air drying methods are being substituted by the more effective and more economic solar drying technologies. Since the air collector is the most important component of a solar food drying system, improvement of the design of collectors would lead to better performance of the system. This paper presented a new design of a photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) solar drying system. In order to achieve an efficient design of an air collector suitable for a solar dryer, the results of an experimental study of PVT solar air collector was conducted and presented. The paper presented the methodology and discussed a series of experiments that were conducted under Malaysian climatic conditions. The paper discussed the design of a double pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and fins. The collector design concept and the collector array were demonstrated. The performance of the collector was examined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the test were then presented and discussed. It was concluded that the performance of the solar collector was satisfactory. The quality attributes such as colour, flavour, and taste were significantly improved since it was protected from rain, dust, and insects, in contrast to sun drying. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Solar photovoltaic systems and their use as grid-connected generators in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, D K; Hacker, R J; Thornycroft, J M [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of building-integrated solar photovoltaic generators as grid-connected generators. This paper discusses the experience with this technology in Europe. Typical systems and their integration into domestic and non-domestic buildings are described. Information is provided on the energy output that can be expected from the systems and the economics of their use. The paper provides an overview of the requirements for photovoltaic systems as grid-connected generation plant in the United Kingdom. (Author)

  2. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  3. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  4. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  5. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Lowder, Travis; Feldman, David; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2016-07-19

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  6. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    2017-11-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cell is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  8. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  9. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  10. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Photo of a large silicon solar

  12. Solar photovoltaic system design optimization by shading analysis to maximize energy generation from limited urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachchh, Ravi; Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Scheme to maximize total number of solar panels in a given area. • Enhanced energy output from a fixed area without compromising the efficiency. • Capacity and generated energy are enhanced by more than 25%. - Abstract: In the urban areas the demand of solar power is increasing due to better awareness about the emission of green house gases from conventional thermal power plants and significant decrease in the installation cost of residential solar power plants. But the land cost and the under utilization of available space is hindering its further growth. Under these circumstances, solar photovoltaic system installation needs to accommodate the maximum number of solar panels in either roof-top or land-mounted category. In this article a new approach is suggested to maximize the total number of solar panels in a given area with enhanced energy output without compromising the overall efficiency of the system. The number of solar panels can be maximized in a solar photovoltaic energy generation system by optimizing installation parameters such as tilt angle, pitch, gain factor, altitude angle and shading to improve the energy yield. In this paper mathematical analysis is done to show that the capacity and generated energy can be enhanced by more than 25% for a given land area by optimization various parameters.

  13. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  14. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  15. Solar warming systems of water installed in Colombia. Photovoltaic solar systems installed in the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    Between the systems that operate as of solar energy, the solar collectors to heat water have had wide use and application in the Country. Basically, a solar collector is constituted by: Box, thermal insulator, ducts and transparent roof. Generally, the used materials are the following: As thermal insulator: Polyurethane or glass fiber; as absorbent plate: Copper or aluminum, painting in dull black or selective surfaces; for the ducts: Generally it is used copper pipeline; and for the cover: Common glass or temperate glass

  16. Studies of a photovoltaic-thermal solar dryi system for rural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    Importance of solar drying in increasing worldwide. especially in areas where the use of abundant, renewable and clean solar energy is essentially advantageous. In developing countries and in rural areas the traditional open-air drying methods should be substituted by the more effective and more economic solar drying technologies. In the present work, a new design of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar drying system was fabricated. An experimental study of PV/T solar air collector has been performed towards achieving n efficient design of air collector suitable foe a solar dryer. A series of experiments were conducted based on the ASHRAE standard, under Malaysia Climatic conditions. The performance of the collector is examined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the test are presented and discussed.(Author)

  17. The heat recovery with heat transfer methods from solar photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özakın, A. N.; Karsli, S.; Kaya, F.; Güllüce, H.

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many fluctuations in energy prices, they seems like rising day by day. Thus energy recovery systems have increasingly trend. Photovoltaic systems converts solar radiation directly into electrical energy thanks to semiconductors. But due to the nature of semiconductors, whole of solar energy cannot turn into electrical energy and the remaining energy turns into waste heat. The aim of this research is evaluate this waste heat energy by air cooling system. So, the energy efficiency of the system will be increased using appropriate heat transfer technologies such as fin, turbulator etc. (paper)

  18. Solar energy developments: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivoththaman, S.

    2006-01-01

    The annual photovoltaic (PV) energy production crossed the 1 Gigawatt mark a couple of years ago, and continues to grow at rates exceeding 40%. The cost of PV has been continuously dropping due to increased production and also thanks to the technological advances made over the past two decades at the material, device, and system levels. Although PV is still considered expensive, cost-competitiveness is expected to be achieved in the next 5-10 years. With the current PV market 90% dominated by crystalline silicon (Si) material, advances are being made in tackling the Si shortage issue, and new approaches in feedstock refinement are getting shape. On the other hand, progress is being made on thin film-based advanced devices and on novel organic semiconductors. Novel concepts based on quantum physics and nanotechnology do have the ability to improve device performance beyond traditional theoretical limits. The domination of Si is expected to shift when these next generation technologies mature into industry-level scalability. On the system level, advanced back-end electronics provides more efficient power conditioning for modern PV modules. Systems level combinations such as solar thermal/PV hybrids and PV/hydrogen systems are also promising. An overview of recent technology developments will be presented with highlights in the Canadian scenario. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  20. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  1. Modelling and system analysis of new photovoltaic thermal solar collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katiyar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This project report is a deliverable within the scope of WenSDak project, which is being carried out by a consortium of a number of photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) panel manufacturers and knowledge institutes. This project is financed by RVO (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) – project number

  2. Long-term energy output estimation for photovoltaic energy systems using synthetic solar irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A general methodology is presented to estimate the monthly average daily energy output from photovoltaic energy systems. Energy output is estimated from synthetically generated solar radiation data. The synthetic solar radiation data are generated based on the cumulative frequency distribution of the daily clearness index, given as a function of the monthly clearness index. Two sets of synthetic solar irradiation data are generated: 3- and 4-day months. In the 3-day month, each month is represented by 3 days and in the 4-day month, by 4 days. The 3- and 4-day solar irradiation data are synthetically generated for each month and the corresponding energy outputs are calculated. A total of 8-year long measured hourly solar irradiation data, from five different locations in the world, is used to validate the new model. The monthly energy output values calculated from the synthetic solar irradiation data are compared to those calculated from the measured hour-by-hour data. It is shown that when the measured solar radiation data do not exist for a particular location or reduced data set is advantageous, the energy output from photovoltaic converters could be correctly calculated

  3. Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Cluster vs. Single Home Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimber Haddix McKay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the socio-cultural dimensions of obstacles facing solar photovoltaic projects in two villages in rural Nepal. The study was conducted in Humla District, Nepal, one of the most remote and impoverished regions of the country. There are no roads in the district, homes lack running water and villagers’ health suffers from high levels of indoor air pollution from open cooking/heating fires and the smoky torches traditionally burned for light. The introduction of solar energy is important to these villagers, as it removes one major source of indoor air pollution from homes and provides brighter light than the traditional torches. Solar energy is preferable in many villages in the region due to the lack of suitable streams or rivers for micro-hydroelectric projects. In the villages under study in this paper, in-home solar electricity is a novel and recent innovation, and was installed within the last three years in two different geo-spatial styles, depending upon the configuration of homes in the village. In some villages, houses are grouped together, while in others households are widely dispersed. In the former, solar photovoltaic systems were installed in a “cluster” fashion with multiple homes utilizing power from a central battery store under the control of the householder storing the battery bank. In villages with widely spaced households, a single home system was used so that each home had a separate solar photovoltaic array, wiring system and battery bank. It became clear that the cluster system was the sensible choice due to the geographic layout of certain villages, but this put people into management groups that did not always work well due to caste or other differences. This paper describes the two systems and their management and usage costs and benefits from the perspective of the villagers themselves.

  4. Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDOGMUS, O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used for balanced the motor power and PV power to obtain a high efficiency. The results are performed by using MATLAB/SimPowerSystem blocks. In addition, the PV array is modeled to allow for the possibility of running as on-line adjustable in simulation environment without using lookup table. The performances of motor, MPPT and drive system are analyzed in different conditions as temperature and irradiation of PV array.

  5. Modeling of four-terminal solar photovoltaic systems for field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahanka, Harikrushna; Purohit, Zeel; Tripathi, Brijesh

    2018-05-01

    In this article a theoretical framework for mechanically stacked four-terminal solar photovoltaic (FTSPV) system has been proposed. In a mechanical stack arrangement, a semitransparent CdTe panel has been used as a top sub-module, whereas a μc-Si solar panel has been used as bottom sub-module. Theoretical modeling has been done to analyze the physical processes in the system and to estimate reliable prediction of the performance. To incorporate the effect of material, the band gap and the absorption coefficient data for CdTe and μc-Si panels have been considered. The electrical performance of the top and bottom panels operated in a mechanical stack has been obtained experimentally for various inter-panel separations in the range of 0-3 cm. Maximum output power density has been obtained for a separation of 0.75 cm. The mean value of output power density from CdTe (top panel) has been calculated as 32.3 Wm-2 and the mean value of output power density from μc-Si, the bottom panel of four-terminal photovoltaic system has been calculated as ˜3.5 Wm-2. Results reported in this study reveal the potential of mechanically stacked four-terminal tandem solar photovoltaic system towards an energy-efficient configuration.

  6. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benghanem

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia. The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed. Keywords: Photovoltaic water pumping system, Solar radiation data, Simulation, Flow rate

  7. Experimental study of a photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, H.D.; Pei, G.; Ji, J.; Long, H.; Zhang, T.; Chow, T.T.

    2012-01-01

    A practical design for a heat pump with heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is presented. The hybrid system is called the photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe (PV-SAHP/HP) system. To focus on both actual demand and energy savings, the PV-SAHP/HP system was designed to be capable of operating in three different modes, namely, the heat-pipe, solar-assisted heat pump, and air-source heat-pump modes. Based on solar radiation, the system operates in an optimal mode. A series of experiments were conducted in Hong Kong to study the performance of the system when operating in the heat-pipe and the solar-assisted heat-pump modes. Moreover, energy and exergy analyses were used to investigate the total PV/T performance of the system. - Highlights: ► A novel PV-SAHP/HP system with three different operating modes was proposed. ► Performance of the PV-SAHP/HP system was studied experimentally. ► A optimal operating mode of the PV-SAHP/HP system was suggested in this paper.

  8. Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    R. Prakash; B. Meenakshipriya; R. Kumaravelan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with pro...

  9. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  10. Solar radiation transfer and performance analysis of an optimum photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiafei; Song Yongchen; Lam, Wei-Haur; Liu Weiguo; Liu Yu; Zhang Yi; Wang DaYong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design optimization of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system using both non-concentrated and concentrated solar radiation. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) module using silicon solar cell and a thermal unit based on the direct absorption collector (DAC) concept. First, the working fluid of the thermal unit absorbs the solar infrared radiation. Then, the remaining visible light is transmitted and converted into electricity by the solar cell. This arrangement prevents excessive heating of the solar cell which would otherwise negatively affects its electrical efficiency. The optical properties of the working fluid were modeled based on the damped oscillator Lorentz-Drude model satisfying the Kramers-Kroenig relations. The coefficients of the model were retrieved by inverse method based on genetic algorithm, in order to (i) maximize transmission of solar radiation between 200 nm and 800 nm and (ii) maximize absorption in the infrared part of the spectrum from 800 nm to 2000 nm. The results indicate that the optimum system can effectively and separately use the visible and infrared part of solar radiation. The thermal unit absorbs 89% of the infrared radiation for photothermal conversion and transmits 84% of visible light to the solar cell for photoelectric conversion. When reducing the mass flow rate, the outflow temperature of the working fluid reaches 74 o C, the temperature of the PV module remains around 31 o C at a constant electrical efficiency about 9.6%. Furthermore, when the incident solar irradiance increases from 800 W/m 2 to 8000 W/m 2 , the system generates 196 o C working fluid with constant thermal efficiency around 40%, and the exergetic efficiency increases from 12% to 22%.

  11. Thermal and photovoltaic solar system in Urban hotel; Sistema solar termico y fotovoltaico en hotel urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.; Perpinan, O.; Ramirez, F.; Eyras, R.; Vega, J.

    2004-07-01

    The article describes the Solar Energy installations that are being carried out in the Hotel Monte Malaga promoted by the Gabriel Rojas Group. We can consider this project to be pioneer in Spain since it uses Photovoltaic Solar Panels as parasols in facades in order to reduce its frozen load and with the intention of producing electric energy that will be injected to the grid. In addition, solar collectors over roof are being used distributed in a totally integrated way with the building for the preheating of the sanitary hot water producing a saving of around 90% of the natural gas consume. This entire project is carried out in an ultramodern design using different bioclimatic techniques that turns this building into a singular one. (Author)

  12. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  13. Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracking system controlled by maximum power point tracking unit of photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracker. • It has the advantages of both sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. • It does not have the disadvantages of sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. • Tracking error of only 0.11° that is less than the tracking errors of others. • An increase of 28.8–43.6% depending on the seasons in the energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracker controlled by the maximum power point tracking unit available in almost all photovoltaic systems is proposed. The maximum power point tracking controller continuously calculates the maximum output power of the photovoltaic module/panel/array, and uses the altitude and azimuth angles deviations to track the sun direction where the greatest value of the maximum output power is extracted. Unlike all other sensorless solar trackers, the proposed solar tracking system is a closed loop system which means it uses the actual direction of the sun at any time to track the sun direction, and this is the contribution of this work. The proposed solar tracker has the advantages of both sensor based and sensorless dual-axis solar trackers, but it does not have their disadvantages. Other sensorless solar trackers all are open loop, i.e., they use offline estimated data about the sun path in the sky obtained from solar map equations, so low exactness, cloudy sky, and requiring new data for new location are their problems. A photovoltaic system has been built, and it is experimentally verified that the proposed solar tracking system tracks the sun direction with the tracking error of 0.11° which is less than the tracking errors of other both sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. An increase of 28.8–43.6% depending on the seasons in the energy efficiency is the main advantage of utilizing the proposed solar tracking system.

  14. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  15. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  16. Modeling and simulation of the solar concentrator in photovoltaic systems through the application of a new BRDF function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm that uses a combination of two models of BRDF functions: Torrance-Sparrow model and HTSG model. The knowledge of technical parameters of a surface is especially useful in the construction of the solar concentrator. The concentrator directs the reflected solar radiation on the surface of photovoltaic panels, increasing the amount of incident radiance. The software applying algorithm allows to calculate surface parameters of the solar concentrator. Performed simulation showing the share of diffuse component and directional component in reflected stream for surfaces made from particular materials. The impact of share of each component in reflected stream on the efficiency of the solar concentrator and photovoltaic surface has also been described. Subsequently, simulation change the value of voltage, current and power output of monocrystalline photovoltaic panels installed in a solar concentrator system has been made for selected surface of materials solar concentrator.

  17. Monitoring a photovoltaic system during the partial solar eclipse of August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinec, Santosh K.; Kucer, Michal; Schlein, Bill

    2018-05-01

    The power output of a 4.85 kW residential photovoltaic (PV) system located in Rochester, NY is monitored during the partial solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. The data is compared with the data on a day before and on the same day, a year ago. The area of exposed solar disk is measured using astrophotography every 16 s of the eclipse. Global solar irradiance is estimated using the eclipse shading, time of the day, location coordinates, atmospheric conditions and panel orientation. A sharp decline, as expected in the energy produced is observed at the time of the peak of the eclipse. The observed data of the PV energy produced is related with the model calculations taking into account solar eclipse coverage and cloudiness conditions. The paper provides a cohesive approach of irradiance calculations and obtaining anticipated PV performance.

  18. The performance and applicability study of a fixed photovoltaic-solar water disinfection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanchao; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Zhu, Li; Cui, Yong; Cui, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A fixed photovoltaic-SODIS (solar water disinfection) system was constructed. • The system could generate electricity and produce clean water simultaneously. • The daily solar generated electricity was much more than the system consumption. • The system can be used for about 90% of whole year in Lhasa and Chennai. • Temperature enhanced the SODIS process for about 60% days of whole year in Chennai. - Abstract: The objective of the study is to construct and evaluate a fixed PV (photovoltaic) cell integrated with SODIS (solar water disinfection) system to treat drinking water and generate electricity under different climate through experimental and simulation methods. The photovoltaic and disinfection performances of the hybrid system were studied by the disinfection of Escherichia coli. The applicability of the system in Lhasa and Chennai was evaluated by analyzing the daily radiation and predicting the daily water temperature and the system electricity output. The results confirm that the temperature would dramatically enhance the SODIS process and shorten the disinfection time, when the water temperature was above 45 °C. The PV cell in the hybrid system could work under low temperature because of the water layer and the generated electricity was much more than the system consumption. The simulation results show that the days with maximum water temperature above 45 °C were more than 60% of whole year in Chennai. The generated electricity of the hybrid system was 49682.3 W h and 45615.9 W h a year in Lhasa and Chennai respectively. It was sufficient to drive the system of whole year. The number of days which realized drinking water treatment was 324 days in Lhasa and 315 days in Chennai a year.

  19. Photovoltaic energy: an energy that wins. Solar systems, energy, environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felines, P.; Martin, P.E.; Schmit, R.; Hammerbacher, M.; Bal, J.L.; Gaillard, M.; Mandil, O.; Duchemin, I.; Magnin, P.A.; Vandal, A.; Carella, R.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell and module production has increased by 43% with respect to the previous year, to reach a record: 126.7 MW p. This strong growth in production was the result of the ''70000 roofs'' project in Japan, programs of the same type in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and to the autonomous installations market. The American production growth is explained by the increase in exports to Japan, with a 'total exports/production' ratio which is now established in the vicinity of 75%. The Japanese production was sold entirely on the domestic market, and this for the second straight year. For the most part, European production was sold in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, as well as on the decentralized rural electrification market (particularly in India). (N.C.)

  20. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five. (author)

  1. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  2. Performance investigation of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A common design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator was presented. • The gallium arsenide high concentrated solar was used as the receiver. • High efficiency of electric generating could be achieved at noon. • Fresnel solar concentrator was studied and compared in hazy weather and clear weather. - Abstract: A design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator which can provide a certain width focal line was presented in this study. Based on the optical principle of refraction, the dimensions of each wedge-shaped element of Fresnel lens are calculated. An optical simulation has been done to obtain the optical efficiency of the concentrator for different tracking error and axial incidence angle. It has been found that about 80% of the incident sunlight can still be gathered by the absorber when the tracking error is within 0.7°. When the axial angle of incidence is within 10°, it almost has no influence to the receiving rate. The concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator has been designed in this paper. Take the gallium arsenide high concentrated battery as the receiver, experimental research about cylindrical Fresnel concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is undertaken in the real sky. Main parameters are tested such as the temperature distribution on receiver, electric energy and thermal energy outputs of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system, the efficiency of multipurpose utilization of electric and heat, and so on. The test results in clear weather show that maximum electric generating efficiency is about 18% at noon, the maximum heat receiving rate of cooling water is about 45%. At noon time (11:00–13:00), the total efficiency of thermal and electricity can reach more than 55%. Performance of this concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator is studied and compared in two types typical weather, hazy

  3. Potential of Solar Energy in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: An Estimate Using a Photovoltaic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, F. M.; Sentian, J.

    2016-04-01

    Solar energy is becoming popular as an alternative renewable energy to conventional energy source, particularly in the tropics, where duration and intensity of solar radiation are longer. This study is to assess the potential of solar energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu, a rapidly developing city in the State of Sabah, Malaysia. A year data of solar radiation was obtained using pyranometer, which was located at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (6.0367° N, 116.1186° E). It was concluded that the annual average solar radiation received in Kota Kinabalu was 182 W/m2. In estimating the potential energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu city area, a photovoltaic (PV) system model was used. The results showed that, Kota Kinabalu is estimated to produce 29,794 kWh/m2 of electricity from the solar radiation received in a year. This is equivalent to 0.014 MW of electricity produced just by using one solar panel. Considering the power demand in Sabah by 2020 is 1,331 MW, this model showed that the solar energy can contribute around 4% of energy for power demand, with 1 MW capacity of the PV system. 1 MW of PV system installation will require about 0.0328% from total area of the city. This assessment could suggest that, exploration for solar power energy as an alternative source of renewable energy in the city can be optimised and designed to attain significant higher percentage of contribution to the energy demand in the state.

  4. Potential of Solar Energy in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: An Estimate Using a Photovoltaic System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, F M; Sentian, J

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy is becoming popular as an alternative renewable energy to conventional energy source, particularly in the tropics, where duration and intensity of solar radiation are longer. This study is to assess the potential of solar energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu, a rapidly developing city in the State of Sabah, Malaysia. A year data of solar radiation was obtained using pyranometer, which was located at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (6.0367° N, 116.1186° E). It was concluded that the annual average solar radiation received in Kota Kinabalu was 182 W/m 2 . In estimating the potential energy generated from solar for Kota Kinabalu city area, a photovoltaic (PV) system model was used. The results showed that, Kota Kinabalu is estimated to produce 29,794 kWh/m 2 of electricity from the solar radiation received in a year. This is equivalent to 0.014 MW of electricity produced just by using one solar panel. Considering the power demand in Sabah by 2020 is 1,331 MW, this model showed that the solar energy can contribute around 4% of energy for power demand, with 1 MW capacity of the PV system. 1 MW of PV system installation will require about 0.0328% from total area of the city. This assessment could suggest that, exploration for solar power energy as an alternative source of renewable energy in the city can be optimised and designed to attain significant higher percentage of contribution to the energy demand in the state. (paper)

  5. Financing options and economic impact: distributed generation using solar photovoltaic systems in Normal, Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H. Jo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing price volatility in fossil-fuel-produced energy, the demand for clean, renewable, and abundant energy is more prevalent than in past years. Solar photovoltaic (PV systems have been well documented for their ability to produce electrical energy while at the same time offering support to mitigate the negative externalities associated with fossil fuel combustion. Prices for PV systems have decreased over the past few years, however residential and commercial owners may still opt out of purchasing a system due to the overall price required for a PV system installation. Therefore, determining optimal financing options for residential and small-scale purchasers is a necessity. We report on payment methods currently used for distributed community solar projects throughout the US and suggest appropriate options for purchasers in Normal, Illinois given their economic status. We also examine the jobs and total economic impact of a PV system implementation in the case study area.

  6. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for Photovoltaic (PV) System in Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Seno; Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam; Suryoatmojo, Heri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC) is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cy...

  7. Experimental research on charging characteristics of a solar photovoltaic system by the pressure-control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHU; Zhang-lu XU; Zi-juan CAO

    2011-01-01

    The charging characteristics of the valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery driven by solar energy were experimentally studied through the pressure-control method in this paper. The aims of the research were to increase charging efficiency to make the most of solar energy and to improve charging quality to prolong life of battery. The charging process of a 12 V 12 A.h VRLA battery has been tested under the mode of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. Results show that the pressure-control method can effectively control PV charging of the VRLA battery and make the best of PV cells through the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The damage of VRLA battery by excess oxygen accumulation can be avoided through the inner pressure control of VRLA battery. Parameters such as solar radiation intensity, charging power, inner pressure of the battery, and charging current and voltage during the charging process were measured and analyzed.

  8. Dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Shen, Jingchun; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A transient model was developed to predict dynamic performance of new PV/LHP system. • The model accuracy was validated by experiment giving less than 9% in error. • The new system had basic and advanced performance coefficients of 5.51 and 8.71. • The new system had a COP 1.5–4 times that for conventional heat pump systems. • The new system had higher exergetic efficiency than PV and solar collector systems. - Abstract: Objective of the paper is to present an investigation into the dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for potential use in space heating or hot water generation. The methods used include theoretical computer simulation, experimental verification, analysis and comparison. The fundamental equations governing the transient processes of solar transmission, heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic (PV) power generation were appropriately integrated to address the energy balances occurring in different parts of the system, e.g., glazing cover, PV cells, fin sheet, loop heat pipe, heat pump cycle and water tank. A dedicated computer model was developed to resolve the above grouping equations and consequently predict the system’s dynamic performance. An experimental rig was constructed and operated under the real weather conditions for over one week in Shanghai to evaluate the system living performance, which was undertaken by measurement of various operational parameters, e.g., solar radiation, photovoltaic power generation, temperatures and heat pump compressor consumption. On the basis of the first- (energetic) and second- (exergetic) thermodynamic laws, an overall evaluation approach was proposed and applied to conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the PV/LHP module’s efficiency, which involved use of the basic thermal performance coefficient (COP th ) and the advanced performance coefficient (COP PV/T ) of such a system. Moreover, a simple comparison

  9. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  10. Lightning Surge Analysis on a Large Scale Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hazirah Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (PV farms currently play a vital role in the generation of electrical power in different countries, such as Malaysia, which is moving toward the use of renewable energy. Malaysia is one of the countries with abundant sunlight and thus can use solar PV farms as alternative sources for electricity generation. However, lightning strikes frequently occur in the country. Being installed in open and flat areas, solar PV farms, especially their electronic components, are at great risk of damage caused by lightning. In this paper, the effects of lightning currents with different peak currents and waveshapes on grid-connected solar PV farms were determined to approximate the level of transient effect that can damage solar PV modules, inverters and transformers. Depending on the location of the solar PV farm, engineer can obtain information on the peak current and median current of the site from the lightning location system (LLS and utilise the results obtained in this study to appropriately assign an SPD to protect the solar panel, inverter and the main panel that connected to the grid. Therefore, the simulation results serve as the basis for controlling the effects of lightning strikes on electrical equipment and power grids where it provides proper justification on the ‘where to be installed’ and ‘what is the rating’ of the SPD. This judgment and decision will surely reduce the expensive cost of repair and replacement of electrical equipment damages due to the lightning.

  11. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  12. Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Selvam; S. Senthil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit c...

  13. Profitability considerations for photovoltaics-based solar cooling systems; Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen fuer photovoltaik-basierte solare Kuehlsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlenbach, Paul [Beuth Hochschule fuer Technik, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich VIII

    2016-07-01

    In the present article it is studied, under which boundary conditions the application of photovoltaics-based cooling systems is presently economically meaningful. A comparison with a net-drived cold-water set (100 kW{sub r} 5000 full hours/year) as reference system is made. As influence quantity the levelized cost of cooling energy (LCCE) is defined. Following options were studied: - PV system is directly conducted to the cooling facility by means of physical cable connection - PV system is separately fed into the current network and payed back via feeding compensation. Additionally sensitivity analyses of selected parameters on the refrigeration costs were studied.

  14. Energy Storage Management in Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya M.E

    2015-01-01

    The penetration of renewable sources in the power system network in the power system has been increasing in the recent years. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage device into the power system network. This paper discusses the modeling of photo voltaic and status of the storage device such as lead acid battery for better energy management in the system. The energy management for the grid conne...

  15. Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chihhui; Neuner III, Burton; Shvets, Gennady; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley–Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above T e = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for T e = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented

  16. Energy Payback Time of a Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of both plastic consumption and prosumer 3-D printing are driving an interest in producing 3-D printer filaments from waste plastic. This study quantifies the embodied energy of a vertical DC solar photovoltaic (PV powered recyclebot based on life cycle energy analysis and compares it to horizontal AC recyclebots, conventional recycling, and the production of a virgin 3-D printer filament. The energy payback time (EPBT is calculated using the embodied energy of the materials making up the recyclebot itself and is found to be about five days for the extrusion of a poly lactic acid (PLA filament or 2.5 days for the extrusion of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS filament. A mono-crystalline silicon solar PV system is about 2.6 years alone. However, this can be reduced by over 96% if the solar PV system powers the recyclebot to produce a PLA filament from waste plastic (EPBT is only 0.10 year or about a month. Likewise, if an ABS filament is produced from a recyclebot powered by the solar PV system, the energy saved is 90.6–99.9 MJ/kg and 26.33–29.43 kg of the ABS filament needs to be produced in about half a month for the system to pay for itself. The results clearly show that the solar PV system powered recyclebot is already an excellent way to save energy for sustainable development.

  17. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective and highly ... in the proposed system because of its similar operational characteristics compared to SPV generator. .... (CCM) regardless of the atmospheric conditions.

  18. Comparison of Photovoltaic Energy Systems for the Solar Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    power -point-trackIng ( MPPT ) for the array. It also Includes AC and DC contactors, an isolation transformer, and a control system that fully automates...the day when the array is producing power , the battery controller uses excess array power , not needed for household use , to recharge the batteries. As...alone design) The battery controller used Is the Balance of System Specialists, Inc. Power Control Series model *8104820 rated at 48 volt, 20 amp. This

  19. Photovoltaic solar energy: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Attention is paid to developments in the Netherlands of all aspects of photovoltaic (PV) energy: solar cells, components, PV-systems and all kinds of applications. Efficiencies of the present solar cell types still increase, varying from more than 10% for organic/TiO 2 solar cells to 33% for GaAs/GaSb concentrator tandem solar cells. 3 figs., 2 ills., 1 tab

  20. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal Systems (PV/T Systems) combine Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies into one system with both electrical and thermal energy output. PV/T systems have several perceived advantages to stand-alone PV or solar-thermal systems. The increased efficiency and dual nature of the systems make suitable for situations where installation space is limited, and for homeowners who are forced to decide between meeting thermal or electrical needs. The financial benefit of the combined system is also significant, as the long payback of PV systems is joined with a relatively short payback of solar thermal systems. A background of PV/T was presented, with details of classifications and the International Energy Association's program to evaluate the technical status of PV/T systems and formulate a roadmap for future development. It was noted that input from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) is needed to help identify market barriers in PV/T systems. This paper reviewed existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status, and reported on the methodology established by IEA group 35. The systems were grouped according to thermal collector types of unglazed water collectors, glazed water collectors, unglazed air collectors, glazed air collectors, air-flow windows, and concentrating collectors. It was noted that a number of new systems are currently being developed, including concentrating collectors with water and air heating, unglazed air heating systems, and unglazed water heating systems. It was noted that apart from technical barriers, efficient design and performance prediction are also problematic, as tools for predicting performance do not exist. The same tools will be used to optimize PV/T system designs. It was suggested that standardized reporting methods, simulation and sizing tools and demonstration products need to be created and that regional certification issues need to be identified. Environmental

  1. Snow melting system with electric heating using photovoltaic power generation; Solar yusetsuko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M; Fujita, S; Kaga, T; Koyama, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper clarifies the solar characteristics in Hachinohe district, to investigate a possibility of the snow melting system with electric heating using solar energy. Power demand for snow melting, power generated by the photovoltaic (PV) array, area of PV array, and working conditions of the system, as to temperature, precipitation and snowfall, were investigated. The percentage of sunshine is 44% in Hachinohe district, which has more fortunate natural condition for utilizing solar radiation compared with that of 20% in Aomori prefecture. The intensity of solar radiation in winter from December to March is around 500 W/m{sup 2} in average, which is equivalent to the quantity of solar radiation, around 2 kWh/m{sup 2} a day. When assuming that snow on the road surface is frozen at the snowfall under the air temperature below -3{degree}C, the occurrence frequency is 50% during January and February in Hachinohe district, which means one frozen day for two days and is equivalent to the occurrence frequency of frozen days, 34% in average during winter. The electric application ratio is 0.34 at the maximum in winter. That is, days of 34% for one month are required for snow melting. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The characteristic analysis of the solar energy photovoltaic power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Li, K.; Niu, D. D.; Jin, Y. A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is an inexhaustible, clean, renewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells are a key component in solar power generation, so thorough research on output characteristics is of far-reaching importance. In this paper, an illumination model and a photovoltaic power station output power model were established, and simulation analysis was conducted using Matlab and other software. The analysis evaluated the condition of solar energy resources in the Baicheng region in the western part of Jilin province, China. The characteristic curve of the power output from a photovoltaic power station was obtained by simulation calculation. It was shown that the monthly average output power of the photovoltaic power station is affected by seasonal changes; the output power is higher in summer and autumn, and lower in spring and winter.

  3. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: liming@ynnu.edu.c [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China); Li, G.L. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. {yields} Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. {yields} The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating

  4. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  5. A new and inexpensive temperature-measuring system. Application to photovoltaic solar facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohorquez, Miguel Angel Martinez; Enrique Gomez, Juan Manuel; Andujar Marquez, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, Carretera Huelva - Palos de la, Frontera S/N, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This article presents the design, construction and testing of a new and inexpensive digital sensor-based temperature-measuring system, whose principal characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation and easy scaling, and all this at a very low cost. This new digital sensor-based measuring system overcomes the traditional problems of digital measuring sensors, offering characteristics similar to Pt100-based measuring systems, and therefore can be used in any installation where reliable temperature measurement is necessary. It is especially suitable for installations where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of measuring system. It presents a practical application of the developed instrumentation system for use in photovoltaic solar facilities. This new temperature-measuring system has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office with the number P200803364. (author)

  6. The experimental study of a hybrid solar photo-Fenton and photovoltaic system for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanchao; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Zhu, Li; Cui, Yong; Cui, Lingyun; Lin, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new solar photo-Fenton and photovoltaic system was performed for the first time. • Acid Red 26, Malachite Green and Reactive Blue 4 were discolored using the system. • The PV panel of the hybrid system could work under lower temperature. • The system achieved self-sufficient energy and could work autonomously. • Solar spectrum could be made full use for power generation and water purification. - Abstract: A new hybrid system that integrated a photovoltaic (PV) panel with a solar photo-Fenton (SPF) reactor was constructed to treat wastewater and generate electricity for the first time. The decolorization and photovoltaic performances of the hybrid system were tested outdoors by discoloring three dyes: Acid Red 26 (AR26), Malachite Green (MG) and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4). Lab scale experiments also had been done to confirm the impact of temperature on the SPF process. The lab scale results show that SPF process was more efficiency for decoloring the different dyes, compared with dark Fenton. The SPF followed a pseudo-first-order reaction and the reaction rate constant was improved about 3.5, 4.5 and 0.61 times for AR26, RB4 and MG respectively as the wastewater temperature increased from 20 to 50 °C. The decolorization difficulty of the three dyes followed this order: MG > AR26 > RB4. The results of the hybrid systems tested outdoors show that 200 mg/L MG had achieved 98.6% color removal after 3 h of treatment at a low catalyst dose (Fe"2"+ = 5 mg/L) under sunlight. For 100 mg/L MG, 99.3% color removal was observed after 70 min. The treatment time required for decolorization of AR26 and RB4 was more shorter. In the present of the water layer, the wastewater temperature was increased and that of the hybrid system was decreased. The average output power of the hybrid system was more than 12 W and sufficient to drive the system during all of the outdoor experiments. Our results suggest that the system could realize decolorization of different

  7. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K. O.; Almohammedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m) and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia). The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan) in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed.

  8. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic solar pump based on ANFIS tuning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shabaan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (PV systems are a clean and naturally replenished energy source. PV panels have a unique point which represents the maximum available power and this point depend on the environmental conditions such as temperature and irradiance. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT is therefore necessary for maximum efficiency. In this paper, a study of MPPT for PV water pumping system based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is discussed. A comparison between the performance of the system with and without MPPT is carried out under varying irradiation and temperature conditions. ANFIS based controller shows fast response with high efficiency at all irradiance and temperature levels making it a powerful technique for non-linear systems as PV modules. Keywords: MPPT, ANFIS, Boost converter, PMDC pump

  9. Detailed performance analysis of realistic solar photovoltaic systems at extensive climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, solar energy has been considered as one of the principle renewable energy source for electric power generation. In this paper, single diode photovoltaic (PV) system and double/bypass diode based PV system are designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment based on their mathematical modeling and are validated with a commercially available solar panel. The novelty of the paper is to include the effect of climatic conditions i.e. variable irradiation level, wind speed, temperature, humidity level and dust accumulation in the modeling of both the PV systems to represent a realistic PV system. The comprehensive investigations are made on both the modeled PV systems. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance for realistic models of the PV system. Furthermore, an in depth comparative analysis is carried out for both PV systems. - Highlights: • Modeling of Single diode and Double diode PV systems in MATLAB/Simulink software. • Validation of designed PV systems with a commercially available PV panel. • Acquisition and employment of key climatic factors in modeling of the PV systems. • Evaluation of main model parameters of both the PV systems. • Detailed comparative assessment of both the modeled PV system parameters.

  10. Materials for Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems: Optical Properties and Solar Radiation Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. H.; Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; Lemon, M. F.; Romano, E. C.; Boydell, P.

    2010-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are designed to operate over a wide range of solar concentrations, from low concentrations of ˜1 to 12 Suns to medium concentrations in the range from 12 to 200 Suns, to high concentration CPV systems going up to 2000 Suns. Many transparent optical materials are used for a wide variety of functions ranging from refractive and reflective optics to homogenizers, encapsulants and even thermal management. The classes of materials used also span a wide spectrum from hydrocarbon polymers (HCP) and fluoropolymers (FP) to silicon containing polymers and polyimides (PI). The optical properties of these materials are essential to the optical behavior of the system. At the same time radiation durability of these materials under the extremely wide range of solar concentrations is a critical performance requirement for the required lifetime of a CPV system. As part of our research on materials for CPV we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of various polymeric materials to define the optimum material combinations for various CPV systems.

  11. Socio- economic impact study of the electrification by the photovoltaic solar system in the AIJ/RPTES project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the study relating to the socio-economical impact of the electrification by photovoltaic solar system in the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES. The localities concerned with the study are the provinces of BALE and the MOUHOUN. The data analyzes relating to the electrification by solar system of the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES, revealed that solar electrical energy contributed to a significant degree to the socio-economic development, especially at the level of the structures having profited from the solar equipment. The principal conclusions drawn from these analyzes attested that: the solar system corresponds as well as possible for rural environment as well on the technological level as on the capacity plan of maintenance. The following reasons come to corroborate this fact: the weakness of the costs of management of the photovoltaic modules; the photovoltaic technic, in spite of a low incidental maximum power (1 kw/ m 2 ), satisfied the priority needs for the rural populations (lighting, access to information and education, conservation of the vaccines in the CSPS, etc). - be photovoltaic installations cause: an average financial profit by CSPS of 180 487.5 FCFA/an, and a financial economy in the parents of the new-born babies estimated at 36,600 FCFA/an in each CSPS; an average financial economy by household of 49,452 FCFA/an [fr

  12. Lightning Surge Analysis on a Large Scale Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hazirah Zaini; Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab. Kadir; Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi; Mahdi Izadi; Norhafiz Azis; Nor Izzati Ahmad; Mohd Solehin Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) farms currently play a vital role in the generation of electrical power in different countries, such as Malaysia, which is moving toward the use of renewable energy. Malaysia is one of the countries with abundant sunlight and thus can use solar PV farms as alternative sources for electricity generation. However, lightning strikes frequently occur in the country. Being installed in open and flat areas, solar PV farms, especially their electronic components, are at great...

  13. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for Photovoltaic (PV System in Solar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Aji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for photovoltaic (PV system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cycle value is used to adjust the angle of ignition switch (MOSFET gate on the Boost converter. The proposed method was shown through simulation performed using PSIM and MATLAB software. Simulation results show that the system is able to improve the PV power extraction efficiency significantly by approximately 98% of PV’s power.

  14. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...... the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low...... efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG....

  15. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Economic performance and policies for grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic systems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitscher, Martin; Rüther, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the economic competitiveness of grid-connected, distributed solar photovoltaic generation through small-scale rooftop installations in five Brazilian state-capitals. The locations represent a comprehensive set of the two essential parameters for the economic viability of PV—solar irradiation and local electricity tariffs. Levelized electricity costs (LEC) for PV generation and net present values (NPV) for a specific PV system are presented. The analysis comprises three different interest rate scenarios reflecting different conditions for capital acquisition to finance the generators; subsidized, mature market and country-specific risk-adjusted interest. In the NPV analysis, revenue flow is modeled by the sale of PV electricity at current residential tariffs assuming net metering. Using subsidized interest rates, the analysis shows that solar PV electricity is already competitive in Brazil, while in the country-specific risk-adjusted rate, the declining, but still high capital costs of PV make it economically unfeasible. At a mature market interest rate, PV competitiveness is largely dependent on the residential tariff. Economic competitiveness in this scenario is given for locations with high residential tariffs. We demonstrate the high potential of distributed generation with photovoltaic installations in Brazil, and show that under certain conditions, grid-connected PV can be economically competitive in a developing country. - Highlights: ► Debt financed grid-connected PV on Brazilian rooftops can be economically feasible since 2011. ► The cost of capital in Brazil is the decisive parameter in PV competitiveness with conventional generation sources. ► Low-cost, long-term financing is an essential requirement for PV to become an economically justifiable generation alternative. ► The Brazilian market holds huge potential for distributed, residential rooftop PV systems of small size.

  17. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  18. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abermann S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  19. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroni, Ferruccio; Hopkirk, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe renewable energy sources to be capable of substituting fossil or nuclear energy. However there exist very few scientifically sound studies, which apply due diligence to substantiating this impression. In the present paper, the case of photovoltaic power sources in regions of moderate insolation is analysed critically by using the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI, also called EROI). But the methodology for calculating the ERoEI differs greatly from author-to-author. The main differences between solar PV Systems are between the current ERoEI and what is called the extended ERoEI (ERoEI EXT ). The current methodology recommended by the International Energy Agency is not strictly applicable for comparing photovoltaic (PV) power generation with other systems. The main reasons are due to the fact that on one hand, solar electricity is very material-intensive, labour-intensive and capital-intensive and on the other hand the solar radiation exhibits a rather low power density. - Highlights: •Data are available from several years of photovoltaic energy experience in northern Europe. •These are used to show the way to calculate a full, extended ERoEI. •The viability and sustainability in these latitudes of photovoltaic energy is questioned. •Use of photovoltaic technology is shown to result in creation of an energy sink.

  20. Comparing energy payback and simple payback period for solar photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Will

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Installing a solar photovoltaic (PV array is both an environmental and a financial decision. The financial arguments often take priority over the environmental because installing solar is capital-intensive. The Simple Payback period (SPB is often assessed prior to the adoption of solar PV at a residence or a business. Although it better describes the value of solar PV electricity in terms of sustainability, the Energy Payback period (EPB is seldom used to gauge the merits of an installation. Using published estimates of embodied energies, EPB was calculated for four solar PV plants utilizing crystalline-Si technology: three being actual commercial installations located in the northeastern U.S., and a fourth installation based on a simulated 20-kilowatt roof-mounted system, in Wrocław, Poland. Simple Payback was calculated based on initial capital cost, and on the availability of avoided electricity costs based on net-metering tariffs, which at present in the U.S. are 1:1 credit ratio, and in Poland is 1:0.7 credit ratio. For all projects, the EPB time was estimated at between 1.9 and 2.6 years. In contrast, the SPB for installed systems in the northeastern U.S. ranged from 13.3 to 14.6 years, and was estimated at 13.5 years for the example system in Lower Silesia, Poland. The comparison between SPB and EPB shows a disparity between motivational time frames, in which the wait for financial return is considerably longer than the wait for net energy harvest and the start of sustainable power production.

  1. Comparing energy payback and simple payback period for solar photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Will

    2017-11-01

    Installing a solar photovoltaic (PV) array is both an environmental and a financial decision. The financial arguments often take priority over the environmental because installing solar is capital-intensive. The Simple Payback period (SPB) is often assessed prior to the adoption of solar PV at a residence or a business. Although it better describes the value of solar PV electricity in terms of sustainability, the Energy Payback period (EPB) is seldom used to gauge the merits of an installation. Using published estimates of embodied energies, EPB was calculated for four solar PV plants utilizing crystalline-Si technology: three being actual commercial installations located in the northeastern U.S., and a fourth installation based on a simulated 20-kilowatt roof-mounted system, in Wrocław, Poland. Simple Payback was calculated based on initial capital cost, and on the availability of avoided electricity costs based on net-metering tariffs, which at present in the U.S. are 1:1 credit ratio, and in Poland is 1:0.7 credit ratio. For all projects, the EPB time was estimated at between 1.9 and 2.6 years. In contrast, the SPB for installed systems in the northeastern U.S. ranged from 13.3 to 14.6 years, and was estimated at 13.5 years for the example system in Lower Silesia, Poland. The comparison between SPB and EPB shows a disparity between motivational time frames, in which the wait for financial return is considerably longer than the wait for net energy harvest and the start of sustainable power production.

  2. Costs comparison between solar photovoltaic system and moto-generator for supplying the isolated small community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Faga, M.T.W.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a technical configuration from which making an economic evaluation that comparing the photovoltaic option with moto-generator, energy source very used in rural community, presenting the relations of implantation cost between two options, showing the sensibility of these cost in function of some variables like: demand, reduction tax, solar radiation, and, as the solar energy market photovoltaic presents cost upper than international cost due to the inexpressive scale economy, make the analysis with one prices range, possibility an evaluation not limited to the national market. 3 refs, 8 figs

  3. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  4. A review of concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems with waste heat recovery (WHR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Ju; Chao Xu; Zhirong Liao; Xiaoze Du; Gaosheng Wei; Zhifeng Wang; Yongping Yang

    2017-01-01

    In conventional photovoltaic (PV) systems,a large portion of solar energy is dissipated as waste heat since the generating efficiency is usually less than 30%.As the dissipated heat can be recovered for various applications,the wasted heat recovery concentrator PV/thermal (WHR CPVT) hybrid systems have been developed.They can provide both electricity and usable heat by combining thermal systems with concentrator PV (CPV) module,which dramatically improves the overall conversion efficiency of solar energy.This paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the research and development ofWHR CPVT systems.WHR CPVT systems with innovative design configurations,different theoretical evaluation models and experimental test processes for several implementations are presented in an integrated manner.We aim to provide a global point of view on the research trends,market potential,technical obstacles,and the future work which is required in the development of WHR CPVT technology.Possibly,it will offer a generic guide to the investigators who are interested in the study of WHR CPVT systems.

  5. Biaxial Solar Tracking System Based on the MPPT Approach Integrating ICTs for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid and distributed generation based on renewable energy applications often involve the use of information and communication technology (ICT coupled with advanced control and monitoring algorithms to improve the efficiency and reliability of the electrical grid and renewable generation systems. Photovoltaic (PV systems have been recently applied with success in the fields of distributed generation due to their lower environmental impact where the electrical energy generation is related to the amount of solar irradiation and thus the angle of incident ray of the sun on the surface of the modules. This paper introduces an integration of ICTs in order to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT using a biaxial solar tracking system for PV power applications. To generate the references for the digital control of azimuth and elevation angles a Global Positioning System (GPS by satellites is used which enables acquiring the geographic coordinates of the sun in real-time. As a total integration of the system a communication platform based on the 802.15.4 protocol for the wireless sensor networks (WSNs is adopted for supervising and monitoring the PV plant. A 2.4 kW prototype system is implemented to validate the proposed control scheme performance.

  6. Organic solar cell modules for specific applications-From energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Haschke, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Gombert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of two types of organic solar cell modules one for energy autonomous systems and one for large area energy harvesting. The first requires a specific tailoring of the solar cell geometry and cell interconnection in order to power an energy autonomous system under its specific operating conditions. We present an organic solar cell module with 22 interconnected solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 2% under solar illumination has been reached on the active area of 46.2 cm 2 . A voltage of 4 V at the maximum power point has been obtained under indoor illumination conditions. Micro contact printing of a self assembling monolayer was employed for the patterning of the polymer anode. Large area photovoltaic modules have to meet the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs simultaneously. To minimize the production costs, a suitable concept for efficient reel-to-reel production of large area modules is needed. A major contribution to reduce the costs is the substitution of the commonly used indium tin oxide electrode by a cheap material. We present the state of the art of the anode wrap through concept as a reel-to-reel suited module concept and show comparative calculations of the module interconnection of the wrap through concept and the standard ITO-based cell architecture. As a result, the calculated overall module efficiency of the anode wrap through module exceeds the overall efficiency of modules based on ITO on glass (sheet resistance 15 Ω/square) and on foils (sheet resistance 60 Ω/square)

  7. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepperd, L.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Richards, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  8. Innovative approach for achieving of sustainable urban water supply system by using of solar photovoltaic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Margeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes and analyses new and innovative concept for possible integration of solar photovoltaic (PV energy in urban water supply system (UWSS. Proposed system consists of PV generator and invertor, pump station and water reservoir. System is sized in such a manner that every his part is sized separately and after this integrated into a whole. This integration is desirable for several reasons, where the most important is the achievement of the objectives of sustainable living in urban areas i.e. achieving of sustainable urban water supply system. The biggest technological challenge associated with the use of solar, wind and other intermittent renewable energy sources RES is the realization of economically and environmentally friendly electric energy storage (EES. The paper elaborates the use of water reservoires in UWSS as EES. The proposed solution is still more expensive than the traditional and is economically acceptable today in the cases of isolated urban water system and special situations. Wider application will depend on the future trends of energy prices, construction costs of PV generators and needs for CO2 reduction by urban water infrastructure.

  9. Comparison of Interleaved Boost Converter Configurations for Solar Photovoltaic System Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramaprabha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (SPV panels that convert light energy into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect have nonlinear internal resistance. Hence, with the variation in the intensity of light falling on the panel, the internal resistance varies. For effective utilization of the SPV panel, it is necessary to extract the maximum power from it. For maximum power extraction from SPV panels, DC-DC converter interface is used. The problem in using high frequency converter interface is the resultant high frequency ripple interaction with the SPV system. In this work, an interleaved boost converter (IBC is considered to reduce the ripple. Our finding is that IBC fed by a SPV panel reduces this ripple to a greater extent. IBC also has a faster transient response as compared to conventional boost converters with reduced ripple contents. The main aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the performance of IBC with inductors that are coupled in different ways. The results of the simulation were extrapolated with the help of MATLAB software and verified through experimentation.

  10. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  11. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  12. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  13. The Effectiveness of New Solar Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitor for Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izuan Fahmi Romli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Countries like Malaysia have more that 70% of its population living in rural areas. Majority of these rural areas lie in regions where most villages do not have grid connected electricity. Renewable energy using photovoltaic (PV panels offers an alternative and cost efficient solution that exploits the yearlong abundance of sunlight available in countries like Malaysia. The main problem with PV systems is the high maintenance costs in replacing batteries every few years which makes PV systems unattractive for rural areas. A full scale PV system, developed in Semenyih Malaysia, aims to increase battery lifetime and reduce maintenance costs by incorporating supercapacitors. The system was developed in a life-sized cabin to mimic a rural home. A programmable load is used to test the system with the load profile of a typical rural household usage. Experimental and simulation results show that the supercapacitor bank is able to reduce the stress on the battery by absorbing peak current surges. Results also show that the system is able to maintain a high battery state of charge during the entire day. Article History: Received June 17th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted Sept 10th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Fahmi, M.I., Rajkumar, R.,  Wong, Y.W., Chong, L.W., Arelhi, R., and Isa, D. (2016 The Effectiveness of New Solar Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitor for Rural Areas. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 249-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.249-257

  14. Characteristics of Low-Priced Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite impressive recent cost reductions, there is wide dispersion in the prices of installed solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. We identify the most important factors that make a system likely to be low priced (LP). Our sample consists of detailed characteristics for 42,611 small-scale (< 15 kW) PV systems installed in 15 U.S. states during 2013. Using four definitions of LP systems, we compare LP and non-LP systems and find statistically significant differences in nearly all factors explored, including competition, installer scale, markets, demographics, ownership, policy, and system components. Logit and probit model results robustly indicate that LP systems are associated with markets with few active installers; experienced installers; customer ownership; large systems; retrofits; and thin-film, low-efficiency, and Chinese modules. We also find significant differences across states, with LP systems much more likely to occur in some than in others. Our focus on the left tail of the price distribution provides implications for policy that are distinct from recent studies of mean prices. While those studies find that PV subsidies increase mean prices, we find that subsidies also generate LP systems. PV subsidies appear to simultaneously shift and broaden the price distribution. Much of this broadening occurs in a particular location, northern California, which is worthy of further investigation with new data.

  15. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  16. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  17. Solar photovoltaic: a better tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    This article comments statements and works performed by a professional body (Enerplan) and a think tank (FTS, France Territoire Solaire) which describe a glorious future for solar photovoltaic energy even though the present situation is rather dull. They foresee ground-based solar plants of more than 1 MW, and assess the potential production for very large, medium and small sized roofs, for domestic installations

  18. You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight…

  19. Intelligent system for a remote diagnosis of a photovoltaic solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Bobi, M A; San Roque, A Muñoz; Marcos, A de; Bada, M

    2012-01-01

    Usually small and mid-sized photovoltaic solar power plants are located in rural areas and typically they operate unattended. Some technicians are in charge of the supervision of these plants and, if an alarm is automatically issued, they try to investigate the problem and correct it. Sometimes these anomalies are detected some hours or days after they begin. Also the analysis of the causes once the anomaly is detected can take some additional time. All these factors motivated the development of a methodology able to perform continuous and automatic monitoring of the basic parameters of a photovoltaic solar power plant in order to detect anomalies as soon as possible, to diagnose their causes, and to immediately inform the personnel in charge of the plant. The methodology proposed starts from the study of the most significant failure modes of a photovoltaic plant through a FMEA and using this information, its typical performance is characterized by the creation of its normal behaviour models. They are used to detect the presence of a failure in an incipient or current form. Once an anomaly is detected, an automatic and intelligent diagnosis process is started in order to investigate the possible causes. The paper will describe the main features of a software tool able to detect anomalies and to diagnose them in a photovoltaic solar power plant.

  20. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  1. Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo G, Gerardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work, a short description of the basic aspect of the performance of homojunction solar cells and of the technological aspects of the fabrication of low cost thin film solar cells is made. Special emphasis on the historical aspects of the evolution of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, Cd Te and CulnSe 2 is also made. The state of art of the technology of photovoltaic devices and modules is additionally presented. The contribution to the development of high efficiency solar cells and modules, carried out by research centers of universities such us: Stuttgart university (Germany), Stockholm university (Sweden), University of South Florida (USA), university of south gales (Australia), by the national renewable energy laboratory of USA and by research centers of companies such us: Matsushita (Japan), BP-solar (England), Boeing (USA), Arco solar (USA), Siemens (Germany) etc. are specially emphasized. Additionally, a section concerning economical aspect of the photovoltaic generation of electric energy is enclosed. In this section an overview of the evolution of price and world market of photovoltaic system is presented

  2. Investigation of existing financial incentive policies for solar photovoltaic systems in U.S. regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some of the existing incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV energy generation in the U.S. Four types of buildings (e.g., hospitals, large offices, large hotels, and secondary schools located in five different U.S. states, each having their own incentives, are selected and analyzed for the PV incentive policies. The payback period of the PV system is chosen as an indicator to analyze and critique the effectiveness of each incentive by comparing the payback periods before and after taking the incentive into consideration. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to determine the influence of the variation in key parameters, such as PV system capacity, capital cost of PV, sell back ratio and the performance-based incentive rate, on the performance of the PV system. The results show how the existing incentives can be effectively used to promote the PV systems in the U.S. and how variations of the parameters can impact the payback period of the PV systems. Through the evaluation of the existing incentive policies and the parametric study, this paper demonstrates that the type and level of incentives should be carefully determined in policy-making processes to effectively promote the PV systems.

  3. Photovoltaic solar; Solaire photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to observe, from european examples, the local governments policies in matter of the photovoltaic development. This approach is very different for each town. The first part evaluates the initiatives, the second part is devoted to the global situation in Europe and the third part brings recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  5. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  6. Photovoltaic systems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaroko, T.; Bakker, P. de

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the reasons for the slow growth of the photovoltaic industry in Indonesia where more than 100 million people have no access to electricity, but there is an abundance of solar power. There should be considerable scope for solar home systems in particular. Barriers to expansion of the PV market have included the devaluation of the rupee and the failure of many government-initiated projects. It is concluded that at present, the purchasing power of individuals is insufficient for the potential PV market to expand

  7. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  8. Performance analysis of a solar photochemical photovoltaic hybrid system for decolorization of Acid Red 26 (AR 26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Lingyun; Zhu, Li; Huang, Qunwu; Wang, Yiping; Jin, Yanchao; Sun, Yong; Cui, Yong; Chen, Miao; Fan, Jiangyang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the power energy consumption of wastewater treatment and make full use of the solar spectrum, a new water purification system that integrated homogeneous solar photochemical (SPC) and photovoltaics (PV) was constructed to treat wastewater and generate electricity for the first time. Hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) and potassium persulfate (K_2S_2O_8) were chosen as oxidants in the system and have a comparative analysis. The results show that solar/K_2S_2O_8 has a higher decolorization efficiency than solar/H_2O_2, the accumulated ultraviolet energy in solar/K_2S_2O_8, needed for complete decolorization, is far lower than in solar/H_2O_2. Also temperature has a positive effect on the dark-K_2S_2O_8 processes especially in the range of 40–60 °C, and it follows pseudo-first-order kinetic relationship. Meanwhile, to investigate the influence of flow channel on PV, the short circuit current (I_s_c) and maximum output power (P_m) were monitored. It indicates that the presence of flow channel effectively decreases the working temperature of PV modules, while the I_s_c and P_m have a different degree reduce. Luckily, the impact is not big. Additionally, P_m in experiment system, though lower than reference system, is sufficient to drive the whole system. - Highlights: • The hybrid system combing homogenous photochemical with photovoltaics was firstly performed. • Solar/K_2S_2O_8 and solar/H_2O_2 is comparative analysis in the decolorization of AR 26. • K_2S_2O_8 can be activated by heat and irradiation simultaneously in the hybrid system. • The PV panel of the hybrid system could work under lower temperature. • Solar spectrum could be made full use for power generation and water purification.

  9. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  10. Photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouratoglou, P.; Therond, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  11. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  12. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (photovoltaic power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the fiscal 1976 research result on the technical and economical perspectives of various solar cells, high-efficiency solar cell and its evaluation technique, and a photovoltaic power generation system and its applications. On Si single-crystal slice solar cell, it was pointed out that cost reduction by automatic production process using no vacuum process is essential. On Si thin film solar cell, some problems to be solved for development of particle accelerating growth technique were pointed out. Study was also made on 2-6 group compound semiconductor solar cell, 3-5 group bulk crystal solar cell, 3-5 group thin film solar cell, solar collection solar cell, and raw polycrystal Si materials. On photovoltaic power generation systems, it was reconfirmed through reconsideration of power generation systems for every application that the photovoltaic power generation system for residences is promising. On medium- scale power generation systems, study was made on power load and system configuration in consideration of applications to electric railway, highway, and power source of isolated islands. (NEDO)

  13. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report benchmarks U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed costs as of the first quarter of 2017 (Q1 2017). We use a bottom-up methodology, accounting for all system and projectdevelopment costs incurred during the installation to model the costs for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems. In general, we attempt to model the typical installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. Costs are represented from the perspective of the developer/installer; thus, all hardware costs represent the price at which components are purchased by the developer/installer, not accounting for preexisting supply agreements or other contracts. Importantly, the benchmark also represents the sales price paid to the installer; therefore, it includes profit in the cost of the hardware, 1 along with the profit the installer/developer receives, as a separate cost category. However, it does not include any additional net profit, such as a developer fee or price gross-up, which is common in the marketplace. We adopt this approach owing to the wide variation in developer profits in all three sectors, where project pricing is highly dependent on region and project specifics such as local retail electricity rate structures, local rebate and incentive structures, competitive environment, and overall project or deal structures. Finally, our benchmarks are national averages weighted by state installed capacities.

  14. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  15. Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

    1994-01-01

    A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

  16. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This year, our report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2017 (Q1 2017). Costs are represented from the perspective of the developer/installer, thus all hardware costs represent the price at which components are purchased by the developer/installer, not accounting for preexisting supply agreements or other contracts. Importantly, the benchmark this year (2017) also represents the sales price paid to the installer; therefore, it includes profit in the cost of the hardware, along with the profit the installer/developer receives, as a separate cost category. However, it does not include any additional net profit, such as a developer fee or price gross-up, which are common in the marketplace. We adopt this approach owing to the wide variation in developer profits in all three sectors, where project pricing is highly dependent on region and project specifics such as local retail electricity rate structures, local rebate and incentive structures, competitive environment, and overall project or deal structures.

  17. A unified approach for designing a photovoltaic solar system for the underground water pumping well-34 at Disi aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, Munzer S.Y.; Qandil, Hasan; Hammad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system for the underground water pumping wells at Disi aquifer was designed. • Solar irradiation values on horizontal and tilted surfaces were identified. • Method of the worst month MWM and peak sun hours PSH method were applied. • Thirty-eight percentage of the total PV panels would not be used beyond the design conditions (December). • Dust accumulation problem were solved by cleaning or as a 5% power loss factor. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a detailed design of a standalone photovoltaic system used to power continuously a submersible water pump from a selected well (Well-34 of a current static water level, SWL = 147.3 m), out of 55 production wells located at the Disi aquifer, where each of these wells should have a continuously-operating water flow rate of 80 l/s (288 m 3 /h) according to the Disi project specifications. Initially, solar irradiation calculations on horizontal and tilted surfaces were carried out to identify the potential of solar energy available in kW h/m 2 /day in the Disi aquifer. Then, a system design approach based on the worst month of the year (December) was carried out to choose and size the components of photovoltaic system that is required to operate the submersible pump over the 25-year operation period. The system sizing implies defining the number and type of solar panels required to capture the available solar energy, the capacity and number of batteries, inverter rating, cable sizing, charge controller numbers and rating to ensure the maximum reliability of the system. Furthermore, beyond the design conditions of the worst month (December), extra energy can be produced by the PV system during the rest of the year time, which can be used for many purposes. Also, the design process considers the problem of dust accumulation on PV surfaces and this can be dealt with by periodic cleaning

  18. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  19. Development, analysis and assessment of a fuel cell and solar photovoltaic system powered vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, M.F.; Dincer, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new integrated fuel cell-photovoltaic system for vehicle application is proposed. • Comprehensive energy and exergy analyses are conducted. • Detailed parametric study is performed. • Overall energy and exergy efficiencies are determined. • Photovoltaic utilization can save 561 g of hydrogen during 3 h drive. - Abstract: This paper deals with a new hybridly powered photovoltaic-fuel cell - Li-ion battery integrated system and is compared to a base system, consisting of PEM fuel cell and Li-ion battery. It investigates the effects of adding photovoltaic arrays to the base system and further effects on the overall energy and exergy efficiencies and hence hydrogen consumption. These two systems are analyzed and assessed both energetically and exergetically. The study results show that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies become 39.46% and 56.3%, respectively at a current density of 1150 mA/cm"2 for system 1 (fuel cell-battery). Moreover, energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 39.86% and 56.63% at current density of 1150 mA/cm"2 for system 2 (fuel cell-battery-photovoltaics). Utilizing photovoltaic arrays in system 2 would recover 561 g of hydrogen through 3 h of continuous driving at max power of 98.32 kW, which is approximately 11.2% of the hydrogen storage tank used in the proposed systems. The effects of changing various system parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are also examined.

  20. Research on simulated devices for Solar photovoltaic grid-connected generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    quan-zhu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the standpoint of energy conservation and emission reduction, one device simulated photovoltaic grid-connected generation system based on SPWM was designed in the paper. And DC/AC inverter could transduce efficiently direct current to alternating current. The MCU(Micro-Control-Unit, in this system could achieve the control method for maximum-power-point and tracking for frequency and phase. Moreover, the MCU could implement PWM (Plus-Width Modulating through programming. The system showed clearly the whole photovoltaic grid-connected generation system using simulated methods and ways.

  1. Estimation of Solar Radiation, Management of Energy Flow and Development of a New Approach for the Optimisation of the Sizing of Photovoltaic System; Application to Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzid, Zakaria; Ghellai, Nassera; Benmedjahed, Miloud

    2016-01-01

    The design of photovoltaic systems is an important step, its optimization, as well as the optimization of different parameters, is a crucial operation. In our work, after estimating hourly solar radiation, we developed energy flow models for photovoltaic power based on the concept of solar usability. Then, we used a genetic algorithm to develop our own computer program (with Python) to find the best configuration (total surface of the panels, PV efficiency and total capacity of batteries) amo...

  2. Real-time prediction models for output power and efficiency of grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yan; Chan, Lai-Cheong; Shu, Lianjie; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop online prediction models for solar photovoltaic system performance. ► The proposed prediction models are simple but with reasonable accuracy. ► The maximum monthly average minutely efficiency varies 10.81–12.63%. ► The average efficiency tends to be slightly higher in winter months. - Abstract: This paper develops new real time prediction models for output power and energy efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These models were validated using measured data of a grid-connected solar PV system in Macau. Both time frames based on yearly average and monthly average are considered. It is shown that the prediction model for the yearly/monthly average of the minutely output power fits the measured data very well with high value of R 2 . The online prediction model for system efficiency is based on the ratio of the predicted output power to the predicted solar irradiance. This ratio model is shown to be able to fit the intermediate phase (9 am to 4 pm) very well but not accurate for the growth and decay phases where the system efficiency is near zero. However, it can still serve as a useful purpose for practitioners as most PV systems work in the most efficient manner over this period. It is shown that the maximum monthly average minutely efficiency varies over a small range of 10.81% to 12.63% in different months with slightly higher efficiency in winter months.

  3. The maximum theoretical performance of unconcentrated solar photovoltaic and thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2017-01-01

    The maximum efficiency for photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems without concentration is investigated. Both a combined system where the TEG is mounted directly on the back of the PV and a tandem system where the incoming sunlight is split, and the short wavelength radiation...

  4. Performance study of heat-pipe solar photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongbing; Zhang, Lei; Jie, Pengfei; Xiong, Yaxuan; Xu, Peng; Zhai, Huixing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The testing device of HPS PV/T heat pump system was established by a finished product of PV panel. • A detailed mathematical model of heat pump was established to investigate the performance of each component. • The dynamic and static method was combined to solve the mathematical model of HPS PV/T heat pump system. • The HPS PV/T heat pump system was optimized by the mathematical model. • The influence of six factors on the performance of HPS PV/T heat pump system was analyzed. - Abstract: A heat-pipe solar (HPS) photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) heat pump system, combining HPS PV/T collector with heat pump, is proposed in this paper. The HPS PV/T collector integrates heat pipes with PV panel, which can simultaneously generate electricity and thermal energy. The extracted heat from HPS PV/T collector can be used by heat pump, and then the photoelectric conversion efficiency is substantially improved because of the low temperature of PV cells. A mathematical model of the system is established in this paper. The model consists of a dynamic distributed parameter model of the HPS PV/T collection system and a quasi-steady state distributed parameter model of the heat pump. The mathematical model is validated by testing data, and the dynamic performance of the HPS PV/T heat pump system is discussed based on the validated model. Using the mathematical model, a reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s dynamic performance with a relative error within ±15.0% can be obtained. The capacity of heat pump and the number of HPS collectors are optimized to improve the system performance based on the mathematical model. Six working modes are proposed and discussed to investigate the effect of solar radiation, ambient temperature, supply water temperature in condenser, PV packing factor, heat pipe pitch and PV backboard absorptivity on system performance by the validated model. It is found that the increase of solar radiation, ambient temperature and PV

  5. Design and implementation of DSP based solar converter for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliskan, Eser [TUBITAK - MRC, Kocaeli (Turkey). Energy Inst.; Ustun, Ozgur [Istanbul Technical Univ., Maslak (Turkey). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2012-07-01

    This study discusses the design and implementation of a DSP controlled converter for photovoltaic system that can track the maximum power point, charge and discharge the battery. In the designed system, the boost converter operates the photovoltaic panels at the maximum power point and the bi-directional battery charger charges and discharges the battery bank as demanded. All required switching and control signals for these converters provided by the high performance C2000 series DSP produced by the Texas Instruments. The current, voltage and temperature data are collected by sensors from power stages by using DSP algorithms and the control signals are generated by the embedded software. The load bus is kept at constant voltage by the bi-directional battery charger. The boost converter is controlled by MPPT algorithms and the current sharing or battery charge modes are implemented depending on the radiation value. The designed photovoltaic system performance is verified by simulation and some experiments. (orig.)

  6. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  7. Exergy analysis of photovoltaic solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopian, K.; Othman, M.Y.Hj.

    1998-01-01

    The exergy analysis (availability or second law analysis) is applied to the photovoltaic thermal solar collector. Photovoltaic thermal collector is a special type of solar collector where electricity and heat are produced simultaneously. The electricity produced from the photovoltaic thermal collector is all converted into useful work. The available quantity of the heat collected can readily be determined by taking into account both the quantity (heat quantity) and quality ( a function of temperature) of the thermal energy. Therefore, using the concept of exergy allows heat produced from the thermal collector and the electricity generated from the photovoltaic cells to be compared or to be evaluated on the basis of a common measure such as the effectiveness on solar energy collection or the total amount of available energy. In this paper, the effectiveness of solar energy collection is called combined photovoltaic thermal exergy efficiency. An experimental setup of a double pas photovoltaic thermal solar collector has been deigned, fabricated and tested. (author)

  8. Implementation of a large-scale solar photovoltaic system at a higher education institution in Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H. Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has several environmental, economic, and educational benefits for college campuses, but it is difficult for state schools to find funding for these projects. This study shows that a solar photovoltaic (PV system on Illinois State University’s (ISU campus is technically and financially feasible. While there have been several solar feasibility studies of higher education institutions in USA, there has been a lack of in depth financial analysis. We conducted solar site assessments on five potential locations on campus, used a solar energy performance model to analyze the technical feasibility of each location, and performed a financial assessment using a professional PV financial modeling tool to compare different financing options. Our results show that three sites on campus can be used to develop a combined solar PV system of one megawatt. Both direct and third-party ownership models are financially feasible for this combined system. Our findings can be replicable as a case study for future solar PV system development on college campuses.

  9. Optimization of photovoltaic power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic syste

  10. Theoretical Analysis of Two Novel Hybrid Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Systems Based on Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Bruno; Contento, Gaetano; Sabatelli, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Antonella; Narducci, Dario

    2017-03-01

    The development and commercialization of Photovoltaic (PV) cells with good cost-efficiency trade-off not using critical raw materials (CRMs) is one of the strategies chosen by the European Community (EC) to address the Energy Roadmap 2050. In this context Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells are attracting a major interest since they have the potential to combine low price with relatively high conversion efficiencies. Although a ≈9% lab scale efficiency has already been reported for CZTS this technology is still far from being competitive in terms of cost per peak-power (€/Wp) with other common materials. One possible near-future solution to increase the CZTS competiveness comes from thermoelectrics. Actually it has already been shown that Hybrid Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Systems (HTEPVs) based on CIGS, another kesterite very similar to CZTS, can lead to a significant efficiency improvement. However it has been also clarified how the optimal hybridization strategy cannot come from the simple coupling of solar cells with commercial TEGs, but special layouts have to be implemented. Furthermore, since solar cell performances are well known to decrease with temperature, thermal decoupling strategies of the PV and TEG sections have to be taken. To address these issues, we developed a model for two different HTEPV solutions, both coupled with CZTS solar cells. In the first case we considered a Thermally-Coupled HTEPV device (TC-HTEPV) in which the TEG is placed underneath the solar cell and in thermal contact with it. The second system consists instead of an Optically-Coupled but thermally decoupled device (OC-HTEPV) in which part of the solar spectrum is focused by a non-imaging optical concentrator on the TEG hot side. For both solutions the model returns conversion efficiencies higher than that of the CZTS solar cell alone. Specifically, increases of ≈30% are predicted for both kind of systems considered.

  11. The Possibility of Functioning at Maximum Power for Solar Photovoltaic - Electric Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the functioning of a solar photovoltaic module(PVM that debits direct to on electric battery (EB. By a good adaptingof PVM to EB, so that the no load voltage of the two components (PVMand EB are well suited, during a day the energy value can be reachednear to the maximum possible value, when the PVM functions in themaximum power point (MPP. The proposed solution is much moreeconomic than the classical: PVM + DC – DC + EB because the directcurrent - direct current power converter, is not necessary (DC - DC.

  12. Technology fundamentals: photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaschning, V.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of electric power from photovoltaic systems is described in detail. The mechanism of operation of solar cells is described in terms of photons, electrons, charge carriers and charge separation. The various cells, modules, technical terms and related technology are discussed. The chemical elements used in solar cells are mentioned and the manufacturing processes described. The technical advantages of the newer thin-film modules over the traditional silicon cells are given but at present manufacturing cost is limiting their production. Both stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems are described. The potential market for PV systems is discussed. It is suggested that PV could eventually meet the total global electric power demand. (author)

  13. Systems Integration | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Systems Integration The National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) at NREL provides grid integration support, system-level testing, and systems analysis for the Department of Energy's solar distributed grid integration projects supported by the SunShot Initiative. These projects address technical

  14. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance. Paper no. IGEC-1-136

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the International Energy Association's (IEA) Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (PVSP) initiated IEA Task 7 to evaluate the technical status of combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal systems (PV/T), and to formulate a roadmap for future development. Because the Task was initiated by the PVSP, however, individuals from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) were not invited to participate, and the Task Group lacked any significant expertise with solar-thermal systems. When the Task submitted its final report in 2002, it consisted of an accounting of existing systems and a list of the perceived market barriers. Without input from the SHCP, however, no move could be made to actually address those barriers. IEA Task 7, however, did recognize that the participation of the SHCP was needed, and in 1999 made an effort to initiate some discussion between the PVSP and the SHCP. The result was IEA Task 35 - PV/T Systems, which met for the first time in January of 2005. The new group intends to reevaluate the findings of Task 7, and to develop the means by which these market barriers can be overcome. The current discussion will provide an overview of existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status. Further, it will report on the methodology established by the Task 35 work group to overcome the aforementioned market barriers. (author)

  15. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  16. Photovoltaics: systems considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, A M

    1982-08-01

    Photovoltaics applications to date and the potential uses and growth of this alternative energy source for the future are examined in the light of present world economic conditions. In addition, a more detailed description is given, illustrating the method by which system sizing and design are calculated and mentioning such factors as local solar radiation and insolation levels, humidity, wind loading and altitude, all of which affect the optimal system size. The role of computer programming in these calculations is also outlined, illustrating the way in which deterioration, battery losses, poor weather etc. can be accounted and compensated for in the systems design process. The elements of the actual systems are also described, including details of the solar cells and arrays, the electronic controls incorporated in the systems and the characteristics of the batteries used. A resume of projected costs and current technological advances in silicon processing techniques is given together with an analysis of present and future growth trends in the photovoltaics industry.

  17. Comparative Study of Two New Configurations of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    K. Touafek; A. Khelifa; E. H. Khettaf; A. Embarek

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar system comprises a solar collector which is disposed on photovoltaic solar cells. The disadvantage of a conventional photovoltaic cell is that its performance decreases as the temperature increases. Indeed, part of the solar radiation is converted into electricity and is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the photovoltaic cell with respect to the ambient temperature. The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a h...

  18. A Novel Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV System with the Improvement of Irradiance Uniformity and the Capturing of Diffuse Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Tien

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel concentrator photovoltaic (CPV system with improved irradiation uniformity and system efficiency. CPV technology is very promising its for highly efficient solar energy conversion. A conventional CPV system usually uses only one optical component, such as a refractive Fresnel lens or a reflective parabolic dish, to collect and concentrate solar radiation on the solar cell surface. Such a system creates strongly non-uniform irradiation distribution on the solar cell, which tends to cause hot spots, current mismatch, and degrades the overall efficiency of the system. Additionally, a high-concentration CPV system is unable to collect diffuse solar radiation. In this paper, we propose a novel CPV system with improved irradiation uniformity and collection of diffuse solar radiation. The proposed system uses a Fresnel lens as a primary optical element (POE to concentrate and focus the sunlight and a plano-concave lens as a secondary optical element (SOE to uniformly distribute the sunlight over the surface of multi-junction (MJ solar cells. By using the SOE, the irradiance uniformity is significantly improved in the system. Additionally, the proposed system also captures diffuse solar radiation by using an additional low-cost solar cell surrounding MJ cells. In our system, incident direct solar radiation is captured by MJ solar cells, whereas incident diffuse solar radiation is captured by the low-cost solar cell. Simulation models were developed using a commercial optical simulation tool (LightTools™. The irradiance uniformity and efficiency of the proposed CPV system were analyzed, evaluated, and compared with those of conventional CPV systems. The analyzed and simulated results show that the CPV system significantly improves the irradiance uniformity as well as the system efficiency compared to the conventional CPV systems. Numerically, for our simulation models, the designed CPV with the SOE and low-cost cell provided

  19. Dynamic voltage stability of a distribution system with high penetration of grid-connected photovoltaic type solar generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Adibah Kamaruzzaman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV generator on dynamic voltage stability of a power distribution system by considering solar intermittency, PV penetration level, and contingencies such as line outage and load increase. The IEEE 13 node test feeder is used as a test system, and a solar PV of 0.48 kV/0.5 MVA is integrated into the test system. Test results show that system voltage is stable at high PV penetration levels. Increase in load causes voltage instability, in which voltage drops below its allowable operating limit. Thus, increase in PV penetration level does not improve system voltage stability because the system experiences voltage collapse during line outage.

  20. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Chioncel; Cristian Paul Chioncel; Nicoleta Gillich

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  1. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  2. Wavelength-Selective Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Powering Greenhouses for Plant Growth at the Food-Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E.; Carter, Sue A.; Alers, Glenn; Wade, Catherine E.; Shugar, David; Corrado, Carley; Jokerst, Devin; Kitayama, Carol

    2017-10-01

    Global renewable electricity generation capacity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Increasing the sustainability of electricity generation and the market share of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require continued cost reductions or higher efficiencies. Wavelength-Selective Photovoltaic Systems (WSPVs) combine luminescent solar cell technology with conventional silicon-based PV, thereby increasing efficiency and lowering the cost of electricity generation. WSPVs absorb some of the blue and green wavelengths of the solar spectrum but transmit the remaining wavelengths that can be utilized by photosynthesis for plants growing below. WSPVs are ideal for integrating electricity generation with glasshouse production, but it is not clear how they may affect plant development and physiological processes. The effects of tomato photosynthesis under WSPVs showed a small decrease in water use, whereas there were minimal effects on the number and fresh weight of fruit for a number of commercial species. Although more research is required on the impacts of WSPVs, they are a promising technology for greater integration of distributed electricity generation with food production operations, for reducing water loss in crops grown in controlled environments, as building-integrated solar facilities, or as alternatives to high-impact PV for energy generation over agricultural or natural ecosystems.

  3. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  4. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation systems); 1977 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at investigation on irradiation conditions of natural solar radiation to establish the performance evaluation methods; establishment of standard evaluation methods under natural solar radiation; and investigation on practical problems involved in the photovoltaic power generation systems. The research items are (1) photovoltaic power generation systems, and (2) standard evaluation methods for photovoltaic power generation systems installed on the ground. The item (1) includes the effect analysis in which existing Japanese residential buildings are selected to estimate possibility of installation of photovoltaic power generation systems and possible quantity of power generated; conceptual designs in which several systems conceivable at present are proposed and outlined, and a 30kW photovoltaic power generation system is taken up to investigate, e.g., solar cell arrays for the system, orthogonal conversion devices, associated facilities, conceptual designs of storage batteries, problems involved therein, and future research themes; and operation of the cell, which takes up operational examples of solar cell power sources, and operational problems viewed from the power transmission side. The item (2) proposes the standard evaluation methods (primary drafts) for the solar cell arrays and panels as those for photovoltaic power generation systems installed on the ground. (NEDO)

  5. Model and analysis of solar thermal generators to reduce the intermittency of photovoltaic systems with the use of spectrum splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Santiago, Raphael P.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we introduce an approach to damping intermittency in photovoltaic (PV) system output due to fluctuations in solar illumination generated by use of a hybrid PV-thermal electric (TE) generation system. We describe the necessary constrains of the PV-TE system based on its thermodynamic characteristics. The basis for the approach is that the thermal time constant for the TE device is much longer than that of a PV cell. When used in combination with an optimized thermal storage device short periods of intermittency (several minutes) in PV output due to passing clouds can be compensated. A comparison of different spectrum splitting systems to efficiently utilize the incident solar spectrum between the PV and TE converters are also examined. The time-dependent behavior of a hybrid PV-TE converter with a thermal storage element is computed with SMARTS modeled irradiance data and compared to real weather and irradiation conditions for Tucson, Arizona.

  6. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  7. Technical and economic analysis of a 1mw grid-connected solar photovoltaic power system at KNUST-Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko Kumi, Ebenezer

    2012-09-01

    Grid-connected solar PV systems, though the fastest growing renewable energy technology in the world, have not been fully exploited in Africa; one of the reasons being the very high initial investment. Prices of solar PV systems have however been on a decline for the past few years due to technological innovations which have led to improvements in cell efficiencies and the economies of scale resulting from increase in production. The main purpose of this thesis is to present a technical and economic analysis of a 1MW grid-connected solar photovoltaic power system for the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi using rooftops of buildings on the campus. A solar resource assessment done to know the amount of solar radiation available at KNUST showed that KNUST receives about 4.30kWh/m 2 /day. A roof assessment which considered parameters such as the surface orientation and pitch of roofs, roof area and the possibility of shading of the roof, also revealed there is about 43,697m 2 of roof space available for grid-connected solar PV installations. In technical analysis of the 1MWp solar PV system, the three (3) commonest solar PV module technologies were selected and their performance simulated using PVsyst software. Amorphous silicon modules were found to perform better than monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules over the one (1) year simulation period. The financial analysis carried out using RETScreen revealed that at a solar PV market price of US$4.45/Wp and a tariff of US$0.11/kWh (tariff paid for Asogli Power Plant which happens to be the most expensive generation source in the country), the project is not viable unless feed-in tariffs greater than US$0.43/kWh are paid. (au)

  8. Photovoltaic Cells and Systems: Current State and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj Bourdoucen; Joseph A. Jervase; Abdullah Al-Badi; Adel Gastli; Arif Malik

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the process of converting solar energy into electrical energy. Any photovoltaic system invariably consists of solar cell arrays and electric power conditioners. Photovoltaic systems are reliable, quiet, safe and both environmentally benign and self-sustaining. In addition, they are cost-effective for applications in remote areas. This paper presents a review of solar system components and integration, manufacturing, applications, and basic research related to photovoltaics. P...

  9. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  10. Improvement of maximum power point tracking perturb and observe algorithm for a standalone solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.M.A.; Awan, F.G.

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of maximum power from PV (Photovoltaic) cell is necessary to make the PV system efficient. Maximum power can be achieved by operating the system at MPP (Maximum Power Point) (taking the operating point of PV panel to MPP) and for this purpose MPPT (Maximum Power Point Trackers) are used. There are many tracking algorithms/methods used by these trackers which includes incremental conductance, constant voltage method, constant current method, short circuit current method, PAO (Perturb and Observe) method, and open circuit voltage method but PAO is the mostly used algorithm because it is simple and easy to implement. PAO algorithm has some drawbacks, one is low tracking speed under rapid changing weather conditions and second is oscillations of PV systems operating point around MPP. Little improvement is achieved in past papers regarding these issues. In this paper, a new method named 'Decrease and Fix' method is successfully introduced as improvement in PAO algorithm to overcome these issues of tracking speed and oscillations. Decrease and fix method is the first successful attempt with PAO algorithm for stability achievement and speeding up of tracking process in photovoltaic system. Complete standalone photovoltaic system's model with improved perturb and observe algorithm is simulated in MATLAB Simulink. (author)

  11. A Photovoltaic System Payback Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Jeffrey E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Gerald R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Roof Asset Management Program (RAMP) is a DOE NNSA initiative to manage roof repairs and replacement at NNSA facilities. In some cases, installation of a photovoltaic system on new roofs may be possible and desired for financial reasons and to meet federal renewable energy goals. One method to quantify the financial benefits of PV systems is the payback period, or the length of time required for a PV system to generate energy value equivalent to the system's cost. Sandia Laboratories created a simple spreadsheet-based solar energy valuation tool for use by RAMP personnel to quickly evaluate the estimated payback period of prospective or installed photovoltaic systems.

  12. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  13. Design and dynamic simulation of a novel solar trigeneration system based on hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors (PVT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheet and tube photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector are investigated. ► PVT is integrated in a novel solar trigeneration system. ► The trigeneration system is dynamically investigated for a mediterranean climate. ► PVT performance is excellent during the summer. ► During the winter PVT thermal energy significantly decreases. - Abstract: In this paper, a Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) system including photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collectors is considered, implementing a novel polygeneration system producing electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. In particular, PVT collectors operating up to 80 °C are considered. A case study for a university building located in Naples (Italy) is developed and discussed. The system is mainly composed by: PVT collectors, a single-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller, storage tanks and auxiliary heaters. The system also includes additional balance-of-plant devices: heat exchangers, pumps, controllers, cooling tower, etc. The PVT produces electricity which is utilized in part by the building lights and equipments and in part by the system parasitic loads; the rest is eventually sold to the grid. Simultaneously, the PVT system provides the heat required to drive the absorption chiller. The system performance is analyzed from both energetic and economic points of view by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed with TRNSYS. The economic results show that the system under investigation can be profitable, provided that an appropriate funding policy is available. In addition, the overall energetic and economic results are comparable to those reported in literature for similar systems.

  14. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  15. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  16. Integrating DC/DC Conversion with Possible Reconfiguration within Submodule Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peter Jen-Hung

    This research first proposes a method to merge photovoltaic (PV) cells or PV panels within the internal components DC-DC converters. The purpose of this merged structure is to reconfigure the PV modules between series and parallel connections using high switching frequencies (hundreds of kHz). This leads to multi-levels of voltages and currents that become applied to the output filter of the converter. Further, this research introduces a concept of a switching cell that utilizes the reconfiguration of series and parallel connections in DC-DC converters. The switching occurs at high switching frequency and the switches can be integrated to be within the solar panels or in between the solar cells. The concept is generalized and applied to basic buck and boost topologies. As examples of the new types of converters: reconfigurable PV-buck and PV-boost converter topologies are presented. It is also possible to create other reconfigurable power converters: non-isolated and isolated topologies. Analysis, simulation and experimental verification for the reconfigurable PV-buck and PV-boost converters are presented extensively to illustrate proof of concept. Benefits and drawbacks of the new approach are discussed. The second part of this research proposes to utilize the internal solar cell capacitance and internal solar module wire parasitic inductances to replace the input capacitor and filter inductor in boost derived DC-DC converters for energy harvesting applications. High switching frequency (MHz) hard switched and resonant boost converters are proposed. Their analysis, simulation and experimental prototypes are presented. A specific proof-of-concept application is especially tested for foldable PV panels, which are known for their high internal wire inductance. The experimental converters successfully boost solar module voltage without adding any external input capacitance or filter inductor. Benefits and drawbacks of new proposed PV submodule integrated boost

  17. Technical analysis - an economic system outdoor lighting, powered with solar photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Lay Portuondo; Belen, Acosta Herrera

    2011-01-01

    The mains characteristics of LED output lighting are high efficiency, long lifetime and the ability of low level voltage operation, making it suitable for working with photovoltaic panels. In the beginning this application was constrained to isolated and disaster areas where there are not possibilities of connection with the electric grid, this situation is changing as a consequence of the systematic price reduction in photovoltaic panels and LEDs and the increasing of the efficiency of this light source, therefore this option has become attractive in lighting projects of new facilities. It is important to know that in our country we have the means for the design and manufacturing of the elements of the lighting system and for making the lighting project, assuring a high level of national production integration. In this work the factors that make possible the feasibility of this type of illumination are analyzed and several options for its implementation are proposed. (author)

  18. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  19. Numerical investigation of dust pollution on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on an isolated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of dust pollution on PV panels mounted on building roofs were investigated by CFD. • The dust deposition rates first increased and then decreased with the increase of dust size. • The gravity has different influences on dust deposition rates of large and small dusts. • The influence of released dust number on dust deposition rate is less than 8%. • A simple model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratio by dust pollution. - Abstract: Dust deposition on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on the windward roof of an isolated building was investigated by CFD simulation. The SST k-ω turbulence model with UDF inlet profiles and the discrete particle model (DPM) were adopted to simulate the wind flow fields and the dust deposition behavior, respectively. The CFD wind flow velocity profiles around the building were in good agreement with experimental results reported in the literature. The effects of various dust particle sizes, differing quantities of released dust particles, and the force of gravity on the rates of dust deposition upon the PV panels were investigated in detail. It was found that the dust deposition rate first rose and then declined with the increase of dust particle size. The maximum deposition rate was about 0.28% for 10 μm dust, and the minimum deposition rate was about 0.13% for 50 μm dust. Gravity also had a significant effect on the rate of dust deposition for large-particle dust (d_p > 5 μm), and the rate could reach 75% for 50 μm dust. However, the effect of gravity on dust deposition was less than 5% for small-particle dust (d_p < 5 μm). The effect of releasing differing quantities of dust particles on the dust deposition rate was less than 8%. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dust was deposited on the PV roof were analyzed and discussed. Finally, a simple empirical model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratios in relation to exposure time, as based on this

  20. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  1. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  2. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity......The energy consumption in buildings accounts for a large part of the World’s CO2 emissions. Much energy is used for appliances, domestic hot water preparation and space heating. In solar heating systems, heat is captured by solar collectors when the sun is shining and used for heating purposes...

  3. MPPT algorithm test on a photovoltaic emulating system constructed by a DC power supply and an indoor solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Holland, P.M.; Igic, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel PV emulator is constructed by using conventional solar panels with a DC power supply. • The proposed PV emulator is cost-effectiveness, relatively easy implementation. • The proposed PV emulator avoids the bandwidth problem associated with electronics PV emulators. • Indoor testing of MPPT algorithms and power converters avoids the dependency on solar irradiation. • The PV emulating system has been used for testing a P and O MPPT algorithm and a boost dc converter. - Abstract: In this paper a novel photovoltaic (PV) emulating scheme for testing maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms and PV inverters has been proposed. It is constructed by the parallel connection of conventional solar panels with a DC power supply operating in current source mode. The advantages of the proposed scheme are cost-effectiveness, relatively easy implementation and indoor testing of MPPT algorithms and power converters avoiding weather and time of day dependency on solar irradiation levels. Furthermore, the proposed PV emulator avoids the bandwidth problem associated with the dc converter based PV emulating systems. Detailed circuit connection, parameters, electrical characteristics and mathematical model of the PV emulator are presented and discussed. Proposed PV emulating system has been used to test a boost DC/DC converter controlled by Perturb and Observe (P and O) MPPT algorithm. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed PV emulation system and all achieved results correspond well to the original designed values

  4. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  5. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-08

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells.

  6. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah; Zamani, Vahraz; Kleissl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system

  7. Predicting the behavior of a grid-connected photovoltaic system from measurements of solar radiation and ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.; Gordillo, G.; Vallejo, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model to predict in a reliable way the behavior of a GCPV system is presented. ► Radiation and temperature behavior were shaped with probability density functions. ► This probability density functions were made from real measurements. ► This model was verified for comparing their behavior with real measurements. ► It can be used in any electrical systems language which have programming routines. - Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to predict in a statistically reliable way the behavior of a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The methodology developed can be implemented either in common programming software or through an off-the-shelf simulation of electrical systems. Initially, the atmospheric parameters that influence the behavior of PV generators (radiation and temperature) are characterized in a probabilistic manner. In parallel, a model compound by various PV generator components is defined: the modules (and their electrical and physical characteristics), their connection to form the generator, and the inverter type. This model was verified for comparing their behavior with output measured on a real installed system of 3.6 kWp. The solar resource characterized and the photovoltaic system model are integrated in a non-deterministic approach using the stochastic Monte Carlo method, developed in the programming language DPL of the electrical-systems simulation software DIGSILENT®. It is done to estimate the steady-state electrical parameters describing the influence of the grid-connected photovoltaic system. Specifically, we estimated the nominal peak power of the PV generator to minimize network losses, subject to constraints on nodes voltages and conductor currents

  8. Analysis of shadowing effects on MIR photovoltaic and solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently working with RSC-Energia, the Russian Space Agency, and Allied Signal in developing a flight demonstration solar dynamic power system. This type of power system is dependent upon solar flux that is reflected and concentrated into a thermal storage system to provide the thermal energy input to a closed-cycle Brayton heat engine. The solar dynamic unit will be flown on the Russian Mir space station in anticipation of use on the International Space Station Alpha. By the time the power system is launched, the Mir will be a spatially complex configuration which will have, in addition to the three-gimbaled solar dynamic unit, eleven solar array wings that are either fixed or track the Sun along one axis and a variety or repositionable habitation and experiment modules. The proximity of arrays to modules creates a situation which makes it highly probable that there will be varying solar flux due to shadowing on the solar dynamic unit and some of the arrays throughout the orbit. Shadowing causes fluctuations in the power output from the arrays and the solar dynamic power system, thus reducing the energy capabilities of the spacecraft. An assessment of the capabilities of the power system under these conditions is an important part in influencing the design and operations of the spacecraft and predicting its energy performance. This paper describes the results obtained from using the Orbiting Spacecraft Shadowing Analysis Station program that was integrated into the Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) electrical power system computer program. OSSA allows one to consider the numerous complex factors for analyzing the shadowing effects on the electrical power system including the variety of spacecraft hardware geometric configurations, yearly and daily orbital variations in the vehicle attitude and orbital maneuvers (for communications coverage, payload pointing requirements and rendezvous/docking with other

  9. Error Assessment of Solar Irradiance Forecasts and AC Power from Energy Conversion Model in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Chicco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of effective estimation of the power profiles of photovoltaic systems is essential for studying how to increase the share of intermittent renewable sources in the electricity mix of many countries. For this purpose, weather forecasts, together with historical data of the meteorological quantities, provide fundamental information. The weak point of the forecasts depends on variable sky conditions, when the clouds successively cover and uncover the solar disc. This causes remarkable positive and negative variations in the irradiance pattern measured at the photovoltaic (PV site location. This paper starts from 1 to 3 days-ahead solar irradiance forecasts available during one year, with a few points for each day. These forecasts are interpolated to obtain more irradiance estimations per day. The estimated irradiance data are used to classify the sky conditions into clear, variable or cloudy. The results are compared with the outcomes of the same classification carried out with the irradiance measured in meteorological stations at two real PV sites. The occurrence of irradiance spikes in “broken cloud” conditions is identified and discussed. From the measured irradiance, the Alternating Current (AC power injected into the grid at two PV sites is estimated by using a PV energy conversion model. The AC power errors resulting from the PV model with respect to on-site AC power measurements are shown and discussed.

  10. A Novel Flying Capacitor Transformerless Inverter for Single-Phase Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase flying capacitor transformerless PV inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. The neutral of the grid can be directly connected to the negative terminal of the source (PV). It consists of four power switches, one diode, one capacitor and a small...... and some topologies, which requires two times of the peak ac-voltage magnitude) and, (5) the flying capacitor charges every switching cycle, which reduces the size of the required capacitor with switching frequency. In addition, industry standard half bridge module can be used in the new inverter without...

  11. H-Bridge Transformerless Inverter with Common Ground for Single-Phase Solar-Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase H-Bridge transformerless inverter with common ground for grid-connected photovoltaic systems (hereafter it is called ‘Siwakoti-H’ inverter). The inverter works on the principle of flying capacitor and consists of only four power switches (two reverse blocking...... IGBT's (RB-IGBT) and two MOSFET's), a capacitor and a small filter at the output stage. The proposed topology share a common ground with the grid and the PV source. A Unipolar Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) technique is used to modulate the inverter to minimize switching loss, output current...

  12. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  13. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah

    2015-06-28

    The focus of this paper is to optimize the solar energy utilization in the water desalination process. Due to variable nature of solar energy, new system design is needed to address this challenge. Here, reverse osmosis units, as the electrical loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system performances. To assess each scenario of reverse osmosis units, the total capital cost and operation and maintenance (O&M) cost are considered. The implemented optimization algorithm search all of the possible scenarios to find the best solution. This paper deploys the solar irradiance data which is provided from west coast (Red Sea) of Saudi Arabia for model construction and optimization algorithm implementation.

  14. Sizing through simulation of systems for photovoltaic solar energy applied to rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez‐Borges, Ciaddy Gina; Sarmiento‐Sera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The present work is based on the sizing method by means of simulation of the photovoltaic systems energy behavior, applied to rural electrification in regions far from the electric net. The denomination of infra/over sized systems is made and a requested analysis of one particular case is exposed, where it is considered two energy options of different qualities of electric service and the economic valuation of each option is requested, with its corresponding argument. The quality level is established with the fault index in the electricity service for energy lack in the batteries, besides the quantity of energy autonomy days of the system. As conclusions, in infra-sizing conditions systems, and with established quality level of service, multiple sizing solutions exist, and under certain conditions, not always the systems with more quality level, are those of more cost, as well as the presence of a minimum cost in the sizing can be obtained by simulation methods. (author)

  15. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...

  16. Common-Ground-Type Transformerless Inverters for Single-Phase Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter at the o......This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter...... at the output stage. A simple unipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique is used to modulate the inverter to minimize the switching loss, output current ripple, and the filter requirements. In general, the main advantages of the new inverter topologies are: 1) the negative polarity of the PV...... description of the operating principle with modulation techniques, design guidelines, and comprehensive comparisons is presented to reveal the properties and limitations of each topology in detail. Finally, experimental results of 1-kVA prototypes are presented to prove the concept and theoretical analysis...

  17. APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of the Photovoltaic system for water pumping is explored. .... employed to advantage for rural Ethiopia are solar energy, wind ... Kwh/sq.m/day and with a yearly average of about .... equator. Well Data : Total head 62m ... Investment return in photovoltaic potable water ... without any considerable change in performance.

  18. Experimental integrated photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Markovska, Natasha; Dimitrov, D.; Kocev, K.; Dimitrovski, D.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the interest in building-integrated photovoltaic installations has started to increase within governmental and municipality authorities, as well as some industrial companies. To serve a national public-awareness program of solar electricity promotion and education, the indigenous solar energy potential, optimization of possible PV installation, and three test cases of building-integrated grid-connected experimental facilities have been studied. The results showed the feasibility and performance of the proposed concepts. (Original)

  19. Design of photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Martínez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) harvesting of solar energy is based on capturing sunlight and transforming it into electricity. This type of electricity generation does not pollute the environment as much as other types of energy production, that is why nowadays some engineers would like to improve it. To carry out this change we use solar cells made of semiconductor materials (Silicon) in which it is artificially created a permanent electric field. These cells are connected in series or par...

  20. Simulation of the optimal size of photovoltaic system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... is composed of photovoltaic array, power tracker, battery storage, inverter and load. The data used were the sunshine duration and solar radiation intensity for ... covered by the photovoltaic system without battery storage, monthly-average ...

  1. Water pumping system using solar photovoltaic induction motor; Sistema de bombeamento de agua com energia solar fotovoltaica utilizando motor de inducao trifasico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Eduardo Henrique Pereira de; Bezerra, Luiz Daniel Santos; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DEE/PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Programa de Pos -Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET), PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main difficulties to people who live in remote areas or isolated community and not grid connected, certainly is to access potable drink water. In the world, more than 6000 children dies everyday by some kind of illnesses associated to non-potable drink water. At state of Ceara, during the dry weather periods, remain water reservoir becomes practically a mud puddle, as a result, people and animals are forced to drink this inappropriate water. To minimize this consequences in this periods some water is distributed by tankers but, sometimes, even this water is not enough potable. Underground water is an alternative to mitigate this problem. The most common technique is the use of direct current (DC) pumps set supplied by solar photovoltaic systems. However, this kind of pump-set is relatively expensive and too hard to maintain. This paper brings an alternative lower expensive and sustainable to water pumping system, it uses a three phase induction machine coupled to an underwater centrifugal pump supplied by solar photovoltaic energy system. (author)

  2. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  3. Experimental study of refrigeration performance based on linear Fresnel solar thermal photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinghui; Yuan, Hui; Xia, Yunfeng; Kan, Weimin; Deng, Xiaowen; Liu, Shi; Liang, Wanlong; Deng, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces the working principle and system constitution of the linear Fresnel solar lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle, and elaborates several typical structures of absorption refrigeration cycle, including single-effect, two-stage cycle and double-effect lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle A 1.n effect absorption chiller system based on the best parameters was introduced and applied to a linear Fresnel solar absorption chiller system. Through the field refrigerator performance test, the results show: Based on this heat cycle design and processing 1.n lithium bromide absorption refrigeration power up to 35.2KW, It can meet the theoretical expectations and has good flexibility and reliability, provides guidance for the use of solar thermal energy.

  4. Terawatt solar photovoltaics roadblocks and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

  5. Recent advances in solar photovoltaic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro Hamakawa

    2000-01-01

    The current state of the art in recent progress of Japanese photovoltaic activities are overviewed. Firstly, a new strategy for the renewable energy promotion so called Fundamental Principle to promote New Energy Developments and Utilization, and its action planning for PV technology up to year of 2010 are introduced. The program structure and some tangible actions such as tax reduction for investment in the renewable energy plants, government financial support of 2/3 subsidy of PV system developments for public facilities namely as PV Field Test Experiments, and a 1/2 subsidy for the private solar house as PV House Monitor Plan are presented. Secondly, some new topics in the field of solar cell production technology in Japan and also statistics of the solar cell module productions for three kinds of silicon basis solar cells are summarized. Progress of the conversion efficiency in various types of solar cells are also surveyed. In the final part of paper possible new roles to contribute to the global environmental issues by the PV system developments are proposed. (Author)

  6. Solar Energy Resource Analysis and Evaluation of Photovoltaic System Performance in Various Regions of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bilal Awan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Vision 2030, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A plans to harness 9.5 GW of energy from renewable energy sources, which includes a major part of solar PV generation. This massive implementation of solar projects requires an accurate assessment and analysis of solar resource data and PV site selection. This paper presents a detailed analysis of one-year solar radiation data and energy output of 100 kW PV systems at 44 different locations across the K.S.A. Coastal areas have a lower amount of global horizontal irradiance (GHI as compared to inland areas. Najran University station gives the highest annual electrical output of 172,083 kWh, yield factor of 1721, and capacity utilization factor of 19.6%. Sharurah and Timma TVTC are second and third best with respect to annual PV performance. Similarly, during high load summer season (April–October, Tabuk station is the best location for a PV power plant with an electrical output of 110,250 kWh, yield factor of 1102, and capacity utilization factor of 21.46%. Overall, the northern province of Tabuk is the most feasible region for a solar PV plant. The basic approach presented in this research study compares solar resource pattern and solar PV system output pattern with the load profile of the country. The site selected based on this criterion is recommended to be economically most feasible which can reduce the stress on electricity companies during high load seasons by clipping the peak load during daytime in the hot summer period.

  7. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  8. Photovoltaic System in Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive update on photovoltaic (PV) technologies and the materials. In recent years, targeted research advancement has been made in the photovoltaic cell technologies to reduce cost and increase efficiency. Presently, several types of PV solar panels are commercially...... falls in the third generation PV technologies. However, Multi-junction Cells are still considered new and have not yet achieved commercialization status. The fundamental change observed among all generations has been how the semiconductor material is employed and the development associated with crystal...

  9. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  10. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    This Article: Dellosa, J. (2016 Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.179-185

  11. Development and evaluation of a ceiling ventilation system enhanced by solar photovoltaic thermal collectors and phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenye; Ma, Zhenjun; Sohel, M. Imroz; Cooper, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ceiling ventilation system enhanced by PVT and PCMs was proposed. • PCM was used to increase the local thermal mass and to serve as a storage unit. • The proposed system can enhance indoor thermal comfort in winter and summer. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a novel ceiling ventilation system integrated with solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors and phase change materials (PCMs). The PVT collectors are used to generate electricity and provide low grade heating and cooling energy for buildings by using winter daytime solar radiation and summer night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PCM is integrated into the building ceiling as a part of the ceiling insulation and at the same time, as a centralized thermal energy storage to temporally store low grade energy collected from the PVT collectors. The performance of the proposed system was numerically evaluated based on a Solar Decathlon house using TRNSYS. The results showed that, in winter conditions, the proposed PVT–PCM integrated ventilation system can significantly improve the indoor thermal comfort of passive buildings without using air-conditioning systems with a maximum air temperature rise of 23.1 °C from the PVT collectors. Compared with the system using PCM but without using PVT collectors, the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the kitchen, dining room and living room of the case building studied using the proposed system improved from almost zero to 0.9823 while the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the study room improved from 0.0060 to 0.9921. In summer conditions, the proposed system can also enhance indoor thermal comfort through night-time sky radiative cooling

  12. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  13. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  14. Photovoltaic modules with cylindrical waveguides in a system for the secondary concentration of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. M.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Ionova, E. A.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    2013-09-01

    The parameters of the concentrating photoelectric modules with triple-junction (InGaP/GaAs/Ge) solar cells whose focusing system contains an original secondary optical element are studied. The element consists of a plane-convex lens in optical contact with the front surface of an intermediate glass plate and a cylindrical waveguide that is located on the rear side of the glass plate above the surface of the solar element. It is demonstrated that the structure of the secondary optical element provides a wide misorientation characteristic of the concentrator and the cylindrical waveguide allows a more uniform radiation density over the surface of the solar cell. The effect of chromatic aberration in the primary and secondary optical systems on the parameters of photoelectric modules is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the presence of waveguides with a length of 3-5 mm leads to effective redistribution of radiation over the surface of the solar cell whereas shorter and longer waveguides provide the local concentration of radiation at the center of the photodetecting area.

  15. Investigation of solar photovoltaic module power output by various models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhrani, A.Q.; Othman, A.K.; Rigit, A.R.H.; Baini, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the power output of a solar photovoltaic module by various models and to formulate a suitable model for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic modules. The model was used to correct the configurations of solar photovoltaic systems for sustainable power supply. Different types of models namely the efficiency, power, fill factor and current-voltage characteristic curve models have been reviewed. It was found that the examined models predicted a 40% yield of the rated power in cloudy weather conditions and up to 80% in clear skies. The models performed well in terms of electrical efficiency in cloudy days if the influence of low irradiance were incorporated. Both analytical and numerical methods were employed in the formulation of improved model which gave +- 2% error when compared with the rated power output of solar photovoltaic module. The proposed model is more practical in terms of number of variables used and acceptable performance in humid atmospheres. Therefore, it could be useful for the estimation of power output of the solar photovoltaic systems in Sarawak region. (author)

  16. The Comparison of Photovoltaic with Small Solar Dish Stirling for Solar Home System 50 W{sub p} in Thailand, Medium Insolation Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snidvongs, E. S.; Jindaruj, S.

    2006-07-01

    The Thai government initiated a project entitled Solar Home System which involved the provision of standalone Photovoltaic 50 Wp for houses without transmission lines in remote areas, 300,000 units. These units are provided at a low price with the government supporting half of the cost and the rest paid by the owners in installments. So far, more than 150,000 units have been installed and it is expected that the whole project would be completed by the end of the year 2005. A purpose of this research is to compare the original Thai government's Solar Home PV System with the new 50 Wp Small Solar Thermal Dish Stirling System in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for Thailand. The result of this would serve as a guide for the users to select the most suitable system in terms of price, maintenance, cost, economy, performance, reliability, and efficiency. Such comparison will be presented in the form of descriptive, photographs, statistics, and tables. As for the data involved, part of this is based on active fact such as construction cost, material cost, labor cost, rate of inflation, rate of interest. While some of these derives from the experience of researcher as well as facts and figures from Thai governments publications such as operation and maintenance cost. In addition to that some data are taken from basic experiments conducted either by the various universities and the researcher own laboratory. These include solar insolation, PV data and Stirling engine test with electric heater. And, of course, some data are based on simple estimation and prediction. Thailand is a country of 550 w/m2 with high humidity, soft-land and medium insolation. It locates near the equator at latitude 5 12 N, longitude 96 106 E. By using a parabolic shape satellite dish with solar tracker and a 60 W Four Cylinders gamma type Stirling engine with sinusoidal gear linear link, low offset space, and solid thermal storage to act as buffer between the solar energy and the

  17. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snegirjovs A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW. In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  19. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (photovoltaic power generation); Taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report summarizes the research result on the guide for developing solar cells. The report includes (1) standard measurement method for solar cells, (2) system configuration and installation site, (3) optimum design and profitability of solar cells and (4) raw materials and pollution prevention. In the 1st research, study was made on the standard for solar radiation intensity, the definition and measurement methods for spectral profiles, and the measurement conditions for solar cells. In the 2nd research, study was made on various basic data for the scale of photovoltaic power systems. In the 3rd research, since it is necessary to obtain characteristics of solar cells with any profiles of physical constants such as impurity, minority carrier life and mobility by simulation of solar cell actions, research was made on the measurement method of minority carrier lives by using a prepared computer program. Technical and economical comparisons were also made between Si solar cells with various structures. In the 4th research, survey was made on various data for compound semiconductors, and study was made on industrial waste pollution. (NEDO)

  20. Selling photovoltaics at the top of the world. Marketing strategy for Solar Home Systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieke, O.; Parodi, O.; Schweizer, P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper a marketing strategy for Solar home systems (SHS) in the Solu Khumbu region of Nepal is presented. Four scenarios for distribution and service were developed and analysed using a break even analysis. The outcome of the study is that the most promising way for a successful market entry is provided by a not too dense sales network in the region itself, a three year warranty and a annual maintenance service. (orig.)

  1. Mathematical models for photovoltaic solar panel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Airton A. dos; Gnoatto, Estor; Fischborn, Marcos; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], Emails: airton@utfpr.edu.br, gnoatto@utfpr.edu.br, fisch@utfpr.edu.br, kavanagh@utfpr.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    A photovoltaic generator is subject to several variations of solar intensity, ambient temperature or load, that change your point of operation. This way, your behavior should be analyzed by such alterations, to optimize your operation. The present work sought to simulate a photovoltaic generator, of polycrystalline silicon, by characteristics supplied by the manufacturer, and to compare the results of two mathematical models with obtained values of field, in the city of Cascavel, for a period of one year. (author)

  2. Performance analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV/T) air heater is a collector that combines thermal and photovoltaic systems in one single hybrid generating unit. It generators both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously. A new design of a double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPC and fins was successfully developed and fabricated at Universiti Kebangsaam Malaysia. This collector tested under actual environmental conditions to study its performance over a range of operating conditions. The test set-up, instrumentation and measurement are described further. It was found that the performance of the collector was in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Results of the outdoors test are presented and discussed(Author)

  3. System Dynamics of Polysilicon for Solar Photovoltaics: A Framework for Investigating the Energy Security of Renewable Energy Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Sandor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy, produced with widely available low-cost energy resources, is often included as a component of national strategies to address energy security and sustainability. Market and political forces cannot disrupt the sun or wind, unlike oil and gas supplies. However, the cost of renewable energy is highly dependent on technologies manufactured through global supply chains in leading manufacturing countries. The countries that contribute to the global supply chains may take actions that, directly or indirectly, influence global access to materials and components. For example, high-purity polysilicon, a key material in solar photovoltaics, has experienced significant price fluctuations, affecting the manufacturing capacity and cost of both polysilicon and solar panels. This study developed and validated an initial system dynamics framework to gain insights into global trade in polysilicon. The model represents an initial framework for exploration. Three regions were modeled—China, the United States, and the rest of the world—for a range of trade scenarios to understand the impacts of import duties and non-price drivers on the relative volumes of imports and domestic supply. The model was validated with the historical case of China imposing an import duty on polysilicon from the United States, the European Union, and South Korea, which altered the regional flows of polysilicon—in terms of imports, exports, and domestic production—to varying degrees. As expected, the model tracked how regional demand shares and influx volumes decrease as a duty on a region increases. Using 2016 as a reference point, in the scenarios examined for U.S. exports to China, each 10% increase in the import duty results in a 40% decrease in import volume. The model also indicates that, under the scenarios investigated, once a duty has been imposed on a region, the demand share from that region declines and does not achieve pre-duty levels, even as global

  4. The cost benefit analysis of implementing photovoltaic solar system in the state of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhan, Mohammad; Naseeb, Adel

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the high financial cost of energy resources required to meet the rising demand for electricity consumption in Kuwait, the negative environmental impact of fossil fuel is increasing. Hence, the objective of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility and viability of implementing PV solar energy in the State of Kuwait. It was found that the positive characteristics of solar radiation in Kuwait play a critical role in enhancing the feasibility of implementing solar systems. Under the present price of 5$/W and 15% efficiency, the LCOE of a 1 MW station is estimated to be around $0.20/kWh. This LCOE can be feasible only when the cost of oil is around 100$/barrel. The Cost Benefit Analysis showed that when the value of saved energy resources used in producing traditional electricity, and the cost of lowering CO 2 emissions are accounted for, the true economic cost of LCOE of a PV system will decline significantly. The preliminary economic analysis recommends the implementation of PV technology in Kuwait. (author)

  5. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  6. Solar photovoltaic water pumping for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meah, Kala; Fletcher, Steven; Ula, Sadrul

    2008-01-01

    Many parts of the world as well as the western US are rural in nature and consequently do not have electrical distribution lines in many parts of villages, farms, and ranches. Distribution line extension costs can run from USD 10,000 to USD 16,000/km, thereby making availability of electricity to small water pumping projects economically unattractive. But, ground water and sunlight are available, which make solar photovoltaic (SPV) powered water pumping more cost effective in these areas' small scale applications. Many western states including Wyoming are passing through the sixth year of drought with the consequent shortages of water for many applications. The Wyoming State Climatologist is predicting a possible 5-10 years of drought. Drought impacts the surface water right away, while it takes much longer to impact the underground aquifers. To mitigate the effect on the livestock and wildlife, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal initiated a solar water pumping initiative in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, County Conservation Districts, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and ranching organizations. Solar water pumping has several advantages over traditional systems; for example, diesel or propane engines require not only expensive fuels, they also create noise and air pollution in many remote pristine areas. Solar systems are environment friendly, low maintenance, and have no fuel cost. In this paper the design, installation, site selection, and performance monitoring of the solar system for small-scale remote water pumping will be presented. This paper also presents technical, environmental, and economic benefits of the SPV water pumping system compared to stand alone generator and electric utility. (author)

  7. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A. A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  9. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  10. Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    fundamentals of device operation, including charge-separation processes, charge-transport mechanisms, device . Our Expertise NCPV scientists use this coating system in developing OPV films in the lab. We have system that allows us to measure the lifetime of thin-film devices under light, at different substrate

  11. Regional Analysis of Aids and Prices for Small-scale Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.

    2002-01-01

    Electricity production from small solar photovoltaic systems in Spain obtains a premium pnce of 0,36 ε/kWh over the electricity market price or a fix price of 0,40 ε/kWh. The development of these small systems in Spain clearly demonstrates that the established prime is not sufficient in the majority of locations. On the other hand, the prime revision set up by the RD 2818/98, considering the profitability of the renewable installations, demand a regional analysis of small PV systems profitability necessary in Spain. The accomplished results permit to conclude that the amount of the current prime is by itself insufficient to make profitable the small grid-connected PV systems in anywhere of the national geography. To guarantee the profitability of these systems it should be necessary to place the fix price at around 0,93 ε/kWh. However, if the duplication of the current price obtained by these installations was considered, this could ensure the profitability of these small systems in at least the 77% of the land. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Mathematical approach to the characterization of daily energy balance in autonomous photovoltaic solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casares, F.J.; Lopez-Luque, R.; Posadillo, R.; Varo-Martinez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sizing SAPV techniques try to assess the reliability of the system from the stochastic simulation of the energy balance. This stochastic simulation implies the generation, for an extended period of time, of the main state variables of the physical equations describing the energy balance of the system, that is, the energy delivered to the load and the energy stored in the batteries. Most of these methods consider the daily load as a constant over the year and control the variables indicating the reliability associated with the supply of power to the load. Furthermore, these methods rely on previous random models for generating solar radiation data and, since the approximations of the simulation methods are asymptotic, when more precise reliability indicators are required, the simulation period needs to be extended. This paper presents a mathematical methodology to address the daily energy balance without resorting to simulation methods. This method is directly based on daily solar radiation series modelled according to Markov stochastic processes and Aguiar matrices. The characterization presented is the base of a rational method in which reliability does not depend on the number of iterations but on the precision of the conditional probabilities included in Aguiar matrices. - Highlights: • A new SAPV sizing method is presented and validated. • This model relates the PV sizing methods to the autocorrelative Aguiar model. • This statistical approach is only limited by Markov matrixes. • It permits the study of PV systems with variable daily demands or solar tracking. • LLP for a SAPV can be estimated quickly and in an analytic and precise way

  13. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in Commercial and Industrial (C&I) Solar Photovoltaic System Installation; Period of Performance: November 28, 2014-September 1, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Chris [Inst. of Building Technology and Safety (IBTS), Ashbum, VA (United States); Loomans, Len [Acuity Power, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Truitt, Andrew [Acuity Power, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Lockhart, Robert [Acuity Power, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, Matt [Efficiency.org, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dabbagh, Kareem [Aurora Solar, Scotts Valley, CA (United States); Lawrence, Richard [North American Board of Certified Energy Practicioners (NABCEP), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This Best Practices in Commercial and Industrial Solar Photovoltaic System Installation Guide is the second of a series of guides designed to standardize and improve solar asset transparency for investors and rating agencies, provide an industry framework for quality management, and reduce transaction costs in the solar asset securitization process. The Best Practices in C&I PV System Installation Guide is intended to outline the minimum requirements for commercial and industrial solar project developments. Adherence to the guide is voluntary. Providers that adhere to the guide are responsible for self-certifying that they have fulfilled the guide requirements. Investors and rating agencies should verify compliance.

  14. Inverter sizing of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the light of local solar resource distribution characteristics and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Bruno [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Electrical Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ruether, Ricardo [LABSOLAR-Laboratorio de Energia Solar, LabEEE-Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Inverter sizing strategies for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems often do not take into account site-dependent peculiarities of ambient temperature, inverter operating temperature and solar irradiation distribution characteristics. The operating temperature affects PV modules and inverters in different ways and PV systems will hardly ever have a DC output equal to or above their STC-rated nominal power. Inverters are usually sized with a nominal AC output power some 30% (sometimes even more) below the PV array nominal power. In this paper, we show that this practice might lead to considerable energy losses, especially in the case of PV technologies with high temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with cold climates and of PV technologies with low temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with warm climates and an energy distribution of sunlight shifted to higher irradiation levels. In energy markets where PV kWh are paid premium tariffs, like in Germany, energy yield optimization might result in a favorable payback of the extra capital invested in a larger inverter. This paper discusses how the time resolution of solar radiation data influences the correct sizing of PV plants. We demonstrate that using instant (10s) irradiation values instead of average hourly irradiation values leads to considerable differences in optimum inverter sizing. When calculating inverter yearly efficiency values using both, hourly averages and 1-min averages, we can show that with increased time resolution of solar irradiation data there are higher calculated losses due to inverter undersizing. This reveals that hourly averages hide important irradiation peaks that need to be considered. We performed these calculations for data sets from pyranometer readings from Freiburg (48{sup o}N, Germany) and Florianopolis (27{sup o}S, Brazil) to further show the peculiarities of the site-dependent distribution of irradiation levels and its effects on inverter sizing

  15. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  16. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  17. Performance comparison between ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling for solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Wen, Chen; Huang, Qunwu; Kang, Xue; Chen, Miao; Wang, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling are compared. • Effects of operation parameters on ethanol phase-change immersion are studied. • Optimum filling ratio is 30% for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system. • Exergy efficiency of ethanol phase-change immersion method increases by 57%. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimized ethanol phase-change immersion cooling method to obtain lower temperature of dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The thermal performances of this system were compared with a conventional active water cooling system with minichannels from the perspectives of start-up characteristic, temperature uniformity, thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient. This paper also explored the influences of liquid filling ratio, absolute pressure and water flow rate on thermal performances. Dense-array LEDs were used to simulate heat power of solar cells worked under high concentration ratios. It can be observed that the optimal filling ratio was 30% in which the thermal resistance was 0.479 °C/W and the heat transfer coefficient was 9726.21 W/(m 2 ·°C). To quantify the quality of energy output of two cooling systems, exergy analysis are conducted and maximum exergy efficiencies were 17.70% and 11.27%, respectively. The experimental results represent an improvement towards thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system due to the reduction in contact thermal resistance. This study improves the operation control and applications for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling technology.

  18. Photovoltaic solar system connected to the electric power grid operating as active power generator and reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, F.L.; Moraes, A.J.; Guimaraes, G.C.; Sanhueza, S.M.R.; Vaz, A.R. [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the case of photovoltaic solar systems (PV) acting as a distributed generation (DG), the DC energy obtained is fed through the power-conditioning unit (inverter) to the grid. The majority of contemporary inverters used in DG systems are current source inverters (CSI) operating at unity power factor. If, however, we assume that voltage source inverters (VSI) can be utilized instead of CSI, we can generate reactive power commensurate with the remaining unused capacity at any given point in time. According to the theory of instantaneous power, the reactive and active power of inverter can be regulated by changing the amplitude and the phase of the output voltage of the inverter. Based on this theory, the active power output and the reactive power compensation (RPC) of the system are realized simultaneously. When the insolation is weak or the PV modules are inoperative at night, the RPC feature of PV system can still be used to improve the utilization factor of the inverter. The MATLAB simulation results validate the feasibility of the method. (author)

  19. Solar Highway Program : from concept to reality : a guidebook for Departments of Transportation to develop solar photovoltaic systems in the highway right-of-way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide an overview for state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) of the process for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects in the highway right-of-way. The goal is to help others navigate the process towards a suc...

  20. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  1. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  2. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  3. Good harvest. Performance of the photovoltaic systems of the solar hydrogen production plant at Neunburg vorm Wald. Gute Ernte. Versuchsergebnisse der Photovoltaik der Solar-Wasserstoff-Anlage in Neunburg vorm Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietsch, T. (Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern GmbH (SWB), Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Two photovoltaic systems with a total rating of 227 kW produce electric power for the hydrogen electrolysis process in the solar hydrogen production plant at Neunburg vorm Wald. The report describes their performance since January 1990. It presents the state as of October 1993. (orig.)

  4. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  5. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  6. Modeling and simulation performance of photovoltaic system integration battery and supercapacitor paralellization of MPPT prototipe for solar vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme photovoltaic, battery and super capacitor connected in parallel for use in a solar vehicle. Based on the features of battery charging, the control scheme consists of three modes, namely, mode dynamic irradian, constant load mode and constant voltage charging mode. The shift of the three modes can be realized by controlling the duty cycle of the mosffet Boost converter system. Meanwhile, the high voltage which is more suitable for the application can be obtained. Compared with normal charging method with parallel connected current limiting detention and charging method with dynamic irradian mode, constant load mode and constant voltage charging mode, the control scheme is proposed to shorten the charging time and increase the use of power generated from the PV array. From the simulation results and analysis conducted to determine the performance of the system in state transient and steady-state by using simulation software Matlab / Simulink. Response simulation results demonstrate the suitability of the proposed concept.

  7. Techno-economic feasibility analysis of hydrogen fuel cell and solar photovoltaic hybrid renewable energy system for academic research building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anand; Baredar, Prashant; Gupta, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A HFC and SPV HRES for stand-alone applications is proposed. • The FC program computes the optimum cost of HRES components. • HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. - Abstract: A hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) and solar photovoltaic (SPV) hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for stand-alone applications is proposed. This system arrangement of a hydrogen tank, battery, and an electrolyzer are used as like the energy storage. The economic viability of using HRES power to supply the electrical load demand of academic research building located at 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitudes, India is examined. The fuzzy logic program computes the optimum value of capital and replacement cost of the components, which is then utilized in HOMER pro software to calculate the optimum performance of HRES. The results shows the HFC and battery bank are the most significant modules of the HRES to meet load demand at late night and early morning hours. The AC primary load consuming 20712.63 kWh/year out of total power generation of HRES which is 24570.72 kWh/year. The excess of electricity produced by HRES is 791.7709 kWh/year with the optimized cost of energy, unmet electrical load and capacity shortage of 0%.

  8. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  9. Performance of U.S. hybrid distributed energy systems: Solar photovoltaic, battery and combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kunal K.; Mundada, Aishwarya S.; Pearce, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulated PV + battery + CHP hybrid systems deployed in three U.S. regions. • Used hybrid optimization model for electric renewable pro microgrid analysis. • Limited size of each sub-module to singe family house size. • Results show that the electricity generated meets residential load demand. • Hybrid systems are technically viable in hot, moderate and cold climates in U.S. - Abstract: Until recently, the relatively high levelized cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic (PV) technology limited deployment; however, recent cost reductions, combined with various financial incentives and innovative financing techniques, have made PV fully competitive with conventional sources in many American regions. In addition, the costs of electrical storage have also declined enough to make PV + battery systems potentially economically viable for a mass-scale off-grid low-emission transition. However, many regions in the U.S. (e.g. Northern areas) cannot have off-grid PV systems without prohibitively large battery systems. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems provide a potential solution for off-grid power backup of residential-scale PV + battery arrays, while also minimizing emissions from conventional sources. Thus, an opportunity is now available to maximize the use of solar energy and gain the improved efficiencies possible with CHPs to deploy PV + battery + CHP systems throughout the U.S. The aim of this study is to determine the technical viability of such systems by simulating PV + battery + CHP hybrid systems deployed in three representative regions in the U.S., using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) Pro Microgrid Analysis tool. The results show that the electricity generated by each component of the hybrid system can be coupled to fulfill the residential load demand. A sensitivity analysis of these hybrid off grid systems is carried out as a function capacity factor of both the PV and CHP units. The

  10. Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarbi, M.; Haddouche, K.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach for estimating the model parameters of a photovoltaic solar panel according to the irradiance and temperature. The parameters of the one diode model are given from the knowledge of three operating points: short-circuit, open circuit, and maximum power. In the first step, the adopted approach concerns the resolution of the system of equations constituting the three operating points to write all the model parameters according to series resistance. Secondly, we make an iterative resolution at the optimal operating point by using the Newton-Raphson method to calculate the series resistance value as well as the model parameters. Once the panel model is identified, we consider other equations for taking into account the irradiance and temperature effect. The simulation results show the convergence speed of the model parameters and the possibility of visualizing the electrical behaviour of the panel according to the irradiance and temperature. Let us note that a sensitivity of the algorithm at the optimal operating point was observed owing to the fact that a small variation of the optimal voltage value leads to a very great variation of the identified parameters values. With the identified model, we can develop algorithms of maximum power point tracking, and make simulations of a solar water pumping system.(Author)

  11. FY 1978 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation systems); 1978 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This survey report provides the basic data for planning national projects to smoothly raise the large industry of solar cell industry in the future by studying how to promote the research and development projects for this area, continuously pursued from the establishment of the Sunshine Project. This report clarifies, first of all, the concept of long-term schedules for research and development of solar thermal power generation systems, based on which technical themes are concretely surveyed, and their economic viability and ripple effects on the other industries are analyzed. The industry of solar thermal power generation systems is a new industry, even based on the global horizons, backed up by the Japan's high-technological areas of electronics and semiconductor industries. It is one of important projects to be urgently developed, also viewed from the above standpoint. This report describes the long-term visions of solar thermal power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; stock materials for solar cells and problems involved therein; research and development projects for low-cost solar cells; photovoltaic power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; conceptual designs of photovoltaic power generation systems; and standard analytical procedures for solar cells, and technical problems involved therein. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1978 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Survey and research on systems utilizing solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation systems); 1978 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This survey report provides the basic data for planning national projects to smoothly raise the large industry of solar cell industry in the future by studying how to promote the research and development projects for this area, continuously pursued from the establishment of the Sunshine Project. This report clarifies, first of all, the concept of long-term schedules for research and development of solar thermal power generation systems, based on which technical themes are concretely surveyed, and their economic viability and ripple effects on the other industries are analyzed. The industry of solar thermal power generation systems is a new industry, even based on the global horizons, backed up by the Japan's high-technological areas of electronics and semiconductor industries. It is one of important projects to be urgently developed, also viewed from the above standpoint. This report describes the long-term visions of solar thermal power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; stock materials for solar cells and problems involved therein; research and development projects for low-cost solar cells; photovoltaic power generation systems, and the research and development projects therefor; conceptual designs of photovoltaic power generation systems; and standard analytical procedures for solar cells, and technical problems involved therein. (NEDO)

  13. A comparison of performance of flat and bent photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vishwanathan, B.; Reinders, A. H.M.E.; de Boer, D.K.G.; Desmet, L.; Ras, A. J.M.; Zahn, F. H.; Debije, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    To employ new solar photovoltaic technologies in products and buildings, many systems need to be adapted. Inspired by the cylindrical shape, in this work we have evaluated the performance of luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC-PV) elements with narrow PV cell strips that could be

  14. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  15. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  16. Cooling design and evaluation for photovoltaic cells within constrained space in a CPV/CSP hybrid solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng; Shi, Junxiang; Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Schafer, Steven R.; Munir, Moiz; Stecker, Greg; Pan, Wei; Lee, Jong-Jan; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A practical cooling solution is proposed for a novel CPV/CSP hybrid solar system. • Both passive and active cooling techniques were systematically investigated. • Comprehensive experimental and numerical studies were conducted for optimal design. • Active cooling is in great need for a high waste heat flux of 21.8 W/cm 2 . • Passive cooling becomes attractive for a waste heat flux less than 13.0 W/cm 2 . - Abstract: A hybrid solar energy system has been designed by combining the advantages of concentrated solar power (CSP) technology and high performance concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) cells which outperforms either single technology. Thermal management is crucial to CPV cells in this hybrid solar system, as concentrated solar radiation onto the PV cells leads to higher heat flux. If the heat is not dissipated effectively, it can cause obvious temperature rise and efficiency reduction in the cell. In addition, the constrained space available for PV cell cooling in such hybrid solar systems presents more challenges. In this study both passive cooling and active cooling techniques were systematically investigated in both numerical and experimental ways. For the passive cooling method, two different designs from off-the-shelf heat pipes with radial fins or annular fins were proposed and studied under various heat rejection requirements. Results shows that heat pipes with radial fins exhibited narrow capability of dumping the heat, while heat pipes with annular fins presented better performances under the same conditions. Numerical optimal designs of annular fin numbers and fin gaps were then carried out and experimentally validated, indicating a capability of dumping moderate waste heat (∼45 W). For active cooling technique, a comprehensive study of designing plate fin heatsinks were conducted corresponding to high Ingress Protection (IP) rated off-the-shelf fans. Results show that with a less than 2 W fan power consumption, this active

  17. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  18. Public policies for the development of solar photovoltaic energy and the impacts on dynamics of technology systems and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jin Julie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, climate change has been a subject of serious international negotiations. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has caught the eyes of many governments as one of the front-runner technologies for the low carbon energy transition in the global community. Solar PV systems have experienced strong market growth over the last decade supported by favorable political reactions in the energy transition context. However, despite these favorable conditions, paradoxically, the global PV market recently went through a chaotic time encountering the overproduction issue, the industry crisis and the long-lasting trade disputes. Furthermore, as the level of PV penetration increases, many problematics started to appear with negative systemic impacts on the electricity sector. This thesis started from these problematics to understand the PV policy mechanisms and the context change. In order to define those issues, a systemic approach is taken to provide an accurate comprehension of the overall mechanisms of PV public policies. The concrete systemic vision of PV policy mechanisms is constructed based on theoretical and historical analysis by defining key variables and the context (Part I). A retrospective analysis using the proposed mapping tools is conducted to understand critical limits and challenges of PV development and to identify risks factors in the sector (Part II). This thesis also demonstrates how the nature of policy context changes in combined with the dynamic features of the PV sector. This helps anticipate possible risks of PV development in the future. The thesis highlights the nationwide PV policy dynamics was broken with the arrival of China in the PV sector. Taken the defined critical limits and challenges into account, this thesis eventually proposes strategic orientations of PV development at the two dimensions from both national and international perspectives (Part III). At the national level, this thesis discusses on PV self-consumption as the

  19. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  20. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  1. Added values of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20 th century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

  2. Added values of photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-15

    The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20{sup th} century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

  3. Realistic generation cost of solar photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet

    2010-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 cents /kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 cents /kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 cents /kWh in base year to 88.63 cents /kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 cents /kWh and not 28.92 cents /kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required

  4. GRS - Guarantee of results for grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems; GRS - Garantierte Resultate von Solarstromanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Ch.; Frei, R.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the development of a performance guarantee for the power delivered by grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power plant. This is important for investors, who need to be able to calculate the price of the energy produced by the PV plant. The report examines the results of various case studies and experience gained with GRS contracts developed in different countries including Switzerland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. The problems encountered, which provided feedback for the further development of the contract presented in the report, are discussed. The model contract, which proposes a framework which provides many possible variations and adaptations, is presented in detail. Various problem areas such as guaranteed energy yield, meteorological references, correction methods, failure detection, dispute settlement and many other points are covered.

  5. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This first part of a two-part report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. Part 1 of this two-part document discusses three generic models. The second, separate part of the document provides a number of examples demonstrating the models described. This report focuses on the implementation of SHS. However, a considerable amount of the PV market in developing countries is stated as consisting of large systems providing electricity for social services, such as light for schools, mosques, churches, communal centres, refrigeration for health centres and drinking water for communities. It is noted that there are considerable differences between the 'social market' and the 'private market' for SHS. The 'social market' generally consists of large systems but fewer in number. The guide does not cover the detailed technical aspects of a Solar Home System or the issue of recycling old batteries.

  6. Power-system-wide analysis of the benefits of reserve provision from solar photovoltaics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . However, South Africa has abundant solar resources and has seen a dramatic decline in solar PV tariffs over the past few years. The value of reserve provision to the system from solar PV was determined by simulating the South African power system...

  7. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  8. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  9. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  10. Photovoltaic systems concept study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The work performed in the conceptual design and systems analysis of three sizes of photovoltaic solar electric power systems is contained in five volumes consisting of nine sections plus appendices. Separate abstracts were prepared for the two sections in this volume. (MHR)

  11. Redrawing the solar map of South Africa for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munzhedzi, R.; Sebitosi, A.B. [Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rm 522.2 Menzies Building, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    The South African solar map has been redrawn to make it applicable to photovoltaic installations. This has been done with the aim of reducing the cost of solar PV installations in South Africa through accurate energy resource assessment and competent system design. Climate data software as well as solar design software was used to aid this process. The new map provides an alternative to the map in current use, which only considers radiation, whereas many more factors affect the output of a panel, such as wind, cloud cover and humidity. All these are taken into account when drawing the new map. (author)

  12. On the use of hourly pricing in techno-economic analyses for solar photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeldt, Nelson; Madani, Hatef

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The typical price year (TPY) method is described. • The impact of pricing simplification models on revenues and NPV are tested. • The TPY is shown to be a good long-term price curve for techno-economic studies. • A static mean annual price can replace hourly in the Swedish market with minimal error. - Abstract: The use of hourly prices in distributed photovoltaic (PV) techno-economic analysis is rare, but may become necessary as time-of-day retail pricing becomes more common. A methodology is presented for selecting an hourly price curve suitable for long-term analysis, called the typical price year (TPY), which is based on the methodology for TMY weather data. Using a techno-economic analysis with annual revenues and net present value as indicators, a TPY curve for the Swedish market is validated and then compared to 18 price simplification methods to determine the error introduced by the use of non-hourly prices. Results show that the TPY method produces a curve which accurately represents long term pricing trends, but using a static annual mean introduces minor revenue errors of 1.3%. This suggests the TPY may not be necessary in the Swedish market, but further analysis of the method is suggested for other markets

  13. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  14. The photovoltaic systems of the solar hydrogen production plant at Neunburg vorm Wald; Design, operation experiences, experiment results. Die Photovoltaik der Solar-Wasserstoff-Anlage in Neunburg vorm Wald; Auslegung, Betriebserfahrungen, Versuchsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietsch, T.; Szyszka, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electrolysis process of the solar hydrogen production plant at Neunburg vorm Wald receives its energy from two photovoltaic energy conversion systems with a total installed module capacity of 277 kW[sub p]. Regular measurements have been made ever since the commissioning of the plant in January 1990. Both PV systems had a good performance and stability. The article describes the state of the art as of October 1993. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  16. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  17. Community-scale solar photovoltaics: housing and public development examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoto, K.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at community-scale photovoltaics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. This report provides examples of housing developments and incorporated townships that have integrated multiple stakeholder values into business solutions. The authors are of the opinion that builders, developers, architects and engineers need to consider orientation, aesthetics, load diversity, energy efficiency, grid infrastructure and end use. Residential and commercial building owners or occupants need to consider the design of electric services relative to loads, green image, and economic opportunities such as feed-in tariffs. Local government should give preference to granting permission to high-performance building projects. It is suggested that the finance and insurance sector consider the operational savings in overall debt allowances. System manufacturers and integrators should develop standardised systems. In the emerging PV community market, utilities are quickly gaining awareness of business opportunities. The need for professionals and skilled labour is quoted as having grown as drastically as the PV market itself.

  18. Short-term solar irradiance forecasting and photovoltaic systems performance in a tropical climate in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, André Maia

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil, Florianópolis, 2015. A humanidade usou e continua consumindo em grande quantidade os recursos não-renováveis do planeta como petróleo, gás natural e carvão mineral para suprir suas necessidades energéticas. Somente nas últimas duas décadas que outras fontes de energia renováveis, como a solar fotovoltaica e a eólica, passaram a se tornar relevantes na...

  19. Siemens solar CIS photovoltaic module and system performance at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Willett, D. [Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper evaluates the individual module and array performance of Siemens Solar Industries copper indium diselenide (CIS) polycrystalline thin-film technology. This is accomplished by studying module and array performance over time. Preliminary temperature coefficients for maximum power, maximum-power voltage, maximum-power current, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor are determined at both the module and array level. These coefficients are used to correct module/array performance to 25{degrees}C to evaluate stability. The authors show that CIS exhibits a strong inverse correlation between array power and back-of-module temperature. This is due mainly to the narrow bandgap of the CIS material, which results in a strong inverse correlation between voltage and temperature. They also show that the temperature-corrected module and array performance has been relatively stable over the evaluation interval ({approx}2 years).

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Jacquin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The overall power of installed PV systems in France in 2007 was 31,3 MW which represents a significant growth compared to 2006. This increase is mainly due to the national fiscal measures (new feed-in tariff and tax credit) launched in 2006. The implemented feed-in tariff model application supports building integration of photovoltaic generators with a much higher financial incentive than other type of photovoltaic installations. In the same way, local authorities like regional councils and departmental councils developed new policies to promote photovoltaics through specific grants. As the building integration of photovoltaic generators is encouraged by a feed-in tariff bonus, innovative products are appearing on the market or are under development. In parallel, actors like architects, designers, engineers are now paying attention to building integration of photovoltaic components (BIPV). New actors such as financial institutions, energy operators, and private investors have developed ambitious projects. With the increase of the market, new firms have been created including engineering, consultancies, electricity producers, PV products distributors and retailers, installation and maintenance companies. Photovoltaic industrial sector is getting stronger and large investments have been undertaken in order to develop a vertical integration of the photovoltaic value chain, from feedstock silicon production to final photovoltaic products. A new private-public consortium called 'PV Alliance Lab Fab' has been set up and an important R and D project under the name of 'Solar Nano Crystal' should start by the end of 2008. At the same time, R and D activities focus on photovoltaic silicon cells/modules conversion efficiency and long term reliability, production costs, new materials and device design, yield, environmental impact of industrial processes and optimisation of control and monitoring of photovoltaic systems. In addition to the ADEME and ANR

  1. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  2. Observatory of photovoltaic solar energy in France - 20. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    After an overview of important events in the World regarding the development of photovoltaic solar energy in 2016, and predictions regarding new connected installations in 2016, this document present graphs and figures which illustrate the evolution of the photovoltaic fleet in the World, the comparison of production costs of new electric power generation capacities, the evolution of the French photovoltaic power production since 2009, the evolution of the distribution of the French fleet in terms of installation power (from large projects to residential), of connections to the grid, of number of connections and purchase tariffs for the different types of installations (residential, medium roofs, large roofs, very large roofs, very large ground-based or roof-based projects) and for queuing projects, in terms of evolution of purchase tariffs since 2011, and of evolution of impact on the CSPE financing system

  3. Development of a solar tracker for photovoltaic applications; Desenvolvimento de um rastreador solar para aplicacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Daniel Rizzo; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Resende, Ricardo C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: daniel.carvalho@ufv.br; Possi, Maurilio A [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao; Ferreira, Ana Paula S [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2012-11-01

    In this work are presented the design, construction and relevant results related to the production of electricity using a photovoltaic panel attached to the solar tracking mechanism. The objective was to develop a tracking device with high accuracy, reliable, low cost, high efficiency and easy operation, aiming at the possibility of residential, agricultural and industrial use of solar photovoltaic technologies with high efficiency of conversion. Was evaluated the performance of the tracker, comparing it to a fixed system and based on results analyzed, was observed a significant increase in energy production of photovoltaic panel attached to the tracking system, in relation to the fixed system the slope of the local latitude. Its performance was satisfactory, electromechanical structure requires no maintenance during the trial even when exposed to various weather conditions. The system showed great potential for application, usability and effectivity. (author)

  4. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  5. Cascade Utilization of Energy in Solar Photovoltaic Hot Water System%太阳能光伏热水系统的能量梯级利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关欣; 王艳迪; 向勇涛; 郭志波

    2012-01-01

    为了实现太阳能光伏发电系统中用于冷却太阳能电池的低品位热能利用,本文提出了太阳能光伏热水系统。通过对单体光伏光热系统(PV/T)的实验研究表明,在单体PV/T放置角度为30°,流量为200 L/h时,集热效率可达到最大值65.6%,系统的平均发电效率为14.3%,瞬时综合效率最大为83%,达到了能量的梯级利用。%To realize the use of low-grade thermal energy after cooling solar cells in solar photovoltaic systems,this paper puts forward a solar photovoltaic hot water system(PV/T).The experiment of the PV/T system shows,at the condition that inclination is 30°,and flow rate is 200 L/h,the maximum heat-collecting efficiency can be achieved at 65.6%and the average power generation efficiency is 14.3%, the maximum instantaneous overall efficiency is 83%,which realize the cascade utilization of energy.

  6. The Role of Policies in Supporting the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Experiences with Ontario, Canada’s Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adachi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems. In November, 2006, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP, offering owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10 MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of CAD $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. This paper analyzes the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. Experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified.

  7. Solar photovoltaic research and development program of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. [silicon solar cell applicable to satellite power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: laser weapon effects, solar silicon solar cell concepts, and high voltage hardened, high power system technology. Emphasis is placed on solar cells with increased energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance characteristics for application to satellite power systems.

  8. Interactive Visual Analysis for Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abouelhassan, Amal A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than

  9. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases

  10. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  11. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  12. Integrated Photovoltaic System Used as an Alternative Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Laurentiu Alboteanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to use solar energy as an alternative source of electricity to conventional sources. The solution is to use a compact photovoltaic system integrated into a micro smart grid. The studied photovoltaic system is used into concrete application for the power supply lighting in a didactic laboratory.

  13. Current challenges in organic photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Cody W; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant interest in utilizing conjugated organic molecules for solid-state solar to electric conversion has produced rapid improvement in device efficiencies. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are attractive for their compatibility with low-cost processing techniques and thin-film applicability to flexible and conformal applications. However, many of the processes that lead to power losses in these systems still remain poorly understood, posing a significant challenge for the future efficiency improvements required to make these devices an attractive solar technology. While semiconductor band models have been employed to describe OPV operation, a more appropriate molecular picture of the pertinent processes is beginning to emerge. This chapter presents mechanisms of OPV device operation, based on the bound molecular nature of the involved transient species. With the intention to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics that dictate photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics is also discussed.

  14. Three-phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    , detailing the different photovoltaic inverter structures and topologies as well as discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. Modulation schemes for various photovoltaic inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control......Photovoltaic technology has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 180 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2014. Large photovoltaic power plants interfacing...... the grid through a three-phase power electronic converter are now well on the way to becoming a major player in the power system in many countries. Therefore, this article gives an overview of photovoltaic systems with a focus on three-phase applications, presenting these both from a hardware point of view...

  15. Renewable energy production support schemes for residential-scale solar photovoltaic systems in Nordic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Cao, Sunliang; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of production-based support schemes on the economic feasibility of residential-scale PV systems (1–10 kW) in Finland. This was done by calculating the payback time for various sizes of newly installed PV systems for a Finnish detached house with district heating. Three types of economic support schemes (guaranteed selling price, fixed premiums and self-consumption incentives) were tested in an hourly simulation. The load of the building was based on real-life measurements, while PV output was simulated with TRNSYS software. The energy results were post-processed with economic data in MATLAB to find the payback time. Hourly electricity prices from the Nordic energy market were used with PV system prices from Finnish companies. Unsubsidised residential PV systems in Finland had payback times of more than 40 years. The production-based support for PV generation needs to be two to three times the buying price of electricity, to make it possible to pay back the initial investment in 20 years. Low capacity systems with more than 50% self-consumption (under 3 kW) were favoured by self-consumption incentives, while high capacity systems with less than 40% self-consumption (over 5 kW) were favoured by the FIT-type support schemes. - Highlights: • Unsubsidised residential PV is uneconomical in Finland. • Support rate must be 2 times the electricity price for reasonable payback time. • Even using all electricity on-site is not profitable enough without support. • Assumed real interest rate had great influence on payback time. • Hourly electricity prices are much lower than average values from Finnish statistics

  16. Decentralized electricity generation by using photovoltaic grid-connected solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyundziev, N.; Vitanov, P.; Radkov, R.; Grottke, M.

    2006-01-01

    AcadPV is the first demonstration installation connected permanently to LV grid in Sofia, Bulgaria aiming at assessment of PV efficiencies and cost-effectiveness. A thorough analysis has been carried out in order to select PV system site, supporting construction design and orientation. The PV generator is divided to 3 PV subfields equipped by 3 SUNPOWER inverters connected to 3 separated phases of the grid. The performance of 10kWp PV system has been evaluated during the first year of operation and compared to PV simulation software results

  17. Correlation of photovoltaic geographical information system data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a 12-month record of global solar radiation (GSR) data in Niger Delta ... the viewpoint of making a case for renewable energy investment in the region. Keywords: Solar energy, global solar radiation, Photovoltaic GIS, Niger Delta

  18. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  19. Dynamics of voltage source converter in a grid connected solar photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Vangari, Adithya; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper emphasises the modelling and control of a voltage source converter (VSC) for three phase grid connected PV system. The transfer functions for inner current control and outer DC link voltage control for VSC are derived. The controllers for VSC are designed based on PI and K factor contr...

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic Microgrid Systems in Off-Grid Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilich, Andrew; Langham, Kevin; Geyer, Roland; Goyal, Love; Hansen, James; Krishnan, Anjana; Bergesen, Joseph; Sinha, Parikhit

    2017-01-17

    Access to a reliable source of electricity creates significant benefits for developing communities. Smaller versions of electricity grids, known as microgrids, have been developed as a solution to energy access problems. Using attributional life cycle assessment, this project evaluates the environmental and energy impacts of three photovoltiac (PV) microgrids compared to other energy options for a model village in Kenya. When normalized per kilowatt hour of electricity consumed, PV microgrids, particularly PV-battery systems, have lower impacts than other energy access solutions in climate change, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants, and terrestrial acidification. When compared to small-scale diesel generators, PV-battery systems save 94-99% in the above categories. When compared to the marginal electricity grid in Kenya, PV-battery systems save 80-88%. Contribution analysis suggests that electricity and primary metal use during component, particularly battery, manufacturing are the largest contributors to overall PV-battery microgrid impacts. Accordingly, additional savings could be seen from changing battery manufacturing location and ensuring end of life recycling. Overall, this project highlights the potential for PV microgrids to be feasible, adaptable, long-term energy access solutions, with health and environmental advantages compared to traditional electrification options.

  1. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  2. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    The flat-plate solar cell array program which increases the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules used for terrestrial energy applications is discussed. The current-voltage response characteristics of the solar cells encapsulated in the modules degrade with service time and this degradation places a limitation on the useful lifetime of the modules. The most desirable flat-plate array system involves solar cells consisting of highly polarizable materials with similar electrochemical potentials where the cells are encapsulated in polymers in which ionic concentrations and mobilities are negligibly small. Another possible mechanism limiting the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules is the gradual loss of the electrical insulation characteristics of the polymer pottant due to water absorption or due to polymer degradation from light or heat effects. The mechanical properties of various polymer pottant materials and of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell material are as follows: (1) electrical and ionic resistivity; (2) water absorption kinetics and water solubility limits; and (3) corrosion characterization of various metallization systems used in solar cell construction.

  3. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage. PMID:27796309

  4. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, N.C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m 2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  5. Solar photovoltaic projects in the mainstream power market

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Develop large-scale solar photovoltaic projects with this book, to feed power into a grid. Contains case studies of the Waldpolenz Energy Park, Germany, Lopburi Solar Plant in Thailand and what will be the world's largest PV plant, the Topaz Solar Farm in California. Also included are interviews from leading figures in the PV industry.Contents cover:planning and structuring projectssiting, planning and connection issuesbuilding and operating projectstechnology basicseconomies of PVhistory and business of PVfinancing and regulationtechnical aspects of system design.Supported by figures and photographs, this is for anyone wanting to master the commercial, professional, financial, engineering or political aspects of developing mega-watt solar PV projects in a mainstream power market.

  6. Factors that characterize the process of implantation of photovoltaic solar systems in the energy supplying for remote regions from Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Carlos Alexandre dos Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    This work demonstrates that not any changes in the traditional work procedures has ben introduced, as a result of the application of the photovoltaic system technology, in the high Solimoes river region. The work also shows that the lighting systems have been handled and incorporated to the various routines, specifically those connected to the religion and formal education practices, and the social structure of the community families. A great influence of the radio communication is considered as a contribution for surmounting the natural barriers involving the region represented by the communities, with emphasis on the use for the commerce, health and communitary interchanges processes

  7. Performance investigation of a wind turbine–solar photovoltaic panels–fuel cell hybrid system installed at İncek region – Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrim, Yılser; Bilir, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid system with a wind turbine, photovoltaic panels and a fuel cell was studied. • 3 kW wind turbine, 17.97 m 2 photovoltaics, 1.2 kW fuel cell and 4.7 kW electrolyzer was used. • The system can meet the entire demand of a residential house in Ankara, Turkey. • Only exception is in November, when the energy lack can be compensated from the grid. - Abstract: Renewable energy use in the world increases year by year. However, in many cases it is not possible to cover the electrical energy need of even a single house using only one renewable energy resource due to its intermittent nature. At this point, hybrid systems are applied to overcome this problem. This study focuses on the combination of photovoltaic solar panels, a small scale wind turbine, an electrolyzer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell hybrid system for electrical power generation for an average house of 150 m 2 located at İncek region of Ankara, Turkey. Solar and wind energies were used as primary sources and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used as the backup power. The hybrid system was modeled and the results indicate that the use of the selected wind turbine with a 3 kW capacity along with photovoltaic panels with 17.97 m 2 area is sufficient to provide the required 5 h operation of the electrolyzer, which in turn provides the necessary hydrogen and oxygen to the fuel cell. Since the daily energy needed by the investigated house was taken as 5 kW h, the fuel cell with a net power output of 1 kW supplies all electrical demand with its 5 h operation. The outcomes show that the hybrid system is capable to provide all electrical need of the house all year round, except November. The electrical energy production of the proposed system is considerably higher than the demand in many months and this surplus electricity can be used in order to support the cooling and heating system of the considered house.

  8. Concept of the solar-pumped laser-photovoltaics combined system and its application to laser beam power feeding to electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikesue, Akio; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Kazuo; Ichiki, Akihisa; Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Tadashi; Yamada, Noboru; Nath Luitel, Hom; Kajino, Tsutomu; Terazawa, Hidetaka; Takimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kemmei

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a compact solar-pumped laser (µSPL) employing an off-axis parabolic mirror with an aperture of 76.2 mm diameter and an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic rod of φ1 mm × 10 mm doped with 1% Nd and 0.1% Cr as a laser medium. The laser oscillation wavelength of 1.06 µm, just below the optical absorption edge of Si cells, is suitable for photoelectric conversion with minimal thermal loss. The concept of laser beam power feeding to an electric vehicle equipped with a photovoltaic panel on the roof was proposed by Ueda in 2010, in which the electricity generated by solar panels over the road is utilized to drive a semiconductor laser located on each traffic signal along the road. By substituting this solar-electricity-driven semiconductor laser with a solar-pumped laser, the energy loss of over 50% in converting the solar electricity to a laser beam can be eliminated. The overall feasibility of this system in an urban area such as Tokyo was investigated.

  9. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel L. Alboteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM. Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests.

  10. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.

  11. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  12. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  13. Outdoor performance analysis of a 1090× point-focus Fresnel high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal system with triple-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Ji, Jie; Sun, Wei; Han, Lisheng; Chen, Haifei; Jin, Zhuling

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, respectively. Experimental results show that direct irradiation affects the electrical performance of the system dominantly. Fitting results of electrical performance offer simple and reliable methods to analyze the system performance. - Highlights: • A point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic/thermal system is proposed and studied. • The system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28%. • The system has a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%. • Direct irradiation has the dominant effect on the electrical performance. • Fitting results offer simple and reliable methods to analyze system performances. - Abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, which means the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80%. A mathematical model for calculating cell temperature is proposed to solve difficult measurement of cell temperature in a system. Moreover, characteristics of electrical performance under various direct

  14. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  15. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  16. 太阳能光伏提水系统在海南农业中的应用%Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Agriculture in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 林青青; 黎勇; 陈建梅; 周学东; 于向春

    2013-01-01

    The present situation of Hainan agricultural irrigation is analyzed. Basic principle, necessity and feasibility of application about solar photovoltaic water pumping system are introduced. It is very important to develop solar photovoltaic agriculture of Hainan.%分析海南农业灌溉的现状,阐述太阳能光伏提水系统基本原理及其在海南农业应用的必要性和可行性,对海南发展光伏农业具有重要的指导意义.

  17. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  18. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  19. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  20. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  1. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  2. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  3. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  4. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  5. Photovoltaics. System design and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlin, Heinrich [Berne Univ. of Applied Sciences (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    ''Photovoltaics'' is the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy. This environmentally friendly process is used today worldwide. In the informative and in English available specialist publication the possibilities but also the problems by using the direct conversion of sunlight to electric current and its feeding into the general power grid or isolated networks are described detailed and clearly. Beside solar cells also all other installation components are widely considered, e. g. solar modules, solar panels, secondary cells, charge controller as well as inverter and lightning protection. The book is completed with basic information from around the world and operational experiences for the calculation of profits.

  6. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  7. Optimization of 10 kW solar photovoltaic – diesel generator hybrid energy system for different load factors at Jaisalmer location of Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, S. K.; Rao, K. V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Jaisalmer town in Rajasthan, India is having annual average solar insolation of 5.80 kWh/m2/day and 270 – 300 clear sky days in a year. A 10 kW off-grid hybrid energy system (HES) consisting of solar photovoltaic panels – diesel generator – bidirectional converter and batteries with zero percentage loss of load for Jaisalmer is designed using HOMER (version 3.4.3) software. Different system load factors of 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, 0.83 and 1 corresponding to fraction of running hours per day of the system are considered. The system is analyzed for all three aspects, namely, electrical, economic and emission point of view. Least levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of Rs. 8.43/kWh is obtained at a load factor value of 0.5. If diesel generator alone (without Solar PV) is used to fulfil the demand for a load factor of 0.5the value of LCOE is obtained Rs.19.23/kWh. Comparison of results obtained for HES and diesel generator are made for load factor of 0.5 and 1.

  8. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  9. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  10. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  11. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  12. Better or worse? The role of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in sustainable development. Case studies of remote atoll communities in Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, Kirti; Schlaepfer, August; Pryor, Trevor [School of Electrical, Energy and Process Engineering, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The Republic of Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, is a Micronesian (One of the three groups of islands in the Pacific. The eight territories that make up Micronesia are Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Nauru, Republic of Palau, Territory of Guam and Territory of Wake Island. The other two groups of islands in the Pacific are Melanesia and Polynesia) country in the Pacific. The energy sources utilised in Kiribati include petroleum products, biomass, solar energy and wind power. Solar energy was introduced in Kiribati in the early 1980s (Wade H. Survey of RESCO projects - prepared for OPRET, Fiji Department of Energy, 2003; p. 36). Currently, it makes a very insignificant (less than 1%) contribution to the total annual primary energy supply (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) - Pacific Regional Energy Assessment (PREA) 2004. Kiribati national report, Vol. 5, 2005). Solar energy in Kiribati is used mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for the provision of lighting and electricity. This study examines the role of PV technologies in the sustainable development process in Kiribati, with particular reference to remote atoll communities. Initial results from on-site surveys carried out are reported in this paper. These surveys have sought to identify the reasons why people use or do not use PV systems. (author)

  13. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  14. Photovoltaics: sunny spells ahead for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, James

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies presents an overview of the photovoltaic (PV) sector in the UK covering PV technology, the manufacture of monocrystalline silicon and thin-film PV cells, and PV applications in stand-alone systems and grid-connected systems. The steady growth in the UK PV industry, the building integrated market, and the government's concern over the UK's slow progress are discussed. The announcement of the Department of Trade and Industry's market stimulation programme, reduced value added tax (VAT) on PV systems, and showcase PV installations such as the Sydney 2000 Olympics project are listed as recent highlights

  15. Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

  16. NEDO Forum 2000. Solar technology development session (photovoltaic power generation system and our living); Taiyoko gijutsu kaihatsu session. Taiyoko hatsuden system to watashi tachi no kurashi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The following themes were presented at the present session: (1) energy and environmental problems, and expectation to the photovoltaic power generation system, (2) our living and photovoltaic power generation, and (3) energy policies of Kobe Municipality based on lessons from the earthquake disaster. Item (1) describes: if the total electric power obtained in 20 years from the photovoltaic power generation system of 3 kW output for residential houses is converted into amount of petroleum consumed by thermal power plants, it corresponds to about 850 twenty-liter polyethylene tanks; to build a photovoltaic power generation system, energy corresponding to about 100 polyethylene tanks is used; therefore, subtraction results in saving of about 750 tanks; ordinary houses discharge about 3,500 kg of CO2 annually; and the photovoltaic power generation system serves to reduce about 1,000 kg of CO2 emission annually. Item (2) describes: in markets in 2010, more than 80% of the power generation system is served for housing; profitable price of power generation value is about 55/kW; more than 50% of the value is occupied by the value for other than power generation; and more than 80% of the system for housing will be of roof-material type in 2005. Item (3) introduces the energy diversification taken by Kobe Municipality after the earthquake disaster, and the energy policies, including the 'life spot' policy. (NEDO)

  17. Solar photovoltaics development. Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the status and long-term perspectives for the development of solar photovoltaics, contributing to the Macro Task E1 on production cost for fusion and alternative technologies, part of the programme for Socio-Economic Research on Fusion. After a short introduction about the most promising PV technologies the report concentrates on the present market trends showing that the PV sales has been growing 16% over the last 9 years, 28% over the last 3 years and expanded by 43% last year to a global total of 126.7 MWp 1n 1997. The annual shipment is largest in U.S. with 53 MWp followed by Japan and EU. Until now off-grid installation have dominated the solar PV market, since they are already economically competitive. However, often the financial mechanisms and necessary organisational set-up are missing. At the moment many big PV manufacturers are working to get good successful reference cases in developing countries. But now the on-grid installations in developed countries are beginning to increase. The main growth area in on-grid domestic installations, where there are big programs running in Japan (5000 MWp installed in 2010), U.S. (3000 MWp in 2010) and the Netherlands (1450 MWp in 2020). Looking at the perspectives a continuation of the high growth in solar PV production will continue supported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The PV industry has already announced increases in production capacity large enough for a continuation of last year high growth. The report shows status and perspectives for production costs for solar PV until 2050. (au) 13 refs.

  18. New Prototype of Photovoltaic Solar Tracker Based on Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The global increase in energy demand and exponential exhaustion of fossil recourses has favored the development of new systems of electricity production. Photovoltaic solar energy is undoubtedly one that has the highest application in housings, due to its simplicity and easy implementation. In this work, a new prototype of photovoltaic solar tracker with Arduino platform was developed. Feedback control system that allows carrying out solar tracking with two axes using a stepper motor and linear actuator was established through an electronic circuit based on photodiodes. Moreover, real construction of the prototype was carried out, where the effectiveness of the design and its capacity to draw a maximum benefit of an incident radiation can be observed, placing the panel perpendicularly to the received energy and improving its performance for its application in future installations in housings. Results obtained from the comparison between the developed prototype and a static panel oriented according to the latitude of the area, show about 18% energy gain.

  19. Investigation of a demonstrating photo-voltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platikanov, S.; Markova, D.; Tsankov, P.; Grachki, I.

    2002-01-01

    A photovoltaic system for converting solar energy into electric energy has been built in the Technical University of Gabrovo. The measurements results of the solar radiation daily variation, temperature, illuminations and other technical characteristics of PV system are shown graphically. (authors)

  20. Development of the smart photovoltaic system blind and its impact on net-zero energy solar buildings using technical-economic-political analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Ban, Cheolwoo; Oh, Jeongyoon

    2017-01-01

    It is expected that the rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems can realize net-zero energy solar buildings (nZESBs), but it is not enough by itself. To realize 100% of nZESBs, the smart photovoltaic system blind (SPSB) was proposed to generate electricity in the PV system and to reduce indoor cooling demands through the shading effect in the blind system. Before its implementation, this study aims to investigate the impact of the proposed SPSB on nZESBs, which is conducted in three ways (i.e., technical, economic, and political analyses). The detailed results can be summarized as follows: (i) technical analysis: when applying the SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s (which represents the SPSB with the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) PV panel and the two-axis tracking system), its energy self-sufficiency rate was determined to be 1.25–2.31 times superior to other alternatives; (ii) economic analysis: in terms of the NPV_2_5 (net present value at year 25), SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s was determined to be 1.41–2.97 times superior to others; in terms of the SIR_2_5 (savings-to-investment ratio at year 25), 1.14–1.26 times; and in terms of the break-even point, 1.4–3.0 years; and (iii) political analysis: the grid-connected utilization plan including solar renewable energy certificates (GC_i_n_c_l_._S_R_E_C plan) was determined to improve the economic profitability of the proposed SPSB. - Highlights: • The smart photovoltaic system blind was developed as prototype model in four ways. • The SPSB_C_I_G_S_&_2_-_a_x_i_s was determined to be superior to other prototype models. • A holistic analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of the SPSB on nZESBs. • When implementing the GC_i_n_c_l_._S_R_E_C plan, the economic profitability was maximized. • Results showed the NPV_2_5 (US$2.37/m"2), SIR_2_5 (2.97 times), and BEP (7.6 years).

  1. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  2. Solar Photovoltaic Plant for the 'Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of a solar photovoltaic plant for the 'Eftimie Murgu' University, with an estimation of the yearly medium energy production. The substantiation of the plant designed is based on the many years measurements obtained in the laboratory for monitoring the solar photovoltaic energy of the university and the favorable conditions of promoting the energy production from renewable sources, assured in the new legislation.

  3. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  4. Correlation Feature Selection and Mutual Information Theory Based Quantitative Research on Meteorological Impact Factors of Module Temperature for Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The module temperature is the most important parameter influencing the output power of solar photovoltaic (PV systems, aside from solar irradiance. In this paper, we focus on the interdisciplinary research that combines the correlation analysis, mutual information (MI and heat transfer theory, which aims to figure out the correlative relations between different meteorological impact factors (MIFs and PV module temperature from both quality and quantitative aspects. The identification and confirmation of primary MIFs of PV module temperature are investigated as the first step of this research from the perspective of physical meaning and mathematical analysis about electrical performance and thermal characteristic of PV modules based on PV effect and heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the quantitative description of the MIFs influence on PV module temperature is mathematically formulated as several indexes using correlation-based feature selection (CFS and MI theory to explore the specific impact degrees under four different typical weather statuses named general weather classes (GWCs. Case studies for the proposed methods were conducted using actual measurement data of a 500 kW grid-connected solar PV plant in China. The results not only verified the knowledge about the main MIFs of PV module temperatures, more importantly, but also provide the specific ratio of quantitative impact degrees of these three MIFs respectively through CFS and MI based measures under four different GWCs.

  5. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction

  6. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetzel, M. [Institut de Chimie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  7. Restoration and construction (buildings). Solar electric power. How to complete a photovoltaic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene; Juniere, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook on the way to complete a solar photovoltaic project in the cases of the restoration or the construction of a building. After a presentation of solar energy, its transformation into electric power, and the installation of solar photovoltaic panels and equipment, the brochure exposes the various steps of a photovoltaic project: economic analysis (cost estimation, budgets, financing incentives, power prices, the choice between selling or using electric power, the contracts, etc.), the planning of the project, the administrative procedure, the selection of a professional installer, how to run the photovoltaic system, how to run the business, etc

  8. Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Gradient Doping Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Lei; Du Hui-Jing; Zhu Jian-Zhuo; Xu Tian-Fu; Fang Xiao-Yong

    2012-01-01

    An optimum design of a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p) heterojunction solar cell is realized with 24.27% conversion efficiency by gradient doping of the a-Si:H(n) layer. The photovoltaic properties are simulated by the AFORSHET software. Besides the additional electric field caused by the gradient doping, the enhanced and widen spectral response also improves the solar cell performance compared with the uniform-doping mode. The simulation shows that the gradient doping is efficient to improve the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells. The study is valuable for the solar cell design with excellent performances

  9. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  10. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2000. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance and design of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, the grid interconnection of building-integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, very large scale photovoltaic power generation systems and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  11. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2001. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  12. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2003. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. The programme's tenth anniversary is noted. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 20 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  13. Performance of a photovoltaic panel connected to a solar tracking; Desempenho de um painel fotovoltaico acoplado a um rastreador solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Alcione Rodrigo; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de; Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: artessaro@pop.com.br; Ferruzi, Yuri [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The used photovoltaic panels currently, still possess low an efficiency, around 8,84%. As this efficiency is characteristic of the photovoltaic plate, it was used in this research, a different system of the conventional. This differentiated system nothing more is that a mechanism that makes with that the photovoltaic panel if puts into motion of form to always keep its perpendicular photovoltaic cells to the sun. Of ownership of two monocrystals photovoltaic panels, of same mark and model, it was possible to mount two systems of solar capitation. One of them, installed of the form established in the memorandum of understanding, directed northward geographic to an inclination of 37 deg in relation to the ground, and the other panel mounted in top of a tracking mechanism, that tends to keep the perpendicular photovoltaic cell to the solar rays. The chain samples and tension, had been extracted, in the two systems, conventional and dredge, in intervals of time of forty minutes, being effected in the period of the eight hours of the morning until the six hours of the afternoon, tantalizing 16 samples. The ambient temperature also was collected in these intervals of time. The results had been more satisfactory in the tracking system, more evidenced an energy exploitation of 20,74% and an efficiency of 2,052% than in the system with the conventionally mounted photovoltaic module. (author)

  14. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  15. Task 9. Photovoltaic deployment in developing countries. Financing mechanisms for solar home systems in developing countries. The role of financing in the dissemination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheutzlich, T.; Pertz, K.; Klinghammer, W.; Scholand, M.; Wisniwski, S.

    2002-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home Systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This paper takes a look at financing mechanisms for Solar Home Systems (SHS). The lack of financial services for users of SHS is often regarded as the main barrier for their commercial dissemination and is often the justification for donor assisted programmes. This study attempts to shed some light on the question whether commercial SHS dissemination in remote rural areas could be made easier if financial services were made available. The authors state that the thesis is based on the fact that carefully designed, target-group-oriented financial services may speed up the widespread dissemination of SHS. Financial mechanisms for the stimulation of SHS and how their commercialisation can be achieved are among the topics discussed.

  16. The Italian programme in photovoltaic solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, U.

    Italian programs and goals for developing a photovoltaic (PV) industry and market are outlined. It is suggested that only a few megawatts of PVs will be produced for domestic consumption in the next few years, while the largest market is for developing nations where costly diesel-fueled generators are used. The installation of PV systems in developing areas will permit testing and scaling up of production capacities from several MW to several hundred MW and then to GW annual production. Approximately 55,000,000 was devoted to government research in PV in 1982 and a PV research laboratory is being built near Naples.

  17. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  18. A novel polygeneration system integrating photovoltaic/thermal collectors, solar assisted heat pump, adsorption chiller and electrical energy storage: Dynamic and energy-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating/cooling, domestic hot water and electrical energy are provided by the system. • Two different users are investigated: fitness center and office. • The influence of the battery system on system economic performance is scarce. • Net metering contract is more profitable compared to simplified purchase/resale arrangement one. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic simulation model and a thermo-economic analysis of a novel polygeneration system are presented. The system includes photovoltaic/thermal collectors coupled with a solar-assisted heat pump, an adsorption chiller and an electrical energy storage. The modelled plant supplies electrical energy, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. The produced solar thermal energy is used during the winter to supply the heat pump evaporator, providing the required space heating. In summer, solar thermal energy is used to drive an adsorption chiller providing the required space cooling. All year long, solar thermal energy in excess, with respect to the space heating and cooling demand, is used to produce domestic hot water. The produced electrical energy is self-consumed by both user and system auxiliary equipment and/or supplied to the grid. The system model includes a detailed electrical energy model for user storage and exchange with the grid along with a detailed building model. This study is a continuation of previous works recently presented by the authors. In particular, the present paper focuses on the real electrical demands of several types of users and on the analysis of the comfort of building users. Differently from the works previously published by the authors, the present work bases the calculations on measured electrical demands of real users (fitness center and offices). The system performance is analyzed with two different electricity supply contracts: net metering and simplified purchase/resale arrangement. Daily, weekly and yearly results are presented. Finally, a

  19. Photovoltaics as an operating energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Post, H. N.; Thomas, M. G.

    In the short time since the discovery of the modern solar cell in 1954, terrestrial photovoltaic power system technology has matured in all areas, from collector reliability to system and subsystem design and operations. Today's PV systems are finding widespread use in powering loads where conventional sources are either unavailable, unreliable, or too costly. A broad range of applications is possible because of the modularity of the technology---it can be used to power loads ranging from less than a watt to several megawatts. This inherent modularity makes PV an excellent choice to play a major role in rural electrification in the developing world. The future for grid-connected photovoltaic systems is also very promising. Indications are that several of today's technologies, at higher production rates and in megawatt-sized installations, will generate electricity in the vicinity of $0.12/kWh in the near future.

  20. 太阳能光伏发电系统在某电子工厂的应用%The Application of Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation System in an Electronic Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金宝

    2015-01-01

    为了促进光伏发电技术的商业应用,针对电子类工厂的特点,提出了一种屋顶太阳能光伏发电系统方案。从光伏发电系统工作原理、电子类工厂用电负荷、电子类工厂光伏发电容量估算以及光伏发电系统方案等方面做了研究,为推广应用太阳能清洁能源的应用积累经验。%In order to promote the commercial application of photovoltaic technology, this paper proposes a solution of rooftop solar photovoltaic power generation system, according to the characteristics of electronics factories. The paper carry out research from the aspect of photovoltaic power generation system operating principle, electronics factories electricity load, electronics factories photovoltaic power generation capacity estimation and photovoltaic power generation system plan. The research will accumulate experience in promoting application of solar clean energy.

  1. Price-Efficiency Relationship for Photovoltaic Systems on a Global Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sait Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the most abundant, useful, efficient, and environmentally friendly source of renewable energy. In addition, in recent years, the capacity of photovoltaic electricity generation systems has increased exponentially throughout the world given an increase in the economic viability and reliability of photovoltaic systems. Moreover, many studies state that photovoltaic power systems will play a key role in electricity generation in the future. When first produced, photovoltaic systems had short lifetimes. Currently, through development, the technology lifecycle of photovoltaic systems has increased to 20–25 years. Studies showed that photovoltaic systems would be broadly used in the future, a conclusion reached by considering the rapidly decreasing cost of photovoltaic systems. Because price analysis is very important for energy marketing, in this study, a review of the cost potential factors on photovoltaic panels is realized and the expected cost potential of photovoltaic systems is examined considering numerous studies.

  2. Temperature and Solar Radiation Effects on Photovoltaic Panel Power

    OpenAIRE

    Karafil, Akif; Ozbay, Harun; Kesler, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy is converted to electrical energy directly by semi-conductors materials used in Photovoltaic (PV) panels. Although, there has been great advancements in semi-conductor material technology in recent years panel efficiency is very lower. There are many factors affecting the panel efficiency such as tilt angle, shading, dust, solar radiation level, temperature and wiring losses. Among these factors, solar radiation level and temperature are more prominent. The solar radiation level ...

  3. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  4. The Importance of Accurate Solar Data for Designing Solar Photovoltaic Systems—Case Studies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Jiménez-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies have experienced a great growth in recent years, and nowadays participate in the set of energies used in developed and developing countries to produce electricity. Among these technologies, photovoltaic energy, which produces clean electricity from the Sun, is the one that has grown faster, and its implementation all over the world is a guarantee of a solid and efficient energy technology. Nevertheless, in order to design very efficient solar energy systems, it is crucial to have a good solar radiation database. There are databases where it is possible to find information on solar radiation, but only for horizontal surfaces. Afterwards, it is necessary to transform the horizontal solar radiation data to tilt solar radiation data. This transformation is not easy, and the application of complex mathematical equations, and expressions, and difficult algorithms must be done. An application called virtual laboratory “OrientSol 3.0” which allows the user to easily obtain the solar radiation for any tilt surface has been developed by us. Thus, our main objectives in this paper are to present the developed virtual laboratory and to explain its main features and core functionalities. In order to point out the difficulties and complexity of the transformation of horizontal solar radiation data to tilt solar radiation data, we will present some examples of the results this application provides and compare the solar radiation data supplied with this application with some other solar radiation data obtained from other databases.

  5. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  6. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefancich, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerce, Istituto dei Materiali per l’Elettronica ed il Magnetismo (CNR-IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy; Simpson, Lin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  7. Improving Thermal and Electrical Efficiency in Photovoltaic Thermal Systems for Sustainable Cooling System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alobaid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic thermal systems is important in solar technologies as photovoltaic thermal systems are designed to produce both electrical and thermal energy, this can lead to improved performance of the overall system. The performance of photovoltaic thermal systems is based on several factors that include photovoltaic thermal materials, design, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and photovoltaic cell temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of photovoltaic thermal outlet water temperatures and solar cell temperature on both electrical and thermal efficiency for different range of inlet water temperature. To achieve this, a mathematical model of a photovoltaic thermal system was developed to calculate the anticipated system performance. The factors that affect the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal collectors were discussed and the outlet fluid temperature from the photovoltaic thermal is investigated in order to reach the highest overall efficiency for the solar cooling system. An average thermal and electrical efficiency of 65% and 13.7%, respectively, was achieved and the photovoltaic thermal mathematical model was validated with experimental data from literature.

  8. The impact of city-level permitting processes on residential photovoltaic installation prices and development times: An empirical analysis of solar systems in California cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Changgui; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    With “soft” costs accounting for well over 50% of the installed price of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States, this study evaluates the effect of city-level permitting processes on the installed price of residential PV systems and on the time required to develop those systems. The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. Department of Energy's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program, which includes city-level permitting process “scores,” plus data from the California Solar Initiative and the U.S. Census. Econometric methods are used to quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes on more than 3000 PV installations across 44 California cities in 2011. Results suggest that cities with the most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W (4–12% of median PV prices in California) compared with cities with the most onerous permitting practices, depending on the regression model used. Though the empirical models for development times are less robust, results suggest that the most streamlined permitting practices may shorten development times by around 24 days on average (25% of the median development time). These findings illustrate the potential price and development-time benefits of streamlining local permitting procedures for PV systems. - Highlights: • The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. DOE's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program. • We quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes. • Most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W

  9. Assessment of high penetration of solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)

  10. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O.P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been showed. With...

  11. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  12. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  13. APSA - A new generation of photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, P. M.; Kurland, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides details on the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) wing design, fabrication, and testing. The impact of array size change on performance and mechanical characteristics is discussed. Projections for future performance enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells presently under development are examined.

  14. Modular assembly of a photovoltaic solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Robert M.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.; Graae, Johan E. A.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a modular assembly of a solar energy concentrator having a photovoltaic energy receiver with passive cooling. Solar cell means are fixedly coupled to a radiant energy concentrator. Tension means bias a large area heat sink against the cell thereby allowing the cell to expand or contract with respect to the heat sink due to differential heat expansion.

  15. Diversity in solar photovoltaic energy: Implications for innovation and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We undertake a qualitative empirical study of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to investigate the role of diversity in stimulating innovation and diffusion. Based on evolutionary-economic concepts, we identify the main dimensions and components of diversity in the solar PV industry.

  16. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  17. Better chances for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of solar energy based on the policy to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and acidifying pollutants, and the desire to save energy, in particular with regard to the increase of energy consumption, which can be expected to occur in the near future in developing countries. After a brief introduction on the efficiencies of monocrystalline silicon (m-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells realized sofar, attention is paid to two remarkable developments in solar cell research. One is at Texas Instruments where silicon balls in aluminium foil are fabricated, for which the average energy efficiency realized sofar is 10% for small surfaces (10 cm 2 ). The cell is called the spheral solar cell. A second development is at the Federal Institute for Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, where the researchers O'Regan and Graetzel reported on the development of a photo-electrochemical solar cell with a high efficiency and good stability. Their cell is dye sensitized, which means that the light absorption function of the cell is separated from the load transport function. Finally brief attention is paid to the introduction and use of solar home systems in Indonesia. 5 figs

  18. Batteryless photovoltaic reverse-osmosis desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M.; Miranda, M.; Gwillim, J.; Rowbottom, A.; Draisey, I.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this project was to design an efficient cost-effective batteryless photovoltaic-powered seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system, to deliver in the order of 3 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water per day. The desalination of seawater to produce fresh drinking water is extremely valuable on islands and in coastal regions wherever natural freshwater is scarce. Existing small-scale desalination equipment, suitable for areas of medium and low population density, often requires a copious and constant supply of energy, either electricity or diesel. If supply of these fuels is expensive or insecure, but the area has a good solar resource, the use of photovoltaic power is an attractive option. Existing demonstrations of photovoltaic-powered desalination generally employ lead-acid batteries, which allow the equipment to operate at a constant flow, but are notoriously problematic in practice. The system developed in this project runs at variable flow, enabling it to make efficient use of the naturally varying solar resource, without need of batteries. In a sense, the freshwater tank is providing the energy storage. In this project, we have reviewed the merits of a wide variety of reverse-osmosis system configurations and component options. We have completed extensive in-house testing and characterisation of major hardware components and used the results to construct detailed software models. Using these, we have designed a system that meets the above project aim, and we have predicted its performance in detail. Our designs show that a system costing 23,055 pounds stirling will produce 1424 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water annually - an average of just over 3.9 m{sup 3}/day. The system has no fuel costs and no batteries. The overall cost of water, including full maintenance, is 2.00 pounds stirling per m{sup 3}. The energy consumption (photovoltaic-electricity) is typically between 3.2 and 3.7 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the solar irradiance and feed water

  19. System for electric power generation with photovoltaic solar modules for charging the batteries of an electric wheelchair; Sistema de geracao de energia eletrica com modulos solares fotovoltaicos para o carregamento de baterias de uma cadeira de rodas eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratinguta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: pimentamesquita@gmail.com, teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy is all kind of energy produced from a natural source that not diminish because its utilization is 'renewable'. More and more renewable energy resources are used, because they offer multiple advantages such as the energy output facility in small scale and because they are entirely compatible with the environment. The renewable energy used in this project is the photovoltaic solar energy, obtained by the direct conversion of the solar energy in electric energy through the use of solar cells, that can be of several kinds, being the most common of silicon. The main advantage of photovoltaic system is the generation of clean electric energy, or either, generates energy without emitting pollutant and without destroying the environment, moreover is an inexhaustible source of energy. The main disadvantage is, nowadays, the high cost and its low efficiency, so to continue developing it is necessary establish capable mechanisms to make it possible. The search of these mechanisms of incentive becomes-itself a lot important, because the renewable energy and not conventional do not produce a financial return to the investor properly said, but brings lots of benefits to the community, the society and to the environment. This project has the purpose of create an electric energy generation system through solar photovoltaic modules to carry batteries of a motorized wheelchair. An electric wheelchair is moved by electric motors of direct current that are feed by batteries, permitting a medium autonomy of 10 km by load. The batteries are recharged by a battery supplier. This operation should be carried out daily in a space of 6 to 8 hours. According to the Demographic Census realized in 2000 carried out by the IBGE, Brazil has around 1.416.060 physical deficient, which 861.196 are men and 554.864 are women. From a request of a user of electric wheelchair the idea of this project was shown up. The user complained that he stayed a long time carrying his seat

  20. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  1. Performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic hybrid system for electricity generation and simultaneous water disinfection of wild bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichel, N.; Vivar, M.; Fuentes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid solar water disinfection and energy generation system was designed and tested. • SOLWAT comprises a water disinfection reactor and a PV module fully integrated into a single unit. • Natural water with wild strains of E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and C. perfringens were studied. • The water disinfection reactor located above the PV module did not affect the final energy output. • The SOLWAT disinfection results were always higher than conventional PET bottles. - Abstract: A hybrid solar water disinfection and energy generation system for meeting the needs of safe drinking water and electricity was designed and tested in Alcalá de Henares (Spain) under summer climatic conditions to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. Natural water sources with wild strains of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens (including spores) were studied. Results showed that SOLWAT disinfection efficiency was higher than conventional PET bottles and that the water disinfection reactor located above the PV module did not affect the total energy output produced by the hybrid system in comparison to the single PV module, achieving the same power losses over the 6 h of sun exposure in relation to their power at standard test conditions (STC).

  2. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation: A comprehensive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Murphy, David; Fthenakis, Vasilis; Frischknecht, Rolf; Breyer, Christian; Bardi, Ugo; Barnhart, Charles; Buckley, Alastair; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Csala, Denes; Wild-Scholten, Mariska de; Heath, Garvin; Jæger-Waldau, Arnulf; Jones, Christopher; Keller, Arthur; Leccisi, Enrica; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    A recent paper by asserts that the ERoEI (also referred to as EROI) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is so low that they actually act as net energy sinks, rather than delivering energy to society. Such claim, if accurate, would call into question many energy investment decisions. In the same paper, a comparison is also drawn between PV and nuclear electricity. We have carefully analysed this paper, and found methodological inconsistencies and calculation errors that, in combination, render its conclusions not scientifically sound. Ferroni and Hopkirk adopt ‘extended’ boundaries for their analysis of PV without acknowledging that such choice of boundaries makes their results incompatible with those for all other technologies that have been analysed using more conventional boundaries, including nuclear energy with which the authors engage in multiple inconsistent comparisons. In addition, they use out-dated information, make invalid assumptions on PV specifications and other key parameters, and conduct calculation errors, including double counting. We herein provide revised EROI calculations for PV electricity in Switzerland, adopting both conventional and ‘extended’ system boundaries, to contrast with their results, which points to an order-of-magnitude underestimate of the EROI of PV in Switzerland by Ferroni and Hopkirk. - Highlights: • A recent paper by Ferroni and Hopkirk estimated an EROI=0.8 for PV in Switzerland. • We identify several critical methodological and calculation flaws in that paper. • We discuss such flaws in detail and rebut Ferroni and Hopkirk's conclusions. • We provide revised EROI calculations with both conventional and extended boundaries.

  3. Airport Solar Photovoltaic Concentrator Project. Phase 1 - final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The system design, analysis, and specification, site preparation, and operation and evaluation plan for a 500 kWe photovoltaic power supply to be located at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix, Arizona, are presented. The solar cell arrays are concentrator silicon solar cells with tracking 70X Cassegrain-type concentrators. The power conditioning system, tracking system, and control systems are described in detal. Environmental impact studies are described. Component specifications and drawings are included. (WHK)

  4. Efficiency of solar radiation conversion in photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Kurpaska Sławomir; Knaga Jarosław; Latała Hubert; Sikora Jakub; Tomczyk Wiesław

    2018-01-01

    This paper included analysis the conversion efficiency in photovoltaic panels. The tests were done between February and June at a test stand equipped with three commonly used types of photovoltaic panels: poly- and monocrystalline silicon and with semi-conductive layer made of copper (Cu), indium (In), gallium (Ga) and selenium (Se) (CIGS). Five days of each month were selected for a detailed analysis. They were close to the so-called recommended day for calculations in solar power engineerin...

  5. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  6. 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Munich 22.-26.10.2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed

  7. SOFAS market inquiry 1998. Solar collectors and photovoltaic modules in the year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    1999-04-01

    Beginning 1984, the Swiss Professional Association of Solar Energy Firms (SOFAS) collects data on solar collector and photovoltaic module sales in Switzerland. The data enter the 'Swiss statistics of renewable energy sources' in the annual report of the action programme 'Energy 2000' as well as the 'General energy statistics' of the Swiss government. In this way, the total energy output of solar heating systems (for domestic hot water preparation, space heating, swimming pool heating, and hay drying) as well as that of photovoltaic systems is available since 1993 in Switzerland. For years, the installed collector and module area is growing continuously. Especially for photovoltaics the subsidy programme of the government has a clear impact on the market tabs., figs [de

  8. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  9. Design of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy has become very important both worldwide and on the European market, mainly due to the decrease in the photovoltaic (PV) system cost (up to 75%) during the last decade. PV installations worldwide have reached 227 GW at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new...

  10. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  11. Voltage variation due to solar photovoltaic in distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, H I; Ramachandaramurthy, V K; Maleki, Hesamaldin

    2013-01-01

    Grid integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) plant offers reduction in greenhouse emissions and independence from fossil fuels for power generation. The integration of such forms of power generation also brings with it a variety of policy and technical issues. One of the technical issues is the variation in grid voltages in the presence of solar photovoltaic (PV) plant, resulting in degradation of power quality. In this paper, the application of a dq current controller to limit the voltage variation at the point of common coupling (PCC) due to a 2 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) plant will be discussed. The controller's goal is to ensure that the voltage variation meets the momentary voltage change limits specified in TNB's Technical Guidebook for the connection of distributed generation. The proposed dq current controller is shown to be able to limit the voltage variation.

  12. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  13. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    According to a report by the French Renewable Energy Syndicate (SER), France had an installed photovoltaic fleet of 180 MW in late 2008, a substantial increase from 2007 (75 MW). This growth is largely due to the government's market-supporting policy that implemented a tax and tariff policy which encourages individuals to invest in so-called 'building integrated' systems; the goal of this policy is to bring together innovation in the building industry and the development of renewable energy among the French energy mix. The key event for the future of renewable energy and the photovoltaic sector in France was the 'Grenelle of the Environment'. This government initiative, launched in late 2007, became the subject of public debate and afterwards led to a bill which set the conditions under which France wishes to grow solar power's share of its energy mix. Working committees that bring together representatives from government authorities and industrial and public renewable energy stakeholders have proposed benchmarks. A few proposals with particular significance for photovoltaic power have been adopted by the government: - objectives for PV cumulative installed capacity in France of 1 100 MW in 2012 and 5 400 MW in 2020; - confirmation until 2012 of the current feed-in tariffs and the creation of an additional one targeting installations on large buildings such as commercial and industrial sheds. This tariff shall be set approximately at 0,45 EUR per kWh; - a call for tenders for the construction by 2011 of at least one solar photovoltaic power plant in each French region, for a total installed capacity of 300 MW. The nationally initiated actions for growing the market are heavily relayed by public assistance to regional councils, general councils, communities of communes and communes themselves, in accordance with their own particular specifications. The incentive to purchase electricity produced by built-in installations has caused a

  14. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2009. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented, as are activities planned for 2010. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids, PV environmental health and safety activities, performance and reliability of PV systems and high penetration PV in electricity grids. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  15. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A still booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the demand of “clean” power generation. Grid-connected PV systems will become an even active player in the future mixed power systems, which are linked by a vast of power electronics...

  16. On the design of product integrated photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems it is possible to create electricity generation systems for a wide range of purposes, of literally any size (microwatts to gigawatts). Solar cells deployed in large scale, grid-connected PV systems may energize millions of electric appliances connected by a utility

  17. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  18. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  19. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  20. High-Performance GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells for Flexible and Transparent Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-16

    Among many available photovoltaic technologies at present, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the recognized leaders for performance and reliability; however, it is still a great challenge to achieve cost-effective GaAs solar cells for smart systems such as transparent and flexible photovoltaics. In this study, highly crystalline long GaAs nanowires (NWs) with minimal crystal defects are synthesized economically by chemical vapor deposition and configured into novel Schottky photovoltaic structures by simply using asymmetric Au-Al contacts. Without any doping profiles such as p-n junction and complicated coaxial junction structures, the single NW Schottky device shows a record high apparent energy conversion efficiency of 16% under air mass 1.5 global illumination by normalizing to the projection area of the NW. The corresponding photovoltaic output can be further enhanced by connecting individual cells in series and in parallel as well as by fabricating NW array solar cells via contact printing showing an overall efficiency of 1.6%. Importantly, these Schottky cells can be easily integrated on the glass and plastic substrates for transparent and flexible photovoltaics, which explicitly demonstrate the outstanding versatility and promising perspective of these GaAs NW Schottky photovoltaics for next-generation smart solar energy harvesting devices.

  1. Autonomous system for wireless network communication powered by photovoltaic solar energy; Sistema autonomo de comunicacao sem fio em malha alimentado por energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rafael Herrero

    2009-07-01

    The wireless mesh network communication technology, based on the IEEE802.11 standard, has been a relevant technology solution for wireless networking in the recent years. However, even with the elimination of cables for data communication, the wireless mesh networks have to be connected to a voltage source using an electrical cable that may not be available at the local installation. In this scenario, being Brazil a country located in a tropical zone that receives large annual solar irradiation, the conversion of photons to electricity can be an alternative to eliminate the needs of wiring to the mesh access points. This work contributes to the development of autonomous wireless mesh communication systems powered by solar energy, with easy installation in urban or rural areas. This work also describes its evaluations in aspects such as autonomy, wireless coverage, number of users supported, installation height and throughput. (author)

  2. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  3. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  4. Photovoltaic reciprocity and quasi-Fermi level splitting in nanostructure-based solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2017-04-01

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions [1]. So far, the theory has been verified for a wide range of devices and material systems and forms the basis of a growing number of luminesecence imaging techniques used in the characterization of photovoltaic materials, cells and modules [2-5]. However, there are also some examples where the theory fails, such as in the case of amorphous silicon. In our contribution, we critically assess the assumptions made in the derivation of the theory and compare its predictions with rigorous formal relations as well as numerical computations in the framework of a comprehensive quantum-kinetic theory of photovoltaics [6] as applied to ultra-thin absorber architectures [7]. One of the main applications of the photovoltaic reciprocity relation is the determination of quasi-Fermi level splittings (QFLS) in solar cells from the measurement of luminescence. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic architectures, the determination of QFLS is challenging, but instrumental to assess the performance potential of the concepts. Here, we use our quasi-Fermi level-free theory to investigate existence and size of QFLS in quantum well and quantum dot solar cells. [1] Uwe Rau. Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electrolumines- cent emission of solar cells. Phys. Rev. B, 76(8):085303, 2007. [2] Thomas Kirchartz and Uwe Rau. Electroluminescence analysis of high efficiency cu(in,ga)se2 solar cells. J. Appl. Phys., 102(10), 2007. [3] Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau, Martin Hermle, Andreas W. Bett, Anke Helbig, and Jrgen H. Werner. Internal voltages in GaInP-GaInAs-Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electro- luminescence measurements. Appl. Phys. Lett., 92(12), 2008. [4] Thomas Kirchartz, Anke Helbig, Wilfried Reetz, Michael Reuter, Jürgen H. Werner, and

  5. Photovoltaic energy: environmental and economic analysis of axis solar trackers for photovoltaic installations; Energia fotovoltaica: analise economica ambiental de seguidores solares para instalacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Andrea Galvao; Bertolon, Expedito; Pacca, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades. Curso de Gestao Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    In this work we present an economic assessment photovoltaic systems using single axis and dual axis solar trackers. The analysis was carried out for the city of Sao Paulo and the results show that in comparison with fixed installations, the single axis system and the dual axis system produce respectively 19.6% and 24.7% more power. The power output of the dual axis system is 4.3% greater than the power output of the single axis system. Considering an annual discount rate of 12% and the equipment cost, the cost of the surplus energy due to the use of the single axis and the dual axis trackers was R$0.25/kWh and R$0.18/kWh. Because the average cost of electricity produced by photovoltaic modules is R$3/kWh, we recommend the installation of solar trackers. (author)

  6. Residential solar photovoltaic market stimulation: Japanese and Australian lessons for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Canada is a leading electricity consumer, yet lags behind other industrial countries (14th out of 20 reporting IEA countries) in the installation of solar photovoltaic systems. The factors (environmental benefits, health benefits, network benefits, need for new production capacity, etc.) promoting solar or other renewable sources of electricity in other countries are also present in Canada, but effective policy mechanisms to stimulate Canada's photovoltaic industry are only starting to appear. Discussions of policy options focused initially on renewable portfolio standards and then on feed-in tariffs. This paper reviews the Japanese and Australian experience with capital incentives to stimulate the residential market for photovoltaics. It demonstrates the ability of a market-sensitive program to stimulate industrial growth, achieve unit cost reductions and shift the market to include a large grid-tied share. Residential respondents to surveys report high costs as their primary barrier to installing photovoltaic systems and state a strong preference for capital incentives to reduce their investment costs. The Canadian government needs a market stimulation policy if it is to join those countries where a decentralized photovoltaic generation system strengthens the electricity supply system. A balanced solar energy market stimulation program is proposed that combines a feed-in tariff with a declining capital incentive. (author)

  7. 相变储能光伏太阳能热泵干燥系统的研究%Research on Phase Change Energy Storage Photovoltaic Solar Heat Pump Drying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 蒋绿林; 侯亚祥; 王昌领; 张亮

    2017-01-01

    The experimental platform of phase change energy storage photovoltaic solar heat pump drying system is estab-lished in this paper ,it is introduced the way of the system and the matching of photovoltaic solar heating evaporator and dc compressor is calculated and finally the experiment data is analyzed in detail .It is concluded that when the solar radiation amount is 800 W/m2 and photovoltaic solar heating evaporator area is 12 m2 ,heat capacity is 10 kW and solar photovoltaic power generation is 6 .2 kW·h ,in which the photovoltaic power consumption is greater than the compressor ,meeting the op-eration requirements without additional power .The COP of system is 3 .25 .The phase change energy storage can solve run-ning problem of the system ,which is caused by the amount of solar irradiance fluctuation ,and so it has significant energy saving and environmental protection .%建立了相变储能光伏太阳能热泵干燥系统实验平台,介绍了系统的运行方式以及太阳能光伏集热蒸发器与直流压缩机的匹配计算,最后对实验数据进行了分析。结果表明,太阳能辐照量为800 W/m2、光伏集热蒸发器面积为12m2的条件下,系统制热功率为10kW,太阳能光伏集热蒸发器发电量为6.2kW·h,大于直流压缩机的耗电量,满足供电要求;实验所得系统COP为3.25。相变储能可以解决太阳辐照波动导致的系统运行不稳定问题,具有显著的节能性和环保性。

  8. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  10. Photovoltaic conference on system services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, Karsten; Freier, Karin; Vincent, Jeremy; Montigny, Marie; Engel, Bernd; Konstanciak, Wilhelm; Makdessi, Georges; Acres, Adrien; Schlaaff, Torsten; Defaix, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a photovoltaic conference on system services and photovoltaic facilities. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 100 participants have analysed and discussed the regulatory, technical and economical context of system services, their evolution and implementation in the framework of an accelerated development of photovoltaic conversion in both countries. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Technical Introduction to system services: principles, actors and perspectives (Karsten Burges); 2 - Legal guidelines of EEG (Renewable energy Sources Act) and the System Stability Ordinance as well as future measures for PV grid integration (Karin Freier); 3 - evolution of ancillary services regulation; opening the possibility for new market players to participate in maintaining the system stability (Jeremy Vincent, Marie Montigny); 4 - Paradigm shift for ancillary services: PV as a new stakeholder (Bernd Engel); 5 - Challenges of RES integration (Wilhelm Konstanciak 6 - System services supplied by PV inverters, solutions for frequency and active/reactive power control at the injection point (Georges Makdessi); 7 - Grid disturbance abatement and voltage stability control by monitoring local scale PV production (Adrien Acres); 8 - Flexibly Adaptable Power Plant Controller - The Answer to Various Grid Requirements (Torsten Schlaaff); 9 - ENR-pool project: What kind of business model for ancillary services by PV power plants? (Christophe Defaix)

  11. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  12. Module-level DC/DC conversion for photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, H.J.; Büthker, D.; Castello, C.; Doorn, T.S.; Jong, de A.; van Otten, R.; Waal, de K.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly used to generate electrical energy from solar irradiance incident on PV modules. Each PV module is formed by placing a large amount of PV cells, typically 60, in series. The PV system is then formed by placing a number, typically 10–12, of PV modules in

  13. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  14. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  15. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Palideh, Vahid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  16. AN LED-BASED SOLAR SIMULATOR FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND TESTING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar cells are the critical power source for the majority of space missions. The advancement from single junction silicon cells to current, state-of-the-art, triple...

  17. Photovoltaic enhancement of Si solar cells by assembled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F.Zhang; Y.F.Wang; N.Chen; Y.Y.Wang; Y.Z.Zhang; Z.H.Zhou; L.M.Wei

    2010-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion was enhanced by directly assemble of a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) onto the surface of n-p junction silicon solar cells. When the density of SWNTs increased from 50 to 400 tubes μm-2, an enhancement of 3.92% in energy conversion efficiency was typically obtained. The effect of the SWNTs network is proposed for trapping incident photons and assisting electronic transportation at the interface of silicon solar cells.

  18. Transient analysis of the double pass photovoltaic thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfegi, Ebrahim M.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Abakr, Yousif A.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of a double pass photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar collector is reported in this work. It is composed of five couple unsteady nonlinear partial differential equations which are solved by using Gear implicit numerical scheme. That model was validated against experimental data and was found to accurately predict the temperature of the circulated air as well as the temperature distribution of every static elements in a two-pass PV/T solar collector.(Author)

  19. Optimizing the solar array of stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems as a function of time and load profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, M. S.; El-Maghraby, M. H.; Groumpos, P. P.; El-Geldawy, F. A.; El-Tamaly, H. H.

    This paper presents a proposed novel technique in which an accurate optimum design of the solar array (SCA) can be attained. It depends on an hour-by-hour approach with different daily load profiles. A generalized mathematical formula has been developed for sizing of the solar array given the geographical and one year's insolation data for a particular site in Egypt. This approach can reduce the required size compared to other methods using the same tilt angle.

  20. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin...

  1. Photovoltaics in the shade : One bypass diode per solar cell revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Boudewijn B.; de Waal, Arjen C.; van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Deployment of residential photovoltaic solar energy systems is strongly increasing, which gives rise to problems such as partial shading and pollution, omnipresent in the built environment. Conventional modules are sensitive to the current mismatches introduced by shadows because of their series

  2. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 2: Invited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A photovoltaic device development plan is reported that considers technological as well as economical aspects of single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin films, as well as other materials and devices for solar cell energy conversion systems.

  3. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  4. Value of solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants to Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company has performed a study using historical solar radiation and system load data to (1) estimate the effects of six types of solar generation on system reliability, (2) estimate the central station value of each to its system, (3) and to assess the potential of each of those technologies to provide bulk power to its system in the 2000 time frame. Technologies included three solar thermal (central receiver, dish Stirling, and parabolic trough) and three flat plate photovoltaic plants (fixed position, one axis, and two axis tracking)

  5. Performance analysis of a photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Ling, Yunyi; Liu, Xiangxin; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A modular photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype is proposed. •Net solar-electric efficiency up to 41% is achievable. •Stable solar power supply is achievable via convenient energy storage. •The modular design facilitates the scalability of the hybrid system. -- Abstract: A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermochemical hybrid system consisting of a point-focus Fresnel concentrator, a PV cell and a methanol thermochemical reactor is proposed. In particular, a reactor capable of operating under high solar concentration is designed, manufactured and tested. Studies on both kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the reactor and the system are performed. Analysis of numerical and experimental results shows that with cascaded solar energy utilization and synergy among different forms of energy, the hybrid system has the advantages of high net solar-electric efficiency (up to 41%), stable solar energy power supply, solar energy storage (via syngas) and flexibility in application scale. The hybrid system proposed in this work provides a potential solution to some key challenges of current solar energy utilization technologies.

  6. Acceleration of the solar-thermal energy development but still some brakes upon photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    France shows today the highest growth rate for solar thermal energy with respect to other European countries. This market is structuring and tries to favour quality. A label for systems certification has been presented in January 2007. Photovoltaic conversion has been tied up for a long time by poorly attractive power repurchase tariffs. It benefits now from a propitious framework for its development even if some financial incentive questions relative to the integration of solar panels to buildings remain unanswered. (J.S.)

  7. Aerodynamical study of a photovoltaic solar tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Castillo, José Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the aerodynamic features of ground-mounted solar trackers under atmospheric boundary layer flows. Study and identify the aerodynamical interactions of solar trackers when they are displayed as an array. State of the art. Literature review about CFD applied to solar panels. Analytic approach of the problem. Application of CFD analysis. Validation of the results. Discussion of the results. Improvements proposal.

  8. Design of photovoltaic array electrical system based on solar power generation%基于太阳能发电的光伏阵列电气系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦伟山; 王薇

    2017-01-01

    清洁能源的使用是未来社会发展的趋势.以光伏发电为研究模型,对实现太阳能的高效利用展开研究,提出了一种高效的光伏阵列,使太阳能发电系统的能源利用率得到了显著的提升.通过对太阳能发电的电气系统进行一次设计,提出了35 kV侧无功补偿装置,使得系统更加合理、有效.%The use of clean energy is the future trend of social development.Using the solar photovoltaic power generation as the research model,the efficient utilization of solar energy was researched.A kind of high efficient photovoltaic array was put forward,significantly improving the energy efficiency of solar power generation system.Through the design of solar power generation electrical system,the 35 kV side reactive power compensation device was put forward,making the system more reasonable and effective.

  9. Effect of dust on performances of single-crisal photovoltaic solar module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatiallah, A.; Kaddi, L.; Mostefaou, R.; Dakyo, B.

    2006-01-01

    The solar energy is most promising of renewable energy, it is decentralized, own to the environment and inexhaustible. The Sahara area is favorable for the development of this energy in order to provide electrical needs of the population. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system is very fluctuates and depend of meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows, in the present work we have studies the behavior of solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions. The exploitation of the solar energy to satisfy the energy demand in sahara areas is limited by the effect of sand on the performances of photovoltaic generator. In this work, we investigate a experimental study of photovoltaic module performances by influence of dust. Our results show that the sand provoked a fall of the electric parameters of the module, the power deliver by module decreases of 17% according to sand density, as well as the efficiency that falls of 1.9% and the current Icc following a fast variation of 27%. It permitted to show sand density produce a reduction in performances of the solar module, and therefore one regular cleaning of the face is necessry and permits to increase the power and efficiency (specilly in desert area).(Author)

  10. Wireless transmission of metering data from a photovoltaic solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data from direct cable connection was highly reliable because data ... aggregated solar home systems instead of establishing grid connected solar farms. ... Key words: PV solar home system, DC power meter, GSM, data adaptor software ...

  11. Going 'green': trade specialisation dynamics in the solar photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algieri, Bernardina; Aquino, Antonio; Succurro, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of trade flows and the domestic value creation of the major solar photovoltaic industry at the world level. Solar technologies convert light and heat from the sun into useful energy. The use of the sun's energy can not only reduce the consumption of conventional fuels, thus reducing the emission of detrimental greenhouse gases, but it can also enable a gain in enhanced fuel and energy security along with lessening costs. In addition, green technologies and industries can promote economic growth and international competitiveness, and can offer new business and employment opportunities. It becomes, therefore, extremely important to deeply explore the dynamics of the solar photovoltaic sector. Specifically, the present work analyses the main global trends of this sector and sketches the key players on the world market, including producers, installers, and top traders. Based on an analysis of trade flows at the 6-digit level, the international specialisation patterns are investigated, and the role of various market and trade drivers, including subsidies in the uptake of solar technologies, is identified and examined. - Highlights: → Trade specialisation in solar photovoltaics is examined using an index analysis. → Trade of the US, UK and Germany has an intra-industry nature. → Trade of Italy, Greece and Japan is more inter-industry oriented. → There is a long-run relationship between PV exports, foreign income and prices.

  12. Photovoltaics - solar power stations. Prospects of a cutting edge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, M.

    2002-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the sector of the future in this millennium. The process of human urbanization has led to a high demand for electricity; at the same time high-density urban settlement offers an enormous surface area that could be used for photovoltaic equipment. Such surfaces include rooftops, building facades, parking lots for automobiles, train stations and solar soundproofing walls. According to conservative estimates, Austria has sufficient surface area for a peak solar output of 4,000 MW. This would be sufficient to supply some 1.6 million households with electricity from unlimited solar energy. However, a tremendous marketing effort will be required in order to achieve generation on such a scale. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: characterization and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diasa, P.R.; Benevita, M.G.; Veita, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The search for alternative power generation sources has been intensified in recent years. One of these alternatives is solar energy, since it is a virtually inexhaustible source and generates relatively small environmental impact compared to other traditional generation sources. The collection of solar energy and its conversion into thermal or electrical energy is only possible through the use of photovoltaic panels. These panels have a limited lifespan and will eventually be replaced by new ones. Thus, in the near future, large amounts of solar modules can be discarded as waste electronics. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reducing production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such materials is important. In this paper, photovoltaic module components were characterized through visual inspection, FRX, EDS and AAS. The glass was identified as ordinary glass (soda-lime glass), which allows reuse without any previous treatment and the metallic filaments were identified as tin- lead coated copper. (author)

  14. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development for enhancing reliability of photovoltaic power generation - Research on environmental measures for compound solar cell modules); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (taiyoko hatsuden no shinraisei kojo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu - kagobutsu taiyo denchi module no kankyo taisaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research is conducted to properly deal with environmental problems, such as compromised solar cell safety, which may follow the mass introduction and diffusion of photovoltaic power systems. In the research of fiscal 1999 on technical literature on environmental measures against lead and animal tests, a need was found to reduce lead in power systems and to grasp lead elution characteristics for the establishment of environmental measures. In a safety test conducted for thin-film CIS (copper indium diselenide) based solar cells, basic data were collected about the vaporization rate of Se, the effect of moisture on the Se vaporization rate, etc. Basic data were also collected about the relationship between the combustion temperature and the amount of scattered lead in particular from the solder used as the conducting material in silicon based solar cells. In the evaluation of the environmental impact of thin-film CIS solar cells in case of fire, it was found that Se concentration below 10-20m in the plume was near the permissible concentration of 0.1mg/m{sup 3} as recommended by Japan Society for Occupational Health and that the concentration levels predicted for the periphery were two orders of magnitude smaller than the mandatory level. (NEDO)

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic Solar cell. ... Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell which converts solar energy directly into electrical energy is one of ... model of the solar panel which could represent the real systems.

  16. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  17. Design optimization of photovoltaic powered water pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneim, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of photovoltaics as the power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. With the increased use of water pumping systems, more attention has been paid to their design and optimum utilization in order to achieve the most reliable and economical operation. This paper presents the results of performance optimization of a photovoltaic powered water pumping system in the Kuwait climate. The direct coupled photovoltaic water pumping system studied consists of the PV array, DC motor, centrifugal pump, a storage tank that serves a similar purpose to battery storage and a maximum power point tracker to improve the efficiency of the system. The pumped water is desired to satisfy the domestic needs of 300 persons in a remote area in Kuwait. Assuming a figure of 40 l/person/day for water consumption, a volume of 12 m 3 should be pumped daily from a deep well throughout the year. A computer simulation program is developed to determine the performance of the proposed system in the Kuwait climate. The simulation program consists of a component model for the PV array with maximum power point tracker and component models for both the DC motor and the centrifugal pump. The five parameter model is adapted to simulate the performance of amorphous silicon solar cell modules. The size of the PV array, PV array orientation and the pump-motor-hydraulic system characteristics are varied to achieve the optimum performance for the proposed system. The life cycle cost method is implemented to evaluate the economic feasibility of the optimized photovoltaic powered water pumping system. At the current prices of PV modules, the cost of the proposed photovoltaic powered water pumping system is found to be less expensive than the cost of the conventional fuel system. In addition, the expected reduction in the prices of photovoltaic modules in the near future will make photovoltaic powered water pumping systems more feasible

  18. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 2: Practical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This second part of a report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home Systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. The first part of this two-part document discussed three generic models. Part 2 of the document is based on work prepared for the Renewable Energy Supply Models (RESUM) project. Examples are quoted which describe the operations of a number of companies supplying solar home systems in developing countries. These examples of practical experience provide a description of businesses, highlighting the success and failure factors of the organisations. They are only a sample of the many PV companies operating internationally and are not to be considered as a critical evaluation of the implementation models; they attempt to give the reader an idea of the realities of using the models in practice.

  19. Concentration of solar radiation by white backed photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1984-12-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the concentration achieved by white backed photovoltaic panels. Concentration is due to the trapping by light scattered in the refractive plate to which the solar cell is bonded. Using the reciprocity relation and assuming the ideal case of a Lambertian distribution, a detailed model is formulated that includes the effects of the thickness and walls of the concentrator. This model converges to the thermodynamic limit and is found to be consistent with experimental results for a wide range of cell sizes. Finally, the model is generalized to multiple-cell photovoltaic panels.

  20. Production of solar photovoltaic cells on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, David R.; Ignatiev, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Solar energy is directly available on the sunward lunar surface. Most, if not all, the materials are available on the Moon to make silicon based solar photovoltaic cells. A few additional types are possible. There is a small but growing literature on production of lunar derived solar cells. This literature is reviewed. Topics explored include trade-offs of local production versus import of key materials, processing options, the scale and nature of production equipment, implications of storage requirements, and the end-uses of the energy. Directions for future research and demonstrations are indicated.

  1. Optical design of a solar flux homogenizer for concentrator photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Kathi

    2002-04-01

    An optical solution is described for the redistribution of the light reflected from a 400-m2 paraboloidal solar concentrating dish as uniformly as possible over an approximately 1-m2 plane. Concentrator photovoltaic cells will be mounted at this plane, and they require a uniform light distribution for high efficiency. It is proposed that the solar cells will be mounted at the output of a rectangular receiver box with reflective sidewalls (i.e., a kaleidoscope), which will redistribute the light. I discuss the receiver box properties that influence the light distribution reaching the solar cells.

  2. Photovoltaic systems: state of the art and short-medium term perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, Sergio C.; Rota, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses, from a technology and economic point of view, the characteristics, performances, issues and perspectives of the thin films and the solar concentrating photovoltaic systems in the short and medium terms. Both have well based motivations to be an evolutionary step of current wafer based Silicon systems: the former as Building Integrated Photovoltaic and the latter as high density and high power photovoltaic systems [it

  3. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to put photovoltaic power generation system for industrial use into practical use (Summary of comprehensive achievement); 1999 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenkyu kaihatsu kanri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    NEDO is proceeding with the development of a technology to put photovoltaic power generation system for industrial use into practical use, with an aim of simultaneous solution of sustainable growth and environmental problems. In developing an advanced heat process type system, selection was made on high-performance refrigeration materials for a stand-alone type refrigeration system capable of dealing with levels of minus 20 degrees C or lower (Ti-Ni-Zr-Mn-V based hydrogen absorbing alloys for use at low temperatures, and La-Ni-Sn-Al based hydrogen absorbing alloys for regeneration use). Evaluations were given on the developed refrigeration system by using the dynamic property simulation technology. The developed system achieved a cold heat acquiring temperature of minus 20 degrees or lower, and a heat output of 1,500 kcal/hr or more under the conditions of outside air temperature of 28 degrees C, and collected solar heat temperature of 140 degrees C. CO2 reduction unit requirement was calculated from LCA on a solar heat utilization system with which the future technological development is expected to aim at. Themes proposed to be promoted in the future would include a direct heat utilization system such as the building material integrated system, a freezing and refrigeration system, a high-temperature light and heat collecting system, a harmful substance analyzing system, a high temperature utilizing fuel synthesizing system, a high-efficiency heat storing system, and a snowy cold region system. (NEDO)

  6. Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, Aditya; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-01-01

    A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losse...

  7. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  8. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Lun; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Kozlov, Alexandr

    2015-08-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-M), Gas Technology Institute, and Dr. Eli Yablonovitch of University of California at Berkeley developed a novel hybrid concentrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record single-junction Gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV components integrated with particle laden gas as thermal transfer and storage media, to simultaneously generate electricity and high temperature dispatchable heat. The collector transforms a parabolic trough, commonly used in CSP plants, into an integrated spectrum-splitting device. This places a spectrum-sensitive topping element on a secondary reflector that is registered to the thermal collection loop. The secondary reflector transmits higher energy photons for PV topping while diverting the remaining lower energy photons to the thermal media, achieving temperatures of around 400°C even under partial utilization of the solar spectrum. The collector uses the spectral selectivity property of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells to maximize the exergy output of the system, resulting in an estimated exergy efficiency of 48%. The thermal media is composed of fine particles of high melting point material in an inert gas that increases heat transfer and effectively stores excess heat in hot particles for later on-demand use.

  9. Luminescent solar concentrators for building-integrated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Bruni, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    The transition to fully energetically sustainable architecture through the realization of so-called net zero-energy buildings is currently in progress in areas with low population density. However, this is not yet true in cities, where the cost of land for the installation of ground photovoltaic (PV) is prohibitively high and the rooftop space is too scarce to accommodate the PV modules necessary for sustaining the electrical requirements of tall buildings. Thus, new technologies are being investigated to integrate solar-harvesting devices into building façades in the form of PV windows or envelope elements. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are the most promising technology for semi-transparent, electrodeless PV glazing systems that can be integrated 'invisibly' into the built environment without detrimental effects to the aesthetics of the building or the quality of life of the inhabitants. After 40 years of research, recent breakthroughs in the realization of reabsorption-free emitters with broadband absorption have boosted the performance of LSCs to such a degree that they might be commercialized in the near future. In this Perspective, we explore the successful strategies that have allowed this change of pace, examining and comparing the different types of chromophores and waveguide materials, and discuss the issues that remain to be investigated for further progress.

  10. Design and simulation of a low concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, J.I.; Vallverdu, X.; Lechon, M.A.; Ibanez, M.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and low solar concentration technologies are combined into a photovoltaic/thermal system to increase the solar energy conversion efficiency. This paper presents a prototype 11X concentration rate and two axis tracking system. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel concentrator with a channel photovoltaic/thermal collector. An analytical model to simulate the thermal behaviour of the prototype is proposed and validated. Measured thermal performance of the solar system gives values above 60%. Theoretical analysis confirms that thermal conduction between the PV cells and the absorber plate is a critical parameter

  11. A dynamic model of a photovoltaic vapour compression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic simulation of a photovoltaic vapour compression system is presented in this paper. In particular, there are several options to convert solar energy into refrigeration effect such as the absorption cycle, the thermo-mechanical refrigeration systems, the regenerative desiccant process or the steam jet system. This effect can also be produced by a conventional vapor compression cycle in which the compressor is driven by an electric motor supplied by means of photovoltaic cells. It is also possible to produce the cooling effect adopting the thermoelectric refrigeration, with electricity supplied by means of photovoltaic cells. Absorption and solar mechanical systems are necessarily larger and require extensive plumbing and electrical connections. The dynamic model allows to obtain some characteristic temperatures of the photovoltaic system and the energy consumptions with and without load perturbations. This model results a useful tool to study the dynamic working, for example, of photovoltaic refrigerators used in rural areas and remote islands, for their simple structure and low costs, to preserve foodstuffs, vaccines and other life saving medicines. (author)

  12. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. 初探太阳能光伏系统与建筑墙体间相互影响%Study of solar photovoltaic systems and building wall interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩漪

    2014-01-01

    在经济全球化的发展趋势下,建筑能源消耗保持逐年上涨的趋势,建筑能耗问题成为目前最广泛的社会问题。太阳能光伏系统完美结合了太阳能发电技术与建筑技术,在建筑领域中得到全面的应用。太阳能光伏系统与建筑墙体间具有相辅相成的关系,但是在相互影响与共同促进的过程中,需要采取各种技术解决引发的各种问题。本文主要围绕太阳能光伏系统与建筑墙体间相互影响,展开全面的阐述。%In the development trend of economic globalization,the energy consumption of buildings to keep rising trend year by year,building energy consumption problem is becoming a social problem is currently the most widely.Solar photovoltaic system perfect combination of solar power generation technology and construction technology,the application of full in the construction field.A complementary relationship of solar photovoltaic systems and building a wall,but in the mutual influence and mutual promotion in the process,need to take various techniques to solve various problems caused by.This paper mainly focuses on solar photovoltaic system and building wall interactions,a comprehensive exposition.

  14. MPPT for Photovoltaic System Using Nonlinear Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsha Iftikhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system generates energy that varies with the variation in environmental conditions such as temperature and solar radiation. To cope up with the ever increasing demand of energy, the PV system must operate at maximum power point (MPP, which changes with load as well as weather conditions. This paper proposes a nonlinear backstepping controller to harvest maximum power from a PV array using DC-DC buck converter. A regression plane is formulated after collecting the data of the PV array from its characteristic curves to provide the reference voltage to track MPP. Asymptotic stability of the system is proved using Lyapunov stability criteria. The simulation results validate the rapid tracking and efficient performance of the controller. For further validation of the results, it also provides a comparison of the proposed controller with conventional perturb and observe (P&O and fuzzy logic-based controller (FLBC under abrupt changes in environmental conditions.

  15. Dynamically reconfigurable photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-05-31

    A PV system composed of sub-arrays, each having a group of PV cells that are electrically connected to each other. A power management circuit for each sub-array has a communications interface and serves to connect or disconnect the sub-array to a programmable power grid. The power grid has bus rows and bus columns. A bus management circuit is positioned at a respective junction of a bus column and a bus row and is programmable through its communication interface to connect or disconnect a power path in the grid. As a result, selected sub-arrays are connected by selected power paths to be in parallel so as to produce a low system voltage, and, alternately in series so as to produce a high system voltage that is greater than the low voltage by at least a factor of ten.

  16. Dynamically reconfigurable photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-12-27

    A PV system composed of sub-arrays, each having a group of PV cells that are electrically connected to each other. A power management circuit for each sub-array has a communications interface and serves to connect or disconnect the sub-array to a programmable power grid. The power grid has bus rows and bus columns. A bus management circuit is positioned at a respective junction of a bus column and a bus row and is programmable through its communication interface to connect or disconnect a power path in the grid. As a result, selected sub-arrays are connected by selected power paths to be in parallel so as to produce a low system voltage, and, alternately in series so as to produce a high system voltage that is greater than the low voltage by at least a factor of ten.

  17. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Volume two. Technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The question of photovoltaic system interactions with electric utility grids is addressed. Discussions of system configurations, effects on utility dispatch and generation planning, effects of utility rate structures on photovoltaic deployment and vice versa, interactions of photovoltaic and electrical storage systems, effects on end-use reliability, and the ultimate limitations on photovoltaic penetration into electric grids are presented. Photovoltaic system economic issues are considered. Discussions of the high first cost and the Program plans and strategies to reduce costs (and PV prices), expected evolution of photovoltaic technology, effects of various financial incentives on photovoltaics, implications of utility vs non-utility ownership of photovoltaics, likelihood that sufficient capital will be available to adequately finance the deployment of photovoltaic systems, current status and expected evolution of the photovoltaic supply industry, and the programmatic activities directed at aiding the evolution of a healthy, competitive industry are presented. The basic issues of photovoltaic market development are studied. The potential of various market segments and the complexity involved in defining and identifying the various segments; issues to be faced in deployment of dispersed photovoltaic systems including innovation acceptance on the part of the building industry, building codes, zoning, insurance, information dissemination, public acceptance, solar access, state and local solar photovoltaic incentives, and the implications for urban and suburban land use; and the need for, and method of development of, photovoltaic standards and warranties on photovoltaic systems are discussed. The conclusions of the report with respect to the information requested by Congress are summarized, and findings for congressional action are presented. (WHK)

  18. Towards a local learning (innovation) model of solar photovoltaic deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2008-01-01

    It is by now familiar that in the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, the cost dynamics of major system component like solar cell/module is subjected to experience curve effects driven by production learning and research and development at the supplier side. What is less clear, however, is the economics of system integration or system deployment that takes place locally close to the user, involving other market players, in the downstream solar PV value chain. Experts have agreed that suppliers of solar PV system must customize their flexible characteristics to address local unique users' and applications requirements and compete on price/performance basis. A lack of understanding of the drivers of the economics of system customization therefore is a deficiency in our understanding of the overall economics of this renewable energy technology option. We studied the non-module BOS cost for grid-connected small PV system using the experience curve framework. Preliminary analysis of PV statistics of the US from IEA seems to suggest that learning in one application type is taking place with respect to the cumulative installation among all types of grid-connected small PV projects. The effectiveness of this learning is also improving over time. A novel aspect is the interpretation of such experience curve effect or learning pattern. We draw upon the notion of product platform in the industrial management literature and consider different types of local small-scale grid-tied PV customization projects as adapting a standard platform to different idiosyncratic and local application requirements. Economics of system customization, which is user-oriented, involves then a refined notion of inter-projects learning, rather than volume-driven learning by doing. We formalized such inter-projects learning as a dynamic economy of scope, which can potentially be leveraged to manage the local and downstream aspect of PV deployment. This dynamic economy may serve as a focus

  19. Development and basic photovoltaic characteristics of a solar generator with double-sided silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, R.; Mansurov, Kh.

    2015-01-01

    A new solar generator consisting of double-sided silicon sensing elements is described. The basic photovoltaic parameters of solar generators are made of mono- and polycrystalline silicon solar cells. (author)

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...